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TITRIMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CALCIUM FROM DIFFERENT MILK SAMPLES FROM SANGAMNER
TALUKA, MAHARASHTRA
Shrihari Ashok Pingle*, Varsha Ramchandra Pawar and Rupendra Vinayak Bhagde
*Department of Zoology, Sangamner Nagarpalika Arts, D. J. Malpani Commerce and
B. N. Sarda Science College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India
*Email: shriharipingle@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Milk is primary source of nutrition. It contains dissolved carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats, minerals like
Calcium, Magnesium, and Sodium. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in human body. It is important for
biological processes. The aim of the present study was to determine the amount of calcium in milk samples from
different sources and the effect of heat on Calcium content. Milk samples were collected from Desi cow, Jersey
cow, Goat, Buffalo and pasteurized milk. Amount of Calcium was determined by EDTA titration method. The
amount of Calcium was highest in goat milk and lowest in pasteurized packaged milk.
KEYWORDS: Calcium, EDTA method, Milk Sample, Pasteurization
INTRODUCTION
Milk is white liquid produced by mammary gland of mammals. It is primary source of nutrients for young mammals
before they are able to digest other type of food (Islam et al., 2014a). India is the largest producer of milk throughout
the world. In the world there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live
within dairy farming households. Milk is processed into variety of products such as cream, butter, cheese, yoghurt,
ghee, curd, khoa, butter milk, paneer and ice cream, etc. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey
protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food additives and industrial products (Milk, 2016).
Milk has energy required for human activities and nutrients needed for building up the human body (Yoo et al., 2013).
Sources of milk
Sources of milk from domesticated animal include milk, not only of cattle but also of sheep, goat and buffalo (Imran et
al., 2008). Other dairy cows include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey and Jersey. In Egypt, buffaloes are used mainly
for milk production. In India, most of the people consume milk from cattle like Jersey and Buffalo. In developed
countries, Dairy cattle such as Holstein have bred selectively for increased milk production. In the United States about
90% and in Great Britain about 85% of dairy cow are Holstein. Buffalo milk is pure white because it does not have
carotene since carotene is processed into vitamin A. The main components of goat milk are similar to those of cow milk
but differ as to particular physical and chemical properties. Goat milk proteins and fats have differences in their
composition from the milk of other species. Goat milk was found to contain more of calcium and phosphorus than cow
and human milk (Belewu et al., 2002).
Components of milk
The composition of milk may change over a period of time and may vary from country to country (Islam et al., 2014a).
Milk contains water, carbohydrate, fats, protein, enzyme, vitamins, organic acids, and minerals like Phosphorus,
Potassium and Calcium (Imran et al., 2008). Milk fat is secreted in the form of fat globule. Size of fat globule varies
from 0.2 to 15m. It varies from species to species. Fat soluble vitamin A, D, E and K are present along with essential
fatty acid in milk (Harding, et al., 1995). Milk contains Vitamin D which promotes calcium absorption in the gut and
maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentration to enable normal mineralization of bone, without
sufficient Vitamin D, bone can become thin. Vitamin D prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adult.
Important milk protein is casein, present in large amount. Milk also contains other proteins including enzymes. Milk
proteins apart from casein are more water soluble. Milk also contains different carbohydrate like lactose, glucose and
galactose. Lactose gives sweet taste to milk. Level of lactose depends on type of milk (Harding, et al., 1995). Milk
contains various minerals like Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium. Mineral contribute to important
physiological processes. High mineral content and availability of milk makes dairy products important source of
minerals to human. They are important for maintaining blood pressure (Buitenhuis et al., 2015). The mineral content of
Volume- 5 Issue- 3 (2016)

ISSN: 23194731 (p); 23195037 (e)

2016 DAMA International. All rights reserved.

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goat milk is higher than that of cow milk. It also contains greater variety of mineral and is particularly rich in Iron,
Phosphate and Potassium salts as compared to milk of other animals (Belewu et al., 2002). Calcium is the most
important mineral in the human body. It is important for intracellular metabolism, bone growth, blood clotting, nerve
conduction, muscle contraction, cardiac function, fertilization, heart rate, nerve conduction, stability of blood pressure,
strength of bones and teeth. In mammals, oocyte maturation and egg activation at fertilization are controlled by changes
in intracellular free Ca2+ level. Ca2+ regulates meiosis and fertilization (Homa et al., 2014). Buffalo and goat milk
provide great amount of Calcium. In Pakistan, the amount of calcium was found to be (64476.8) mg/ lit in goat,
followed by cow (68079.8) mg/lit and higher in buffalo milk (70288.1) mg/ lit (Imran et al., 2008).
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Preparation of solution
1. 0.01M EDTA - 3.7224 gm of EDTA was weighed, dissolved in distilled water and volume was raised up to 1
Liter.
2. Ammonia Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) solution as buffer (pH=10) :- 17.5 gm of Ammonium Chloride was
mixed with 142 ml of Concentrated Ammonia (Sp. Gravity 0.88-0.90) and made up to 250 ml with distilled
water. pH was adjusted by pH meter (EQUIP-TRONICS, Mumbai, India) up to 10.
Different milk samples were obtained from animals viz. Desi cow, Jersey cow, Goat, and Buffalo. Commercially
available packaged milk samples were obtained from Sangamner Taluka Sahakari Dudh Utpadak and Prakriya Sangh
Ltd. Rajhans Milk (referred to as Rajhans milk henceforth) and S .R. Thorat Milk products Pvt. Ltd. (referred to as S.
R. Thorat milk henceforth). The fresh milk samples were collected in properly washed and cleaned bottles. All milk
samples were brought to laboratory for estimating amount of Calcium. Estimation of Calcium of various milk samples
was carried out by EDTA titration method (Camp and Seely, n.d.).
Amount of calcium was determined as follows:
Molarity of Calcium =
Amount of Calcium =
RESULTS
Calcium content of various milk samples was determined without subjecting the milk samples to boiling. 20 samples
were tested. The observations are summarized in Table 1 and Chart 1. These values indicate that highest calcium
content was found in Goat milk (2067.0100.78 mg/lit), followed by Buffalo milk (1993.3107.46) mg/lit. In Desi cow
and Jersey cow milk, the observed values were (1594.099.61) mg/lit and (1483.497.14) mg/lit respectively. Among
commercially available milk samples, Rajhans Milk and S .R. Thorat milk recorded lower calcium content. In milk
samples from Rajhans Milk and S.R. Thorat Milk the observed values were (1354.744.84) mg/lit and (1362.565.47)
mg/lit respectively.
Table 1 Calcium Content from Different Milk Samples
Mean Calcium Content
SD
Sample Source

SE

Desi cow
Jersey cow
Buffalo
Goat
Rajhans milk

1594.0
1483.4
1993.3
2067.0
1354.7

99.61
97.14
107.46
100.78
44.84

22.27
21.72
24.03
22.53
10.02

S.R.Thorat milk

1362.5

65.47

14.63

The average Calcium content recorded from various milk samples tested is graphically presented in Chart 1.

Volume- 5 Issue- 3 (2016)

ISSN: 23194731 (p); 23195037 (e)

2016 DAMA International. All rights reserved.

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DISCUSSION
One of the most vital components of milk for human nutrition is Calcium which is needed for tissue and bone
development while deficiency results in slow growth, deprived appetite and rickets. In the present study, Calcium
content in goat milk has been found to be higher than that of in buffalo, desi cow, jersey cow and packaged milk.
According to Belewu (2002) good milk has higher Calcium content because superiority of good milk lies in its higher
content of digestible calcium. Lowest Calcium content was found in commercially available milk samples. Similar
observations have been recorded by Imran (2008) where buffalo milk recorded maximum Calcium content. In the
present study, value of Calcium content is higher than previous study (Imran et.al, 2008). Studies of Imran (2008)
indicate the levels of Ca2+ in Buffalo Goat to be 70288.1 mg/lit and 64476.8 mg/lit respectively. The present study
has recorded the level of Ca2+ in Buffalo and Goat as 1993.3107.46 mg/lit and 2067.0100.78 mg/lit respectively.
These differences may have been resulted due to variation in geographical location, environment etc. Feeding and
nutritional status of the animal may also strongly contribute to the variation among the animals. Variation can also be
explained by breed differences and the differences in stage of lactation as reported by Islam et al. (2014). Further
investigations on effect of stage of lactation on Calcium content of milk are needed.
REFERENCES
Belewu M. A. and Aiyegbusi O. F. (2002). Comparison of the mineral content and apparent biological value of milk
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mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. The Journal of cell biology, 131(3), 591-602.
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Volume- 5 Issue- 3 (2016)

ISSN: 23194731 (p); 23195037 (e)

2016 DAMA International. All rights reserved.