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First Edition

First Edition Published by : Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication
First Edition Published by : Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication
Published by : Suruhanjaya
Published by :
Suruhanjaya

Perkhidmatan

Air Negara (SPAN)

Published by : Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication Malaysia Volume
Ministry of Energy, Water
Ministry of
Energy, Water

and Communication

Air Negara (SPAN) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication Malaysia Volume III Sewer Networks and Pump

Malaysia

Volume III
Volume III
Sewer Networks and Pump Stations
Sewer Networks
and Pump Stations
Air Negara (SPAN) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication Malaysia Volume III Sewer Networks and Pump

Foreword by the CEO of SPAN

M unicipal wastewater treatment technology in Malaysia has evolved through several eras. In the past, only basic facilities were used, e.g. overhang latrines, pit privy, bucket systems and pour flush systems. Some improvement were observed when more modern system like septic tank and Imhoff tank systems were introduced into the country some 40 years ago. The municipal

wastewater treatment in Malaysia sees a significant improvement in the last three decades since the introduction of new technologies in the form of oxidation ponds, aerated lagoons, activated sludge system, package systems and a variety of mechanical plants into the country. However, sewage still remains as one of the major pollutants of our inland waterways. In the 1900s, the emergent of new treatment technologies were mainly driven by the basic need to treat the sewage so as to control waterborne diseases. Today, the environmental regulations are becoming stringent with the increasing awareness toward sustainable environmental management. Allowable effluent discharge limits are becoming lower globally. Public are also more educated and more alert on the needs to preserve the environment. Hence the evolution of municipal wastewater treatment technologies now are even more revolutionary and more rapid in order to meet the stricter regulators’ requirements and to compete in the increasing competitive market.

While the nation moves towards achieving the status of a developed country, sustainability of our environment, in particularly the Malaysian rivers and streams must be strengthened. With this vision in mind, the Sewerage Services Department published its first edition of the guidelines for sewerage industry titled “Design and

Installation of Sewerage Systems” in January 1995.

The main purpose of these guidelines is to assist the

developer and his designer to plan and design systems acceptable to the regulatory authorities which, in

turn speeds up the approval processes. The Guidelines has clearly guided the nation sewerage industry towards achieving an improved sewerage system in the country. Subsequently, the Department further improvised the Guidelines in its second edition titled “Guidelines for Developers” which comprise five volumes covering specific topics.

As a continuation to the efforts by the Sewerage Services Department, the National Water Services Commission undertake to revise and improvement the Guidelines for Developers. The product of the revision is “Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines” which also comprise five volumes. These new revisions incorporated valuable knowledge gained by various stakeholders over a decade since the implementation of the first Guidelines for Developers and upkeep with the aim towards sustainable environmental management.

Volume 1

-

Sewerage Policy for New Developments

Volume 2

-

Sewerage Works Procedures

Volume 3

-

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 4

-

Sewage Treatment Plants

Volume 5

-

Septic Tanks

Volume 3 is specifically developed to provide a clear understanding of policies of the SPAN for the provision, refurbishment or upgrading of sewer networks and pumps stations. This volume covers planning, design, material selection, construction, installation and sewer testing requirements. The implementation of these guidelines since 90’s has undoubtedly achieved some levels of consistency in the design and construction of sewerage network nationwide. Finished sewerage networks quality has also been elevated while the operation and maintenance of the plants have improved significantly in terms of safety, health, operability and robustness. Whilst the adherence to these guidelines is necessary, engineering discretion is also required, especially for large sewers and pumping station with special situations. It is hoped that the publication of the third edition of this Volume further improve the municipal wastewater treatment facilities in this country.

Dato’ Teo Yen Hua Chief Executive Officer SPAN

© Copyright National Water Services Commission, Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications, 2008

All rights reserved.

This publication is protected by copyright.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system, or reduced to any electronic medium without the written authority of the Commissioner, National Water Services Commission, Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications,.

National Water Services Commission and Registered Certifying Agencies employees are permitted to copy and use the information in this publication, for internal purposes only.

Changes may be made periodically to the information herein.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Section 1

Introduction

 

1.1 Purpose of This Volume

1

1.2 Who Should Use This Volume

1

1.3 Related Reference Material

1

Section 2

Planning, Material and Design

2.1

Sewers

9

2.1.1

Pipe Material Selection Factors

9

2.1.2

Pipe Materials and Fittings

10

2.1.3

Pipe Selections

11

2.1.4

Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe

 

Material

11

 

2.1.5

Vitrified Clay Pipe

13

2.1.6

Reinforced Concrete Pipe

14

2.1.7

Ductile Iron Pipe

15

2.1.8

Steel Pipe

15

2.1.9

Solid Wall PE Pipe

16

2.1.10

Profiled Wall PE Pipe

16

2.1.11

Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe

17

2.1.12

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe

18

2.1.13

Sewer Design - General Requirements

18

2.1.14

Flow Rate Estimations

19

2.1.15

Sewer Cleansing Velocities

20

2.1.16

Pipe Roughness

20

2.1.17

Design of Gravity Sewer

21

2.1.18

Design of Force Mains

23

2.1.19

Vacuum Sewerage System

25

2.1.20

Computerised Sewer Designs

36

2.1.21

Design of Inverted Siphon

37

2.1.22

Structural Design of Sewers

37

2.2

Manhole

40

2.2.1 General

40

2.2.2 Manhole Location

42

2.2.3 Pipe Lengths from Manhole

42

2.2.4 Structural Design Considerations for Manhole

43

2.3 Manhole Covers and Frames

44

2.3.1 General

44

2.3.2 Load Class

44

2.3.3 Material

44

2.3.4 Dimensions, Marking and Surface Finish

44

2.3.5 Seating

44

2.3.6 Casting

45

2.3.7 Protective Coating

45

2.3.8 Water-tightness

45

2.3.9 Safety Features

45

2.3.10 Product Certification

45

2.4 Design of Network Pump Stations

46

2.4.1 Specifying of Network Pump Stations

46

2.4.2 General Requirements

46

2.4.3 Buffer Requirements

47

2.4.4 Pipework Requirements

47

2.4.5 Wet-well Requirements

48

2.4.6 Dry-well Requirements

48

2.4.7 Structural Requirements

49

2.4.8 Ventilation Requirements

49

2.4.9 Odour Control

50

2.4.10 Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings

50

2.4.11 Pump

Acceptable

System

(Fixed

Speed

Pumps

Only)

50

2.4.12 Valve Requirements

 

51

2.4.13 Requirements for Level Controls

 

52

2.4.14 Requirements for Alarms

 

52

2.4.15 Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance52

2.4.16 Maintenance Considerations

52

2.4.17 Hazard and Operability

53

2.5

Interceptors

56

 

2.5.1 Oil Interceptors

56

2.5.2 Grease Traps

56

2.6

Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements

56

2.6.1 Concrete

57

2.6.2 Cement

57

2.6.3 Steel Reinforcement and Falsework

57

Section 3

Construction and Installation

3.1 Introduction

59

3.2 Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling

59

3.2.1 Pipes and Fittings Delivery

59

3.2.2 Pipe Handling at Site

60

3.2.3 Pipe Storage

61

3.2.4 Pipe Damage

62

3.3 Trench Excavation

63

3.3.1 Protection of Affected Services, Structures, Pavements

and Vegetation

63

3.3.2 Excavation Requirements

64

3.3.3 Bored Excavation

66

3.4 Pipe Laying

66

3.4.1 Pipe Bedding

66

3.4.2 Pipe and Fittings Placement

67

3.4.3 Pipe Jacking

68

3.4.4 Concrete Pipe Support

68

3.4.5 Pipe Cutting

69

3.4.6 Backfill of Trench

69

3.5 Pipe Jointing

70

3.5.1 Flexible Joints

70

3.5.2 Solvent Weld Joints

71

3.5.3 Flanged Joints

72

3.5.4 Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding)

72

3.5.5 Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints

73

3.6 Special Requirements For Sewer

73

3.6.1 Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines

73

3.6.2 Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes

74

3.6.3 Pipe Embedment and Overlay

74

3.6.4 Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe

75

3.7 Reinstatement

75

3.8 Connections to Public Sewers

76

3.8.1 General

76

3.8.2 Junction Connections

77

3.8.3 Saddle Connections

77

Section 4

Sewer Testing

4.1 General

79

4.2 Testing of Gravity Sewers

80

4.3 Testing of Forced Mains

81

4.4 Testing of Manhole and other ancillaries

81

4.5 Low Pressure Air Test

82

4.5.1 General

82

4.5.2 Procedure for Testing

82

4.5.3 Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure

83

4.6 Low Pressure Water Test

84

4.6.1 General

84

4.6.2 Procedure

84

4.6.3 Handling Water Test Failures

85

4.7 High Pressure Water Test

86

4.7.1 General

86

4.7.2 Procedure

86

4.8 High Pressure Leakage Test

87

4.8.1 General

87

4.8.2 Procedure

87

4.9 Test for Straightness, Obstruction, and Grade

88

4.10 CCTV Inspection

88

4.10.1

Objectives of CCTV Inspection

89

4.10.2

Technical Requirements and References

89

4.10.3

Equipment Specifications and Test Devices

89

4.10.4.

CCTV Inspection Requirements

90

4.10.5

CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for New

Sewer Network

91

4.10.6

Interpretation Of Results From CCTV Inspection

93

4.10.7

Follow -Up Action to Be Taken

93

4.11 Infiltration Test

95

4.11.1 General

95

4.11.2 Procedure

95

4.11.3 Handling Test Failures

95

4.12 Water-tightness Test

95

4.12.1

General

95

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1a

Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer

21

Table 2.1b

Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe

Materials

21

Table 2.2

Typical Roughness Coefficient, k s

22

Table 2.3

Typical Manning Coefficient, n

22

Table 2.4

Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C

23

Table 2.5

Condition/alarm of the station equipment

36

Table 2.6

Minimum Manhole Diameters

41

Table 2.7

Final inspection and testing

46

Table 2.8

Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations

54

Table 4.1

Test Duration

83

Table 4.2

Defect Grades Descriptions

94

Appendix A

Typical Drawings/ Diagrams

Figure A1

Standard Manhole Cover

98

Figure A2

Plan View of Typical Manhole

99

Figure A3

Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2m Depth < 2.5m

100

Figure A4

Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdro

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2m Depth < 2.5m)

101

Figure A5

Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5m Depth < 5m)

102

Figure A6

Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole with backdrop

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5m Depth < 5m)

103

Figure A7

Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m Depth 9m)

104

Figure A8

Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m Depth 9m)

105

Figure A9

Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type 106

Figure A10

Typical Induct Vent Detail

107

Figure A11

Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer Reticulation Pipe for V.C. Pipe

108

Figure A 12

Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block

109

Figure A13a

Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer (Sheet 1 of 2)

110

Figure A13b

Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer (Sheet 2 of 2)

111

Figure A14

Typical Details of Receiving Manhole, Force Main and Washout Valve

112

Figure A15

Precast Concrete Chamber (Type A ) and Details of Air Valve and Scour Valve Chamber

113

Figure A16

Standard Pipe Beddings

114

Figure A17

Vacuum sewage collection system

115

Figure A18

House connection

115

Figure A19a

Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel116

Figure A19b

Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel117

Figure A20a

Collection chambers with interface valves vented through

breather pipes

118

Figure A20b

Collection chamber with interface valve activated by float118

Figure A20c

Multi-valve collection chamber

119

Figure A21

Vacuum sewer profiles (not to scale)

120

Figure A22

Example of vacuum sewer profiles for uphill and downhill transport (not to scale)

120

Figure A23

Y-branch for vacuum sewer

121

Figure A24

Method of joining crossover pipes and branch sewers to vacuum mains

121

Figure A25

Typical details of dry-well pump station

122

Figure A26

Typical detail of wet-well pump station

123

Figure A27

Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure

124

Figure A28

Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure

125

Figure A29

Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure

126

Appendix B

Tables

Table B1 : Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth

127

Appendix C

CCTV Format and Codes

Appendix C 1 Report format for CCTV Inspection

129

Appendix C 2 Report format for CCTV Inspection

130

Appendix C 3 Report format for CCTV Inspection

131

Appendix C 4 Report format for CCTV Inspection

132

Appendix C 5 Report format for CCTV Inspection

133

Appendix C 6 Module

134

Section 1

Introduction

1.1 Purpose of This Volume

Introduction

This volume sets out the requirements of the National Water Services Commission (SPAN) (referred to as the Commission in this document) for the design, construction and testing of sewer networks and network pump stations.

The owner must comply with the requirements set out in this volume when submitting an application for the approval of the Commission.

This volume generally does not cover internal plumbing systems within buildings. However, some guidelines are provided on the provision of interceptors to protect public sewers from the discharge of oil and grease from garage workshops, hotels, restaurants, canteens or any premises that collect such matter.

1.2 Who Should Use This Volume

This volume is primarily intended for owners, developers, consulting engineers, sewerage contractors, manufacturers, planners, and Public Authorities who have a direct interest in the planning, design and installation of sewer networks and/or network pump stations.

1.3 Related Reference Material

This volume does not cover all aspects of design and construction of sewer networks and network pump stations. Where information is not covered in this volume, the designer shall follow the requirements given in MS 1228.

MS 1228 shall take precedence over other foreign standards in the event when there are discrepancies on the requirements.

The following documents are also referred to in this volume.

a) Malaysian Standards

i. Specification for test for water for making concrete

MS 28

ii. MS 29

Specification

for

aggregates

from

natural

sources

for

concrete

iii. Specification for cold reduced mild steel wire for reinforcement of concrete

iv. Specification for steel welded fabric for the reinforcement of concrete.

MS 144

MS 145

v. Specification for hot rolled steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete.

MS 146

vi. MS 522

Specification

for

Portland

cement

(ordinary

and

rapid

hardening)

vii. Specification for concrete including ready mixed concrete

MS 523

viii. Specification for unplasticised PVC (uPVC) pipes for water supply

MS 628

Introduction

Part 1 : Pipes

Part 2 : Joints and fittings for use with unplasticised PVC pipes

ix.

MS 672

Specification of rubber seals in water supply, drainage and sewerage pipelines

x

MS 740

Specification for hot-dip galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles

xi.

MS 822

Specification for sawn timber foundation piles

xii.

MS 881

Specification for pre-cast concrete pipes and fittings for drainage and sewerage

 

Part 1:

Specification for pipes and fittings with flexible

joints and

manholes

xiii.

MS 922

Specification for concrete admixtures

 

Part 1 : Accelerating admixtures, retarding admixtures and water-reducing admixtures

 

MS 923

Specification for joints and fittings for use with uPVC pressure pipes [delete]

 

Part 3: Mechanical joints and fittings, principally of uPVC [delete]

xiv.

MS 979

Specification for unplasticizes sewerage pipes and fittings

 

Part 1: Pipes of diameter 100mm and 155mm

Part 2: Pipes of diameter 200mm and above

xv.

MS 980

Specification for safety signs and colours : Colorimetric and photometric properties of materials

xvi.

MS 981

Specification for safety signs and colours : Colour and design

xvii.

MS 982

Specification for fire safety signs, notices and graphic symbol

xviii.

MS 1037

Specification for sulphate-resisting Portland cement

xix.

MS 1058

MS 1058 Specification for polyethylene (PE) piping systems for water supply

 

Part 1 : General Part 2 : Pipes

xx.

MS 1061

Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains and sewers

xxi.

MS 1195

Code of practice for structural use of concrete

xxii.

MS 1227

Specification for Portland pulverised fuel ash cement

xxiii.

MS 1228

Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage Systems

xxiv.

MS 1347

Cathodic Protection : Part 1 Code of practice for land applications

xxv.

MS 1292

Specification for rubber seals – water stop for sealing joints in concrete – Specification of materials

xxvi.

MS 1389

Specification for Portland blastfurnace cement

Introduction

xxvii

MS

EN

Specification for general criteria for certification bodies

.

45011

operating product certification.

 

xxvii

MS

General

requirements

for

bodies

operating

product

i.

ISO/IEC

certification systems

 

Guide 65

 

xxix 04Z005R0 Air Quality – Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry. [ KIV. To be discussed in the Main Committee Meeting ]

b) British Standards

i.

BS 65

Specification for vitrified clay pipes, fittings and ducts, also flexible mechanical joints for use solely with surface water pipes and fittings

ii.

BS 915

Specification for high alumina cement. Metric unit.

 

iii.

BS 3416

Specification

for

bitumen-based

coatings

for

cold

 

application, suitable for use in contact with potable water

iv.

BS 3692

ISO

metric

precision

hexagon

bolts,

screws

and

nuts.

 

Specification.

 

v.

BS 4147

Specification for bitumen based hot applied coating materials for protecting iron and steel including suitable primers where required

vi.

BS 4164

Specification for coal-tar-based hot-applied coating materials for protecting iron and steel including a suitable primer

vii.

BS 4248

Specification for Supersulfated cement

 

viii.

BS 4515

Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore.

 

ix.

BS 5153

Specification for cast iron check valves for general purposes.

x.

BS 5480

Specification for Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes, joints and fittings for use for water supply or sewerage

 

xi.

BS 5911

Part 1 : Precast concrete pipes, fittings and ancillary products. Specification for unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes (including jacking pipes) and fittings with flexible joints (complementary to BS EN 1916)

xii.

BS 5975

Code of practice for falsework.

 

xiii.

BS 6076

Specification for polymeric film for use as a protectiv sleeving for buried iron pipes and fittings (for site and factor application)

xiv.

BS 6105

Specification for corrosion resistant stainless steel fasteners. [delete]

xv.

BS 7123

Specification for metal arc welding of steel for concrete reinforcement.

 

BS 7874

Method of test for microbiological deterioration of elastomeric seals for joints in pipework and pipelines.

BS 8005

Sewerage [delete]

 

Introduction

xvi.

BS 8007

xvii.

BS 8010-

2.1

xviii.

BS 8666

xix.

BS EN 124

BS EN 295

xx.

BS EN

295-1

xxi.

BS EN

295-7

xxii.

BS EN 545

xxiii.

BS EN 598

xxiv.

BS EN 681

xxv.

BS EN 682

xxvi.

BS EN 752

xxvii.

BS EN

1091

xxviii.

BS EN

1561

xxix.

BS EN

1563

xxx.

BS

EN

1982

xxxi.

BS

EN

10025

xxxii

BS

EN

10220

xxxiii.

BS

EN

10224

xxxiv.

BS EN

10277

Code of practice for design of concrete structures for retainin aqueous liquids

Code of practice for pipelines. Pipelines on land : design,

construction and installation. Ductile iron

Specification for scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of steel reinforcement for concrete.

Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian areas. Design requirements, type testing, marking, quality control

Specification for vitrified clay pipes and fittings with flexible mechanical joints [delete]

Part 7: Requirements for vitrified clay pipes and joints for pipe jacking [delete]

Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains and sewers. Requirements

Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains and sewers. Requirements for vitrified clay pipes and joints for pipe jacking

Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and their joint for water pipelines – requirements and test methods

Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and their joint for sewerage applications – requirements and test methods.

Elastomeric seals. Materials requirement for pipe joint seals used in water and drainage applications.

Elastomeric seals. Materials requirement for pipe joint seals used in pipes and fittings carrying gas hydrocarbons fluids.

Drain and sewer systems outside buildings

Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings

Specification for flake graphite cast iron

Specification for spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast

iron

Copper and copper alloys. Ingots and castings.

Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels.

Seamless and welded steel tubes. Dimensions and masses

per unit length.

Non-alloy steel tubes and fittings for the conveyance of

aqueous liquids including water for human consumption. Technical delivery conditions.

Bright steel products. Technical delivery conditions.

Part 1 : General

Part 2 : Steels for general engineering purposes

Introduction

Part 3 : Free cutting steels

Part 4 : Case-hardening steels

Part 5 : Steels for quenching and tempering

xxxv Dimensions and tolerances of bright steel products.

BS EN

10278

xxxvi Air quality – Determination of odour concentration by

BS EN

13725 dynamic olfactometry.

xxxvii Construction drawings. Simplified representation of concrete

BS EN ISO

3766 reinforcement.

xxxviii Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel

BS EN ISO

3506 fasteners Part 1 : Bolts, screws and studs. Part 2 : Nuts.

c) Australian / New Zealand and Australian Standards

i.

AS/NZS

PVC-u pipes and fittings for drain, waste and vent

1260

application (refer to uPVC profiled wall pipe only)

ii.

AS/NZS

PVC pipes and fittings for pressure applications

1477

iii.

AS/NZS

Buried flexible pipelines

2566

Part 1 : Structural design

iv.

AS/NZS

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) compounds, pipes

3518

and fittings for pressure applications.

v.

AS/NZS

Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland

3582

and blended cement Part 3 : Amorphous silica.

vi.

AS/NZS

Stationay source emissions

4323

Part 3 : Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry.

vii.

AS 3725

Loads on buried concrete pipes

viii.

AS 3750.2

Paint for steel structure – Ultra high-build piant.

AS

Paint for steel structure – Alkyd/micaceous iron oxide.

3750.12

ix.

AS 3751

Underground mining – Slope haulage – coumplings, drawbars and safety chains.

x

AS 3996

Metal access covers, road grates and frames

xi

AS 4060

Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes

d) German Standards

i.

DIN

Thermoplastic pipes and fittings with profiled outer and

16961

smooth inner surfaces

Part 1: Dimensions Part 2: Technical delivery conditions

Introduction

e) International Standards

i. ISO 1083

ii. ISO 3506

iii. TR

ISO

Spheroidal graphite cast irons - Classification

Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel fasteners

Underground installation of flexible glass-reinforced

10465 thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes Part 1: Installation procedures Part 3 : Installation parameters and application limits

f) Water Industry Specifications (U.K)

i. WIS

04-32-

Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 spigot fittings and drawn

15

bends for nominal sizes up to and including 1000

ii. WIS

04-24-

Specification for mechanical fittings and joints for

01

polyethylene pipes for nominal sizes 90 to 1000

iii. WIS

04-32-

Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 electrofusion fittings

14 for nominal sizes up to and including 630

g) American Society for Testing and Material

i.

ASTM

D

Specifications for “Fiberglass” Glass-Fibre-Reinforced

3262

Thermosetting- Resin Sewer Pipe

ii.

ASTM

D

Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible Thermo

2321

Plastic Sewer Pipe

iii.

ASTM F 894 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Large Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe

iv.

ASTM

D

Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and

3350

Fitting Materials

v.

ASTM

D

Standard Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer

3212

Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals

h) Other Reference Materials

i. Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried Pipelines - UK Transport Research Laboratory

The Commission will, from time to time, specify additional standards to be used in the design and construction of sewerage works. These standards shall be referred to as appropriate for the design and construction of sewer networks and network pump stations.

All standards used in the design and construction of sewerage works shall be the latest or the most updated. When any one of the above mentioned standards is withdrawn or superseded, the latest or updated standards shall be referred to as appropriate. This shall be the same for any applicable act, guideline, by-law, etc. related to sewerage works endorsed by the government.

Other Guidelines in This Set

Introduction

The Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines comprise of 5 volumes:

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Volume IV

Volume V

Sewerage Policy for New Development

Sewerage Works Procedures

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Sewage Treatment Plants

Septic Tanks

Introduction

Section 2

Planning, Material and Design

2.1

Sewers

2.1.1 Pipe Material Selection Factors

Planning, Material and Design

The following considerations are the important factors to be considered before selecting or approving any pipe material and pipeline system for sewer networks.

a) Resistance to acidic condition of which is prevalent in sewer networks in tropical climates

b) Resistance to sulphate attack from aggressive soils and groundwater

c) Resistance to corrosion in contaminated soils

d) to

Resistance

severe

abrasion

from

sewage

flow

and

usual

cleaning

methods

e) Resistance of the joint to groundwater entry (infiltration) and sewage escape (exfiltration)

microbiological

f)

Resistance

of

the

joint

material

to

corrosion

and

degradation

g) Structural damages and other damages that may occur in handling

h) Handling, laying and jointing care and difficulties

i) Methods of pipe embedment to ensure structural performance

j) Maintenance of structural strength and performance in service

k) Methods of maintenance and repair

l) Cost of supply, transportation and installation

m) Range and suitability of fittings where considered for smaller diameter sewers

n) Previous local experience

o) Local availability

p) Pipe pressure ratings

q) The design life of a pipe shall be at least 50 years.

r) All bolts and nuts shall be stainless steel (SS) 304.

s) Where necessary, special tools and trained personal shall be made available during handling and installation of pipes.

Additionally, the following factors should be considered before selecting or approving any pipe manufacturer and supplier.

a) Compliance of products to standards

b) Compliance to additional material and product requirements specified by the Commission

c) Quality control and assurance practised by the manufacturer and supplier to ensure good pipe product quality from manufacturing to delivery

2.1.2 Pipe Materials and Fittings

Planning, Material and Design

There is an extensive range of pipe materials available in Malaysia for use for gravity, pressure and vacuum sewers. The materials and the standards which the pipes are required to conform to are as follows:

a) Vitrified clay (VC)

i) MS 672

ii) MS 1061

iii) BS EN 295

b) Reinforced concrete (RC)

i) MS 881

ii) BS 5911

iii) BS 7874

iv) BS EN 681

v) BS EN 682

c) Ductile iron (DI)

i) BS EN 598

d) Mild Steel

i) BS EN 10025

i) BS EN 10224

e) Stainless Steel

i) BS EN 10220

f) Polyethylene (PE) solid wall

i) MS 1058

ii) WIS 04-32-15

iii) WIS 04-32-14

iv) WIS 04-24-01

g) Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) solid wall

i) MS 628 : Part 2 : Section 2

ii) MS 923

iii) MS 979

iv) AS/NZS 1477

h) Polyethylene profiled wall

i) DIN 16961

i) Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride profiled wall

i) AS/NZS 1260

j) Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)

i) BS 5480

ii) AS 3571

k) Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

i) AS/NZS 3518

Planning, Material and Design

Marking of all pipes shall comply with available Malaysian or British Standards where applicable. Additional requirements to those given in the above standards may be specified from time to time by the Commission.

2.1.3 Pipe Selections

Except where otherwise specifically approved by the Commission, the pipe materials to be used for a specific type of sewer are listed below:

1)

Gravity sewers

a) Rigid pipes

b) Flexible pipes

i) VC

i) GRP

ii) RC

ii) Ductile Iron iii) HDPE (Profile)

2)

Force mains (Rising mains)

i) Ductile Iron

ii) GRP

iii) ABS

iv) HDPE (Solid)

v) Steel

3)

Vacuum sewers

i) ABS – for internal use

ii) HDPE (Solid) – for external use

There are specific requirements such as pipe class, joint type, linings etc. which the above approved pipe materials must meet in order to suit the above applications. Also, there are certain limitations for use of each pipe type. These requirements and limitations are specified in the following sections.

From time to time, the Commission will publish sewer selection guides which will provide more detailed direction on the selection and use of sewer materials.

For other pipe materials not listed above, their use will be given considerations in special circumstances. However, only pipes and fittings from manufacturers and suppliers approved by the Commission are permitted to be used for sewerage applications.

2.1.4 Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe Material

Unless the exemption is granted by the Commission, the following limitations or requirements shall be followed when selecting the pipe materials:

1) Gravity Sewer

a) VC

i. Only size 150 mm or above shall be used

ii. The minimum size for public sewer shall be at least 225 mm

Planning, Material and Design

iii. Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground

iv. Flexible joints are recommended

b)

RC

i. Pipe protection linings are required

 

ii. Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed in compliance to the policy

iii. Flexible joints are recommended

c)

GRP

 

i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe

ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity

iii. Pipe shall be used only when no fittings are required

iv. Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed

d)

DI

 

i. The use is only allowed for applications needed high pipe strength

ii. Pipe protection linings and coatings are required

iii. Polyethylene sleeving is required for all buried applications

e)

HDPE

 

i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe

ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.

iii.

Only pipe with profile wall is permitted.

2)

Force Mains

a)

DI

i. Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground

ii. Pipe protection linings and coatings are required

iii. Polyethylene sleeving is required for all buried applications

iv. Flexible joints are recommended

Planning, Material and Design

b) GRP

i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe

ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.

iii. Fittings shall be made of ductile iron

iv. Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed

c) ABS

i. Where VC or RC pipes are not suitable

ii. nominated

Only for

projects

or

as

permitted

by

the

relevant

authority

d) HDPE

i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe

ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.

e) Steel

i. Pipe is allowed only for sizes 700 mm or above

ii. Pipe protection linings and coatings are required

2.1.5 Vitrified Clay Pipe

Vitrified clay (VC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters of 100 mm to 600 mm and lengths ranging from 0.91 m to 2.50 m. Larger diameters of VC pipe are imported. VC pipes are classified according to the pipe ring crushing strength which depends on the manufacturing process and quality. VC pipes and fittings can be produced either unglazed or glazed on the interior and/or exterior. When glazed they need not be glazed on the jointing surfaces of the spigot and socket. VC pipes which are available in Malaysia are normally manufactured with spigot-socket flexible joints. Most manufacturers commonly offer a rubber ring seal. However, polyurethane seal is sometimes offered by some manufacturers.

Vitrified clay pipe that has extra chemical resistance is suitable for sewerage applications. This type of VC pipe may be used even under very corrosive sewage environment. However, the potential for infiltration is great and must be minimised by careful laying procedures on site.

Planning, Material and Design

Vitrified clay pipes are permitted for gravity sewers. The minimum permissible

size

for public gravity sewer shall not be less than 225mm and service connection

shall

not be less than 150mm.

VC pipes and fittings shall conform to the requirements of MS1061. Pipe strength is classified by the crushing strength (FN) value tested in accordance with BS EN 295-3. The crushing strength for pipe with DN150 shall not be less than 22 kN/m.

The crushing strength of the pipe with size DN 225 is classified by class number.

All VC pipes and fittings shall be furnished with spigot-socket flexible joints and

rubber ring seals or polyurethane seals. Glazing of VC pipes and fittings are preferred.

2.1.6 Reinforced Concrete Pipe

Reinforced concrete (RC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters from 150

mm to 3,600 mm. The standard pipe length is 3.05 m. RC pipe is classified

according to pipe crushing test load or the three-edge bearing strength which varies

with wall thickness and reinforcement.

Common reinforced concrete pipes are not resistant to acidic corrosion which occurs in certain septic sewage conditions. The cement used to manufacture concrete pipe shall be factory produced by the cement manufacturer. Pipes can be manufactured using Ordinary Portland Cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement, Portland Blast Furnace Cement, Portland Pulverised Fuel Ash Cement and Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement. All these types of cements are corrosion resistance, except Ordinary Portland Cement and Rapid Hardening Portland Cement. To improve the corrosion resistance, high alumina cement mortar lining, PVC lining, PE lining and sacrificial lining have been used. Low heat and super- sulphated cements have also been found in some tests to improve the corrosion resistance. The inclusion of calcareous or limestone aggregate is another measure found to improve corrosion resistance. To resist corrosion by neutral sulphates occurring in aggressive soils and groundwater, RC pipes are sometimes manufactured using sulphate resistance cement and where not available, portland pulverised fuel ash cement or portland blastfurnace cement shall be used with the approval from relevant authority.

RC pipes are permitted for gravity sewers of diameter DN600 and larger. Pipe shall be of Standard Strength or higher as determined from structural design. RC pipes below 1000mm in diameter linings shall consist of either 12mm thick high alumina cement or 38mm thick (as appropriate) sacrificial concrete lining. For RC pipes greater than 1000mm diameters either PVC or HDPE plastic lining or 38mm thick sacrificial concrete lining shall be employed. Other linings may be used if approval

from the Commission is obtained. Concrete pipe junctions shall be fixed to the main pipe by the pipe manufacturer and fabricated to clay pipe dimensions. Flexible joints which utilise a rubber ring to join a rebated joint and a spigot to a socket are commonly used and are recommended. Ogee joint (fixed joint) shall be

used in conjunction with concrete bedding haunching only. RC pipe when used for

pipe jacking purpose, shall be comply with BS 5911. The RC pipes also incorporate rebated joints with joint elastomeric ring seals either integrated in the unit or supplied separately.

Planning, Material and Design

2.1.7 Ductile Iron Pipe

Ductile Iron (DI) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia for diameters from 80 mm to 1200 mm. The imported pipe can be up to 2,000 mm. Standard lengths are 6.0 m.

DI pipe is classified according to wall thickness. The pressure rating of the pipe

increases with an increase in wall thickness. Commonly used pipe strength is class

K9

and shall comply with BS EN 598 for working pressure exceeding 6 bars.

DI

pipe is permitted for force mains and internal pipings of pump stations. DI pipe

shall be used for gravity sewers only where it is needed to take the advantages of

the high strength of ductile iron, e.g. shallow cover sewers subjected to high live

load or sewers of above ground applications.

Pipes shall have flexible joints, i.e. spigot-socket rubber seal joints or mechanical joints, except for pump station pipework and valve connections where flange joints shall be used.

Ductile iron will undergo corrosion when exposed to certain aggressive groundwaters and conveying certain aggressive water. Therefore, the internal lining protection is required to protect against corrosions. Unless otherwise approved by the Commission, all ductile iron pipes shall have an external coating to be determined by a Qualified Person based on actual soil condition. For internal lining of constant full flowing pipe, ordinary Portland cement shall be used, while high alumina cement mortar or plastic adhesive lining is required for partly full flowing pipes. Buried pipe shall have zinc with bitumen external coating and fittings shall have bitumen external coating. The end surfaces shall include the internal surface of the socket and external surface of the spigot for flexible connection.

The finishing layer, which is normally bituminous product, shall cover the whole

surface of the applied coating and shall prevent defects such as the loss of adhesion. In addition, the material of the finishing layer shall be compatible with

the coating.

Unless otherwise approved by the Commission, all fittings and accessories shall be provided with external and internal epoxy coating.

Polyethylene sleeving shall be used for all the buried pipe and fittings.

2.1.8 Steel Pipe

Steel pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in a wide range of diameters up to 3000 mm and lengths up to 10 m. Pipe joints are normally welded utilising either spigot- socket ends, plain ends or a collar. Flanged and mechanical joints are also available.

Steel pipes will undergo corrosion when in contact with aggressive soil and sewage and, thus, require an internal lining and an external coating. Pipe internal linings normally include high alumina cement mortar, coal tar enamel, coal tar epoxy, sulphate resistant cement lining, or bitumen. Pipe external coatings often include coal tar enamel, bitumen enamel or asphalt enamel and glass fibre.

Planning, Material and Design

Steel pipes are permitted only for inverted siphons (depressed sewers) and internal pump station pipework. For force main larger than 700 mm, steel pipe may be used if the approval from the Commission is obtained.

The internal and external surfaces of the pipes and fittings shall be coated with thermosetting (epoxy paint or powder or epoxy tar resin) or thermoplastic (polyethylene or polyurethane) material. The type of external protection shall be determined by the Qualified Person based on soil condition. Following the completion of pipe jointing, exposed steel at the joints shall be protected from corrosion by manually applied external tape wrap and internal cement mortar lining.

A spigot and socket joint welded both externally and internally shall be used for pipe

joints except for pump station pipework and valve connections where flange joints shall be used. Mechanical joints are only permitted for cut pipe lengths, where internal cement mortar lining at joints is not possible and where movement of the pipeline is to be allowed for.

2.1.9 Solid Wall PE Pipe

Polyethylene (PE) pipe is resistant to sulphuric acid of concentrations that might be found in septic sewage under the worst conditions.

PE solid wall pipe is available locally in diameters up to 1,000 mm and in standard lengths of 6 m and 12 m. This pipe is normally butt fusion jointed. Pipe size of 160mm or less may be flange jointed or electrofusion jointed. PE pipe is classified by pressure rating with static working pressures up to 1.6 MPa. High density PE (HDPE) is used for sewerage applications.

Since PE pipes are flexible, the design of the pipe/trench system is more critical than for rigid pipe materials. Compared to rigid pipes, the stability of flexible pipes relies more on the side support of the earth backfill around the pipe. Consequently, in an urban environment, where the side support may be removed during future adjacent construction of underground services, pipe failures could be more frequent. Ground conditions which provide poor pipe side support are unsuitable for flexible PE pipe.

Solid wall HDPE pipes are suitable for buried pressure sewer and buried vacuum sewer installations. Butt fusion joints shall be used for PE pipe. uPVC fittings are not permitted for force mains. Solid wall pipe for pressure main application shall be of minimum PE80-PB10. The use of specific strength shall depend on the depth and nature of the soil as confirmed by the Qualified Person. Solid wall pipes for vacuum sewer shall be minimum of PE80-PN8 and at least PN10 for heavy vehicle loading.

2.1.10 Profiled Wall PE Pipe

A profiled wall pipe is a pipe with a plain inside surface and with a ribbed or

corrugated outside surface. The ribs or corrugations are normally either aligned circumferentially or helically. These corrugated or ribbed profiles optimise the pipe ring stiffness to weight ratio. The pipe can be designed with double-wall profile or triple-wall profile.

Planning, Material and Design

Corrugated high density PE pipe is available in Malaysia in a range of size from

The standard

100mm to 3000mm nominal diameter and in standard 6m lengths. joint is a flexible spigot-socket joint with rubber seal.

Pipes from specific manufacturers in this category may be permitted by the Commission to be used for gravity sewers where special circumstances require the benefits of such pipes.

2.1.11 Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe

Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe is currently required to be imported into Malaysia.

There are two principal manufacturing methods for GRP pipes, centrifugal casting and filament winding. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe incorporates silica sand in the wall structure in addition to resin and chopped strand mat glass fibres. The silica sand shall have a maximum particles size of 10 mm. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe shall be according to AS 3751.

The filament winding GRP pipe does not normally incorporate sand, which permits centrifugal casting GRP pipe to have a much thicker wall, and thus much higher ring stiffness than the filament winding GRP pipe. The filament winding GRP pipe uses continuous glass fibres wound helically about the pipe. The design of filament winding GRP pipe shall be in accordance with BS 5480.

Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance for pressure applications and by pipe ring stiffness for non-pressure applications. Centrifugal casting GRP is available up to 10,000 N/m 2 stiffness and up to 2.5 MPa static working pressure. Filament winding GRP is available up to 5,000 N/m 2 stiffness and up to 1.6 MPa static working pressure

Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is available in sizes from 200 mm to 2,400 mm and standard length of 6 m. The inner surface of the pipe is usually finished with a resin rich lining which is resistance to attack by sulphuric acid that may result from septic sewage. Centrifugal casting GRP pipe has a rubber sealing sleeve joint which is supplied fitted to one end. So jointing is similar to a spigot-socket joint. These pipes can also be supplied with flange joints, sleeve-locking joints and sleeve recessed joints for special applications such as pipe jacking and pipeline towing.

Filament winding GRP pipe is available in sizes up to 3,700 mm and standard lengths of 6m and 12m (size dependent). It also has a resin rich inner surface although the thickness of this resin surface layer is often limited by the manufacturing method. Some filament winding GRP pipe manufacturers incorporate corrosion resistant glass fibres. This feature can be essential with this GRP pipe because its resin rich surface (gelcoat) is thinner or, sometimes, removed for fabrication purposes. Filament winding GRP pipe currently being offered can be jointed using a sleeve and two rubber O rings. Filament winding GRP pipe does not have a smooth outer surface like centrifugal casting GRP pipe. Machining may be required for the outer surface where rubber sealing rings are used. Flange joints and mechanical couplings are also available for special applications.

Planning, Material and Design

GRP pipe is classified as a flexible pipe. It requires sufficient side support to retain its structural integrity in cross-section in the same way as uPVC and PE pipe. GRP pipe has lower strain limits than uPVC and PE pipes since it is made of thermoset resin, which is brittle compared to thermoplastic material. Due to its inherent structure, GRP pipe has a much higher modulus of elasticity than uPVC and PE pipe. Thus, it may have a much thinner wall than uPVC and PE pipes to achieve equivalent ring stiffness. GRP pipe is generally available in higher stiffness than, uPVC and PE pipe.

Approval for the use of GRP pipe shall be sought from the Director General for each project intending its use. GRP pipes are permitted for gravity and pressure sewers. For gravity sewers, GRP pipes are only permitted for sizes of 600mm nominal diameter and larger where no fittings are required. The minimum pipe stiffness shall be SN 5000 with the appropriate stiffness determined in accordance with structural design to AS 2566. For pressure sewers, fittings must only be of ductile iron meeting the coating, lining and other requirements.

2.1.12 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipe is a thermoplastic pipe. It is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters up to 630 mm.

ABS pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance. It comes in various static working pressure ratings up to 1.5 MPa.

The cementing

jointing process is more complex than the jointing process of uPVC pipe. A

Because of the care

required to make a solvent cement joint, particularly in larger diameters, the jointing of ABS pipe requires special trainings.

The most common jointing method is by solvent cementing.

spigot/socket rubber ring joint is generally not available.

ABS, like uPVC and PE, is resistant to corrosion in the most corrosive sewage environment that could occur. ABS is used in a range of applications requiring pressure pipe. Because of its excellent resistance to abrasion and UV degradation, ABS has found use in industrial and mining applications and also in treatment plants for sewage and water.

ABS pipes may be permitted for force mains under special circumstances which require the benefits of such pipes. If used, the approval of the Commission is required. ABS pipes may be permitted for use in buried forced mains and buried interconnecting pipe-works within pump stations.

2.1.13 Sewer Design - General Requirements

The design of a sewerage system shall generally be in accordance with the principles set out in this guideline. Additional requirements in the Malaysian Standard MS 1228:1991 Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage System shall also be referred to in design.

The sewerage system shall be suitably designed to carry all sewage flows including sullage to the approved disposal point. Unauthorised connections of surface waters or excessive infiltration to the sewerage system are not permitted.

Planning, Material and Design

Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission, all sewers shall be sited in public road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance purposes. Under special circumstances where the sewer cannot be sited in public road reserve then vehicular access of at least 3 m in width and road bearing capacity of not less than 5 tonne shall be provided.

A checklist for sewer reticulation design is given in the Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines, Volume II.

2.1.14 Flow Rate Estimations

Few principal considerations when selecting the diameter and gradient of a sewer are:

i) to cater for peak flow

ii) to ensure that there will be a sufficient velocity during each day to sufficiently cleanse the sewer of slime and sediment

iii) to limit the velocity to avoid scouring of sewers

a) Average Flow:

The volume of sewage that needs to be treated per day is based on an assumed contribution per person of 225 litres. Another assumption is made as to the contribution from various types of premises where the contribution from each premise type is defined in terms of an equivalent population. The recommended minimum population equivalent values are given in Table B.1.

b) Peak Flow:

The flow used to determine the diameter and gradient of the pipeline is the peak flow. Peak flow is the most severe flow that could occur on any day when considering daily flow fluctuations and infiltrations. The peak flow is derived from the average flow by applying a peak factor for daily flow fluctuations. The peak factor shall be estimated from the following formula:

Peak Factor = 4.7 (PE/1000) -0.11

Where PE = assumed population equivalent

c) Infiltration:

Infiltration is the amount of groundwater that enters sewers through damage in the network such as cracked pipes, leaking joint seals, leaky manhole walls, etc. There are many variables affecting infiltration such as quality of workmanship, joint types, pipe materials, height of water table above pipeline, soil type, etc. The peak factor above has included the contribution of infiltrations. The maximum allowable infiltration rate shall be 50 litre / ( mm diameter.km of sewer length.day ).

2.1.15 Sewer Cleansing Velocities

Planning, Material and Design

The principal accumulants in sewers are slimes and sediments. The hydraulic requirements for cleansing the sediments of sewer differ from those required for cleansing the slimes of sewer.

a) Sediment Cleansing:

For the removal of sediments, the traditional design approach has been to set a minimum velocity to be achieved at least once daily. Minimum velocity values at full bore of 0.8 m/sec are commonly specified. However, it has been found that larger pipe diameters require higher velocity to cleanse the sediment. This is mainly due to higher sediment depths in large diameter pipes

The movement of sediment is mainly a function of shearing stress needed to dislodge sediment off the pipe wall. Similarly, shear stress is a function of pipe diameter. Also, the type of sediment (i.e. grain size, specific gravity, cohesiveness) also influences the movement of sediment and, thus, the amount of required shear stress. For design purposes however, only a single sediment type needs to be assumed.

b) Slime Cleansing:

The removal of slime depends on the stress needed to shear sections of slime from each other or from the pipe wall. However, the shear stress required to remove slimes is not a function of pipe diameter. The necessary shear stress depends on the thickness of slime to be removed and the pipe material. The degree of removal of slimes in any pipe material varies with the sewage velocity.

Removal of large portion of slimes requires high sewage velocities. It has been found that 85% or more of the sulphide producing slimes are removed when the grade of the sewer is 2.5 times of that for sediment cleansing. In many instances, it may not be practical to design a sewer to achieve such velocities due to the excessive cost of constructing such a deep and steep sewer. Although increasing the velocity up to the critical velocity will increase the amount of slime being sloughed off, the rate of sulphide production remains substantially unaffected by the thinner slime layer. Therefore, the selection of steep gradient to achieve velocities for full slime stripping is not a design requirement.

2.1.16 Pipe Roughness

Except for very high velocities, slime will always be present, which will increase the pipe roughness. Abrasion by sediments will also impart a permanent increase in roughness. Pipeline roughness decreases as the velocity increases. However, there is insufficient data to accurately determine the pipeline roughness for a wide range of velocities or at small incremental changes in velocity. In addition, the velocity of the sewage flow varies due to the factors such as daily fluctuations, different type of catchment, different stage of catchment maturity, etc. Therefore, it is not possible to select the pipe roughness with great accuracy.

Conservative roughness values as given in Table 2.1 shall be referred to when determining sewer discharge capacity.

Planning, Material and Design

Table 2.1a

Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer

 

Roughness, k s (mm)

Pipe Material

New

Old

Vitrified Clay

0.06

1.5

Concrete:

0.15

3.0

Plastic

0.06

0.6

Old and new roughness values shall be used to determine the sewer cleansing and maximum design velocities respectively.

Table 2.1b Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe Materials

Mean Velocity, V (m/s)

Roughness, k s (mm)

0.8

V 1.5

0.6

1.5

V 2.0

0.3

V 2.0

0.15

2.1.17 Design of Gravity Sewer

Unless special arrangements have been agreed for the structural protection of pipes, the minimum depth of soil cover over the sewer shall be 1.2 m. Sewers are not to be constructed under buildings.

The minimum size of public gravity sewers shall be 225 mm in diameter. The minimum size of domestic connections to the public sewer shall be 150 mm in diameter. The maximum design velocity at peak flow shall not be more than 4.0 m/s.

The design shall be based on the worst case scenario. The selection of the gravity sewer diameter and gradient to cope with the peak flow shall be based on the following equations:

1. Colebrook - White Equation

V

= −

where

2

⎛ ⎞ ks 2.51ν ⎜ ⎟ (2 g D S log + ⎜ ⎟ 3.7
ks
2.51ν
(2 g D S
log
+
3.7 D
D
2gDS

V

=

velocity

S

=

hydraulic gradient (m/m)

ν

=

kinematic viscosity of water (m 2 / sec)

D

=

internal diameter (m)

g

=

acceleration due to gravity (m/sec 2 )

k s

=

roughness coefficient (m)

Planning, Material and Design

Typical k s values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.2 below:

Table 2.2

Typical Roughness Coefficient, k s

Material

Roughness Coefficient, k s (mm)

Concrete

0.3 to 3

Cast iron

0.26

Asphalted cast iron

0.12

Ductile iron

0.046

2. Manning Equations

V =

where

R

23/

S

12/

n

V

=

velocity (m/sec)

S

=

hydraulic gradient

R

=

hydraulic radius

n

=

Manning coefficient

Typical n values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.3 below:

Table 2.3

Typical Manning Coefficient, n

 

Manning Coefficient, n

Material

Good Condition

Bad

Condition

Uncoated cast-iron

0.012

0.015

Coated cast iron

0.011

0.013

Ductile iron

0.012

0.015

Vitrified clay pipe

0.010

0.017

Concrete

0.012

0.016

3. Hazen - Williams Equations

V = 0.849 C R 0.63 S 0.54

where

V

=

velocity (m/sec)

S

=

hydraulic gradient

R

=

hydraulic radius

C

=

Hazen - Williams coefficient

Planning, Material and Design

Typical C values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.4 below:

Table 2.4

Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C

Material

Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C

Top quality pipes, straight and smooth

130 to 140

Smooth masonry

120

Vitrified clay

110

Old cast iron

100

Old cast iron in bad condition

60 to 80

Colebrook-White Equation has been deemed to give the most accurate results. However, the other equations, such as Hazen-Williams Equation and Manning

Equation are easier to use and may be used too. Various design charts and tables

have been developed elsewhere to aid the manual computations.

2.1.18 Design of Force Mains

The

minimum diameter of force mains (also known as rising mains) shall be 100

mm

diameter.

There shall be no reduction in force main diameter with distance

downstream.

All bends on force mains shall be securely anchored to resist lateral thrusts and subsequent joint movements.

Air release valves and washouts shall be provided at appropriate locations along the longitudinal profile.

For long and undulating force mains, hydraulic pressure transient analyses may be required to ensure that the force main can cope with water hammer pressures.

Retention times in force mains must not exceed 2 hours without special precautions to mitigate septicity.

All force main shall be designed to withstand at least 1.5 times the working

pressure. Approval from the Commission is required if any force main is to be

designed to withstand pressure less than the pressure stated above.

Where retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where concrete

pipe are laid downstream of the force mains, an induct vent shall be provided at

manholes receiving pumping discharges.

Friction losses are normally calculated using either Darcy - Weisbach (Colebrook- White) Equation or Hazen-Williams Equations. The forms of the equations are different from the equations used to design gravity sewers. The equations are listed below:

1. Darcy-Weisbach Equation

h f

=

where

fLV

2

2 gD

Planning, Material and Design

h f

=

Friction loss

f

=

Coefficient of friction

V

=

Velocity in the pipe

g

=

Acceleration due to gravity

D

=

Equivalent diameter of the pipe

L

=

Length of pipe

The value of f is known to depend on the Reynolds number, Re, pipe roughness, k s , and pipe diameter, D, through the Colebrook-White equation as follows:

1

=

-2 log

sqrt (f)

k s + 2.51 3.7D Re sqrt (f)
k s
+
2.51
3.7D
Re sqrt (f)

The Reynolds number is defined as follows:

Re

=

VD

v

where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, typically equal to 1 x 10 -6 m 2 /s for sewage.

The above equations together with the Moody Diagram are used to determine the coefficient of friction, f.

2. Hazen-Williams Equation

h f

=

where

6 82

.

V

⎜ ⎝

C

1 85

.

L

D

1 167

.

h f

=

Friction loss

C

=

Hazen-William Coefficient (refer to Table 2.4)

V

=

Velocity in the pipe

L

=

Length of pipe

D

=

Equivalent diameter of the pipe

Force mains shall be designed to handle the full range of flows from present minimum to future peak.

Planning, Material and Design

The design velocity shall fall within the range of 0.8 to 3.0m/sec over the full range of design flows.

The hydraulic resistance of force main fittings and bends shall be included in the hydraulic design.

2.1.19

Vacuum Sewerage System

The design requirements of this Guidelines are the minimum requirements, and do not constitute in themselves a comprehensive design guide sufficient to ensure a

correctly functioning system. Every system must be individually designed, based on the design parameters of the system employed; where proprietary systems are employed, it shall be designed in compliance with the requirements of system

manufacturers.

2.1.19.1

General

Specification of a vacuum sewage collection system shall only be considered where the life-cycle costs of a conventional gravity sewage collection system are clearly shown to be higher.

This Guidelines assumes that all sewage transportation modes have been identified, their respective feasibilities evaluated against technical, environmental, financial, economic and other relevant criteria over the design life of the asset and that vacuum sewage collection system has been confirmed as the best option. The Commission may request for net present value (NPV) calculations for all options prior to approving construction of a vacuum sewage collection system.

a) Application of vacuum sewage collection system

Consideration shall be given to the use of the vacuum system in one or more of the following circumstances:

i. Flat or undulating terrain;

ii. Obstacles to the sewer route eg utility services, waterways;

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iii. Poor ground subsurface eg high ground water table, rocky terrains;

iv. Isolated, low density communities;

v. Where it is necessary to minimise the impact of construction work;

vi. Where it is necessary to minimise the environmental impact.

b) Unit Processes

Typical unit processes for a vacuum sewage collection system is shown in typical

drawing in Appendix A. The unit processes shall comprise of, but not limited to, the

followings:-

i. Collection chamber for housing vacuum interface valve and also forming a sump from which collected sewage is evacuated;

ii. A vacuum sewer network for the transport of sewage collected in the collection chambers to a central vacuum station;

Planning, Material and Design

iii. A central vacuum station where the vacuum pressure is generated which allows the sewage to be collected and forwarded to a receiving gravity sewer manhole or a sewage treatment plant.

c) Description of System

i) Collection chamber and vacuum pipeline

When the volume of sewage draining into a collection chamber reaches a predetermined level in the sump, the normally closed interface valve opens. The differential pressure between the vacuum sewer and atmosphere forces the sewage from the collection chamber into the vacuum sewer via a crossover pipe. Typical crossover pipe connection is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. After the sump is emptied, the valve closes. Air is admitted simultaneously with, or after, the admittance of the sewage. The sewage is driven along the sewer until frictional and gravitational forces eventually bring it to rest in the lower section of the pipe profiles. The characteristics of the vacuum sewerage system ensure that peak discharges into the sewer are rapidly attenuated.

The vacuum sewer discharges into the vacuum vessel at the vacuum station. The vacuum is maintained, by vacuum pumps, at a predetermined level. The sewage is generally pumped from the vacuum station by sewage discharge pumps.

ii )

Vacuum station

The vacuum station is similar to a conventional pumping station with the addition of vacuum pumps and a closed vacuum vessel. Typical vacuum station is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The level of the sewage in the vacuum vessel is monitored by a level detection probe which activates the sewage discharge pumps. If the sewage rises too high in the vessel then a high level detection probe stops and locks out the vacuum pumps to prevent the flow of sewage into the vacuum pumps. The vacuum in the vacuum vessel is maintained within the operational range by pressure switches.

d) Warranty of System Performance

Since the vacuum system involves proprietary design and equipment, specialist system designers shall be accountable to the performance of the entire vacuum system including both design and construction aspects. The specialist system designers shall also specify clearly the specific maintenance and operational requirements of the system.

2.1.19.2 Collection Chamber

a) General design requirement

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Collection chambers shall have sufficient capacity to store sewage discharged from all connected properties for at least 6 hours in the event of a valve failure or similar emergency, which is sufficient to cover the IWK’s emergency response time.

Planning, Material and Design

The overflow storage time shall be based on the ultimate sewage design flow that will enter the collection chamber. The volume that can be used for emergency storage shall be the volume contained in the collection chamber from the base of the collection chamber up to the lowest ground level at any point served by the chamber as well as the volume contained in the gravity lateral sewers entering the collection chamber.

Separate chambers shall be provided to serve properties at different elevations where there is a likelihood of sewage from one property flooding another property.

The chamber shall resist external forces and internal water pressure.

The preferred material of construction for collection chambers is pre-cast concrete. The two sections (the valve compartment and the collection sump) may be mounted vertically one on top of the other as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The diameter of the sections may be as small as 1200mm or as large as 1500mm.

The collection sump requires a benching section that allows a scouring action from the sewage as it enters the suction pipe, thereby rendering the sump self-cleansing. The internal surfaces of the sump shall be both strong as well as resistant to corrosive attacks from the collected sewage.

Where the interface valve is situated over the collection sump, a working platform shall be provided for allowing maintenance engineers to stand on when carrying out scheduled maintenance to the interface valve.

The sump shall be sufficiently vented to allow the intake of air without causing a noise nuisance and to ensure that the operation of the vacuum system does not unseal the water traps on the gravity drainage system.

b) Number of properties connected

The location of each collection chamber and the number of properties connected to each collection chamber shall be specified in the Design Drawings / Calculations.

Sewage flow from the maximum number of existing or future properties that are proposed to be connected to a collection chamber shall be quantified, and the retention time of the collection chamber can be then established. The retention shall exceed 6 hrs.

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c) Maximum flows to collection chambers

The maximum sewer design flow to a single vacuum interface valve collection chamber shall not exceed 0.25 lit/s. Where single point flows in excess of 0.25 lit/s occur, multiple vacuum interface valves shall be installed. Typical multi-valve collection chamber is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A.

d) Breather pipes

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Some vacuum interface valves inhale and exhale air during their operation. This is accomplished through a screened air pipe known as a "breather".