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TRANSFORMER

- An electrical device used to transfer


electrical energy from one circuit to another
circuit without changing the frequency. It
works on the principle of electromagnetic
induction.

Note: For an ideal transformer, the power input


to the primary of a transformer equals to the
output of the secondary.

Pp (Watts) = Ps (Watts)
P = VI
where:
Pp = Primary Wattage
Ps = Secondary Wattage

By expanding the power formula:

Vp x Ip = Vs x Is
Therefore:
1. Vp = (Vs x Is) / Ip
2. Vs = (Vp x Ip) / Is

3. Ip = (Vs x Is) / Vp
4. Is = (Vp x Ip) / Vs

Example:
The primary voltage of a certain transformer is 230V. The
primary current is 5A, and the secondary current is 50A.
What is the secondary voltage?

Given:

Vp = 230V ; Ip = 5A ; Is = 50A
Find:
Vs
Solution:

=?

Vs = (Vp x Ip) / Is
= (230 x 5) / 50
Vs = 23V

TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS
1. No rotating parts (therefore it requires little
attention)
2. Maintenance is low
3. The cost per kilowatt is low
4. Higher efficiency
5. The windings can be immersed in oil
6. Not difficult to insulate transformer for very
high voltage

CLASSIFICATION
OF A
TRANSFORMER

According to core used:


Transformer cores The magnetic core is build up
of laminations of high-grade silicon or other sheet
steel, which are sometimes insulated from each
other by varnish, though frequently the surface
coating of iron oxide is employed to minimize
eddy-current losses in the core. Two losses, due to
the varying flux, occur in the iron core: the eddy
current and the hysteresis losses. The silicon
content of the iron and the nature of the annealing
are very important determining the hysteresis
loss.

Core type transformer


- named because the core is shaped with a
hollow square through the center.

Shell type transformer


- The most popular and
efficient transformer core.
As shown, each layer of the
core consists of E- and Ishaped sections of metal.
These sections are butted
together to form the
laminations. The
laminations are insulated
from each other and then
pressed together to form
the core.

Cutaway view of shell-type


core with windings

Exploded view of shell-type


transformer construction

According to method of cooling the windings:


1. Self-cooled
- or Dry type
transformer is cooled
by the circulation of
air and is not oil
immersed. These type
of transformer are
frequently used
indoors since it is not
necessary to install
them in fireproof
vaults.

2. Oil-immersed self
cooled
- The cooling is affected
by the natural circulation
of the oil through the
cooling ducts in the
windings and core,
carrying the heat to the
heat dissipating surfaces,
whence it is carried away
by the natural cooling
action of the air.

3. Oil-immersed
force-air cooled
- is one in which the
core and coils are
immersed in oil and
the cooling is
increased by forced
air over the cooling
surface.

4. Forced Air-cooled (Air Blast)


- is a dry type transformer cooled by a forced
circulation of air through the core and coils.

5. Oil-immersed water
cooled
- is one in which the
core and coils are
immersed in oil and
the cooling is being
affected by the
circulation of water
through a coil
installed in the
transformer tank and
immersed in the oil.

According to
purpose or
applications:

1. Distribution type transformer

2. Instrument type transformer

3. Power transformer

4. Welding transformer

5. Rectifier transformer

6. Lighting transformer

According to voltage transformation:


Step-up transformer (low to high)
A step up transformer has more turns of wire on
the secondary coil, which makes a larger induced
voltage in the secondary coil.

Why is it called a step-up transformer?


It is called a step up transformer because
the voltage output
is larger than the voltage input.
If the secondary coil has twice as
many turns of wire
then the output voltage will
be twice the input voltage.

Step-down transformer (high to low)


A step down transformer has less turns of wire on
the secondary coil,
which makes a smaller induced voltage in
the secondary coil.

Why is it called a step-down transformer?


It is called a step down transformer because
the voltage output
is smaller than the voltage input.
If the secondary coil has half as many turns of wire
then the output voltage will
be half the input voltage.

THE GENERAL LAW


FOR TRANSFORMERS
The voltage of a transformer are proportional to the
number of turns in the coils.
The formula:

Vp : Vs : Tp : Ts

where: Vp = primary voltage


Vs = secondary voltage
Tp = primary number of turns
Ts = secondary number of turns

By rewriting the proportion into an


equation:

Vp x Ts = Vs x Tp
The preceding formula can be used to solve for any
unknown component of the transformer.

1. Vp = ( Vs x Tp ) / Ts
2. Vs = ( Vp x Ts ) / Tp
3. Tp = ( Vp x Ts ) / Vs
4. Ts = ( Vs x Tp ) / Vp

Example:
Determine the primary voltage of a transformer if the
number of turns is 1,600 T, the secondary voltage is
110, and the number of turns is 800.
Given: Vs = 110V ; Ts = 800T ; Tp = 1,600T
Find : Vp
Solution:

Vp = ( Vs x Tp ) / Ts
= (110 x 1600) / 800
Vp = 220V

2. A transformer having primary voltage of 440 and a


secondary voltage of 220. What is the number of turns
in the secondary if the number of turns in the primary is
2,000? What kind of transformer is this?

Given: Vp = 440V ; Vs = 220V ; Tp = 2,000T


Find : Ts
Solution:

T s = ( V s x Tp ) / V p
= (220 x 2000) / 440
Ts= 1000 turns,
step-down transformer

Seatwork:
1. Given the transformers primary and
secondary voltage of 600V and 440V, find
the number of turns in the secondary if the
number of turns in the primary is 3000 turns.
2. A transformer has a primary voltage of 110
and secondary voltage of 220. Its primary
current is 2 amperes. What is the secondary
current?

Assignment:
1.

A transformer having primary voltage of


230V and the number of turns in the primary
and secondary are 1,000 and 1,500. What is
the secondary voltage? What kind of
transformer is this?

2.

A step-up transformer has a secondary


voltage of 440 with a secondary current of
10A. If the primary current is 200A, what is
the transformers primary voltage?