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Electronic Circuit

Chapter 0: Introduction and Review


Vinh Pham-Xuan

Ho Chi Minh city University of Technology


Department of Telecommunications

1. Course overview
-

Chapter 0: introduction and review


Chapter 1: Diode
Chapter 2: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)
Chapter 3: Field Effect Transistor (FET)
Chapter 4: Multistage amplifiers
Chapter 5: Audio frequency linear power amp
Chapter 6: Operational amplifier (Op-Amp)

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1. Course overview
- Assessement
-

Homework:
Midterm test:
Project:
Final exam:

20%
20%
10%
50%

- Reference
- Sedra/Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 6th edition, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- D. Neamen, Microelectronics Circuit Analysis and Design, 4th edition, McGraw Hill.
- T. F. Bogart, Electronic Device and Circuits, 6th edition, Pearson, 2004.

- Contact
- Email:
- Room:

Electronic Circuit

vinhpx@hcmut.edu.vn
114B3

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2. Kirchhoffs current law


Kirchhoffs current law can be stated in words as the sum of all currents
flowing into a node is zero. Or conversely, the sum of all current leaving a
node must be zero.

= 0
=1

Example 1:
If 1 = 900, 2 = 600, and 3 = 500. What is 4 ?

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2. Conventional current
An electric current is a flow of electric charges (electrons, holes, etc.)
- A flow of positive charges move from positive to negative.
- A flow of negative charges move from negative to positive.
A flow of positive charges gives the same electric current, and has the
same effect in a circuit, as an equal flow of negative charges in the
opposite direction.
The direction of conventional current is arbitrarily defined as the
same direction as positive charges flow.
The value of conventional current is the sum of the value of the
current component caused by positive charges and those caused by
negative charges.

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3. Kirchhoffs voltage law


Kirchhoffs voltage law can be stated that the sum of voltages around a
closed loop of an electric circuit must equal zero.
If a person walks around the mountain and returns to his/her original
starting point, by any pathway and if all upward vertical distances are
considered as positive and all downward vertical distance are considered
as negative, the sume of all the vertical motion over the trip equals zero.

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3. Kirchhoffs voltage law


Example 2:
Determine nodal voltages and branch currents in the following circuit:

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4. Nodal analysis
In simple circuits: the rules for combining resistors in series and parallel
are often sufficient for circuit analysis.
In complicated circuits: we need more powerful techniques and the
circuit can only be analyzed by solving sets of simultaneous equations
based on Kirchhoffs current or voltage law (KCL or KVL)

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4. Nodal analysis

Matrix form:

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4. Nodal analysis

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Va= 21.85V
Vb= 22.17V
Vc= 25.69V

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5. Thevenin equivalent circuit


Thevenins theorem states that any combination of voltage sources,
current sources and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent
to a single voltage source V and a single series resistor R
An ideal voltage source is turn off by replacing it with a short-circuit.
An ideal current source is turn off by replacing it with an open-circuit.

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6. Norton equivalent circuit


Thevenin equivalent circuit based on voltage source can be converted to a
Norton equivalent circuit based on current sources. Both circuit behave
identically in an electrical sense.

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7. Exercises
Exercise 1: consider the following measurements of voltage versus current
for a particular voltage source.
Output Voltage (V)

Current (mA)

12

11

25

75

a. Plot the VI characteristic


b. Determine the Thevenin equivalent model for this source.
c. Determine the Norton equivalent model for this source.

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7. Exercises
Exercise 2: two expensive devices are to be connected shown in following
figure. For correct operation, the voltage across device X and Y should be
4V and 2V, respectively. In addition to this, the operating currents of X and
Y are 1.5mA and 1mA, respectively. As a circuit designer, you are required
to determine the values of 1 and 2 that will ensure correct operation.

1 = 2, 2 = 4
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7. Exercises
Exercise 3: use nodal analysis to determine the nodal voltages in the circuit
in following figure and hence determine the branch current 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 .

1 = 7,41, 2 = 4,05
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7. Exercises
Exercise 4: find the Thevenin equivalent for the circuit of following figure

= 24, = 12
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7. Exercises
Exercise 5: use nodal analysis to determine the voltages 1 and 2 in figure

1 = 7,38 , 2 = 5,85
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7. Exercises
Exercise 6: use Thevenins theorem to find the current in the circuit of
following figure as a function of R

6,6
=
1,2 +
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