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# BHARATHIDHASANAR

MATRIC HIGHER
SECONDARY SCHOOL,
ARAKKONAM-2
STUDY MATERIAL
FOR PC MATHEMATICS
8 STD
TH

Completed by

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

s.no
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Units
Rational numbeRs
Linear equations in one
variable
Understanding
SquareS & Square rootS
Cubes & cube roots
AlgebrA
Mensuration
ExponEnt & powEr
Direct & inverse
proportions
Factorization
Playing with number
Data hanDling

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## UNIT-1: RATIONAL NUMBERS

1. Find the number, when 15 is subtracted from 7 times the number, the

## result is 10 more than twice of the number

A. 5
B. 15
C. 7.5
D. 4
Explanation:
Let the number be x.
7x -15 = 2x + 10 => 5x = 25 => x = 5
o

## Comment on this question

2. Sum of a rational number and its reciprocal is 13/6. Find the number

A.

3/2

B.

4/2

C.
5/2
Explanation:
\begin{aligned} => x + \frac{1}{x} = \frac{13}{6} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} => \frac{x^2+1}{x} = \frac{13}{6} \end{aligned}

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## \begin{aligned} => 6x^2-13x+6 = 0 \end{aligned}

\begin{aligned} => 6x^2-9x-4x+6 = 0 \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} => (3x-2)(2x-3) \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} => x = 2/3 or 3/2 \end{aligned}
o

## Comment on this question

3. find the number, difference between number and its 3/5 is 50.

120

A.

123

B.

124

C.
125
Explanation:
Let the number = x,
Then, x-(3/5)x = 50,
=> (2/5)x = 50 => 2x = 50*5,
=> x = 125
o

## Comment on this question

4. The sum of the squares of three numbers is 138, while the sum of
their products taken two at a time is 131. Their sum is
15

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.

20

B.

25

C.
35
Explanation:
Let the numbers be a, b and c.
Then,
\begin{aligned}
a^2 + b^2 + c^2 = 138
\end{aligned}
and (ab + bc + ca) = 131
\begin{aligned}
(a + b + c)^2 = a^2 + b^2 + c^2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)
\end{aligned}
= 138 + 2 x 131 = 400
\begin{aligned}
=> (a + b + c) = \sqrt{400} = 20.
\end{aligned}
o

## Comment on this question

5. If one third of one fourth of number is 15, then three tenth of number

is
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A.

44

B.

54

C.
64
Explanation:
Let the number is x,
\begin{aligned}
\frac{1}{3} of\frac{1}{4} * x = 15
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> x = 15\times 12 = 180
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> so \frac{3}{10} \times x = \frac{3}{10} \times 180 = 54
\end{aligned}
o

## 6. A number is doubled and 9 is added. If resultant is trebled, it

becomes 75. What is that number

A.

10

B.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.
14
Explanation:
=> 3(2x+9) = 75
=> 2x+9 = 25
=> x = 8
o

## 7. Find a positive number which when increased by 17 is equal to 60

times the reciprocal of the number

17

A.

15

B.

C.
3
Explanation:
If the number is x,
Then, x + 17 = 60/x
x2 + 17x - 60 = 0
(x + 20)(x - 3) = 0

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## x = 3, -20, so x = 3 (as 3 is positive)

8. The product of two numbers is 120 and the sum of their squares is
289. The sum of the number is
A. 20
B. 23
C. 27
D. 150
Explanation:
We know
\begin{aligned}
(x + y)^2 = x^2 + y^2 + 2xy
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> (x + y)^2 = 289 + 2(120)
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
=> (x + y) = \sqrt{529} = 23
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

9. Three times the first of three consecutive odd integers is 3 more than
twice the third. The third integer is
.
12
A.
13
B.
15
C.
17
Explanation:
o

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Let the three integers be x, x+2 and x+4.

Then, 3x = 2(x+4)+3,
x= 11
Therefore, third integer x+4 = 15

## 10. Find the number which when multiplied by 15 is increased by 196

.
10
A.
12
B.
14
C.
16
Explanation:
Let the number be x.
Then, 15x = x + 196
= 14 x= 196
= x = 14.
o
o

## 11. if the sum of \begin{aligned} \frac{1}{2} \end{aligned} and

\begin{aligned} \frac{1}{5} \end{aligned} of a number exceeds
\begin{aligned} \frac{1}{3} \end{aligned} of the number by \begin{aligned}
7\frac {1}{3} \end{aligned}, then number is
.
15
A.
20
B.
25
C.
30
Explanation:
Seems a bit complicated, isnt'it, but trust me if we think on this question with
a cool mind then it is quite simple...
Let the number is x,
then, \begin{aligned} (\frac{1}{2}x + \frac{1}{5}x) - \frac{1}{3}x =
o

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

\frac{22}{3} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> \frac{11x}{30} = \frac{22}{3}
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
=> x = 20
\end{aligned}

## 12. find the number, If 50 is subtracted from two-third of number, the

result is equal to sum of 40 and one-fourth of that number.
.
214
A.
216
B.
114
C.
116
Explanation:
Let the number is x,
\begin{aligned}
=> \frac{2}{3}x-50 = \frac{1}{4}x + 40
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
<=> \frac{2}{3}x-\frac{1}{4}x = 90
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
<=> \frac{5x}{12} = 90
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
<=> x = 216
\end{aligned}

10

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## Comment on this question

13. Product of two natural numbers is 17. Then, the sum of reciprocals
of their squares is
.
\begin{aligned} \frac{290}{289} \end{aligned}
A.
\begin{aligned} \frac{1}{289} \end{aligned}
B.
\begin{aligned} \frac{290}{90} \end{aligned}
C.
\begin{aligned} \frac{290}{19} \end{aligned}
Explanation:
If the numbers are a, b, then ab = 17,
as 17 is a prime number, so a = 1, b = 17.
o

## \begin{aligned} \frac{1}{a^2} + \frac{1}{b^2} =

\frac{1}{1^2} + \frac{1}{17^2}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} = \frac{290}{289}
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

14. Sum of three numbers 264, If the first number be twice then second
and third number be one third of the first, then the second number is
.
70
A.
71
B.
72
C.
73
Explanation:
Let the second number is x, then first is 2x, and third is 1/3(2x)
\begin{aligned}
=>2x + x + \frac{2x}{3} = 264 <=> \frac{11x}{3} = 264
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}

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=> x = 72
\end{aligned}

15. Sum of two numbers is 25 and their difference is 13. Find their
product.
A. 104
B. 108
C. 114
D. 124
Explanation:
Friends, this sort of question is quite important in competitive exams,
whenever any question come which have relation between sum, product and
difference, this formula do the magic:
\begin{aligned}
=> (x+y)^2 = (x-y)^2 + 4xy
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
<=> (25)^2 = (13)^2 + 4xy
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
<=> 4xy = (25)^2 - (13)^2
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
<=> xy = \frac{456}{4} = 114
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

16. Sum of two numbers is 40 and their difference is 4. The ratio of the
numbers is
.
10:3
A.
5:9
B.
11:9
C.
13:9
o

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Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
=> \frac{(x+y)}{(x-y)} = \frac{40}{4}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> (x+y)= 10(x-y)
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
=> 9x = 11y => \frac{x}{y} = \frac{11}{9}
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

17. Two numbers differ by 5. If their product is 336, then sum of two
number is
.
33
A.
34
B.
36
C.
37
Explanation:
Friends you remember,
\begin{aligned}
=> (x+y)^2 = (x-y)^2 + 4xy
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
=> (x+y)^2 = (5)^2 + 4(336)
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}

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\end{aligned}

## 18. Difference between a two-digit number and the number obtained by

interchanging the two digits is 36, what is the difference between two
numbers
.
2
A.
4
B.
8
C.
12
Explanation:
Let the ten digit be x, unit digit is y.
Then (10x + y) - (10y + x) = 36
=> 9x - 9y = 36
=> x - y = 4.

19. A father is twice as old as his son. 20 years ago, the age of the
father was 12 times the age of the son. The present age of the father (in years)
is
.
11
A.
22
B.
44
C.
33
Explanation:
Let sons age = x. Then, fathers age = 2x.
12(x 2O) = (2x - 20) so x = 22
Fathers present age = 44 years
o

## Unit-2: linear equation in one variable

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## Linear Equations in One Variable

Exercise 2.2 (NCERT) Part - 1
Question 1 If you subtract from a number and multiply the result by
you get

## . What is the number?

Solution:
Let the number is m.

## Question -2 - The perimeter of a rectangular swimming pool is 154 m. Its

length is 2 m more than twice its breadth. What are the length and the breadth
of the pool?
Solution:

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## Given, perimeter of the rectangular swimming pool = 154 m

Length is 2 m more than the breadth.
Let the breadth of the swimming pool = a metre
Therefore, as per question, length of the swimming pool = (2a + 2) metre
We know that, perimeter of rectangle = 2 (length + breadth)
Therefore, 154 m = 2 [ (2a + 2) + a]
154 m = 2(2a + 2 + a )
154 m = 2 (3a + 2)
154 m = 6a + 4
By subtracting 4 from both sides, we get
154 m 4 = 6a + 4 4
150 m = 6a
After dividing both sides by 6, we get

25 m = a
a = 25 m
Since, length = (2a + 2) m
Therefore, by substituting the value of breadth (a), we get
(2 x 25 + 2) m= (50 + 2) m = 52 m
Thus, length of the given pool = 52 m

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Question 3 - The base of an isosceles triangle is
triangle is

Solution:

## Isosceles triangles have two sides equal.

We know that perimeter of an isosceles triangle = Sum of two equal sides +
third side
Let the length of equal sides of the given isosceles triangle = a
And length of unequal side = b
Therefore, perimeter = 2a + b

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## After dividing both sides by 2, we get

Question 4 - Sum of two numbers is 95. If one exceeds the other by 15, find
the numbers.
Solution:
Let one number is a.
Therefore, according to question second number = a + 15
Now, as given, sum of two numbers = 95
Therefore,
a + a + 15 = 95
2a + 15 = 95

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## By subtracting 15 from both sides, we get

2a + 15 15 = 95 15
2a = 95 15
2a = 80
After dividing both sides by 2, we get

## Now, since second number = a + 15

Therefore, by substituting the value of a, we get
The second number = 40 + 15 = 55
Thus, first number = 40 and second number = 55
Question: 5 - Two numbers are in the ratio 5:3. If they differ by 18, what are
the numbers?
Solution:
Given, two numbers are in the ratio of 5:3
Their difference = 18

## After dividing both sides by 2, we get

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Question: 12 Fifteen years from now Ravis age will be four times his
present age. What is Ravis present age?
Solution:
Let the present age of Ravi = m year
Age of Ravi after 15 years = m + 15 year
According to question, age of Ravi will be four times of his present age.
i.e. Age of Ravi after 15 year = 4 x present age of Ravi
m + 15 = 4 x m
m + 15 = 4 m
After transposing m to RHS, we get
15 = 4m 3
15 = 3m
After dividing both sides by 3, we get

## Thus, Ravis present age = 5 year Answer

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

and

Solution:

## Question: 14 Lakshmi is a cashier in a bank. She has currency notes of

denominations Rs 100, Rs 50 and Rs 10, respectively. The ratio of the
number of these notes is 2:3:5. The total cash with Lakshmi is Rs 4,00,000.
How many notes of each denomination does she have?
Solution: Given

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## Thus, number of notes of Rs 100 = 2000

Number of notes of Rs 50 = 3000
Number of notes of Rs 10 = 5000
Question: 15 - I have a total of Rs 300 in coins of denomination Re 1, Rs 2
and Rs 5. The number of Rs 2 coins is 3 times the number of Rs 5 coins. The
total number of coins is 160. How many coins of each denomination are with
me?
Solution:
Given, total value of Rs = Rs 300
Total number of coins = 160

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Coins of denomination = Re 1, Rs 2 and Rs 5

Number of Rs 2 coins = 3 x number Rs 5 coins
Let the number of coins of Rs 5 = m
Since, the number coins of Rs 2 is 3 times of the number of coins of Rs 5
Therefore, number of coins of Rs 2 = m x 3 = 3m
Now, Number of coins of Re 1 = Total number of coins (Number of Rs 5
coins + Number of Rs 2 coins)
Therefore,
Number of coins of Re 1 = 160 (m + 3m) = 160 4m
Total Rs = (Re 1 x Number of Re 1 coins) + (Rs 2 x Number of Rs 2 coins) +
(Rs 5 x Number of Rs 5 coins)
300 = [1 x (160 4m)] + (2 x 3m) + (5 x m)
300 = (160 4m) + 6m + 5m
300 = 160 4m + 6m + 5m
300 = 160 4m + 11m
300 = 160 + 7m
After transposing 160 to LHS, we get
300 160 = 7m
140 = 7 m
After dividing both sides by 7, we get

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Thus, number of coins of Rs 5 = 20

Now, since, number of coins of Re 1 = 160 4m
Thus, by substituting the value of m, we get
Number of coins of Re 1 = 160 (4 x 20) = 160 80 = 80
Now, number coins of Rs 2 = 3m
Thus, by substituting the value of m, we get
Number of coins of Rs 2 = 3m = 3 x 20 = 60
Therefore,
Number of coins of Re 1 = 80
Number of coins of Rs 2 = 60
Number of coins of Rs 5 = 20
Question: 16 - The organisers of an essay competition decide that a winner in
the competition gets a prize of Rs 100 and a participant who does not win
gets a prize of Rs 25. The total prize money distributed is Rs 3,000. Find the
number of winners, if the total number of participants is 63.
Solution:
Given, Total number participants = 63
Total prize money distributed = Rs 3000

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## Winner gets a prize of Rs 100

Who does not win gets a prize of Rs 25
Number of winners = ?
Let the number of winners = m
Since,
Number of winners + Number of losers = Total number of participants
Or, m + Number of losers = 63
By transposing m to RHS, we get
Number of losers = 63 m
Now,
Total Prize money distributed to winners
= Number of winners X prize money distributed to each winner = m X 100 =
100m
Total prize money distributed to losers
= Number of losers X prize money distributed to each loser
= (63 m) X 25 = (63 x 25) 25 m = 1575 25 m
Now,
Total Prize money of winners + Total Prize money of losers = Total prize
money
By substituting the total prize money distributed to winners and total prize
money distributed to losers, we get
100 m + 1575 25 m = 3000

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 100 m 25 m + 1575 = 3000

By transposing 1575 to RHS, we get
100 m 25 m = 3000 1575
75 m = 1425
After dividing both sides by 75, we get

## Thus, number of winners = 19 Answer

Introduction
Polygon Polygon is a combination of two Greek words Polus + Gonia, in
which Polus means many and Gonia means Corner or angle.
Thus, a plane figure bounded by a finite straight line segment in loop to form
a closed chain.
Classification of Polygons
Polygons are classified as per their sides or vertices they have.
(a) Triangle A triangle has three sides and three vertices.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## (b) Quardilateral A quardilateral has four sides and consequetively four

vertices.
(c) Pentagon (Penta means five) A pentagon has five sides and five
vertices.

(d) Hexagon (Hexa means six) A hexagon has six sides and six vertices.
(e) Heptagon (Hepta means seven) A heptagon has seven sides and seven
vertices.

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(f) Octagon (Octa means eight) A octagon has eight sides and eight
vertices.
(g) Nonagon (Nona means nine) A nonagon has nine sides and nine
vertices.

(h) Decagon (Deca means ten) A decagon has ten sides and ten vertices.
And so on .
(.) n gon A n-gon has n sides and n vertices. (Where n = 3, 4, 5, 6, ..)
Diagonals
A line segments which connects two non-consecutive vertices of a polygon is
called diagonal.

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Regular Polygon
An equilateral and equiangular polygon is called regular polygon. This means
if a polygon has all angles equal and all sides equal is called regular polygon.
For example An equilateral triangle has all angles and sides equal, and
hence is an regular polygon, A square is also a regular polygon.

Irregular polygon
Polygon which has equal angles but not equal sides is called irregular
polygon. For example a rectangle has equal angles but not equal sides, and
hence an irregular polygon.

Quardilateral
This is the combination of two Latin words; Quardi + Latus. Quadri means
four and Latus means side.
sides are straight and are of two dimensional. Square, rectangle, rhombous,
parellelogram, etc. are the examples of quadrilateral.

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## Angle sum property of a polygon:

Angle sum of a polygon = (n 2) x 180
Where n is the number os sides
Example:
A triangle has three sides,
Thus, Angle sum of a triangle = (3 2) x 180 = 1 x 180 = 180
Thus, Angle sum of a quadrilateral = (4 2) x 180 = 2 x 180 = 360
A pentagon has five sides,
Thus, Angle sum of a pentagon = (5 2) x 180 = 3 x 180 = 540
Similarly, angle sum of any polygon can be calculated.

Exercise 3
1. Given a parallelogram ABCD. Complete each statement along with
the definition or property used.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 2. Consider the following parallelograms. Find the values of the

unknowns x, y, z.
(i)

(ii)

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Answer: x, y and z will be complementary to 50.

So, Required angle = 180 - 50 = 130
(iii)

## Answer: z being opposite angle= 80

x and y are complementary, x and y
= 180 - 80 = 100
(iv)

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## Answer: As angles on one side of a line are always complementary

So, x = 90
So, y = 180 - (90 + 30) = 60
The top vertex angle of the above figure = 60 x 2=120
Hence, bottom vertex Angle = 120 and
z = 60
(v)

## Answer: y= 112, as opposite angles are equal in a parallelogram

x= 180-(112-40)=28
As adjacent angles are complementary so angle of the bottom left vertex
=180-112=68

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So, z=68-40=28
Another way of solving this is as follows:
As angles x and z are alternate angles of a transversal so they are equal in
measurement.
3. Can a quadrilateral ABCD be a parallelogram if

Answer: (i)It can be , but not always as you need to look for other criteria as
well.
(ii) In a parallelogram opposite sides are always equal, here AD BC, so its
not a parallelogram.
(iii) Here opposite angles are not equal, so it is not a parallelogram.
5. The measures of two adjacent angles of a parallelogram are in the
ratio 3 : 2. Find the measure of each of the angles of the parallelogram.

## 6. Two adjacent angles of a parallelogram have equal measure. Find the

measure of each of the angles of the parallelogram.

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## 7. The adjacent figure HOPE is a parallelogram. Find the angle

measures x, y and z. State the properties you use to find them.

## Answer: Angle opposite to y = 180 - 70=110

Hence, y = 110
x = 180 - (110 + 40) = 30, (triangles angle sum)
z = 30 (Alternate angle of a transversal)
8. The following figures GUNS and RUNS are parallelograms. Find x
and y. (Lengths are in cm)

## Answer: As opposite sides are equal in a parallelogram

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## Answer: As you know diagonals bisect each other in a parallelogram.

9. In the given figure both RISK and CLUE are parallelograms. Find the
value of x.

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## Solution of NCERT math Exercise 3.1 (part 2)

Question 6 Find the angle measures x in the following figures.

Solution:
We know that, angle sum of a quadrilateral = 360

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Question - 6 (b)

Solution:

## We know that, angle sum of a quadrilateral = 360

Question - 6 (c)

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Solution:

Question - 6 (d)

Solution:

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## Angle sum of a pentagon = (5 2) x 180 = 3 x 180 = 540

Since, it is a regular pentagon, thus, its angles are equal

Question 7

Solution:

## We know that angle sum of a triangle = 180

Thus, 30 + 90 + C = 180
Or, 120 + C = 180
Or, C = 180 120
Or, C = 60
Now,

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Alternate method
We know that sum of external angles of a polygon = 360

Solution:

## We know that angle sum of a quadrilateral = 360

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Alternate method
We know that sum of external angles of a polygon = 360

Exercise 3
1. Given a parallelogram ABCD. Complete each statement along with
the definition or property used.

## 2. Consider the following parallelograms. Find the values of the

unknowns x, y, z.

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(i)

(ii)

## Answer: x, y and z will be complementary to 50.

So, Required angle = 180 - 50 = 130
(iii)

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## Answer: z being opposite angle= 80

x and y are complementary, x and y
= 180 - 80 = 100
(iv)

## Answer: As angles on one side of a line are always complementary

So, x = 90
So, y = 180 - (90 + 30) = 60
The top vertex angle of the above figure = 60 x 2=120
Hence, bottom vertex Angle = 120 and
z = 60
(v)

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Answer: y= 112, as opposite angles are equal in a parallelogram

x= 180-(112-40)=28
As adjacent angles are complementary so angle of the bottom left vertex
=180-112=68
So, z=68-40=28
Another way of solving this is as follows:
As angles x and z are alternate angles of a transversal so they are equal in
measurement.
3. Can a quadrilateral ABCD be a parallelogram if

Answer: (i)It can be , but not always as you need to look for other criteria as
well.
(ii) In a parallelogram opposite sides are always equal, here AD BC, so its
not a parallelogram.
(iii) Here opposite angles are not equal, so it is not a parallelogram.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 5. The measures of two adjacent angles of a parallelogram are in the

ratio 3 : 2. Find the measure of each of the angles of the parallelogram.

## 6. Two adjacent angles of a parallelogram have equal measure. Find the

measure of each of the angles of the parallelogram.
7. The adjacent figure HOPE is a parallelogram. Find the angle
measures x, y and z. State the properties you use to find them.

## Answer: Angle opposite to y = 180 - 70=110

Hence, y = 110
x = 180 - (110 + 40) = 30, (triangles angle sum)
z = 30 (Alternate angle of a transversal)
8. The following figures GUNS and RUNS are parallelograms. Find x
and y. (Lengths are in cm)

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Answer: As you know diagonals bisect each other in a parallelogram.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

9. In the given figure both RISK and CLUE are parallelograms. Find the
value of x.

## Additional Questions and solutions Type 1

Question 1 Find the angle x

Solution:
We know that, angle sum of a triangle = 180

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Question 2 Find the angle x

Solution:
We know that, angle sum of a triangle = 180

## Question 3 Find the angle x

Solution
We know that, angle sum of a triangle = 180

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Question 4 Find the angle x

Solution
We know that, angle sum of a triangle = 180

## Question 5 Find the angle x

Solution
We know that, angle sum of a triangle = 180

50

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Unit-4: square & square roots

Square Root:
If x2 = y, we say that the square root of y is x and we write y = x.
Thus, 4 = 2, 9 = 3, 196 = 14.
1. Evaluate
\begin{aligned}
\sqrt{6084}
\end{aligned}
A. 75
B. 77
C. 78
D. 68
Explanation:
o
Comment on this question

2. Evaluate \begin{aligned}
\sqrt{1471369}
\end{aligned}
.
1213
A.
1223
B.
1233
C.
1243
Explanation:
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Comment on this question

3. Evaluate
\begin{aligned}
\sqrt{248+\sqrt{64}}
\end{aligned}
.
14
A.
26
B.
16
C.
36
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{248+\sqrt{64}}
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{248+8}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{256}
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
= 16
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

4. Evaluate
\begin{aligned}
\sqrt{1\frac{9}{16}}
\end{aligned}
.
\begin{aligned} 1\frac{1}{6} \end{aligned}
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.
\begin{aligned} 1\frac{1}{5} \end{aligned}
B.
\begin{aligned} 1\frac{1}{4} \end{aligned}
C.
\begin{aligned} 1\frac{1}{3} \end{aligned}
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{\frac{25}{16}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \frac{\sqrt{25}}{\sqrt{16}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \frac{5}{4}
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
= 1\frac{1}{4}
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

5. Evaluate
\begin{aligned}
\sqrt{53824}
\end{aligned}
.
132
A.
232
B.
242
C.
253
Explanation:
o
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Comment on this question

6. Evaluate
\begin{aligned}
\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{108+\sqrt{154+\sqrt{225}}}}}
\end{aligned}
.
16
A.
8
B.
6
C.
4
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{108+\sqrt{154+\sqrt{225}}}}}
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{108+\sqrt{154+15}}}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{108+\sqrt{154+15}}}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{108+\sqrt{169}}}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{108+13}}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+\sqrt{121}}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{25+11}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+\sqrt{36}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{10+6}
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
=\sqrt{16} = 4
\end{aligned}

## Comment on this question

7. \begin{aligned}
\sqrt{41 - \sqrt{21 + \sqrt{19 - \sqrt{9}}}}
\end{aligned}
.
4
A.
26
B.
16
C.
6
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{41 - \sqrt{21 + \sqrt{19 - 3}}}
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{41 - \sqrt{21 + \sqrt{16}}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{41 - \sqrt{21 + 4}}

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{41 - \sqrt{25}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{41 - \sqrt{25}}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{41 - 5}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{36} = 6
\end{aligned}

8. \begin{aligned}
(\frac{\sqrt{625}}{11} \times \frac{14}{\sqrt{25}} \times
\frac{11}{\sqrt{196}})
\end{aligned}
A. 15
B. 7
C. 5
D. 9
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= (\frac{25}{11} \times \frac{14}{5} \times \frac{11}{14})
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
=5
\end{aligned}

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 9. Find the value of x

\begin{aligned}
\frac{2707}{\sqrt{x}} = 27.07
\end{aligned}
.
1000
A.
10000
B.
10000000
C.
None of above
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= \frac{2707}{27.07} = \sqrt{x}
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
=> \frac{2707 \times 100}{2707} = \sqrt{x}
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> 100 = \sqrt{x}
\end{aligned}

\begin{aligned}
=> x = 100^2 = 10000
\end{aligned}

## 10. What is the square root of 0.16

.
0.4
A.
0.04
B.
0.004
C.
4
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
as .4 * .4 = 0.16
Comment on this question
11. The least perfect square, which is divisible by each of 21, 36 and 66

is
.
213414
A.
213424
B.
213434
C.
213444
Explanation:
L.C.M. of 21, 36, 66 = 2772
Now, 2772 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 7 x 11
To make it a perfect square, it must be multiplied by 7 x 11.

## Comment on this question

12. Evaluate
\begin{aligned}
\sqrt{0.00059049}
\end{aligned}
.
0.00243
A.
0.0243
B.
0.243
C.
2.43
Explanation:
Very obvious tip here is, after squre root the terms after decimal will be half
(that is just a trick), works awesome at many questions like this.
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 13. if a = 0.1039, then the value of

\begin{aligned} \sqrt{4a^2 - 4a + 1} + 3a \end{aligned}
.
12.039
A.
1.2039
B.
11.039
C.
1.1039
Explanation:
Tip: Please check the question carefully before answering. As 3a is not under
the root we can convert it into a formula , lets evaluate now :
o

\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{4a^2 - 4a + 1} + 3a \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{(1)^2 + (2a)^2 - 2x1x2a} + 3a \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{(1-2a)^2} + 3a \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= (1-2a) + 3a \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= (1-2a) + 3a \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= 1 + a = 1 + 0.1039 = 1.1039 \end{aligned}

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 14. Find the value of X

\begin{aligned} \sqrt{81} + \sqrt{0.81} = 10.09 - X \end{aligned}
.
0.019
A.
0.19
B.
0.9
C.
0.109
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
=> \sqrt{81} + \sqrt{0.81} = 10.09 - X
\end{aligned}
o

\begin{aligned}
=> 9 + 0.9 = 10.09 - X
\end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
=> X = 10.09 - 9.9 = 0.19
\end{aligned}

15. Evaluate
\begin{aligned} \sqrt{4\frac{12}{125}} \end{aligned}
A. \begin{aligned} 1\frac{2}{5} \end{aligned}
B. \begin{aligned} 1\frac{3}{5} \end{aligned}
C. \begin{aligned} 1\frac{4}{5} \end{aligned}
D. 1
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
= \sqrt{\frac{512}{125}} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned}
= (\frac{8*8*8}{5*5*5})^{\frac{1}{3}} \end{aligned}

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 16. Evaluate \begin{aligned} \sqrt{\sqrt{.000064}} \end{aligned}

.
0.0002
A.
0.002
B.
0.02
C.
0.2
Explanation:
\begin{aligned} = \sqrt{.000064} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} = \sqrt{\frac{64}{10^6}} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} = \frac{8}{10^3} = .008 \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} = \sqrt{.008} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} = \sqrt{\frac{8}{1000}} \end{aligned}
\begin{aligned} = \frac{2}{10} = 0.2 \end{aligned}
o
o

## Comment on this question

17. The largest four digit number which is a perfect cube, is:
.
7000
A.
8000
B.
9261
C.
9999
Explanation:
21*21*21 = 9261
o
o

## 18. What is the smallest number by which 3600 be divided to make it a

perfect cube.
.
450
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.
445
B.
440
C.
430
Explanation:
\begin{aligned}
3600 = 2^3 \times 5^2 \times 3^2 \times 2
\end{aligned}
To make it a perfect cube it must be divided by
\begin{aligned}
5^2 \times 3^2 \times 2 = 450
\end{aligned}
o
Comment on this question

.
0.6
A.
0.006
B.
0.06
C.
.0006
Explanation:
o
o

## 20. \begin{aligned} \sqrt{\frac{32.4}{x}} = 2 \end{aligned}

.
8
A.
8.1
B.
9
C.
9.1
Explanation:
o
o

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 21. \begin{aligned} \sqrt{\frac{0.081 * 0.484 }{0.0064 * 6.25}}

\end{aligned}
.
0.66
A.
0.77
B.
0.88
C.
0.99
Explanation:
22. \begin{aligned} \sqrt{0.00059049} \end{aligned}
A. 24.3
B. 2.43
C. 0.243
D. 0.0243
o

## Unit-5: cube & cube roots

1. 81 + 0.81 = 10.09 - ?. [Bank PO 1992]
1.19

1.1

0.19

0.19
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
2. (0.289 / 0.00121). [Railway 1992]
170/11

17/11

17/110

0.17/11

170/11

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion

3. (24 + 216) / 96
26

62

2/6

2
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
4. (32 + 48 ) / (8 + 12). [Bank PO 1990]
2

4
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
5. (0.081 * 0.484 )/ (0.0064 * 6.25)). [NDA 1994]
9

99

0.9

0.99

0.99
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
6. 2707/x = 27.07 . [Bank PO1992]

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

10

1000

100

10000

10000
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
7. 140? + 315 = 1015
5

25

16

36

5
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
8. 64009 is
803

347

363

253

253
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
9. x/(2.25) = 550. [Bank PO]
825

3666.66

82.5

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

825
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
10. (32.4 / x) = 2. [Hotel Mgt 1993]
9

0.09

.9

8.1

8.1
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
11. (15612 + (154 + (225)))
13

25

15

125

125
Explanation: (15612 + (154 + 15)) = (15612 + (169)) = (15625) = 125
12. (x/169) = 54/39
108

2916

324

4800

324
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
13. 0.00059049 =

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

0.243

0.00243

0.0243

0.000243

0.0243
Explanation: Help us to explain question in discussion
14. (248 + (51 + (169)))
14

16.6

16

18.9

16
Explanation: (248 + (51 + 13)) = (248 + (64)) = (248 + 16)
1 0.0169 x B = 1.3.
What is the value of B?
A. 100
B. 10
C. 1000
D. None of These
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
0.0169 x B = 1.3
=> 0.0169 x B = 1.32
=> 0.0169 x B = 1.69
=> B= 1.69/0.0169 = 100
2 What is the cube root of .000216 ?
A. 0.6

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

B. 0.06
C. 77
D. 87
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
( 0.000216) 1/3
= (216/106)1/3
= [ (6 x 6 x 6)/ (102 x 102 x 102 ) ]1/3
=6/102
=.06
3 If 35 + 125 = 17.88, then what is the value of 80 + 65 ?
A. 22.35
B. 13.41
C. 20.46
D. 21.66
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
35 + 125 = 17.88
=> 35 + 25 x 5 = 17.88
=> 35 + 55 = 17.88
=> 85 = 17.88
=> 5 = 2.235
=> 80 + 65 = 16 x 5 + 65
=> 45 + 65
=> 105 = (10 x 2.235) = 22.35
4 If a = 0.1039, then what is the value of 4a2 - 4a + 1 + 3a ?
A. 1.1039
B. .1039
C. .2078

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

D. 2.1039
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
4a2 - 4a + 1 + 3a = (1)2 + (2a)2 - 2 x 1 x 2a + 3a
= (1 - 2a)2 + 3a
= (1 - 2a) + 3a
= (1 + a)
= (1 + 0.1039)
= 1.1039
5 The square root of (7 +3 5) (7 - 35) is
A. 5
B. 2
C. 4
D. 35
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation (7 + 35)(7 - 35)=(7)2 - (35)2 = 49 - 45 = 4 = 2.
6 Simplify : ( 3-(1/3) )2
A. 3/4
B. 4/3
C. 4/3
D. None of these
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
( 3-(1/3) )2
= (3)2 + (1/3)2 - 2 x 3 x (1/3)
= 3 + 1/3 -2
=1 + 1/3
=4/3

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 7 If x =( 3 + 1 )/ (3 - 1)and y =(3 - 1)/ (3 + 1), then the value of (x2 +

y2) is:
A. 10
B. 14
C. 13
D. 15
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
Let's Rationalize both x and y first,
X =( 3 + 1 )/ (3 - 1) x ( 3 + 1 )/( 3 + 1 )
= ( 3 + 1 )2 /(3-1)= (3+1+23 ) / 2 = 2+ 3 .
and
Y =(3 - 1)/ (3 + 1) x ( 3 - 1 )/( 3 - 1 )
= ( 3 - 1 )2 /(3-1)= (3+1-23 ) / 2 = 2- 3
So,
x2 + y2 = (2 + 3)2 + (2 - 3)2
=2 (4+ 3)
=14
8 What should come in place of both x in the equation x / 128=162/ x
A. 12
B. 14
C. 144
D. 196
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
x / 128=162/ x
=> x2 = 128 x 162
=>64 x 2 x 18 x 9
=>82 x 62 x 3 2
=> 8 x 6 x 3
=> 144
x = 144 = 12

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 9 If 5 = 2.236, then the value of 5/2 -10/ 5 + 125 is equal to??

A. 5.59
B. 7.826
C. 8.994
D. 10.062
See Answer & Explanation Lets Discuss
Explanation
5/2 - 10/5 + 125
Taking the LCM of denominators 2 and 5 = 25 We get,
(( 5 )2 - 10 x 2 + 25 x 55 ) / 25
= (5 - 20 + 50 ) / 25
Rationalizing the expression:
= 35/( 25 ) x 5 / 5
=355 /10
= (7 x 2.236) / 2
=7 x 1.118
= 7.826

## 1.By what least number 675 be multiplied to obtain a number which is a

perfect cube ?
a. 5
b. 6
c. 7
d. 8
Correct Option: A
Explanation:
675=55333 . To make it a perfect cube it must be multiplied by 5.
2. The largest four-digit number which is a perfect cube is

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

a. 9999
b. 9261
c. 8000
d. None
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Clearly 9261 is a perfect cube satisfying the given property.
3. 30.000064=?
a. 0.02
b. 0.2
c. 2
d. None
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
.000064=64106=8103=81000=.008
30.000064=3.008
38100

=210=0.2

## 4. If 2*3 = 13 and 3*4=25, then the value of 5*12 is

a. 17
b. 29
c. 12
d. 13
Correct Option: D
Explanation
a*b = a2+b2, So, 5*12
= 52+(12)2=25+144=169=13
5. If x * y * 2 = (x+2)(y+3)(x+1) , then (6*15*3) is
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. None

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
(6*15*3)
= (6+2)(15+3)(3+1)= 8184=36=6
6. 12+12+12+ = ?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 6
d. >6
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
In the given expression, let the value be x.
Then, x 12+xx2=12+x
x2x12=0 or (x-4) (x+3) = 0
or x = 4
7. The least square number which is exactly divisible by 10,12,15 and 18 is
a. 360
b. 400
c. 900
d. 1600
Correct Option: C
Explanation:
LCM of 10,12,15,18 = 180
= 22335=22325
To make it a perfect square it must be multiplied by 5.
Required number = (223252)=900
8. (7+575) is equal to
a. 6+35
b. 6 - 35
c. 2
d. 1
Correct Option: A
Explanation:

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

7+575=(7+575)7+57+5 = (7+5(75))2
= 7+5+2752
= 12+2352=(6+35)
9. 1911119+111+10+99?=12
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d.None
Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Let 1911119+11110+99x=12 . Then,
x = 11911+9119119(10+99)2
= (119119)2(10+99)2
= (11+9299)(10+99)
=2(1099)(10+99)=2(100-99)=2

## 10.Which one of the following numbers has rational square root?

a.0.4
b. 0.09
c. 0.9
d. 0.025
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
0.09=9100=310=0.3 , which is rational
0.09 has rational square root.
11.The value of 2 upto three places of decimal is
a. 1.410
b. 1.412
c. 1.413
d. 1.414

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

2=1.414
12.The square root of (8+25) is
a. (2+6)
b. (5+3)
c. (23+55)
d. 2+6
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
(8+215)=[(5)2+(3)2+253] = (5+3)2
8+215=(5+3)
13.If 6 = 2.449, then the value of 3223 is
a. 0.6122
b. 1.223
c. 1.2245
d. 0.8163
Correct Option: C
Explanation:
3223=32233362

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

= 24492=1.2245
14.1(98)1(87)+1(76)1(65)+1(54)=?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 5
d. 1/3
Correct Option: C
Explanation:
198=1989+89+8
= 9+8(98)=(9+8)
similarly 187=(8+7)
176=(7+6)
and 154=(5+4)
Given Exp.
=(9+8)(8+7)+(7+6)(6+5)+(5+4)
=(9+4)=(3+2)=5
15.If 2 =1.4142, the square root of (21)(2+1) is equal to
a. 0.732
b. 0.3652
c. 1.3142
d. 0.4142
Correct Option: D
Explanation:
212+1=(21)(2+1)(21)(21)=(21)2
[212+1]
=(21)=(1.41421)
= 0.4142
16.What is the smallest number to be subtracted from 549162 in order to
make it a perfect square ?
a. 28
b. 36
c. 62
d. 81

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

## So 81 Should be subtracted to make the given number a perfect square.

17. If a 5+151 and b = 515+1, the value of (a2+ab+b2a2ab+b2)=
a. 34
b. 43
c. 35
d. 53
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
a = 5+1515+15+1=(5+1)(51)2 =5+1254=
b = 515+15151=(51)(51)2 =5+1254=
a2+b2=(3+5)24+(35)24 =(3+5)24+(35)24
=2(9+5)4=7
Also, ab = (3+5)2 352=(95)4=1
a2+ab+b2a2ab+b2=a2+b2+ab(a2+b2)ab=7+171
=86=43
18.The expression (2+2)+1(2+2)+1(22)=?
a. 2
b. 22
c. 22

77

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

d. 2+2
Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Given Expression
= (2+2)+1(2+2)(22)(22) + 1(22)(2+2)(2+2)
=(2+2)+(22)(42)(2+2)(42)
=(2+2)+12(22)12(2+2)=2

19. 0.0810.3244.62415.6250.028972.964
=?
a. 24
b. 2.4
c. 0.024
d. None
Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Given Expression
: 8132446241562528972964 = [9186
812517278]=3125=0.024
20. 0.0810.4840.00646.25 is equal to
a. 9
b. 0.9
c. 99
d. 0.99
Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Sum of decimal places in the numerator and denominator under the radical
sign being the same, we remove the decimal places:
Given Exp. = 8148464625 = 922825=0.99
21. If x2.25=550, then the value of x is
a. 825
b. 82.5
c. 3666.66
d. 2
Correct Option: A

78

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation :
x2.25=550x1.5=550 x = (5501.5) x = [5501.510]=825
22.81+0.81=10.09?
a. 1.19
b. 0.19
c. 1
d. 0.19
Correct Option: D
Explanation :
Let 81+0.81=10.09x81+81100=10.09x
x = 10.09- (9 + 0.9) = 0.19
23.32.4?=2
a. 9
b. 0.9
c. 0.09
d. None
Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Let 32.4x=2 Then 32.4x=4
or 4x = 32.4 or x = 8.1
24. 32+488+12=?
a. 2
b. 2
c. 4
d. 8
Correct Option: B
Explanation:
32+488+12=162+16342+43
= 4(2+3)2(2+3)=2
25. If 1+x144=1312 then 'x' is equal to
a. 1
b. 12
c. 13
d. 25
Correct Option: D

79

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
1+x144=13121+x144=169144
x144= or x144 = 25144 or x = 25
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Unit-6: algebra
1. The sequences x1,x2 ... and y1,y2 are in arithmetic progressions
such thatx1+y1=100 and x22x21=y99y100. Find the sum of the
first 100 terms of the progression,(x1+y1),(x2+y2)
A. 0
B. 9900
C. 10,000
D. 11,000
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
The condition x22x21=y99y100 implies that the common
difference of the two arithmetic progressions are the negatives
of each other.
Therefore, the series (x1+y1),(x2+y2), is a constant series , in
which each term is equal to (x1+y1)=100
Thus Required Sum =100100= 10,000
00:00:00
Common information for questions numbered 2 and 3
P divides his property among his four sons A, B,C and D after donating Rs
20,000 and 10% of his remaining property. The amounts received by the last
three sons are in A.P and the amount received by the fourth son is equal to
the total amount donated. The first son receives as his share Rs 20,000 more
than the share of second son. The last son received Rs 1 lakh less than the
eldest son.

80

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 2. Common Data Question 1/2

What is the total donation made by P?
A. Rs 55,000
B. Rs 65,000
C. Rs 75,000
D. Rs 80,000
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
All amounts are in thousands of rupees.
Let P's total property be (20+10p)
The donation is 20+p
The 4th son's share is 20+p
The 1st son's share is 120+p
The 2nd son's share is 100+p
The 3rd son's share is 60+p
As, 4th,3rd and 2nd are in AP
Thus, 300+4p=9p
p=60.
P's total donation is 20+p= 80,000
00:00:00
3. Common Data Question 2/2
Find the share of the third son.
A. Rs 80,000
B. Rs 1,00,000
C. Rs 1,20,000
D. Rs 1,50,000
Hide Ans

Discuss

81

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Solution:
All amounts are in thousands of rupees.
Let P's total property be (20+10p)
The donation is 20+p
The 4th son's share is 20+p
The 1st son's share is 120+p
The 2nd son's share is 100+p
The 3rd son's share is 60+p
As, 4th,3rd and 2nd are in AP
Thus, 300+4p=9p
p=60
The 3rd son's share is 60+p= 120,000
00:00:00
4. In an A.P, the 12th term is 7 times the 2nd term and the 8th term is
3 more than 10 times the first term. What is the 5th term of the G.P
whose first term is the first term of A.P and whose common ratio is
equal to the common difference of the A.P.
A. 162
B. 144
C. 156
D. 136
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Let the progression be a,a+d,a+2d .........
a+11d=7a+7d
6a=4d
3a=2d
Also, a+7d=10a+3

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

7d=9a+3
7d=6d+3
d=3,a=2
The GP is 2,23,232,233,234
So the 5th term is 162
00:00:00
5. The total age of some 7 years old and some 5 years old children is
60 years. If I have to select a team from these children such that
their total age is 48 years, In how many ways can it be done?
A. 3
B. 2
C. 1
D. 4
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Let 'a' children of 7 years and 'b' children of 5 years be taken.
Then 7a+5b=48
This is possible only when x=4 and b=4
Hence only one combination is possible.
6. The digits of a three number are in AP. If the number is subtracted
from the number formed by reversing its digits, the result is 396.
What could be the original number?
A. 654
B. 135
C. 852
D. 753
Hide Ans

Discuss

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Solution:
The difference between 3-digit number and its reverse is 99
times the difference between its extreme (hundred and units)
digits.
As the first difference is 396, the second is 4.
Further as the digits are in AP and the hundred's digits is less
than the unit's digit, we have following possibilities:
135,246,357,468,579
00:00:00
Common information for questions numbered 7 and 8
The cost of fuel for running the engine of an army tank is proportional to the
square of the speed and Rs. 64 hour for a speed of 16 kmph. Other costs
amount to Rs. 400 hour. The tank has to make a journey of 400 km at a
constant speed.
7. Common Data Question 1/2
The most economical speed for this January is:
A. 20 kmph
B. 320 kmph
C. 35 kmph
D. 40 kmph
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Cost of fuel is proportional to square of the speed:
E=KS2
E=64 and S=16
K=

84

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

1
4
Total cost =
1
4
S2t+400t
Most economical speed, checking options we get most
economical speed at 40km/hr.
00:00:00
8. Common Data Question 2/2
The total cost for the journey at this most economical speed is:
A. Rs 6,000
B. Rs 8,000
C. Rs 10,000
D. Rs 11,000
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Cost of fuel is proportional to square of the speed:
E=KS2
E=64 and S=16
K=
1
4
Total cost=
1
4
S2t+400t

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Most economical speed, checking options we get most

economical speed at 40km/hr.
Total cost at 40km/hr =
1
4
402+400(
400
40
)
Rs 8,000
00:00:00
9. A and B throws one dice for a stake of Rs 11, which is to be won by
the player who first throws a six. The game ends when the stake is
won by A or B. If A has the first throw, then what are their
respective expectations?
A. 5 and 6
B. 6 and 5
C. 11 and 10
D. 10 and 11
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Expectation of winning A:
[(
1
6
)+(
5
6

86

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

5
6

1
6
)+...]11
[
(
1
6
)
(1
25
36
)
]11=6
Similarly we get the expectation of B as 5.
00:00:00
10. On January 1, 2004 two new societies s1 and s2 are formed, each n
numbers. On the first day of each subsequent month, s1 adds b
members while s2 multiples its current numbers by a constant
factor r. Both the societies have the same number of members on
July 2, 2004. If b = 10.5n, what is the value of r?
A. 2
B. 1.9
C. 1.8
D. 1.7
Hide Ans

Discuss

87

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Solution:
There will be an increase of 6 times.
No. of members s1 will be in A.P.
On July 2nd , 2004, s1 will have n+6b members
=n+610.5n
=64n
No. of members in s2 will be in G.P.
On July 2nd, 2004 Number of members in s2=nr6
64n=nr6
r= 2
11. Abhishek had a certain number of Re1 coins, Rs 2 coins and Rs 10
coins. If the number of Re 1 coins he had is six times the number of
Rs 2 coins Abhishek had, and the total worth of his coins is Rs 160,
find the maximum number of Rs 10 coins Abhishek could have
A. 12
B. 10
C. 8
D. 6
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
If the Abhishek had x Re 1, y Rs 2 coins and z Rs 10 coins, the
total value of coins he had:
=x(1)+y(2)+z(10)=x+2y+10z=160
Since, 6y=x
Thus, 8y+10z=160 i.e 8y is a multiple of 10 i.e. y=5 or y=10
i.e. (x,y,z)=(30,5,12) or (60,10,18)
Thus, the maximum value of 'z' is 12
00:00:00

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 12. In a family of husband, wife and a daughter, the sum of the

husbands age, twice the wifes age, and thrice the daughters age is
85; while the sum of twice the husbands age, four times the wifes
age, and six times the daughters age is 170. It is also given that the
sum of five times the husbands age, ten times the wifes age and
fifteen times the daughters age equals 450. The number of possible
solutions, in terms of the ages of the husband, wife and the
daughter, to this problem is:
A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. Infinitely many
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Let the age of husband wife and daughter be denoted by h, w
and d respectively.
h+2w+3d=85 -------- (i)
2h+4w+6d=170 -------- (ii)
5h+10w+15d=450 -------- (iii)
Multiplying the first equation by 5 we get
5h+10w+15d=425
but Eq (iii) gives 5h+10w+15d=450
So No solution possible.
00:00:00
13. There are 2 mean, 3 women and 1 child in Pradeeps family and 1
man, 1 woman and 2 children in Prabhats family. The
recommended calorie requirement is- Men: 240, Women: 1990,
Children: 1800 and for proteins is: Men: 55 gm, Woman: 45 gm,
children: 33 gm. Calculate the total requirement of calories and
proteins for each of the two families.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## A. A: 12300, 278; B: 7900 ,166

B. A: 12400, 300; B: 8000, 167
C. A: 12300, 278; B: 6600, 200
D. A: 8000, 278; B: 7900, 166
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
The recommended calorie requirements for men, women and
children are 2400, 1900and 1800 respectively and the
recommended protein requirements for men, women and
children are 55 gm, 45 gm and 33 gm respectively.
Calorie requirement:
=22400+31900+119800=12300
Protein requirement:
=255+345+133=278 gm
For Prabhats family:
Calorie requirement:
=12400+11900+21800=7900
Protein requirement:
=155+145+233=166 gm.
As option (A) has a match, it is the correct answer
00:00:00
14. The currencies in countries X and Y are denoted by Xs. and Ys.
respectively. The exchange rate in 1990 was 1 Xs. = 0.6 Ys. The
price level in 2006 in X and Y are 150 and 400 respectively with
1990 as a base of 100. The exchange rate in 2006, based solely on
this purchasing power parity consideration, is 1 Xs.=
A. 0.225 Ys.
B. 0.625 Ys.

90

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C. 1.6 Ys.
D. 3.6 Ys.
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
In 1990, 1 Xs=0.6Ys
Price levels in 2006 change by 150 and 400 for X and Y
respectively with 1990 as base 100.
In 2006, 1501Xs=4000.6Ys
Xs=(
240
150
)Ys
Xs = 1.6 Ys
00:00:00
15. A group of 630 children is arranged in rows for a group photograph
session. Each row contains three fewer children than the row in
front of it. What number of rows is not possible?
A. 3
B. 4
C. 5
D. 6
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Let the no. of students in front row be x.
So, the no. of students in next rows be x3,x6,x9 ... so on
If n i.e. no. of rows be then no. of students (n=3)

91

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

x+(x3)+(x6)=630
3x=639
x = 213
So possible,
Similarly for n = 4
x+(x3)+(x6)+(x9)=630
4x18=630
x=162
If n = 5
(4x18)+(x12)=630
5x30=630
x=120
Again possible.
If n = 6
(5x30)+(x15)=630
6x45=630
6x=675
x Integer
Hence n 6
16. Common Data Question 1/3
If the number of insects on the roof, on day 1 is 63, then the number
of insects that they kill on the fourth day is:
A. 63
B. 90
C. 72
D. 75
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Day (1) -> Number of insects -> p
Day (2) -> Number of insects -> 2pq

92

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Day (3) -> Number of insects -> 4p3q

Day (4) -> Number of insects -> 8p7q
Thus, 8p7q=0
q=
8p
7
P has to multiple of 7 so that q is an integer
If p=63
q = 72
00:00:00
17. Common Data Question 2/3
The minimum number of insects that he kills on any of the last
three days is:
A. 8
B. 7
C. 0
D. 1
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Day (1) -> Number of insects -> p
Day (2) -> Number of insects -> 2pq
Day (3) -> Number of insects -> 4p3q
Day (4) -> Number of insects -> 8p7q
Thus, 8p7q=0
q=
8p
7

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## P has to multiple of 7 so that q is an integer

For q is to minimum p=7
q=8
00:00:00
18. Common Data Question 3/3
The minimum number of insects that he left on day 1 is?
A. 8
B. 7
C. 0
D. 6
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Day (1) -> Number of insects -> p
Day (2) -> Number of insects -> 2pq
Day (3) -> Number of insects -> 4p3q
Day (4) -> Number of insects -> 8p7q
Thus, 8p7q=0
q=
8p
7
P has to multiple of 7 so that q is an integer
For p is to minimum q=8
Thus, p = 7
00:00:00
19. In a certain water body, 50 fish were caught, tagged and released to
the same water body. A few days later, 50 fish were caught again,
of which 2 were found to have been tagged on previous occasion. If
the percent of tagged fish in the second catch approximates the

94

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## percent of tagged fish in water body, what is the approximate

number of fish in the water body:
A. 10,000
B. 625
C. 1250
D. 2500
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Let the number of fish be x then:
(
50100
x
)=(
48100
x50
)

50
x
=(
48
x50
)
x= 1250
00:00:00
20. A transport agency has 5 carriers, each of capacity 15 tonnes. The
carriers are scheduled such that the first carrier makes a trip every
day, the second carrier makes a trip every second. The third makes
a trip every third day and so on. Find the maximum number of

95

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## times in a year that it is possible to dispatch a total shipment of 75

tonnes in a single day. The operation starts on the 7th January 2010
and continue till the end of the year (31st December 2010) without
any holiday.
A. 7
B. 6
C. 5
D. 8
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
The first carrier makes a trip in one day and the second carrier
makes one trip in 2 days and so on.
Hence, all the trucks will leave on the same day once every X
days where:
X= LCM (1,2,3,4 and 5)=60
If on the 7th of Jan all the trucks left together than after every
60 days they will leave together (i.e. on the same day).
There will be at most 3666=360 days including 7th Jan in that
year.
In 360 days there can be at most 6 occasions like that.
21. A number of three digits in base 7, when expressed in base 9, has
its digits reversed in the order. What is the sum of the digits of the
number?
A. 5
B. 6
C. 7
D. 8
Hide Ans

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Discuss
Solution:
Only (0,1,2,3,4,5,6) can be the digits as base 7.
(pqr)7=(rqp)9
72p+71q+70r=92r+91q+90p
49p+7q+r=81r+9q+p
48p=80r+2q
24p=40r+q
After hit and trial,the number:
pqr=(503)7=(305)9
248 in the decimal system.
00:00:00
22. When the index of an exponential expression with a positive base is
doubled, then the expression increases by 700%. If one of the
values that the base cannot have is X which of the following is not a
possible value of P?
A. 4
B. 8
C. 5
D. 1

Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
Let the expression be an
a2n=8an
n=loga8
a can be 5, 4 and 8 but it cannot be 1.
00:00:00

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 23. If x36x2+px+q is exactly divisible by x23x+2, then:

A. p+q > 0 and pq > 0
B. p+q > 0 and pq < 0
C. p+q < 0 and pq < 0
D. p+q < 0 and pq > 0
Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
x23x+2=(x2)(x1)
The factors of the cubic equation is x =2 and x= 1
On putting x=2 , we get, 824+2p+q=0
2p+q=16 -------- (i)
On putting x=1, we get, 16+p+q=0
p+q=5 -------- (ii)
Thus on solving these two equation we get:
p =11 and q = -6
So p+q > 0 and pq < 0
00:00:00
24. The mean salary in ICM ltd. was Rs 1500, and the standard
deviation was Rs 400. A year later each employee got a Rs 100
raise. After another year each employee's salary (including the
above mentioned raise) was increased by 20%. The standard
deviation of the current salary is:
A. 460
B. 480
C. 560
D. None of these
Hide Ans

98

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Discuss
Solution:
Mean salary was Rs 1500
Standard deviation = Rs 400
After 1 year all the employees got a uniform rise of Rs 100.
So, there will be no change in standard deviation.
After another year, every employee's salary was increased by
20%.
So, standard deviation will be increased by 20%.
Standard deviation=400
120
100
= Rs 480
00:00:00
25. Three persons Suresh, Devesh and Prashant were born on different
days in the same year. If the date and month of birth of Suresh,
Devesh and Prashant are numerically equal, then what could be the
minimum difference in the ages of youngest and oldest in days?
A. 56
B. 60
C. 61
D. 62

Hide Ans

Discuss
Solution:
To have the minimum differences in the ages of the oldest and
youngest.
One of them should be born in February.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Also the other two should be born in March and April of

January and March.
Difference between the youngest and the oldest is the number
of days from2nd Feb. to 4th Mar.:
=(26+31+4)=61
or, 1st Jan to 3rd Mar. =30+28+3= 61 days.
Unit-7: mensuration
1.
If the length of the diagonal AC of a square ABCD is 4.2 cms then the
area of the square is?

A.
10.42cm2

C.
7.92cm2
B.

9.00cm2
D.

8.82cm2
Report

2.
The ratio between the length and the perimeter of a rectangular plot is
1:3 and the ratio between the breadth and Perimeter of the plot is 1:6.
What is the ratio between the length and area of the plot?

A.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

1:8
C.

2:1
B.

2:5
D.

Report

3.
The lengths of diagonals of a rhombous are 24cm and 10cm respectively.
What is the area of the rhombus?

A.
240cm2

C.
120cm2
B.

80cm2
D.

100cm2

Report

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

4.
Find the costs of carpeting a square room of side 8 meters with carpet at
the rate of Rs.44 per meter square?

A.
Rs. 400

C.
Rs. 2816
B.

Rs. 500
D.

Rs. 250
Report

5.
A room is 8 meters long and 4 meters wide. How many paving stones
each
measuring 2.5dm by 2dm are required to pave its floor?

A.700
C.720
B.640
D.810

Report

102

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

If a full cistern is 3 meters long, 2 meters wide and 1 meter deep, how
many litres of water must be thrown out so as to keep the water level
50cm?

A.
5000 litres

C.
6000 litres
B.

4000 litres
D.

3000 litres
Report

7.
If a cone and a sphere have equal radii and have equal volumes, what is
the ratio between the height of the cone and the diameter of the sphere?

A.
1:8

C.
2:1

B.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

2:5
D.

2:3
Report

8.
If one side of a cube is doubled, then by what % does the volume of the
corresponding cube increase?
A.

150%
C.

700%
B.

300%
D.

900%
Report

9.
Volume of a cube is 512m3 find its surface area?

A.
200m2

C.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

384m2
B.

354m2
D.

468m2
Report

10.
The surface area of cube is 150sq.m. find its volume?
A.

64m3
C.

125m3
B.

68m3
D.

96m2

Report
11.
If the side of a square is increased by 100% how much percent of its area
is increased?

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.

750%
C.

400%
B.

300%
D.

350%
Report

12.
A rope, by which a horse is tied is increased from 15 to 27m.How much
excess area will it be able to graze?

A.
1584 sq.m

C.
2143 sq.m

B.
1854 sq.m

D.
1348 sq.m

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Report

13.
A regular hexagon is inscribed in a circle with diameter 8cm. What is the
side of the hexagon?
A.

6 cm
C.

7 cm
B.

8 cm
D.

4 cm
Report

14.
A wall is 4m high. At what distance from the base should a ladder 4.2m
long be placed so that it just reaches the wall?

A.
2.12 m

C.
3.25 m

B.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

1.28 m
D.

1.64 m
Report

15.
Find the area of a triangle, whose sides are 15,16,17 m respectively.

A.
109.98 m2

C.
110.20 m2
B.

114.10 m2
D.

106.25 m2
Report

16.
The area of a triangle whose base and height are respectively 6.2m and
50cm is?

A.
1.85 sq.m.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.
2.15 sq.m
B.

1.25 sq.m
D.

1.55 sq.m
Report

17.
Find the length of a wire required to go 20 times round a square field one
hectare in area.

A.
8500 m

C.
6000 m
B.

8000 m
D.

6500 m

Report
18.

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The cost of carpeting room 6m broad with a carpet at Rs. 4.50 sq.m is
Rs.135. Find the length of the room?
A.

6m
C.

7m
B.

8m
D.

5m
Report

19.
A hectare of land is dividd into plots, each 25 meters long and 10 metres
broad. Find the number of plots?
A.

25
C.

40
B.

50

D.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

60
Report

20.
How many bricks 20cm * 25 cm will be requird to pave the floor of a
room 6m and 5mwide?
A.

700
C.

800
B.

600
D.

750
Report

21.
How many bullets can be made out of a cube of lead whose edge
measures 44 cm. each buulet being 4 cm in diameter?

A.
5361

C.
3478

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

B.

4260
D.

2541
Report

22.
Find the height of the cylinder whose volumes is 651 cube.meters and the
area of the base 46.5 sq.m .
A.

32 m
C.

14 m
B.

24 m
D.

17 m
Report

23.
Find the length of the longest pole that can be placed in a room 12m
long, 9m broad and 8 meters high.

A.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

16 m
C.

17 m
B.

18 m
D.

15 m
Report

24.
The surface of a cube is 384 sq.m.Find its volume?

A.
250 cub.m

C.
400 cub.m
B.

500 cub.m
D.

512 cub.m

Report

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

25.
Find the radius of a circle whose area is equal to the sum of the area of
three circles with radius 1m,8m,4m respectively?
A.

18 m
C.

9m
B.

10 m
D.

7m

Report

## Unit-8: exponents & powers

Powers and Exponents Practice Questions
Practice
1. Evaluate 64.
2. Circle the expression that is NOT equivalent to 5 5 5 5.
5 4 (5 5)2 54 5 53 625
3. Evaluate cd2 1 when c = 1 and d = 6.
4. The expression 42 is equivalent to ____.
5. How can you simplify the expression 22 23?
6. Simplify: a2b ab3
7. Simplify:

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

8. Simplify: (3xy3)2
Solutions
1. 64 is equal to 6 6 6 6. When multiplied together, the result is 1,296.
2. 5 4 should be circled. This is equal to 20. The others are equivalent to
625.
3. Substitute the values for the variables in the expression: (1)(6)2 1
Evaluate the exponent: (1)(6)2 1
Remember that (6)2 = (6)(6) = 36.
Multiply the first term: (1)(36) 1
This simplifies to (36) 1. Evaluate by changing subtraction to
addition and the sign of the second term to its opposite. Signs are the
same, so add and keep the sign:
(36) + (1) = 37
4. When you evaluate a negative exponent, take the reciprocal of the base
and make the exponent positive. Therefore, 42 is equivalent to , which
simplifies to
5. When you multiply like bases, add the exponents. The expression 22
23 is equivalent to 22 + 3, which simplifies to 25.
6. When you multiply like bases, add the exponents. The
expression a2b ab3 can also be written as a2b1 a1b3. Grouping like
bases results in a2a1 b1b3. Adding the exponents gives a2 + 1b1 + 3,
which is equal to a3b4, the simplified answer.
7. When you divide like bases, subtract the exponents. The
expression then becomes x6 3, which simplifies to x3.
8. When you raise a quantity to a power, raise each base to that power by
multiplying the exponents. The expression (3xy3)2 equals 32x2y6, which
simplifies to 9x2y6. Another way to look at this problem is to remember
that when a quantity is squared, it is multiplied by itself. The expression
(3xy3)2 becomes (3xy3) (3xy3). Multiply coefficients and add the
exponents of like bases: 3 3x1+ 1y3 + 3 simplifies to 9x2y6.
1. (17)3.5 x (17)? = 178

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.

2.29

B.

2.75

C.

4.25

D.

4.5

Explanation:
Let (17)3.5 x (17)x = 178.
Then, (17)3.5 + x = 178.
3.5 + x = 8
x = (8 - 3.5)
x = 4.5
2.

9.

a x-1
b x-3
=
, then the value of x is:
b
a

If

A.

1
2

B.

C.

D.

7
2

Explanation:
a x-1
b x-3
=
Given b
a

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

a x-1
a -(x - 3)
=
=
b
b

a (3 - x)
b

x-1=3-x
2x = 4
x = 2.
10.
3. Given that 100.48 = x, 100.70 = y and xz = y2, then the value of z is close to:
A.

1.45

B.

1.88

C.

2.9

D.

3.7

Explanation:
xz = y2

## 10(0.48z) = 10(2 x 0.70) = 101.40

0.48z = 1.40
140 35
=
= 2.9 (approx.)
48
12
z=

11.
4. If 5a = 3125, then the value of 5(a - 3) is:
A.

25

B.

125

C.

625

D.

1625

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
5a = 3125

5a = 5 5

a = 5.
5(a - 3) = 5(5 - 3) = 52 = 25.
12.
5. If 3(x - y) = 27 and 3(x + y) = 243, then x is equal to:
A.

B.

C.

D.

Explanation:
3x - y = 27 = 33
3x + y = 243 = 35

x - y = 3 ....(i)
x + y = 5 ....(ii)

## On solving (i) and (ii), we get x = 4.

6. (256)0.16 x (256)0.09 = ?
A.

B.

16

C.

64

D.

256.25

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Explanation:
(256)0.16 x (256)0.09 = (256)(0.16 + 0.09)
= (256)0.25
= (256)(25/100)
= (256)(1/4)
= (44)(1/4)
= 44(1/4)
= 41
=4
7. The value of [(10)150 (10)146]
A.

1000

B.

10000

C.

100000

D.

106

Explanation:
150

(10)

146

(10)

10150
= 146
10

= 10150 - 146

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= 104
= 10000.
8.

1
(b - a)

1+x

(c - a)

+x

1
(a - b)

1+x

(c - b)

+x

1
1+x

(b - c)

+ x(a - c)

=?

A.

B.

C.

xa - b - c

D.

None of these

Explanation:
1
1
Given Exp. =
xb xc +
xa xc +
1+ a + a
1+ b + b
x
x
x
x
a
b
c
x
x
x
= a b c + a b c + a b c
(x + x + x ) (x + x + x ) (x + x + x )
(xa + xb + xc)
= a b c
(x + x + x )

1
xb xa
1+ c + c
x
x

= 1.
9. (25)7.5 x (5)2.5 (125)1.5 = 5?
A.

8.5

B.

13

C.

16

D.

17.5

120

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Let (25)7.5 x (5)2.5 (125)1.5 = 5x.
(52)7.5 x (5)2.5
Then,
= 5x
3 1.5
(5 )
(2 x 7.5)
5
x 52.5
= 5x
5(3 x 1.5)
515 x 52.5
= 5x
4.5
5
5x = 5(15 + 2.5 - 4.5)
5x = 513
x = 13.
10. (0.04)-1.5 = ?
A.

25

B.

125

C.

250

D.

625

Explanation:
(0.04)-1.5 =

121

4 -1.5

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

100
1 -(3/2)
=
25
= (25)(3/2)
= (52)(3/2)
= (5)2 x (3/2)
= 53
= 125.
11. (243)n/5 x 32n + 1
=?
9 n x 3n - 1
A.

B.

C.

D.

3n

Explanation:
(243)(n/5) x 32n + 1
Given Expression =
9n x 3n - 1
(35)(n/5) x 32n + 1
=
(32)n x 3n - 1
(35 x (n/5) x 32n + 1)
=
(32n x 3n - 1)
3n x 32n + 1
= 2n n - 1
3 x3

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3(n + 2n + 1)
= (2n + n - 1
3
)
33n + 1
= 3n - 1
3
= 3(3n + 1 - 3n + 1) = 32 = 9.
12.

1
1
+
=?
1 + a(n - m) 1 + a(m - n)
A.

B.

1
2

C.

D.

am + n

Explanation:
1
1
(n - m)
1+a
+ 1 + a(m - n) =

1
n

a
1+ m
a

am
1+ n
a

am
an
= m
+
(a + an) (am + an)
(am + an)
= m
(a + an)
= 1.

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13. If m and n are whole numbers such that mn = 121, the value of (m - 1)n +
1
is:
A.

B.

10

C.

121

D.

1000

Explanation:
We know that 112 = 121.
Putting m = 11 and n = 2, we get:
(m - 1)n + 1 = (11 - 1)(2 + 1) = 103 = 1000.
14. xb (b + c - a) xc (c + a - b) xa
. a
. b
xc
x
x

(a + b - c)

=?

A.

xabc

B.

C.

xab + bc + ca

D.

xa + b + c

Explanation:
Given Exp. = x(b - c)(b + c - a) . x(c - a)(c + a - b) . x(a - b)(a + b - c)
= x(b - c)(b + c) - a(b - c) . x(c - a)(c + a) - b(c - a)
. x(a - b)(a + b) - c(a - b)

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= (x0 x x0)
= (1 x 1) = 1.
15.

## If x = 3 + 22, then the value of x -

1
is:
x

A.

B.

C.

22

D.

33

Explanation:
12
1
=x+ -2
x
x
1
= (3 + 22) +
-2
(3 + 22)
1
(3 - 22)
= (3 + 22) +
x
-2
(3 + 22) (3 - 22)

x-

= (3 + 22) + (3 - 22) - 2
= 4.
x-

125

1
= 2.
x

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Unit-9: Ratio and Proportion

Ratio and proportion is the heart of arithmetic. If you understand this chapter
properly you can solve virtually any problem in arithmetic.
If two numbers are in the ratio 2:3 means for every two units of the first
number, second has 3 units. This is a mere comparision between numbers,
and actual numbers may be way bigger than these numbers. If you multiply
or divide a ratio the comparision does not change. i.e., 2:3 is same as 4:6.
If two numbers are in the ratio a:b then this ration has to be multiplied with a
number K, to get actual numbers. This K is called multiplication factor (MF)
If two ratios are equal then we say they are in proportion.
There are 4 types of relations exist between two variables:
1. Direct Proportion
2. Inverse Proportion
3. Direct Relation
4. Inverse Relation
1. Direct Proportion:
If two variables x, y are directly proportional then xy or x = ky where k is a
constant. If one variable increases then the other variable also increases by
the same proportion. i.e., If we double the first variable, the other variable
also becomes double. If we make the first variable half, the other also
becomes half. The graph between two variables goes through the origin.

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Example 1:
The value of a diamond is directly proportional to the square of its weight. If
a diamond weighing 4kg breaks into 2 pieces, its total value decreases by
37.5%. Find the weights of the two pieces.
Let us assume value of the diamond is V and weight is W.
Then vw2v=kw2v=k42k=v16
It was given that the sum of the values of the two pieces got decreased by
37.5% or only remaining 62.5% of the original value. and assume that the
two pieces are x, (4-x)
62.5%(V)=kx2+k(4x)2
Substituting k = v/16
62.5%(V)=V16(x2+(4x)2)
58(V)=V16(x2+(4x)2)
5=12(x2+(4x)2)
10=2x28x+16

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

2x28x+6=0
Solving we get x = 3 or 1.
2. Inverse proportion:
If two variables x, y are directly proportional then xy or x = ky where k is a
constant.
If one variable becomes double, the other variable becomes half. If one
variable becomes half other variable becomes double.

Example 2:
The rate of batting of the eyelids of a bat is 60 per minute when at rest. This
rate reduces when the bat flies and is inversely proportional to the square root
of the rate of flapping of its wings. What is the reduction in the rate of batting
of the eyelids when the bat is flappig its wings at 36 flaps per minute, given
that at 16 flaps per minute, the rate of batting of eyelids has reduced by 24
per minute.
Given batting_of_eyelids1flapping_of_wings
When the bat is flapping its wings at 16 flaps per minute, then the battinng of
eye lids has reduced by 24 per minute. so the bat is batting its eyelids at (60 -

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 24) = 36 per minute.

Substituting in the formula 3611636=K4K=144
Now we need to find the rate of batting of the eyelids of the bat when it is
flapping its wings at 36 flaps per minute
batting_of_eyelids=K36
batting_of_eyelids=1446=24
So the reduction is (60 - 24) = 36
3. Direct Relation:
Here the relation between variables can be best defined as Y = K + mX

## Even though x is zero, y is not zero. It take a value of K. But Y varies

directly in relation to x. If x increases, y also increases, If x decreases y also
decreases.
Example 3:
The expenses of organizing a garden party increased from Rs.9000 to
Rs.12000 when the number of registered candidates increased from 25 to 40.
Find the total cost of organizing the party if there are 50 final registrations.
We know that the expenses of party increases not directly proportional but

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

directly relational.
Assume the fixed component of expense is K rupees and Variable component
is M rupees.
Then the total cost is given by
K + 25 x M = 9000 ............(1)
When there are 40 registrations the total cost is
K + 40 x M = 12000 .........(2)
By substracting (1) from (2)
15M=3000M=200
So the variable cost per head is Rs.200
To find the fixed cost we can substitute Rs.200 in either (1) or (2), then K =
4000
If there are 50 registrations then the total cost = 4000 + 50 x 200 = Rs.14000
4. Inverse Relation:
Here Y = K -mX holds good. If x increases, y decreases and vice versa.

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Example 4:
The reduction in the speed of an engine is directly proportional to the squuare
of the number of bogies attached to it. The speed of the train is 100 km/hr
when there are 4 bogies and 55 kmn/hr when there are 5 bogies. What is the
maximum number of bogies that can be attached to the train so that, even
with those many numbers of bogies, it can just move?
We know that S=SmaxK(bogies)2
When there are 4 bogies speed of the train is
100km/hr 100=SmaxK(4)2100=SmaxK16.......(1)
When there are 5 bogies speed of the train is
55kh/hr 55=SmaxK(5)255=SmaxK25 ........(2)
(2) - (1) gives 9K=45K=5
By substituting K = 5 in either (1) or (2) we can find the maximum speed of
the train = 180 km/hr
Assume, for N number of bogies the train does not move.
0=1805(N)2N=6
If the engine is attached to 6 bogies, it does not move. If we want the train to
move we need to attach maximum of 5 bogies
Chain Rule:
Chain rule is comes in handy when there are many variables need to compare
with the given variable. We can understand this rule by observing a practice
problem.
Example 5:
If 12 carpenters working 6 hours a day can make 460 chairs in 24 days, how

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many chairs will 18 carpenters make in 36 days, each working 8 hours a day?
Let us prepare small table to understand the probelm.

Now with repect to the Chairs we need to understand how each varibale is
related.
If the number of men got increased (i.e., 12 to 18), do they manufacture more
chairs or less chairs is the question we have to ask ourselves. If the answer is
"more" then the higher number between 12, 18 will go to the numerator and
other will go to denominator and vice versa. Here answer is "more"
So 4601812
Next we go to Hours. If the number of hours they work each day got
increases then do they manufactures more chairs or less chairs? Anwer is
more
So 460181286
Last, If the number of day they work increases then .... answer is more.
So 4601812863624=1380
Practice Problems (Level - 1)

1. The sum of two numbers is twice the difference between them. If the
smaller number is 20, find the bigger number.
Ratio between sum and difference of the numbers is 2 : 1.
Therefore, Ratio between the numbers = (2 + 1) : (2 - 1) i.e. 3 : 1.
Therefore, Bigger number = 3 x 20 = 60.
2. A spends 90% of his salary and B spends 85% of his salary. But savings of
both are equal. Find the income of B, if sum of their incomes is Rs. 5000.
Savings of A = (100 - 90)% = 10% of his salary.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Savings of B = (100 - 85)% = 15% of his salary.

Given, both saves equal amount.
Therefore, 10% of A's salary = 15% of B's salary
Therefore, A : B = 15 : 10 = 3 : 2
Hence, B's salary = 25 x 5000 = Rs. 2000.
3. A man has some hens and some cows. If the number of heads is 50 and
number of feet is 142. The number of cows is:
Let, the man has hens only.
Then total heads = 50 x 1 = 50.
And, legs = 50 x 2 = 100 which is short by 42 from the actual legs i.e. = 142.
Now, replacement of one cow with one hen means same number of heads and
two more legs.
Therefore, Hens replaced with cows = 422 = 21
Therefore, Cows = 21
4. A sum of Rs. 350 made up of 110 coins, which are of either Re. 1 or Rs. 5
denomination. How many coins are of Rs. 5?
Let, all the coins are of Re. 1 denomination.
Then, total value of 110 coins = 110 x 1 = Rs. 110 which is short from Rs.
350 by Rs. 350 - Rs. 110 = Rs. 240.
Now, replacing 1 one-rupee coin with five-rupee coin mean Rs. 4 extra.
Therefore, Five rupee coins = 2404 = 60 coins
5. The population of a village is 10000. In one year, male population increase
by 6% and female population by 4%. If population at the end of the year is
10520, find size of male population in the village (originally).
Let, the population consists of females only.
Then, increase in the population is 4% of 10000 = 400
Therefore, Increased population = 10000 + 400 = 10400
But, actual increased population = 10520
Difference = 10520 - 10400 = 120
Now, 120 is 2% (i.e. 6% - 4%) of the male population.
Therefore, Male population = 1202 x 100 = 6000
6. Students in Class I, II and III of a school are in the ratio of 3 : 5 : 8. Had 15

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

more students admitted to each class, the ratio would have become 6 : 8 : 11.
How many total students were there in the beginning?
Increase in ratio for 3 classes is 6 - 3 = 8 - 5 = 11 - 8 = 3.
Given, 15 more students are admitted to each class.
Therefore, 3 :: 5 => 1 :: 5
Therefore, 3 + 5 + 8 = 16 :: 16 x 5 = 80.
Hence, total students in the beginning were 80.
7. Ratio between the annual income of A and B is 9 : 8 and between their
expenditure is 8 : 7. If they save Rs. 500 each. Find A's annual income.
A B
Income 9 : 8
Expenditure 8 : 7
__________________
Difference
1 :1
Hence, both are spending 1 ratio less than their incomes' ratio and hence
saving Rs. 500 each.
Therefore, A's annual income = 9 x Rs. 500 = Rs. 4500
8. The ratio between two numbers is 5 : 8. If 8 is subtracted from both the
numbers, the ratio becomes 1 : 2. The original numbers are:
x = (12)(8)5281=(1)(8)108=82=4
Therefore, The numbers are 4 x 5 and 4 x 8 i.e. 20 and 32.
9. A mixture of 55 litres contains milk and water in the ratio of 7 : 4. How
many litres of milk and water each must be added to the mixture to make the
ratio 3 : 2?
Let milk and water in the mixture are 7x and the 4x litre respectively.
Then, 7x + 4x = 55
Therefore, x = 5511 = 5
Quantity of milk and water added is
k = 7243325=141215 = 2 x 5 = 10 litres
10. Two vessels contain mixture of milk and water in the ratio of 5 : 2 and 3 :
1 respectively. Find the ratio of milk and water in the new solution, if two
mixtures are mixed in equal amount.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Sum of the ratios are 5 + 2, 3 + 1 or 7 and 4.

LCM of sum of the ratios i.e. LCM of 7 and 4 is 28.
Therefore, We assume that 28 litres of mixture is taken from each vessel.
Now, milk in first vessel = 57 x 28 = 20 litres
Therefore, Water in the first vessel = 28 - 20 = 8 litres
And milk in second vessel = 34 x 28 = 21 litres
Therefore, Water in second vessel = 28 - 21 = 7 litres
Total quantity of milk in the resultant mixture = 20 + 21 = 41.
Total quantity of water in the resultant mixture = 8 + 7 = 15.
Therefore, Ratio of milk and water in the new solution = 41 : 15.
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Question 1
A debugging program rectify 0.128 errors in every second. Approximately
how many seconds will it need to rectify 25 errors?
a) 109 b) 261 c) 195 d) 201
Solution :
Time
taken
to
rectify
Time taken to rectify 25 errors,
Errors
0.128
25

0.128

errors

is

second.

Time
1
?

Here the number of errors has been increased, so time also increases. Hence
error is directly proportional to time.
?
?
=
? = 195.31

=
25

(25
x

/
1000

0.128)1
128

## Therefore, time taken to rectify 25 errors is 195 sec approximately.

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Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Question 2
The rotational speed of two connected wheels of a toy car are inversely
proportional to their diameters. A wheel with a diameter of 8 cm and speed of
36 rpm is connected to a wheel of 12 cm diameter. What is the rotational
speed of the second wheel?
a) 24 rpm b) 12 rpm c) 14 rpm d) 20 rpm
Solution :
One wheel with a diameter of 8 cm and a speed of 36 rpm.
The
other
wheel
is
with
12
cm
in
diameter.
Given that the speed of the wheel is inversely proportional to diameters.
Diameter
8
12

Speed
36
?

## ? = 8 x 36 / 12 (Since it is inversely proportional 12 / 8 is changed

reciprocally
as
8
/
12)
?
=
24
Hence the speed of the other wheel is 24 rpm
Question 3
If 18 typists are required to type 900 files in 10 hours. Then how many typists
will be required to type 660 files in 12 hours ?
a) 20 b) 16 c) 10 d) 11
Solution :
18
typists
type
900
files
Then, 660 files typed in 12 hours by X typists.

136

in

10

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

hours.

Typists
18
X

Files
900
660

Time(hrs)
10
12

Here, the number of files has been decreased, so the number of typists also
decreases
Directly
proportional
Time has been increased but the number of typist is decreased which is
inversely proportional.
X = 660 / 900 x 10 / 12 x 18 (Since time is inversely proportional to typists
12
/
10
is
changed
reciprocally
as
10
/
12)
X
=
11.
The number of typist required is 11.
Unit-10: factorization
1. Factors and Multiples:
If number a divided another number b exactly, we say that a is
a factor of b.
In this case, b is called a multiple of a.
2. Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) or Greatest Common Measure
(G.C.M.) or Greatest Common Divisor (G.C.D.):
The H.C.F. of two or more than two numbers is the greatest number
that divides each of them exactly.
There are two methods of finding the H.C.F. of a given set of numbers:
I.

II.

137

## Factorization Method: Express the each one of the given

numbers as the product of prime factors. The product of least
powers of common prime factors gives H.C.F.
Division Method: Suppose we have to find the H.C.F. of two
given numbers, divide the larger by the smaller one. Now, divide
the divisor by the remainder. Repeat the process of dividing the
preceding number by the remainder last obtained till zero is
obtained as remainder. The last divisor is required H.C.F.

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Finding the H.C.F. of more than two numbers: Suppose we

have to find the H.C.F. of three numbers, then, H.C.F. of [(H.C.F.
of any two) and (the third number)] gives the H.C.F. of three
given number.
Similarly, the H.C.F. of more than three numbers may be
obtained.
3. Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.):
The least number which is exactly divisible by each one of the given
numbers is called their L.C.M.
There are two methods of finding the L.C.M. of a given set of numbers:
I.

## Factorization Method: Resolve each one of the given numbers

into a product of prime factors. Then, L.C.M. is the product of
highest powers of all the factors.
II. Division Method (short-cut): Arrange the given numbers in a
rwo in any order. Divide by a number which divided exactly at
least two of the given numbers and carry forward the numbers
which are not divisible. Repeat the above process till no two of
the numbers are divisible by the same number except 1. The
product of the divisors and the undivided numbers is the required
L.C.M. of the given numbers.
4. Product of two numbers = Product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M.
5. Co-primes: Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H.C.F. is 1.
6. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Fractions:
H.C.F. of Numerators
L.C.M. of Denominators
L.C.M. of Numerators
2. L.C.M. =
H.C.F. of Denominators
1. H.C.F. =

## 8. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Decimal Fractions:

In a given numbers, make the same number of decimal places by
annexing zeros in some numbers, if necessary. Considering these

138

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

numbers without decimal point, find H.C.F. or L.C.M. as the case may
be. Now, in the result, mark off as many decimal places as are there in
each of the given numbers.
9. Comparison of Fractions:
Find the L.C.M. of the denominators of the given fractions. Convert
each of the fractions into an equivalent fraction with L.C.M as the
denominator, by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by
the same number. The resultant fraction with the greatest numerator is
the greatest.
(1).
Factors
In a division, if a number f divides a number M completely
(exactly) or in other words, if M is exactly divisible by f, then f is
the factor of M.
Example : 5 divides 35 completely, so, 5 is a factor of 35.
Similarly, 2, 3, 4, 6 are all factors of 12, because each of the
numbers 2, 3, 4 and 6 will divide 12 completely or, in other words
12 is divisible by 2, 3, 4 and 6.
(2).
Multiples
From the above concept, if f is a factor of M, then M is a multiple
of f.
Example : 63 is completely divisible by 7, 3, 9, 21. So, 63 is a
multiple of 7 or 3 or 9 or 21.
(3).
Principle
of
Prime
Factorisation
Any natural number (>1) is either prime or non-prime (composite).
The

principle

of

prime

factorisation

states

## Each non-prime (composite) number can be uniquely broken

(reduced) into two or more prime numbers (prime factors). In other
words, each non-prime number is divisible by any of the prime

139

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

numbers.
With the use of this principle, a non-prime number is broken into
its prime factor by dividing it with different prime numbers. This is
known as division method of factorisation of a number. The same
is
explained
in
the
following
example.
Example : Resolve 20570 into its prime factors.

Thus,
20570 = 2 5 11 11 17.
Hence, if the number is even, the division should start with 2;
otherwise, rest of the prime numbers should be tried in succession.
(4).

Highest

Common

Factor

(HCF)

If two or more number are broken into their prime factors (as
explained in 2.3), then the product of the maximum common prime
factors in the given numbers is the H.C.F. of the numbers.
In other words, the HCF of two or more numbers is the greatest
number (divisor) that divides all the given numbers exactly. So,
HCF is also called the Greatest Common Divisor (GCD).
Example
: Find
the
HCF
of
72,
60,
Here, we first find the prime factors of each given number.
2|72
2|36
2|18
3|9

140

2|60
2|30
3|15
|5

96.

2|96
2|48
2|24
2|12

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

|3

2|6
|3

Here

72 = 2 2 2 3 3
60 = 2 2 3 5
96 = 2 2 2 2 2 3

## and so HCF = product of maximum common prime factors = 2 2

3 = 12
Note : The common factors in the given numbers have been
encircled.
(5). LCM (Lowest Common Multiple)
The LCM of two or more than two numbers is the product of the
highest powers of all the prime factors that occur in these numbers.
Example : Find the LCM of 36, 48, 64 and 72
2| 36,
2| 18,
2| 9,
2| 9,
3| 9,
3| 3,
| 1,

48,
24,
12,
6,
3,
1,
1,

64, 72
32, 36
16, 18
8, 9
4, 9
4, 3
4, 1

LCM = 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 = 576.

## (6) Product of Two Numbers

HCF of numbers LCM of numbers = Product of numbers
i.e., if the numbers are A and B, then

141

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## HCF of A and B LCM of A and B = A B

(7)Difference between HCF and LCM
HCF of x, y and z

LCM of x, y and z

## is the Highest Divisior which

can exactly divide x, y and z.

## is the Least Dividend which is

exactly divisible by x, y and z.
Rapid information list

Ref.
No.

Type of
problem

Approach to
problem

3.

## Find the GREATEST

NUMBER that will Required number = HCF of x, y
exactly divide x, y and and z (greatest divisor)
z.

4.

## Find the GREATEST

NUMBER that will
Required nimber (greatest divisor)
divide x, y and z
= HCF of (x - a), (y - b) and (z -c).
leaving remainders a, b
and c respectively.

5.

Find
the
LEAST
NUMBER which is Required number = LCM of x, y
exactly divisible by x, and z (least dividend)
y and z.

6.

Find
the
LEAST
NUMBER which when
dividend by x, y and z
leaves the remainders
a, b and c respectively.

7.

Find
the
LEAST Required number = (LCM of x, y
NUMBER which when and z) + r.

142

## Then, it is always observed that (x

- a) = (y -b) = (z - c) = k (say)
Required number = (LCM of x,
y and z) - (K)

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

dividend by x, y and z
leaves
the
same
remainder 'r' each case.

8.

## Find the GREATEST

NUMBER that will
Required number = HCF of (x - y),
divided x, y and z
(y -z) and (z -x)
leaving
the
same
remainder in each case.
LCM of x, y and z = L
.....(step 1)
n-digit

9.

Find
the
GREATEST
NUMBER which when ) n-digit greatest
L
number (
divided by x, y and z.
remainder = .....(step 2)
(a) leaves no
R
remainder(i.e exactly
divisible)
(a) Required number = n-digit
greatest number - R
(b) leaves remainder K
in each case.
(b) Required number = [n-digit
greatest number - R] + K

Find
the
n-digit LCM of x, y and z = L
.....(step 1)
SMALLEST
NUMBER which when ) n-digit greatest
L
divided by x, y and z
number (
.....(step 2)
remainder = R
10. (a) leaves no
remainder (i.e exactly (a) Required number = n-digit
divisible)
smallest number + (L - R)
(b) leaves remainders (b) Required number = n-digit
K in each case.
smallest number + (L - R) + K
11.

143

Find the
HCF of

x a
m
, and
y b
n

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

12.

Find the
LCM of

x a
m
, and
y b
n

HCF of
fractions =

HCF of
numerators
LCF of
denominators

LCM of
fractions =

LCM of
numerators
HCM of
denominators

## Step1 Find the HCF of the given

numbers withoutdecimal.
13.

decimal numbers

## of Step2 Put the decimal point (in the

HCF of step 1) from right to left
according to the MAXIMUM
decimal places among the given
numbers.
Step1 Find the LCM of the given
numbers withoutdecimal.

14.

decimal numbers

## Step2 Put the decimal point (in the

LCM of step 1) from right to left at
the place equal to the MINIMUM
decimal places among the given
numbers.

Examples
Ex-1. Find the greatest number that will exactly divide 200 and

144

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

320.
Sol.

## Using the approach (3),

required number = HCF of 200 and 320 = 40.

Ex-2. Find the greatest number that will divide 148, 246 and 623
leaving remainders 4, 6 and 11 respectively.
Using the approach (4),
required number = HCF of (148 4).
(246 6) and (623 11) i.e. HCF of 144, 240, 612 is 12.
Sol.

Ex-3. Find the least number which when divided by 27, 35, 45
and 49 leaves the remainder 6 in each case.
Using the approach (7),
required number = (LCM of 27, 35, 45 and 49) + 6 i.e.
6615 + 6 = 6621.
Sol.

Ex-4. Find the least number which when divided by 36, 48 and 64
leaves the remainder 25, 37 and 53 respectively.
Sol.

## Using the approach (6),

we get,
(36 25) = (48 37) = (64 53) =

11
required number = (LCM of 36, 48 and 64) 11
= 576 11 = 565.
Ex-5. Find the greatest possible length of a scale that can be used
to measure exactly the following lengths of cloth; 3 m, 5 m, 10 cm
and 12 m 90 cm.
Sol. The lengths of cloth to be measured are, 300 cm, 510 cm
and 1290 cm.

## the required length of the scale is HCF of 300, 510

and 1290 i.e. 30

145

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= 30 cm.

## Ex-6. Find the smallest number which when

(a) increased by 8 (or added by 8)
(b) decreased by 8 (or subtracted by 8)
is exactly divisible by 15, 21, 30.
Sol. LCM of 15, 21, 30 = 210.
(a) the required number = LCM (the number added) i.e. 210 8
= 202
(b) the required number = LCM + (the number subtracted) i.e. 210
+ 8 = 218.

## Unit-11: playing with numbers

1. Which one of the following is not a prime number?
A.

31

B.

61

C.

71

D.

91

Explanation:
91 is divisible by 7. So, it is not a prime number.
2. (112 x 54) = ?
A.

146

67000

B.

70000

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

76500

D.

77200

Explanation:
10 4 112 x 104 1120000
(112 x 5 ) = 112 x
=
=
= 70000
2
24
16
4

## 3. It is being given that (232 + 1) is completely divisible by a whole number.

Which of the following numbers is completely divisible by this number?
A.

(216 + 1)

B.

(216 - 1)

C.

(7 x 223)

D.

(296 + 1)

Explanation:
Let 232 = x. Then, (232 + 1) = (x + 1).
Let (x + 1) be completely divisible by the natural number N. Then,
(296 + 1) = [(232)3 + 1] = (x3 + 1) = (x + 1)(x2 - x + 1), which is completely
divisible by N, since (x + 1) is divisible by N.
4. What least number must be added to 1056, so that the sum is completely
divisible by 23 ?
A.

147

B.

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

18

E.

None of these

D.

21

Explanation:
23) 1056 (45
92
--136
115
--21
--Required number = (23 - 21)
= 2.
5. 1397 x 1397 = ?
A.

1951609

B.

1981709

C.

18362619

D.

2031719

E.

None of these

Explanation:

148

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 1397 x 1397 = (1397)2

= (1400 - 3)2
= (1400)2 + (3)2 - (2 x 1400 x 3)
= 1960000 + 9 - 8400
= 1960009 - 8400
= 1951609.
6. How many of the following numbers are divisible by 132 ?
264, 396, 462, 792, 968, 2178, 5184, 6336
A.

B.

C.

D.

Explanation:
132 = 4 x 3 x 11
So, if the number divisible by all the three number 4, 3 and 11, then the
number is divisible by 132 also.
264

11,3,4 (/)

396

11,3,4 (/)

462

11,3 (X)

792

11,3,4 (/)

149

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

968

11,4 (X)

2178

11,3 (X)

5184

3,4 (X)

6336

11,3,4 (/)

Therefore the following numbers are divisible by 132 : 264, 396, 792 and
6336.
Required number of number = 4.
7. (935421 x 625) = ?
A.

575648125

B.

584638125

C.

584649125

D.

585628125

Explanation:
935421 x 625 = 935421 x 54 = 935421 x

10 4
2

## 935421 x 104 9354210000

=
=
24
16
= 584638125
8. The largest 4 digit number exactly divisible by 88 is:

150

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.

9944

B.

9768

C.

9988

D.

8888

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Largest 4-digit number = 9999
88) 9999 (113
88
---1199
88
---319
264
--55
--Required number = (9999 - 55)
= 9944.
9. Which of the following is a prime number ?
A.

33

B.

81

C.

93

D.

97

151

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
Clearly, 97 is a prime number.
10. What is the unit digit in {(6374)1793 x (625)317 x (341491)}?
A.

B.

C.

D.

Explanation:
Unit digit in (6374)1793 = Unit digit in (4)1793
= Unit digit in [(42)896 x 4]
= Unit digit in (6 x 4) = 4
Unit digit in (625)317 = Unit digit in (5)317 = 5
Unit digit in (341)491 = Unit digit in (1)491 = 1
Required digit = Unit digit in (4 x 5 x 1) = 0.
11. 5358 x 51 = ?
A.

273258

B.

273268

C.

273348

D.

273358

152

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Explanation:
5358 x 51 = 5358 x (50 + 1)
= 5358 x 50 + 5358 x 1
= 267900 + 5358
= 273258.
12. The sum of first five prime numbers is:
A.

11

B.

18

C.

26

D.

28

Explanation:
Required sum = (2 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 11) = 28.
Note: 1 is not a prime number.
Definition: A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number that has
exactly two distinct natural number divisors: 1 and itself.
13. The difference of two numbers is 1365. On dividing the larger number by
the smaller, we get 6 as quotient and the 15 as remainder. What is the

153

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

smaller number ?
A.

240

B.

270

C.

295

D.

360

Explanation:
Let the smaller number be x. Then larger number = (x + 1365).
x + 1365 = 6x + 15
5x = 1350
x = 270
Smaller number = 270.
14. (12)3 x 64 432 = ?
A.

5184

B.

5060

C.

5148

D.

5084

E.

None of these

Explanation:
(12)3 x 64 (12)3 x 64
2
2
2
Given Exp. =
=
2 = (12) x 6 = (72) = 5184
432
12 x 6

154

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15. 72519 x 9999 = ?
A.

725117481

B.

674217481

C.

685126481

D.

696217481

E.

None of these

Explanation:
72519 x 9999 = 72519 x (10000 - 1)
= 72519 x 10000 - 72519 x 1
= 725190000 - 72519
= 725117481.
16. If the number 517*324 is completely divisible by 3, then the smallest
whole number in the place of * will be:
A.

B.

C.

D.

None of these

Explanation:

155

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Sum of digits = (5 + 1 + 7 + x + 3 + 2 + 4) = (22 + x), which must be

divisible by 3.
x = 2.
17. The smallest 3 digit prime number is:
A.

101

B.

103

C.

109

D.

113

Explanation:
The smallest 3-digit number is 100, which is divisible by 2.
100 is not a prime number.
101 < 11 and 101 is not divisible by any of the prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7,
11.
101 is a prime number.
Hence 101 is the smallest 3-digit prime number.
18. Which one of the following numbers is exactly divisible by 11?
A.

235641

B.

245642

C.

315624

D.

415624

156

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
(4 + 5 + 2) - (1 + 6 + 3) = 1, not divisible by 11.
(2 + 6 + 4) - (4 + 5 + 2) = 1, not divisible by 11.
(4 + 6 + 1) - (2 + 5 + 3) = 1, not divisible by 11.
(4 + 6 + 1) - (2 + 5 + 4) = 0, So, 415624 is divisible by 11.
19. (?) - 19657 - 33994 = 9999
A.

63650

B.

53760

C.

59640

D.

61560

E.

None of these

Explanation:
19657
33994
----53651
-----

## Let x - 53651 = 9999

Then, x = 9999 + 53651 = 63650

20. The sum of first 45 natural numbers is:

157

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.

1035

B.

1280

C.

2070

D.

2140

Explanation:
Let Sn =(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 45). This is an A.P. in which a =1, d =1, n = 45.
Sn =

n
2

[2a + (n 1)d]

45 x [2 x 1 + (45 - 1) x
45 x
=
1]
2
2 46

= (45 x
23)

= 45 x (20 + 3)
= 45 x 20 + 45 x 3
= 900 + 135
= 1035.
Shorcut Method:
n(n + 1) 45(45 + 1)
=
= 1035.
2
2
21. Which of the following number is divisible by 24 ?
Sn =

A.

35718

B.

63810

C.

537804

D.

3125736

Explanation:

158

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 24 = 3 x8, where 3 and 8 co-prime.

Clearly, 35718 is not divisible by 8, as 718 is not divisible by 8.
Similarly, 63810 is not divisible by 8 and 537804 is not divisible by 8.
Cibsuder oart (d).
Sum of digits = (3 + 1 + 2 + 5 + 7 + 3 + 6) = 27, which is divisible by 3.
Also, 736 is divisible by 8.
3125736 is divisible by (3 x 8), i.e., 24.
22. 753 x 753 + 247 x 247 - 753 x 247
=?
753 x 753 x 753 + 247 x 247 x 247
A.

1
1000

B.

1
506

C.

253
500

D.

None of these

Explanation:
(a2 + b2 - ab)
1
1
1
Given Exp. =
=
=
=
(a3 + b3)
(a + b) (753 + 247) 1000
23. (?) + 3699 + 1985 - 2047 = 31111
A.

159

34748

B.

27474

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

30154

E.

None of these

D.

27574

Explanation:
x + 3699 + 1985 - 2047 = 31111
x + 3699 + 1985 = 31111 + 2047
x + 5684 = 33158
x = 33158 - 5684 = 27474.
24. If the number 481 * 673 is completely divisible by 9, then the smallest
whole number in place of * will be:
A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Sum of digits = (4 + 8 + 1 + x + 6 + 7 + 3) = (29 + x), which must be
divisible by 9.

160

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

x = 7.
25. The difference between the local value and the face value of 7 in the
numeral 32675149 is
A.

75142

B.

64851

C.

5149

D.

69993

E.

None of these

Explanation:
(Local value of 7) - (Face value of 7) = (70000 - 7) = 69993
26. The difference between a positive proper fraction and its reciprocal is
9/20. The fraction is:
A.

3
5

B.

3
10

C.

4
5

D.

4
3

Explanation:
Let the required fraction be x. Then 1 - x = 9

161

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

20

1-x
9
=
x
20
20 - 20x2 = 9x
20x2 + 9x - 20 = 0
20x2 + 25x - 16x - 20 = 0
5x(4x + 5) - 4(4x + 5) = 0
(4x + 5)(5x - 4) = 0
4
5
x=

## 27. On dividing a number by 56, we get 29 as remainder. On dividing the

same number by 8, what will be the remainder ?
A.

B.

C.

D.

Explanation:
No answer description available for this question. Let us discuss.
28. If n is a natural number, then (6n2 + 6n) is always divisible by:
A.

162

6 only

B.

6 and 12 both

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

12 only

by 18 only

D.

Explanation:
(6n2 + 6n) = 6n(n + 1), which is always divisible by 6 and 12 both,
since n(n + 1) is always even.
29. 107 x 107 + 93 x 93 = ?
A.

19578

B.

19418

C.

20098

D.

21908

E.

None of these

Explanation:
107 x 107 + 93 x
= (107)2 + (93)2
93
= (100 + 7)2 + (100 - 7)2
= 2 x [(100)2 + 72]
2(a2 + b2)]

## [Ref: (a + b)2 + (a - b)2 =

= 20098

163

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 30. What will be remainder when (6767 + 67) is divided by 68 ?

A.

B.

63

C.

66

D.

67

Explanation:
(xn + 1) will be divisible by (x + 1) only when n is odd.
(6767 + 1) will be divisible by (67 + 1)
(6767 + 1) + 66, when divided by 68 will give 66 as remainder.
31. On dividing a number by 5, we get 3 as remainder. What will the
remainder when the square of the this number is divided by 5 ?
A.

B.

C.

D.

Explanation:
Let the number be x and on dividing x by 5, we get k as quotient and 3 as
remainder.
x = 5k + 3
x2 = (5k + 3)2

164

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

= (25k2 + 30k + 9)
= 5(5k2 + 6k + 1) + 4
On dividing x2 by 5, we get 4 as remainder.
32. How many 3-digit numbers are completely divisible 6 ?
A.

149

B.

150

C.

151

D.

166

Explanation:
3-digit number divisible by 6 are: 102, 108, 114,... , 996
This is an A.P. in which a = 102, d = 6 and l = 996
Let the number of terms be n. Then tn = 996.
a + (n - 1)d = 996
102 + (n - 1) x 6 = 996
6 x (n - 1) = 894
(n - 1) = 149
n = 150
Number of terms = 150.

165

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

33. How many natural numbers are there between 23 and 100 which are
exactly divisible by 6 ?
A.

B.

11

C.

12

D.

13

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Required numbers are 24, 30, 36, 42, ..., 96
This is an A.P. in which a = 24, d = 6 and l = 96
Let the number of terms in it be n.
Then tn = 96

a + (n - 1)d = 96

24 + (n - 1) x 6 = 96
(n - 1) x 6 = 72
(n - 1) = 12
n = 13
Required number of numbers = 13.
34. How many of the following numbers are divisible by 3 but not by 9 ?
2133, 2343, 3474, 4131, 5286, 5340, 6336, 7347, 8115, 9276
A.

166

B.

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

D.

None of these

Explanation:
Marking (/) those which are are divisible by 3 by not by 9 and the others
by (X), by taking the sum of digits, we get:s
2133

9 (X)

2343

12 (/)

3474

18 (X)

4131

9 (X)

5286

21 (/)

5340

12 (/)

6336

18 (X)

7347

21 (/)

8115

15 (/)

9276

24 (/)

## Required number of numbers = 6.

35. (963 + 476)2 + (963 - 476)2
=?
(963 x 963 + 476 x 476)
A.

167

1449

B.

497

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

E.

None of these

D.

Explanation:
(a + b)2 + (a - b)2 2(a2 + b2) = 2
Given Exp. =
= 2
(a2 + b2)
(a + b2)
36. How many 3 digit numbers are divisible by 6 in all ?
A.

149

B.

150

C.

151

D.

166

Explanation:
Required numbers are 102, 108, 114, ... , 996
This is an A.P. in which a = 102, d = 6 and l = 996
Let the number of terms be n. Then,
a + (n - 1)d = 996
102 + (n - 1) x 6 = 996
6 x (n - 1) = 894

168

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

(n - 1) = 149
n = 150.
37. A 3-digit number 4a3 is added to another 3-digit number 984 to give a 4digit number 13b7, which is divisible by 11. Then, (a + b) = ?
A.

10

B.

11

C.

12

D.

15

Explanation:
4a3 |
9 8 4 } ==> a + 8 = b ==> b - a = 8
13 b 7 |
Also, 13 b7 is divisible by 11

(7 + 3) - (b + 1) = (9 - b)

(9 - b) = 0
b=9
(b = 9 and a = 1)

(a + b) = 10.

38. 8597 - ? = 7429 - 4358
A.

5426

B.

5706

C.

5526

D.

5476

169

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

E.

None of these

Explanation:
7429
Let 8597 - x = 3071
-4358
Then, x = 8597 - 3071
---= 5526
3071
39. The smallest prime number is:
A.

B.

C.

D.

Explanation:
The smallest prime number is 2.
40. (12345679 x 72) = ?
A.

88888888

B.

888888888

C.

898989898

D.

9999999998

170

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
12345679 x 72 = 12345679 x (70 +2)
= 12345679 x 70 + 12345679 x 2
= 864197530 + 24691358
= 888888888
41. On dividing a number by 357, we get 39 as remainder. On dividing the
same number 17, what will be the remainder ?
A.

B.

C.

D.

11

Explanation:
Let x be the number and y be the quotient. Then,
x = 357 x y + 39
= (17 x 21 x y) + (17 x 2) + 5
= 17 x (21y + 2) + 5)
Required remainder = 5.
42. If the product 4864 x 9 P 2 is divisible by 12, then the value of P is:

171

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Clearly, 4864 is divisible by 4.
So, 9P2 must be divisible by 3. So, (9 + P + 2) must be divisible by 3.
P = 1.
43. Which one of the following is the common factor of (4743 + 4343) and
(4747 + 4347) ?
A.

(47 - 43)

B.

(47 + 43)

C.

(4743 + 4343)

D.

None of these

Explanation:
When n is odd, (xn + an) is always divisible by (x + a).
Each one of (4743 + 4343) and (4747 + 4347) is divisible by (47 + 43).

172

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## 44. -84 x 29 + 365 = ?

A.

2436

B.

2801

C.

-2801

D.

-2071

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Given Exp. = -84 x (30 - 1) + 365
= -(84 x 30) + 84 + 365
= -2520 + 449
= -2071
45. A number when divided by 296 leaves 75 as remainder. When the same
number is divided by 37, the remainder will be:
A.

B.

C.

D.

11

Explanation:
Let x = 296q + 75

173

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

= (37 x 8q + 37 x 2) + 1
= 37 (8q + 2) + 1
Thus, when the number is divided by 37, the remainder is 1.
46. In dividing a number by 585, a student employed the method of short
division. He divided the number successively by 5, 9 and 13 (factors 585)
and got the remainders 4, 8, 12 respectively. If he had divided the number
by 585, the remainder would have been
A.

24

B.

144

C.

292

D.

584

Explanation:
5|x
z = 13 x 1 + 12 = 25
-------------9|y -4
y = 9 x z + 8 = 9 x 25 + 8 = 233
-------------13| z - 8
x = 5 x y + 4 = 5 x 233 + 4 = 1169
-------------| 1 -12
585) 1169 (1
585
--584
--Therefore, on dividing the number by 585, remainder = 584.

174

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

47. In a division sum, the divisor is 10 times the quotient and 5 times the
remainder. If the remainder is 46, what is the dividend ?
A.

4236

B.

4306

C.

4336

D.

5336

E.

None of these

Explanation:
Divisor = (5 x 46) = 230
10 x Quotient = 230

230
= 23
10

## Dividend = (Divisor x Quotient) + Remainder

= (230 x 23) + 46
= 5290 + 46
= 5336.
48. 4500 x ? = 3375
A.

2
5

B.

3
4

C.

D.

175

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

4
E.

None of these

Explanation:
337575 3
4500 x x = 3375
x=
=
4500100 4
49. What smallest number should be added to 4456 so that the sum is
completely divisible by 6 ?
A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

None of these

Explanation:
6) 4456 (742
42
--25
24
Therefore, Required number = (6 - 4) = 2.
--16
12
---

176

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

4
50. What least number must be subtracted from 13601, so that the remainder
is divisible by 87 ?
A.

23

B.

31

C.

29

D.

37

E.

49

Explanation:
87) 13601 (156
87
---490
435
---551
522
--29
--Therefore, the required number = 29.
51. 476 ** 0 is divisible by both 3 and 11. The non-zero digits in the
hundred's and ten's places are respectively:
A.

177

7 and 4

B.

7 and 5

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

8 and 5

D.

None of these

Explanation:
Let the given number be 476 xy 0.
Then (4 + 7 + 6 + x + y + 0) = (17 + x + y) must be divisible by 3.
And, (0 + x + 7) - (y + 6 + 4) = (x - y -3) must be either 0 or 11.
x-y-3=0

y=x-3

## (17 + x + y) = (17 + x + x - 3) = (2x + 14)

x= 2 or x = 8.
x = 8 and y = 5.
52. If the number 97215 * 6 is completely divisible by 11, then the smallest
whole number in place of * will be:
A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

None of these

Explanation:

178

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Given number = 97215x6

(6 + 5 + 2 + 9) - (x + 1 + 7) = (14 - x), which must be divisible by 11.
x=3
53. (112 + 122 + 132 + ... + 202) = ?
A.

385

B.

2485

C.

2870

D.

3255

Explanation:
(112 + 122 + 132 + ... + 202) = (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + 202) - (12 + 22 + 32 + ...
+ 102)
Ref: (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2) =

1
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6

20 x 21 x 41 10 x 11 x 21
6
6

= (2870 - 385)
= 2485.
54. If the number 5 * 2 is divisible by 6, then * = ?
A.

179

B.

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

C.

D.

Explanation:
6 = 3 x 2. Clearly, 5 * 2 is divisible by 2. Replace * by x.
Then, (5 + x + 2) must be divisible by 3. So, x = 2.
55. Which of the following numbers will completely divide (4915 - 1) ?
A.

B.

14

C.

46

D.

50

Explanation:
(xn - 1) will be divisibly by (x + 1) only when n is even.
(4915 - 1) = {(72)15 - 1} = (730 - 1), which is divisible by (7 +1), i.e., 8.
56.

9+
A.

180

3
2
1
+7+
- 9+
=?
4
17
15
7+

719
1020

B.

9+

817
1020

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

719
1020

C.

9+

E.

None of these

D.

7+

817
1020

Explanation:
Given sum = 9 +

3
2
1
+7+
- 9+
4
17
15

= (9 + 7 - 9) +

3
2
1
+
4 17 15

=7+

765 + 120 - 68
1020

=7+

817
1020

57.

1-

1
2
3
+ 1+ 1+ ... up to n terms = ?
n
n
n

A.

1
n
2

B.

1
(n - 1)
2

C.

1
n(n - 1)
2

D.

None of these

181

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
Given sum = (1 + 1 + 1 + ... to n terms) -

=n-

n 1
+1
2 n

=n-

n+1
2

1 2 3
+ + + ... to n terms
n n n

## [ Ref: nth terms = (n/n) = 1]

1
(n - 1)
2

58. On dividing 2272 as well as 875 by 3-digit number N, we get the same
remainder. The sum of the digits of N is:
A.

10

B.

11

C.

12

D.

13

Explanation:
Clearly, (2272 - 875) = 1397, is exactly divisible by N.
Now, 1397 = 11 x 127
The required 3-digit number is 127, the sum of whose digits is 10.
59. A boy multiplied 987 by a certain number and obtained 559981 as his

182

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

answer. If in the answer both 9 are wrong and the other digits are correct,
then the correct answer would be:
A.

553681

B.

555181

C.

555681

D.

556581

Explanation:
987 = 3 x 7 x 47
So, the required number must be divisible by each one of 3, 7, 47
553681

555181

## 555681 is divisible by 3, 7, 47.

60. How many prime numbers are less than 50 ?
A.

16

B.

15

C.

14

D.

18

Explanation:
Prime numbers less than 50 are:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47

183

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Their number is 15

## Unit-12: data handling statistics

Expenditures of a Company (in Lakh Rupees) per Annum Over the given
Years.
Item of Expenditure
Year

Salary

Fuel and
Transport

Bonus

Interest on
Loans

Taxes

1998

288

98

3.00

23.4

83

1999

342

112

2.52

32.5

108

2000

324

101

3.84

41.6

74

2001

336

133

3.68

36.4

88

2002 420
142
3.96
49.4
98
1. What is the average amount of interest per year which the company had to
pay during this period?
A.

B.

C.

D.

## Rs. 36.66 lakhs

Explanation:
Average amount of interest paid by the Company during the given period
= Rs.

184

## 23.4 + 32.5 + 41.6 + 36.4 + 49.4

lakhs
5

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

= Rs.

183.3
lakhs
5

## = Rs. 36.66 lakhs.

2. The total amount of bonus paid by the company during the given period is
approximately what percent of the total amount of salary paid during this
period?
A.

0.1%

B.

0.5%

C.

1%

D.

1.25%

Explanation:
Required percentage =

## (3.00 + 2.52 + 3.84 + 3.68 + 3.96)

x 100 %
(288 + 342 + 324 + 336 + 420)
17
x 100 %
1710
1%.

3. Total expenditure on all these items in 1998 was approximately what
percent of the total expenditure in 2002?
A.

62%

B.

66%

C.

69%

D.

71%

185

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
(288 + 98 + 3.00 + 23.4 + 83)
x 100 %
(420 + 142 + 3.96 + 49.4 + 98)

Required percentage =

495.4
x 100 %
713.36

69.45%.
4. The total expenditure of the company over these items during the year
2000 is?
A.

B.

C.

D.

## Rs. 478.87 lakhs

Explanation:
Total expenditure of the Company during 2000
= Rs. (324 + 101 + 3.84 + 41.6 + 74) lakhs
= Rs. 544.44 lakhs.
5. The ratio between the total expenditure on Taxes for all the years and the
total expenditure on Fuel and Transport for all the years respectively is

186

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

approximately?
A.

4:7

B.

10:13

C.

15:18

D.

5:8

Explanation:
Required ratio =

## (83 + 108 + 74 + 88 + 98)

(98 + 112 + 101 + 133 + 142)
451
586

1
1.3

10
.
13

## Number of Candidates Appeared and Qualified in a Competitive

Examination from Different States Over the Years.
Year
State

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

App. Qual. App. Qual. App. Qual. App. Qual. App. Qual.
M

5200

720 8500

980 7400

850

6800

775

9500 1125

7500

920

9200

980

8800 1020

6400

890

8100

980

## 9700 1200 8950

187

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

995

R 7800 870 7600 940 9800 1350 7600 945 7990 885
1. Total number of candidates qualified from all the states together in 1997 is
approximately what percentage of the total number of candidates qualified
from all the states together in 1998?
A.

72%

B.

77%

C.

80%

D.

83%

Explanation:
Required percentage =

## (720 + 840 + 780 + 950 + 870)

x 100 %
(980 + 1050 + 1020 + 1240 + 940)
4160
x 100 %
5230

= 79.54%

80%.

2. What is the average candidates who appeared from State Q during the
given years?
A.

8700

B.

8760

C.

8990

D.

8920

Explanation:

188

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Required average =

## 8100 + 9500 + 8700 + 9700 + 8950

5
44950
5

= 8990.
3. In which of the given years the number of candidates appeared from State
P has maximum percentage of qualified candidates?
A.

1997

B.

1998

C.

1999

D.

2001

Explanation:
The percentages of candidates qualified to candidates appeared from State
P during different years are:
For 1997
For 1998
For 1999
For 2000
For 2001

189

780
6400
1020
8800
890
7800
1010
8750
1250
9750

x 100 % = 12.19%.
x 100 % = 11.59%.
x 100 % = 11.41%.
x 100 % = 11.54%.
x 100 % = 12.82%.

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Maximum percentage is for the year 2001.

4. What is the percentage of candidates qualified from State N for all the
years together, over the candidates appeared from State N during all the
years together?
A.

12.36%

B.

12.16%

C.

11.47%

D.

11.15%

Explanation:
Required percentage =

## (840 + 1050 + 920 + 980 + 1020)

x 100 %
(7500 + 9200 + 8450 + 9200 + 8800)
4810
x 100 %
43150

= 11.15%
5. The percentage of total number of qualified candidates to the total number
of appeared candidates among all the five states in 1999 is?
A.

11.49%

B.

11.84%

C.

12.21%

D.

12.57%

190

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
Required percentage =

## (850 + 920 + 890 + 980 + 1350)

x 100 %
(7400 + 8450 + 7800 + 8700 + 9800)
4990
x 100 %
42150

= 11.84%.
Number of Candidates Appeared and Qualified in a Competitive
Examination from Different States Over the Years.
Year
State

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

App. Qual. App. Qual. App. Qual. App. Qual. App. Qual.
M

5200

720 8500

980 7400

850

6800

775

9500 1125

7500

920

9200

980

8800 1020

6400

890

8100

980

## 9700 1200 8950

995

R 7800 870 7600 940 9800 1350 7600 945 7990 885
6. Combining the states P and Q together in 1998, what is the percentage of
the candidates qualified to that of the candidate appeared?
A.

10.87%

B.

11.49%

C.

12.35%

D.

12.54%

191

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Explanation:
Required percentage =

(1020 + 1240)
x 100 %
(8800 + 9500)
2260
x 100 %
18300

= 12.35%.
1. What are the average marks obtained by all the seven students in Physics?
(rounded off to two digit after decimal)
A.

77.26

B.

89.14

C.

91.37

D.

96.11

Explanation:
Average marks obtained in Physics by all the seven students
=

1
x [ (90% of 120) + (80% of 120) + (70% of 120)
7
+ (80% of 120) + (85% of 120) + (65% of 120) + (50% of 120)

]
=

1
x [ (90 + 80 + 70 + 80 + 85 + 65 + 50)% of 120 ]
7

= 1 x [ 520% of 120 ]

192

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

7
=

624
7

= 89.14.
2. The number of students who obtained 60% and above marks in all
subjects is?
A.

B.

C.

D.

None

Explanation:
From the table it is clear that Sajal and Rohit have 60% or more marks in
each of the six subjects.
3. What was the aggregate of marks obtained by Sajal in all the six subjects?
A.

409

B.

419

C.

429

D.

449

Explanation:

193

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

## Aggregate marks obtained by Sajal

= [ (90% of 150) + (60% of 130) + (70% of 120)
+ (70% of 100) + (90% of 60) + (70% of 40) ]
= [ 135 + 78 + 84 + 70 + 54 + 28 ]
= 449.
4. In which subject is the overall percentage the best?
A.

Maths

B.

Chemistry

C.

Physics

D.

History

Explanation:
We shall find the overall percentage (for all the seven students) with
respect to each subject.
The overall percentage for any subject is equal to the average of
percentages obtained by all the seven students since the maximum marks
for any subject is the same for all the students.
Therefore, overall percentage for:
(i) Maths

194

1
x (90 + 100 + 90 + 80 + 80 + 70 + 65) %
7

1
x (575) %
7

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

= 82.14%.
(ii) Chemistry

1
x (50 + 80 + 60 + 65 + 65 + 75 + 35) %
7

1
x (430) %
7

= 61.43%.
(iii) Physics

1
x (90 + 80 + 70 + 80 + 85 + 65 + 50) %
7

1
x (520) %
7

= 74.29%.
(iv) Geography

1
x (60 + 40 + 70 + 80 + 95 + 85 + 77) %
7

1
x (507) %
7

= 72.43%.
(v) History

1
x (70 + 80 + 90 + 60 + 50 + 40 + 80) %
7

1
x (470) %
7

= 67.14%.
(vi) Comp. Science =

195

1
x (80 + 70 + 70 + 60 + 90 + 60 + 80) %
7

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

1
x (510) %
7

= 72.86%.
Clearly, this percentage is highest for Maths.
5. What is the overall percentage of Tarun?
A.

52.5%

B.

55%

C.

60%

D.

63%

Explanation:
Aggregate marks obtained by Tarun
= [ (65% of 150) + (35% of 130) + (50% of 120)
+ ((77% of 100) + (80% of 60) + (80% of 40) ]
= [ 97.5 + 45.5 + 60 + 77 + 48 + 32 ]
= 360.
The maximum marks (of all the six subjects)
= (150 + 130 + 120 + 100 + 60 + 40)
= 600.
Overall percentage of Tarun =

196

360
x 100 % = 60%.
600

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

197

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std

Thanking
you

198

Bharathidasanar Matric Higher Secondary School, Arakkonam PC MATHS for 8th std