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2.

Design criteria
General
Considerations to be taken during the planning of distribution layouts are :
1. Reticulation pipes are laid so as to form a network system. Dead ends shall
be discouraged.
2. Pipelines are laid adjacent to roads so as to provide access for maintence
Pipes
Pipe Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cast iron
Ductile iron
Asbestos Concrete
Steel
High density polyethylene

Pipes diameter depends on the following general factors:


a) For gravity systems, the difference in elevation between the source and
the point pf discharge.
b) The major frictional losses in transmission, distribution and reticulation
pipelines caused by the pipe.
The criteria for determining pipe sizes are as follow:
a) Transmission pipes gravity flow
Gravity pipeline shall be designed to suit the head available, taking into
consideration the designed flow, residual head requirements and the
hydraulic gradient.
b) Distribution/ reticulation pipes
All distribution/reticulation network piped shall be designed to meet peak
demand requirements as well as fire demand requirements, according to
the relevant risk category, with average demand taken at all other points
in the network. For both requirements, the minimal residuals head
required shall be met.
Design Factors in Pipe sizing
a) Flow velocity
The maximum flow velocity used in the water distribution system shall
be generally be 2.6 m/s. this is to prevent erosion due to high velocities

b) Peak Demand

Hourly variations in water demand results in the use of peak factors in the
design of pipelines. Average demand in a water distribution system is the
total
daily demands
requirement divided
by 24
hours. Peak demand
is
obtained by
multiplying the
average demand by
the
peak factor. Refer
table.

Table 2.1 Peak Factor

Table 2.2 : Average Daily Water Demand

Table 12.17 values of peak factors


Area

Urban and rural areas


excluding Felda
schemes

Peak factor
In distribution/
In gravity/ transmission
reticulation network
pipelines
2.5
1.2

3.0

1.2

Felda schemes

Table 2.3 values of peak factor


Residual pressure
Minimum
Maximum

Rural
10 metres
60 metres

Urban
15 metres
60 metres

Felda
10 metres
40 metres

Fire Hydrant
Fire hydrants provide the main means of drawing water from pipelines for fire
fighting. It may also be used as additional points for scouring the pipeline. All fire
hydrants shall have a maximum permissible working pressure of 16 bars.
Hydrants are placed at intersection branches and generally at the spacing
intervals of not more than 180 metres. High risk installation shall have hydrants
placed not more than 90metres of walking distance from installation.

Valves
Isolating valves ( ball or stop cock type ), shall be installed on :

1. All inlet pipes to suction cisterns and shall be positioned at a minimum of


1.8 metres above the floor level.
2. All outlet pipes from suction cisterns, and shall be placed in an accessible
position and located a maximum height of 1.8 metres above the floor
level.
3. Scour pipes attached to storage cisterns.
4. Separate pipes shall be routed to each toilet compartment, and to fittings
such as sinks, basins, water closets (WC) and urinals.
5. All valves employed in an internal plumbing system shall be made of
brass, ductile iron or stainless steel. Valves made of thermoplastic
materials shall not be used, except for valves of 15mm nominal diameter
within landed residential premises.
6. The pressure rating of the valves used shall be adequate to withstand the
operating pressure of the piping system, and also the expected pressure (
1.5 times the maximum permissible working pressure) during the
hydraulic pressure test of the piping system.
7. The valves used in the plumbing system shall comply with the
requirements of applicable standards specified in table C.3.