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Vortex Shedding &

Transverse Forces (Lift Forces)

y Transverse forces result from vortex or eddy
shedding on the downstream side of a pile.
y Transverse forces were found to depend on the
dynamic response of the structure.
y For rigid structures, transverse forces equal to the
drag force, is a reasonable upper limit.
y Eddies are shed at a frequency that is twice the
wave frequency

Vortex Induced Vibration (1)

y VIV is a topic very much related to Flow-Induced
y This is an important fluid flow phenomenon
encountered in many engineering situations.
y Many civil and marine structures in air as well as
in water are subject to VIV and may undergo large
amplitude oscillations.

Vortex Induced Vibration (2)

y Vortices shed from bodies are typically shed
alternately from top to bottom.
y Each time a vortex is shed, there is a resultant
force on the body.
y Asymmetrical vortex shedding results in an
oscillating force acting on the body transverse (and
in line) to the flow.
y This force often results in vibrations on long risers
and cables.
y These vibrations are called vortex induced
vibrations (VIV).

Vortex Induced Vibrations (3)

y When the flow separates, vortices are formed and
shed in the wake.
y Vortices are small eddies that result in a force
on the body.
y Vorticity is mathematically
defined as follows:


Z x V

y When =0, the flow is irrotational.

Vortex Induced Vibrations & Motions

y VIV is normally associated with vibrations of small
diameter structures like such as moorings, cables
and risers.
y VIV can result in medium to long term fatigue
y VIM normally associated with motions of large
diameter structures such as SPARs, TLPs and
y VIM can have immediate operational impacts on
the facility operation.


y Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco in 1951
y Wind speed:

770 mph
p ((110kmph)
p )

y Peak to Peak Amplitude of vibration:


5 @ 0.13Hz

y Torsional peak to peak amplitudes


22 degrees @ 0.1Hz



Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940
y Wind speed:
y 42 mph (68kmph)

y Frequency in Vertical Mode:

y 0.62 Hz

y Torsional Mode:
y 0.23 Hz



Ferrybridge Power Station in 1960
y 3 out of 8 cooling towers collapsed amidst a
wind storm
y Tower height
y 375 feet

y Reason:
y Serious underestimation

of wind loads in design


VIV & VIM in

y Compared to fixed platforms, more acute in
floating offshore structures like SPARs, SEMIs
and TLPs where circular shaped items are
y Risers
y Tendons
y Deep draft columns
y Cables


VIV & VIM in

y VIV in the ocean is a complex phenomenon

because of the following:

y Non-uniform currents
y Wave-current interactions
y Vortex shedding frequency varies along the length

of the riser/cable/tendon
y Understanding the forces acting along the cable are
very tricky to certain extent

Flow Past a Circular Cylinder

y In steady flow, flow patterns depend on
mainly NRee, which is a ratio of Inertial to
Viscous force.
y At low NRRee, the flow is laminar
y At large NRee, the flow is turbulent.
y In between laminar and turbulent flow, there
exists a transition zone.

Vortex Shedding:
Laminar Performance
y NRee < 5:
y F
Fluid flow follows the


y 5 < NRe
Re < 45:
y Flow separates
y A pair
p of vortices is formed

y 45 d NRee d 150:
y Vortices break away
y P
Periodic w
wake of staggered



Vortex Shedding:
Turbulent Performance
y 150 < NRe
Re <300:
y T
Transition range to

turbulence in vortex
y 300 < NRe
Re <3 dx10 :

y Vortex street fully

y turbulent

y 3x105 d NRee d 3.5x106:

y Turbulent boundary layer
y Narrower wake

y 3x106 d NRee
y R
establishment of

turbulent vortex street


VIV Hydrodynamic Parameters (1)

y Vortex Shedding is dictated by NSt, which is
defined as follows:

N St
y Where

fs D

y fs is the vortex shedding frequency in Hz

y D is the diameter in m
y U is the inflow speed in m/s

y NSt is 0.2 for subcritical flow (NRee is less than 105)

Strouhal number (NSt) vs.

Reynolds number (NRe)


VIV Hydrodynamic Parameters (2)

y Reynolds number:
y NRee = (VD)/Q
y Subcritical (NRee < 105)

y Reduced velocity:
y Ur = U/(fn D)

y Where fn is the natural frequency in Hz

Vortex Induced Forces (1):

(Horizontal Cylinder)
y Due to formation of vortices (an alternating vortex wake),

forces are also generated:

y Both Lift and Drag forces continue on a horizontal
cylinder in cross-flow.
y Lift (Transverse) is perpendicular to the flow velocity
while Drag (In-line) is parallel to the flow velocity.
y Lift force oscillations (vibrations) occur at the vortex
shedding frequency, fs.
y Drag force oscillations occur at twice the vortex
shedding frequency, 2 x fs.

Vortex Induced Forces (2):

(Vertical Cylinder)
y Due to unsteady flow, forces X(t), Drag Forces, D(t)
and Y(t), Lift forces, L(t) vary with time.
y Force Coefficients are:
D(t )
U U 2D
L(t )
U U 2D

Vortex Induced Forces

in Time Domain





Vortex Induced Vibration (1):

Vibration of a Cylinder Structure
Heave Motion = z(t)

z a cos Zt

z (t )
z (t )

 z aZ sin Zt

z(t )

 z aZ 2 cos Zt


L(t )


D(t )

La cos(Z s t  H )
Da cos(2Z s t  H )

Rigid Cylinder is now same as a
spring-mass system with an
oscillatory forces

Vortex Induced Vibration (2):

Equation of Cylinder Heave
M z  B z  K z L(t )
L(t )  Laccl . z(t )  Lvel . z (t )
M z  B z  K z  Laccl . z(t )  Lvel . z (t )
( M  Laccl . ) z  ( B  Lvel . ) z  K z 0
Note: If Lvel. > B, the system is unstable

Vortex Induced Vibration (3):

Lift Force on a Cylinder
y Lift force is sinusoidal component and residual

force. Filtering the recorded data will give the

sinusoidal term, which can be subtracted from
the total force.

LIFT FORCE : L(t ) La cos(Zt  H ) if Z  Z s

L(t ) La cos Zt cos H  La sin Zt sin H
L(t )

La sin H
 La cos H
z(t ) 
z (t )
z aZ
z aZ

Where s is the vortex shedding frequency

Vortex Induced Vibration (4):

Lift Force Components
y Two components of lift can be analyzed:
y Lift in phase with acceleration (added mass)
M accl . (Z , z a )


z aZ

cos H

y Lift in phase with velocity (damping

Lvel . (Z , z a )
sin H
z aZ
y Total Lift L(t )  M
z(t )  Lvel . (Z , z a ) z (t )
accl . (Z , z a ) 

Vortex Induced Vibration (5):

Total Force
L(t )  M accl . (Z , z a ) z(t )  Lvel . (Z , z a ) z (t )

L(t ) ( U D ) Cm ,accl . (Z , z a ) z(t )  ( U DU 2 ) C L ,vel . (Z , z a ) z (t )

If CL,v
veell. > 0 then the fluid force amplifies the motion
instead of opposing it. This is self excited oscillation.
l And CL,v
veell. are functions of frequency of oscillation()
And amplitude (za).

Lift Coefficient
Vortex induced vibrations are self-limited
d=D, Clv=CL,vel. and Lv=LV (,za)

In air: air is small, zmax | 0.2 diameter (D)
In water: water is large, zmax | 1.0 diameter (D)

LOCK-IN Phenomenon
y A cylinder is said to be locked in when the frequency of

oscillation is equal to the frequency of vortex shedding. In

this region the largest amplitude oscillations occur.

y Vortex shedding frequency:

Z s 2 S f s 2 S N St

y Natural frequency of oscillation:



2S fn

M m

VIV Suppression (1):

Various Means
(a) Helical Spring
(b) Shroud
(c) Axial slats
(d) Streamlines fairing
(e) Splitter plate
(f) Ribboned cable
(g) Pivoted guiding vane
(h) Spoiler plates

VIV Suppression (2):

Helical Strakes
Helical strakes are a common VIV
suppression techniques used both
onshore and offshore