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# EXPERIMENT 1

THEORY

## Amplitude modulation is defined as a carrier frequency whose amplitude is varied in proportion to

the instantaneous amplitude of a modulation voltage. The carrier frequency or carrier of the modulating
voltage is typically much higher than that of the modulating voltage.
The degree of modulating is an important parameter and is known as the modulation index. The
modulation index, m is also referred to as the percent modulation factor and depth of modulation. It is a
number lying between 0 and 1 and is typically expressed as a percentage.
For the AM modulation in Figure 1, m is given
m = Vm
Vc
This ratio is derived from the following equation :
m = Vmax Vmin
Vmax + Vmin

## where Vmax = Vc + Vm and Vmin = Vc - Vm

m = ( Vc + Vm) ( Vc Vm)
(Vc + Vm) + (Vc Vm)
Therefore
m = Vm
Vc
Expressed as a percentage, the percent modulation index, m is given as
m = Vm X 100%
Vc

VAM(t)

Vm
Vp....
Vmax
Vmin.

Figure 1

## EXPERIMENT 1 : AMPLITUDE MODULATION (INTERNAL MODULATION)

OBJECTIVES :
After this experiments, students should be able to :
1.

2.

3.

## Calculate the modulation index.

EQUIPMENTS :

1.

Oscilloscope

2.

RF Signal Generator

3.

BNC cable
PROCEDURES :

1.

## Connect the equipments as shown in the Figure 1 below.

Oscilloscope
Signal Generator

MOD IN

CH 1

OUT

CH 2

Figure 1
2. Set the RF Signal Generator to generate a carrier signal as follows :
Carrier signal frequency : Enter value 100 then select Khz botton.
Carrier signal amplitude : Enter value 99 then select dB button
3

## DEP3273- COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS

3. Enter the modulation depth by selecting AM followed by enter the value of 0 then select % button.
Select the modulation frequency to 1 kHz and turn MOD key ON.
4.

Draw both the modulating and the carrier signals in the Table 1. Write the value of the V/div and
the T/div selected. Calculate the amplitude and the frequency of both signals. Calculate the
modulation depth using the following formula :m = Vmax - Vmin
Vmax + Vmin

5.

Repeat

## procedure 3 to 4 by selecting different value of the modulation depth. Enter the

modulation depth by selecting AM followed by the value 20%, 40% and 60% and complete the
Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4.
6.

Repeat procedure 3 to 5 by using 400 Hz for modulating signal frequency and complete the Table
5., Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8.

## DEP3273- COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS

RESULTS :
WAVEFORMS AND CALCULATIONS
a)

## Carrier signal : 100 kHz, 99dB

Modulating Signal : 1 kHz

i.

Modulation Depth = 0 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 1
VOLT/DIV :..
ii.

TIME/DIV : . (0.5M)

(0.5M)

Modulation Depth = 20 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 2
VOLT/DIV :.. (0.5M)

TIME/DIV : .(0.5M)
5

## DEP3273- COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS

iii.

Modulation Depth = 40 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 3
VOLT/DIV :.. (0.5M)
iv.

TIME/DIV : .. (0.5M)

Modulation Depth = 60 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 4
VOLT/DIV :.. (0.5M)

TIME/DIV : ..(0.5M)

## DEP3273- COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS

b)
i.

Carrier signal

: 100kHz, 99 dB

Modulating signal

: 400Hz

Modulation Depth = 0 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 5
VOLT/DIV :.. (0.5M)
ii.

TIME/DIV : ..(0.5M)

Modulation Depth = 20 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 6
VOLT/DIV :. (0.5M)

TIME/DIV : ..(0.5M)

## DEP3273- COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS

iii.

Modulation Depth = 40 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 7
VOLT/DIV :. (0.5M)
iv.

TIME/DIV : ..(0.5M)

Modulation Depth = 60 %
Waveform

Calculation

(3M)

(3M)

Table 8
VOLT/DIV :.. (0.5M)

TIME/DIV : ..(0.5M)