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EvidenceBasedNursingResearchProjectPaper

Group3
RachelSullivan,KatieSylvia,JohnEstoesta,EmilyDowling,CarleyTaylor,AnnaChang

I.
TableofEvidence

II.
Synthesis

Introduction
Overthepastcentury,theongoingdebateandcontroversyonthebenefitsofcowsmilk,
whetherwholeorskimmilkhasbeenconstantlydebated.Itusedtobethoughtthatthedaily
consumptionofmilkwasabsolutelynecessarythroughoutchildhoodandevenadolescence.Then
itbecameanissuethatmanyweregainingtoomuchweightandtheissueofchildhoodobesity
becameprevalent.Milkhasbeensaidtohavemanypositivebenefitsforchildrenandeven
adults.Itishighincalcium,fats,andothernutrientsthatcanprovetobebeneficialinthe
developmentofstrongbones,andevenbraindevelopment.Althoughresearchisstillongoingon
thesubject,mostresearcherscanagreethatitisimportanttoconsumemilkasachild.
Inthepediatricpopulation,ithasbeenshownthatfatintakehasanimportantrolein
braindevelopment.Understandingthedifferentsourcesandroutesinwhichfatscanbe
introducedintothedietcanhelpoptimizegrowth.Also,determiningtheeffectsoffatsinthe
pediatricpopulationatcertainagescanencouragefamiliestoprovidesufficientnutritionto
fosteradequatebrainhealththatcatertospecificagesandtheirneeds.Supplementationofthese
fattyacidsduringpregnancyandtheintroductionofatleast2%milkintothepediatricdiethas
beenanimportantaspectofresearchandstudies.Manystudieshavebeendoneonthissubject
withresultsthatshouldbeofgreatinterestandimportancetoparentsoftoddlers.

StudyCommonalities
Withinthisresearch,12studieshavebeenselectedandexaminedinordertoprovide
insightintheeffectsoffatintakeonbraindevelopmentinthepediatricpopulation.Accordingto
Birch(2000)andSteer(2013),thesupplementationoffattyacidsreappositiveresultsandmay
preventlowerlevelsofcognitivedevelopmentwhenimplementedintothedietofnewborns.
AnotherclaimssimilarresultsbyexpressingthebenefitsofDHA,anomega3fattyacid,on
areasofcognitionorbehaviors(Kuratko,2013).Thesestudieshelpsupporttheuseofdietary
fatsinthepediatricpopulationtofosterproperneurocognitivehealthandcanencourageparents
orguardianstoimplementfatsintotheirchildsdiet.Althoughthesearticlesfocusontheimpact
offatsintopediatricdiets,otherarticlesfocusonthetypeofdairyproductsasasourceofdietary
fat.Withtheriseinobesityamongtoddlersandchildren,increasingfatintakecancausein
unnecessaryandpossiblyunhealthyweightgain.Studiesshowthatreducingfatintakefrom
wholemilkto2%ortoskimmilkcanpreventunhealthyweightgainwhilestillsupportcognitive
developmentandgrowthinchildren(Wosje,2010Scharf,2013Fox,2010)Allthreearticles
expresstheneedtoprovideadequatefatsintothediettomaintainbraindevelopmentwhile
addressingtheconcernforahealthyweightrangeinchildren.Understandingthepossible
ramificationsofwholemilkonchildrencanhelppreventincreasingnumbersofchildobesityto
encouragehealthyfatsupplementationforbraindevelopmentandahealthyweightinthe
pediatricpopulation.
StudyDifferences
Twoarticles(Ou,2015Kuratko,2013)defendthepositiveimpactfatscontributetothe
developingbrain,whileotherarticlesexpressthatsupplementationdoesnotaffectcognition.

Agostoni(2012)explainsthatdietaryfatsdonotaffectchildrennegativelyandposeslittleharm.
SimilarresultsareevidentinDelgadoNogueras(2016)studyexclaimingthatsupplementation
didnotprovetopassbothnegativeresultsorpositiveresultsindicatingthatfatshadlittleimpact
onbraindevelopment.
Oneofthearticlesthatshowsapositivecorrelationbetweenfattyacidsandbrain
development(Kuratko,2013)ismorefocusedonsupplementationduringpregnancyandhow
thataffectsbehaviorandcognitioninthepediatricpopulation.SupplementationofDHA
revealedbenefitsinoverhalfofthestudiesdone.Theotherarticle(Ou,2015)dealsmorewith
comparingwhetherthechildwasfedwithbreastmilkorcowsmilkformuladuringthefirstyear
oflifeandhowitaffectsthedevelopmentofgreymatterintheneuronsofthebrain.Thisyielded
resultsthatshowednoeffectonthevolumeofgreymatterhowever,whenstudiedinthechildat
8yearsofage,itshowedthatthedevelopmentandfunctionofgreymatterwasgreaterin
childrenthatweregivenbreastmilkcomparedtocowsmilkformula.Thisarticlehighlights
anotherdifferencebetweenmanyofthearticles:agethatchildrenwerestudied.Somestudies
weredonestillduringpregnancyandtheresultswerenotstudieduntilthechildwasbornorhad
grownafewyears.Othersweredonebyusingacertainmethodoffeedinginanewbornor
toddlerandfinaldataaresultswerenotgathereduntilthechildwastestedateightyearsofage.
Oneofthearticlesincludedinourresearch(Steer,2013)wasverymuchsointhemiddle
ofallthedata,withresultsthatremainedneutral.Inthisstudy,reducedlevelsoffattyacids
showedreducedstandardsofcognitivedevelopmentintheinfant,butdidnotshowasignificant
effectontheIQwhentestedatageeight.Althoughthescoreswereslightlyelevatedinthese

children,theresultswerenotfoundtobedrasticenoughtoaffecttheresearchbeingfavoredin
eitherdirection.
Wealsofoundarticlesthatcouldshowhowbroadofatopicfatintake,especiallyfrom
dairyproducts,hasproventobeinpediatrics.Wefoundinformationthatwasnotonlyconcerned
withhowfatintakecanaffectdevelopment,buthowabalanceisneededwhenconsideringwhat
amountistoomuchforachild.Wosje(2010)providedalternativestowholemilkbysuggesting
that2%milkcanbesubstitutedinachildsdietinordertoreduceoverallfatintakewithout
compromisinggrowthanddevelopment.
Youcanseeintheprevioustable,thatthereweremanydifferentpopulationsstudied,
includinginfants,children,adolescents,andmotherchildpairs.Also,somearticleswere
literaturereviewthatstudiedmanydifferentarticlesastheirresearch.Youcanseethatmany
differenttechniquesorinstrumentswereusedtomeasuredataaswell,includingscales,such
astheWechslerIntelligenceScaleforChildren(Steer,2013)andTheBayleyScalesofInfant
Development(Baym,2014)orphysicaltests,suchasbloodFAsor3Dimaging.
InconsistenciesorGapsAmongStudy

Whenconductingourresearch,wehadadifficulttimefindingstudiesthatconsistently
observedthesamepopulation.Weoriginallyintendedtofocusspecificallyonthetoddler
population,whichweweredefiningaschildrenaged15.Afterbeginningourresearch,we
realizedthatthelimitedamountofstudiesthathavebeenperformedonourtopicwerenot
lookingatthisagegroupfrequentlyenoughtodevelopthegeneralizationsthatweneeded.We
decidedtochangeourpopulationtothepediatricpopulationinordertoincludemoredataand
incorporatethemostrecentevidence.Therewerealsoalotofinconsistencieswhenitcameto

theaspectofdevelopmentthatthestudieswerelookingat.Wewantedtostudyhowdifferentfat
intakewouldimpactbraindevelopment.Therewerenotmanyarticlesthatfocusedjustonbrain
developmenttherewerealotthatreferencedschoolperformanceandmemorybutnotsolely
development.Thisleadsustobelievethatalthoughthisisahottopicrightnow,thereare
significantgapsandvariationsinthestudiesthatneedtobestudiedfurthertohelpimprove
validityoftheresultsandmakespecificrecommendations.
LimitationsoftheStudyandThreatstoValidity
Therearemanyuncontrollablefactorsthatcouldhaveaffectedthesestudies.Duetothe
subjectsofourstudies,itisdifficulttosingleoutonefactorthatcouldaffectbraingrowthand
development,andIQ.Thereareavarietyoffactorsthatcouldaffectdevelopmentbesides
nutritionsuchasnurture,experiences,andgenetics.Mostofthestudiesrecognizethesefactors
aslimitationstotheirresearchandreaffirmthevalidityoftheirinstrumentsassuccessfortheir
results.Severalfactors,however,serveasthreatstothevalidityofthestudy.Forexample,there
isntaconstantinstrumentthatisusedinthetestingprocess.Theseinstrumentsvariedfrom
supplementrichformulastowholemilkto2%milk.Aconsistencyfromtheinstrumentsutilized
inthestudyisimportanttopreventalternativeandlessthandesirableresultsfromsurfacingthat
ultimatelydoesnotcontributetothevalidityofthestudyitself.
III.

ImplicationsandRecommendationsforPractice
Educatehealthcarepersonnelandparents
Advocateforfatintakeasaninfantandtoswitchtolowornonfatmilkafterage5
Encouragetheintakeofhealthyfatsasatoddler

Encourageandallowchildrentobeinvolvedintheirfoodchoicessotheycanbe
educatedanddeterminetheirlikesanddislikes.
Encourageparentstoreadtotheirchildrenonadailybasistohelpfosterbraingrowth.
RecommendOmega3supplementsforthemotherduringpregnancytoenhancebrain
development.
Researchtheintroductionofotherfatsandhowthosedifferintheinfluenceofbrain
developmentincomparisontocowsmilk.
Provideotherwaystoprovidethisproperintakeforthosewhocannotintakeordislike
dairyproducts.
Promotethecontinuationofbreastfeedingforaslongasthemotherdesires
IV.
References

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