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Wood anatomy

Conifer vs. eudicot


woods

Various keys and sites for wood


anatomy identification
http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search
International Association of Wood
Anatomists (IAWA)- List of microscopic
features for hardwood identification by
an IAWA Committee-Wheeler, Baas &
Gasson (eds.)- 1989
IAWA-List of microscopic features for
softwood identification-Richter,
Grosser, Heinz, & Gasson (eds.)- 2004
Inside wood & what wood is this sites

Which key to use? Hardwoods


or softwoods
Softwood
Conifers
(gymnosperms)
Tracheids only
Texture
homogeneous
soft easily split
Uses-building,
paper
Not all are soft
woods

Hardwoods
Angiosperms
Tracheids & Vessel
elements : Vessels =
pores in wood
Texture
heterogeneous
hard wood
Uses- furniture,
fuels
Not all are hard
woods if full of
pores

Vessel elements or
no vessel elements

Juniperus

Ash
Fraxinus

Transition from earlywood to latewood

Pinus gradual cessation of growth

Pseudotsuga abrupt cessation

Thuja

Pseudotsuga

Pinus x.s. showing axial resin canals

Resin canal - epithelial cell lining

Thin-walled cells

Thick-walled cells

Chamaecyparis x.s.

Axial parenchyma present or absent- cells with dark contents

Wood parenchyma axial

r .l. s.

Traumatic parenchyma

Pinus r.l.s.

Pinus cross-field pitting (ray to tracheid pits)

Ray tracheids

One two per cell

Pinoid pits - round more


than 2 usually
Fenestriform pits = window-like openings

Fenestroid pits

Fenestriform-one to two, large openings


Pinoid-more than two usually rounded

Cupressoid pits

Elliptical apertures-within the limits of the border, apertures


same size as or narrower than border

Taxodioid pits

Large oval to circular apertures, wider than the border

Piceoid pits

Borders wider than apertures, narrow slit-like apertures


Aperture can extend beyond border

Araucarioid pits

Like cupressoid, but crowded


Slit-like aperture
Aperture narrower than border
Distinctive arrangement crowded
together
Alternate rows, three or more
Individual pits angular, hexagonal
Restricted to Araucariaceae

Spiral thickenings -- Taxus

Larix biseriate pits and bars of Sanio

r.l.s.

Ray cells with toothed walls

Fenestriform pits in the cross field

Ray cells with nodular walls

Ray cells with thin tangential walls

Rays with nodular chains

Ornament on ray cells

Abies

Aspirated circular bordered pits

Pinus

Pinus t.l.s.

Pinus t.l.s.
showing
vascular
raysuniseriate
and multiseriate
including a
radial resin
canal

Angiosperm with

No vessels!

Ring porous Fraxinus

Semi-ring
porous

Diffuse porous

Solitary pores or radial multiples

Pore clusters

Radial pore clusters

solitary vessels or solitary pores

Magnolia wood x.s.

Aesculus x.s. radial multiples

Radial pore
orientation

Tangential pore orientation

Oblique vessel orientation

Pore
sizes

Complex nature
of
angiosperm
wood

Magnolia scalariform
vessels with scalariform
perforation plates

Scalariform perforation plates

Scalariform perforation
plates

Simple
perforation
plates

Septate fibers

Spiral
thickenings
on
vessel
elements

Robinia tyloses
in vessels

An outgrowth of parenchyma through


a pit cavity that blocks or partially
blocks the tracheary element

Prunus tyloses

Traumatic parenchyma

Uniseriate,
biseriate, and
multiseriate
rays
Carpinus

Storied wood