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SELF APPRAISAL PAPER

ORGS 6560P-Negotiations

Submitted to

Professor- Jack Muskat

Ashish Pareek
Student # 213993969

APRIL 3, 2016
SCHULICH SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Toronto

Table of Contents
Overview.......................................................................................................................................................2
My Strengths.................................................................................................................................................2
My Weaknesses....................................................................................................................................4
Surprises.....................................................................................................................................................5
Key Learnings................................................................................................................................................6
Going Forward..............................................................................................................................................8
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................9
Appendix: Journal Entries of My Negotiation Experiences ........................................................................10
Seltek vs Biopharm with Mimi............................................................................................................10
Coast News with Sunny Sharma.................................................................................................................12
Job Offer Negotiation with Tri Cao Bui.......................................................................................................14
Bullard Houses with Pratap ........................................................................................................................16
Viking Investments with Samvit & Lilian.....................................................................................................17

ASHISH PAREEK

Overview
So much of life is a negotiation - so even if you're not in business, you have opportunities to
practice all around you.
I believe that negotiation is an inevitable part of our life. Every day in some ways we have to
negotiate with our friends, families, colleagues, bosses and every other person from which we
expect something. This was one of the prime reasons that I wanted to take a course on
negotiation to improve my skills in this art. In this paper, I will try to summarize my strengths as
a negotiator which I developed during my personal and professional experience, my weaknesses,
some surprises and overall learning through negotiation exercises, debrief sessions and course
readings. Key highlights in this report include my details of each negotiation exercise in the
Appendix section covering my learnings, perceptions, impressions, observations of myself and
other people and their behaviour. I will conclude this paper with my future plan to incorporate
all learnings of this course in my life.

My strengths
Since childhood, I used to do shopping for groceries and vegetables and I believe that my
bargaining experience with those vendors has played a huge role in developing some strengths
in me as a tough negotiator. I used to gather all the information on price by asking different
vendors before starting the bargaining with the vendor from whom I wanted to do my shopping.
Thats how I developed my key strength of preparation, which also helped during my professional

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experience. As a part of the team of supplier development, I used to do all cost calculations
before entering in to negotiations with the supplier. Calculations done at my end had helped my
employers many times to get a good deal from the suppliers.
My second strength, which I developed after a long experience is that I can negotiate for a long
time which require lots of patience. I believe patience is very important to be a successful
negotiator. I have seen in my experience that many people get agreed to those terms, which are
not beneficial for them just because they did not want to negotiate for a long time and fed up of
negotiating.
As part of my job, I also attended 1-2 days training programs to improve my negotiation skills. In
all these programs, I learned about win-win negotiations. However, during my professional
negotiations, these learnings never worked. I believe one of the biggest reason was that I was
negotiating on behalf of big automotive companies with small suppliers and in most cases they
did not have any other choice but to accept our offer because they wanted business from our
company. Now, in technical terms, I can say that my BATNA was way above than theirs. I believe
this was the reason that even after getting good results after negotiating with suppliers, I hardly
won any negotiation with my boss. I used to wonder where I am going wrong while negotiating
with my boss. Thats when I also read the book Influence- the psychology of persuasion by
Robert Cialdini. However, many techniques explained by him in the book did not work for me. I
believe the reasons why I was not doing well in some negotiations, which I have understood now
during this course, were my weaknesses as a negotiator.

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My weaknesses
As I have mentioned earlier, I have been negotiating since a long time and during this experience
I developed the attitude of everything or nothing. I used to keep my target point very high and
never wanted to settle down below that point. Due to this attitude, many times I left money on
the table in my real life. In simple words, if I did not get a good bargain from one vendor, I used
to move to the next. Now, I realize that I was treating every negotiation as a distributive
negotiation and wanted the maximum share of the pie. However, that attitude did not work
when I negotiated with someone who had higher BATNA than me. For example, during class
exercises I did well in most negotiations except in Job offer because of two reasons. First, I
wanted the better offer than I currently had in my hands from other company. Second, I did not
understand the long term effect of my negotiation outcome. If it had been a real life scenario, I
would have lost a good relationship in a big company.
As an engineer, I never had problems with numbers. However, during this course, I realized that
one of my weakness as a negotiator is that my strength to work with numbers hinders me to look
for creative ways to reach to a deal. For example, it happened many times with me that I used to
remain comfortable during negotiation as long as the supplier is talking about numbers. As the
supplier used to start talking about some other ways to get the deal done which could be
beneficial for both the parties, it used to become difficult for me to remain an active player in the
negotiation.

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Surprises during the exercises


In my experience, I have always asked counter party to make the first offer. However, I realized
that I was doing it wrong since a long time when I learned about the power of Anchor Point. At
first, it became difficult for me digest this concept because as per me if I will give my offer first,
then other person will know my target point and will have the power over me. However, now I
understand that if I have done my research well, then I can give my reasonable Anchor point, as
soon as the negotiation starts. By giving a reasonable offer price, I will not only set the reference
point and range in which both parties will negotiate but also give the impression that I have
prepared well for this negotiation. For example, when I was negotiating with Pratap during
Bullard house negotiation, I gave the first offer and Pratap seemed confused for a long time (may
be because he was not prepared) and took a long time to give a counter offer. At that moment, I
had understood that I will easily achieve the target point and that became possible only because
I gave the first offer.
I have always had this impression about the negotiation that two parties sit on opposite sides of
the table and try to get the best out of one fixed pie. I had learned about win-win and
collaborative negotiation but never experienced it in real life. However, as I went through many
negotiation exercises, I found that if I get into integrative or collaborative negotiation, I not only
got better results but also a better relationship with the counterparty. For example, during the
Viking negotiation, we started as a normal negotiation but after few minutes, we all were working
together to solve each others problem. Rather than sitting on opposite side of the table, we all
were on board and crunching the numbers to find out the best solution for everybody.

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My experience had taught me to prepare well for every negotiation. However, I had never
prepared different strategies to achieve the desired result. I learned that we should not only
prepare our strategy but also should assume what can go wrong or what are the moves other
party can play and should prepare for all scenarios. Such preparation helped me a lot to get better
results for many exercises.

Key learnings
As an engineer, I have always assumed that I and everyone seeks and engages in rational
judgement. However, from the course material on cognitive biases, I saw how easy it is to get
caught up in a web of mind frames through which we filter and process information. I clearly
remember that how once we paid 20% higher price to a supplier than the market price for a part
development just because we thought that this supplier is known for its quality. Later, we found
that we could get the same part at same quality at lower price. Now, I understand how we got
caught up in halo effect bias. We always attempt to put people into different category boxes,
referred to as stereotyping, which leads to a very biased conclusion even before they have had a
chance to prove themselves. I think one of the most important concept in cognitive bias is
framing effect. I believe we deal with this effect in our daily life and we dont even realize it.
While negotiating with suppliers, our team has never shared any confidential information
to achieve a win-win negotiation even when we knew that the sharing the information will bring
better results for both parties. I believe, our fear that supplier can use this confidential

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information for its own selfish purposes restricted us to share that information. In technical
words, we can say that we became victim of negotiators dilemma. In our negotiations, both
team worked primarily to claim the largest share of the pie. To be successful, we engaged in hard
bargaining. We used to "start high, exaggerate the value of concessions, tried best to minimize
the benefits of the other's concessions, concealed information, argued forcefully, made
commitments to accept only highly favorable agreements." However, now after understanding
this concept, I feel we could have get so much cost savings if we had built trust with each other.
We could negotiate in the value-creating view to work primarily to increase the available
resources, to find joint gains or "win-win" solutions, wherein all the parties could benefit. During
this course, I also learned techniques such as Unilateral concession to build trust, in which a
negotiator can share some information and can see if the counterparty is also willing to share
information and not use the shared information to win the negotiation, but to cooperate and to
build trust for a long term relationship.
I have negotiated in teams before but negotiation exercises in this course, which I was doing with
the sole purpose to learn, helped me to understand what I was doing wrong till now. I learned
how team members should communicate with each other during the negotiation by body
language, signs and other different methods. During class debrief, I also realized that how team
members can support each other if they prepare for the negotiation together and decide an
agreed upon strategy so that there is no conflict during or after the negotiation. For instance,
during our Adam Baxter/Local 190 negotiation exercise, I did not like the way our teams chief
negotiator was dealing with the counterparty. Adam Baxter management had shared their
concerns and priority issues with us and wanted to know our issues to negotiate further.
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However, our chief negotiator kept on beating around the bush and did not share our primary
concerns and preferences. Due to which, not only management got the chance to put the anchor
point beforehand for each issue but also negotiation exercise got delayed unnecessary. Although,
we got what we wanted to achieve, I realized if we had prepared our strategy together on how
to control the negotiation, for which the chief negotiator did not agree before negotiation, we
could have done much better during the exercise.
Although it was not in the readings, but I found that taking breaks during the negotiation plays a
very important role. For instance, during our team negotiation (Adam Baxter/Local 190) exercise,
when we realized that we are not able to understand what we should do, we took a break of 5
minutes. We discussed our preferences and managements offer and issues during the break and
we instantly decided what we want and how we are going to get it. When we went in, we were
prepared on our strategy and we got what we wanted from the deal.

Going Forward
In future, if I will have to get into negotiation, first thing I will do to prepare beforehand, not only
for my strategy and tactics, which includes MESOs, logrolling etc., but also for the strategies and
tactics with which other party can come up. It will also be important to decide whether it is a
distributive or integrative negotiation, which will depend on the kind of relationship, I will have
with other party after negotiation. If it is a long term relationship, then during the negotiation,
my first priority would be to have an integrative negotiation, for which I will not only start by
asking questions to know the preferences and interests of other party but also listen and observe
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carefully to find out if counterparty is willing for a collaborative bargaining. After interests are
identified, I will try to work with other party cooperatively to try to figure out the best ways to
meet those interests. The goal will be a win-win outcome, giving each side as much of their
interests as possible, and enough, at a minimum that they see the outcome as a win, rather than
a loss. During this whole process, I think it will be very important to stay calm to understand each
others point of view and to come up with creative solutions.

Conclusion
Overall, this whole course was an enriching experience for me and I am glad that I took this
course. Even though most exercises did not go as I planned, I enjoyed all of them and learned
from my mistakes during the class debrief. The best part of all these simulations was that every
time we were negotiating with a different person, which really helped to understand that people
have different perspectives and react differently on a particular situation. I think it is very difficult
to summarize the whole course because I learned that negotiations is a very vast subject and it
takes years to learn it and be an expert in this field. However, as per my understanding, two
things are very important to be a good negotiator. First, know yourself (your strengths,
weaknesses, biases etc.) and second, dont try to win the negotiation, try to solve the underlying
problem. In the end, I can say that I've grown up a little bit because now I understand the
importance of the negotiation and that it is a collective act.

ASHISH PAREEK

Appendix- Journal entries of negotiation exercises


First negotiation
BioPharm negotiation with Mimi
For this negotiation, I teamed up with Chnadana Vijay and we both played the role of Seltek CFO.
I entered into the negotiation a little late, when they (Chandana and Mimi) had already started
discussing the price on which they wanted to settle down. As I had worked in an environment, in
which I had to do negotiation with suppliers and I also had attended 1-2 days training programs
on negotiations, I steered the discussion to know the intention of BioPharm in buying the Seltek
plant. One of the important reason to know the intentions of BioPharm was to confirm that they
are going to produce pharmaceutical products or genetically engineered product in this plant
because keeping the jobs for the work force was equally important objective for me. As soon as
I came to know BioPharm wants to produce one genetically engineered product in this plant,
negotiations became easy for me because I knew that our plant has all the facilities and readily
available experienced workforce, which can fulfil all their needs. First, I offered to share the
production facility rather than buying it. However, even after discussing the lease price up to 1
million dollar/year, BioPharm remained adamant to buy the plant. So, I used my old technique,
which I had used in my professional as well as personal life, and said, I dont want to get in to
bargaining that you quote something and then I quote something and that goes on. So give me
your final offer. Mimi who was playing the part of BioPharm fell into this trap and gave her final
offer of $23 million and from there I and Chandana started our negotiation and said that our offer
is $26 million. We kept on bargaining for long time to come to a point. We used the power of
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providing them readily available experienced workforce and Mimi used her issue of long distance
of the plant from her facility. After long discussion, we settled at $24.5million. After knowing the
results of other negotiation exercises, we realized that we have got the best deal.

Observations & learnings


1. Mimi and Chandana did not have any professional experience of negotiation. They directly
jumped to bargaining of price.
2. Mimi was not prepared well and it was easy to convince her on our terms. It seemed that she
did not know the current market price of our plant and quoted the price based on her
financial capacity rather than based on research.
3. As soon as I joined the negotiation, Mimi looked less confident to negotiate with both of us.
Most of the time, she did not even assert her point that why she wants to pay less price or
how important is the distance issue for her.
4. Chandana looked little impatient. She wanted to discuss the price and to finish the exercise
as soon as possible.
5. As far as I am concerned, I was satisfied with the result, but I realized that I was getting
impatient in between because both the other players wanted to finish the exercise as soon
as possible and I was interested to increase the outcome.

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Second negotiation
Coast news negotiation with Sunny Sharma
I was playing the role of Tony Hernandez in a very interesting Coast news negotiation exercise.
As I learned during the discussion in first class that most people could not get good deal because
they were not prepared, I made sure that I prepare well for this exercise. With the given scoring
for different issues and the knowledge of BATNA and reservation point, I believe it became easy
to negotiate because I knew where I can say no deal or if I am leaving money on the table. This
exercise was different than first exercise because in this exercise both characters are working in
same organization and they should have a result, which is good for long term relationship.
Therefore, as the negotiation started, I tried to know the interests behind the position of Sandy
Thurman (Sunny Sharma). I also shared my interests and tried to develop a good rapport with
the counterpart. After that, Sandy was also very cooperative in sharing his interest to increase
the revenue by bringing more advertisements. As our interests was common, which was to
increase the revenue of the newspaper, it became easier to negotiate. In starting we discussed
each issues separately and during each issue, I was able to convince him on the long term effect
of each outcome and let go on those points which were not important for me. For example, when
we were discussing about advertorial, I told him that I cannot give him even a single advertorial
because it degrade the image of the newspaper. He argued about the increasing demand of the
advertorials but I asserted the point that it is a short term strategy and we will lose our customers,
who give value to our newspaper due to its quality news. He agreed on my point and asked for
double truck. We instantly got deal on two issues because I not only got no advertorial but also

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full front page and back page for news. We struggled on rest of the issues for a very long time.
We kept on giving each other so many package offers but nobody was agreeing. Then we started
discussing about short term and long term impact of the outcome on revenue of our newspaper.
After a long discussion and package sharing, when I saw that in one package I was very close to
my target point, I decided not to leave anything on the table which I have already got. I also did
not want to get out of the negotiation with no deal because I did not know how the higher
management will react. So, I agreed on the last package, in which I scored 97, which was way
above my reservation point of 75. When I came to know about the result of other deals, I realized
that I again got the best deal in the class for my roleplay.

Observations and learnings


1. Sunny was a tough negotiator. He was prepared and confident to counter the arguments.
2. I think this time I was not getting irritated but tried some tactic such as enduring on some
point for long time and going back to already discussed issue just to get a nibble. I believe
that on these moves Sunny was losing his patience and got agreed to some points on which
he was not convinced earlier.
3. I believe I have the tendency to go for either everything or nothing. However, this time I
refrained myself below the target point and still I got better deal than others. Hence it was a
good learning experience for me that I should not leave money on the table.

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Third Negotiation
Job offer negotiation with Tri Cao bui
This exercise was very interesting as it was a negotiation for a job offer and I could soon have to
face same situation in real life. Therefore, I was very well prepared for this negotiation and
wanted to use it as a trial before I actually negotiate for my job offer. I was playing the role of
candidate Morgan Top and was negotiating with Jesse (Tri Bui). As it was a class exercise I wanted
to see how a manager would react if I ask for too much given the condition that I am his first
choice. So, I kept my target and reservation point very high. I also assumed that if I am in that
situation what would I do. Will I sacrifice my favorite stream in which I want to work, position at
which I want to work or higher salary for a relationship, which was developed during the
internship in that company? In reality, of course I will think twice before taking any decision due
to the long term effects of the outcome. I also wanted to try the tools learned in last class such
as bogey, aggression etc.
As the negotiation started, Tri tried to intimidate me by telling me that how much he values the
relationship we have and that he really liked working with me. However, I had clear mindset that
if he will give me better offer than the other company or the position and stream in which I want
to work then only I will accept his offer otherwise I will decline it. Hence, as soon as Tri finished,
I asserted that I also values the relationship but I also have to look for my career growth. I told
him that if he can give me the position (Product Manager) and stream (business development) in
which I want to work, then I am ready to negotiate. In response to this, Tri directed the exercise
to discuss each and every point. While discussing every point, I also shared what offers I have got
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from other company. I also played a bogey of high performance bonus of 20%. We both tried to
intimidate each other. Tri was using our relationship as his prime tool and I was using my career
as my prime tool to use intimidation. We also gave multiple offers to each other but nothing
worked out because my reservation point was very high and Jesse was not able to give anything
extra. In the end, we could not reach to a deal.

Observations and learnings


1. After discussion in class, I realized that playing a high bogey was a mistake on my side. I also
could not understand the relationship Jesse and Morgan had in the exercise.
2. I also realized that my negotiation technique of everything or nothing will not work in real life
and we have to look for all aspects in a deal. In this case, I ignored the working environment,
better performing company and long term relationship with the manager.
3. I found Tri a very good negotiator. He shared his interests and did his best effort to intimidate
me. He was very well prepared because as the negotiation started he was ready with his
speech to make me feel about the relationship we share and how much he values it.
4. I found it difficult to negotiate on phone as I am used to of negotiating face to face.

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Fourth negotiation
Bullard house negotiation with Pratap Mathews
In this exercise, I was playing the role of Buyers agent and Pratap was sellers agent. After
learning about integrative negotiation, I wanted to include that in my next exercise. However,
after reading the case, I realized that it is a one-time deal negotiation and will be of distributive
nature. As per my earlier experiences, I knew preparation will be the key to get a good deal. So,
this time I did not only had my reservation point and target point but also the way I was going to
start my negotiation. I also prepared the questions to gather maximum information about the
interest of other party. For example, I had decided to start the negotiation with a friendly gesture
of talking about the market and then to ask questions about the counterpartys primary reason
to sell the property. I also planned to ask what use they would prefer for the property and why?
I assumed that seller would not like to see any commercial use of the property because there
was a clause of keeping the deal confidential. Hence, I also prepared my arguments if seller agent
bring this issue.
As the negotiation started, I started asking my prepared questions and I came to know that
counterparty does not want this property to be used for any commercial purpose but agreed for
high end commercial use with some conditions. They also did not want that property to become
a public place. I told Pratap that my client will not touch the front area and use the backyard area
for high end commercial use. On which he agreed provided my client keeps the property highly
maintained. I also used my well prepared arguments such as it is a historical place and should be
available to public like all historical places are. With some twisted promises such as commercial
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use will not affect the property and the rooms will be available for the current shareholders as
and when required, I got the deal at $14.5 million, which was one of the best deal in the class.

Observations and learnings


1. I found Pratap unprepared for the exercise because when I asked him to give his price on my
first anchor price offer of $12million, it took him almost 10 minutes to come up with counter
offer. That also, after reading the whole case again.
2. I found it really helpful to prepare the strategy beforehand. My preparation of assuming
counterpartys position and arguments really helped me to come up with creative solutions
and arguments, which made it very easy to do the negotiation and to convince the other party
on my offers.

Fifth negotiation
Viking negotiation with Lilian and Samvit
In this exercise, I and Syed were playing the part of Pat Olofson and negotiated with Sandy (Lilian
and Samvit). I found it the best negotiation exercise because it required all the tactics of
integrative negotiation to succeed in this exercise. First requirement of this negotiation was a lot
of preparation. Therefore, after deciding our BATNA, reservation and target point, I and Syed had
a long discussion to come up with our overall strategy, different packages (MESO), pros and cons
of each package, innovative ways to convince Sandy to agree with our terms. We ranked our
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issues as per their properties and prepared scoring system which we found very helpful to take a
decision during negotiation. We knew that we will be in more difficult condition if we will not be
able to get a deal and Sandy files for bankruptcy. Hence, we looked for every possible scenario,
which can come up. For example, we decided to let go the loan amount in case Sandy is not able
to pay it and discussed on the different interest rate on which we can get a deal. Regarding the
dispute of violating contract, we decided to convince Sandy to sell his property otherwise we
would not only had incurred loss in our project but also not get the finance to invest in coming
projects. We decided to use intimidation and long term effects of the deal to get the deal.
As the negotiation started, we all were very open to share our issues and interest to understand
each others position. Sandys side shared their financial condition and cost break up they have
to meet with work force and the Oak dealer. We also shared our requirements and the reason
why we cant pay more than what is mentioned in the contract otherwise we will have to incur
loss. We discussed each issues one by one and tried to understand each others lowest point
below which we could not go. We also increased the pie size by including the future projects
which Sandy can get if he/she can let go the money in this project. We also helped to do the
match on Sandys side if he sell his home and use that money to pay workers and oak suppliers.
We also offered to rent one of apartments in which he had worked and promised to make a long
term business relationship. When Sandy seemed more interested to file for bankruptcy, we asked
him to look at the long term impact of that move that he will not be able to get same reputation
again in this business. That move worked for us and Sandy got agreed to sell his property and we
got a very good integrative deal.

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Observations and learnings


1. Our preparation to assume each and every scenario and to find alternatives of each scenario
helped us a lot to get this deal in favour of both parties.
2. Syed was very calm negotiator as compared to me as I was louder and aggressive. As I was
coming up with improvisation during the negotiation, Syed supported me by building on
those improvisations.
3. Lilian and Samvit were also very well prepared. They did not get aggressive on the dispute
and were open to share their issues. Both were working with us to find a solution which is
beneficial for both parties.
4. I learned that not only the preparation but also on the spot improvisation can help a lot to
come up with better solutions. However, to come up with innovative solutions, you have to
listen carefully to other party.

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