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Phylum Arthropoda

Arthropod success Why such abundance and diversity?

1 ____________________ - protective (against desiccation) but flexible
2 ______________ - segments fused and/or modified in different body regions for specific
functions (ie. Appendages/efficient locomotion)
3 Efficient gas exchange systems, particularly in __________ forms
4 Highly developed ___________ (ie. Compound eye)
5 Complex ______________ (ie. Social insects)
6 _______________, results in less competition for resources (ie. Trophic partitioning)
Body Form and Function
Epicuticle: External surface composed of ________, ___________, etc; (no __________), with
external waxy layer. Protects against __________________ invasion.
Procuticle: Consists primarily of layers of ___________ and ____________ (complex
-____________ to form _________ (cuticle hardening, tanning) takes place in this layer by
_____________ of protein molecules.
-Additional hardening in ___________ facilitated by ___________ deposition.
The ____________ thickness varies in thickness and is not uniformly hardened.
Movement is made possible by:
-The division of the _________ into separate __________
-Connection of adjoining ____________ by a think, flexible ____________________
-______________, articulated outgrowths of the body wall
-Regional specialization of __________
1. ________________ - connecting the limb to the body
2. ________________ - wholly within the limb

Flight by ________________________
________ Flight Muscles
Tergal Articulations
-_______________ (sternotergal) muscle contraction pulls ___________ towards sternum
-provides force for upstroke
_________ Flight Muscles
-attached to part of the wing itself
-direct force provided for the ________________
Gas Exchange (Class Insecta)
_________ - spiral thickening of the cuticle, tracheal support and prevent __________
Trachea branch out into ____________ which brank into a fine ____________ over cells
Small Insects: Gas transport occurs entirely by a _________________
-O2 consumption in tracheal system creates a ______________ which draws air in
Large Insects: Muscular movements of ___________ pumps air through system
Aquatic Insects: ___________ are usually non-functional
-An ____________ can be held over the surface by __________________ and hairs
-In some larval insects, _____________ may be present
Unsclerotized cuticle with trachea, blood or air bubbles, leading to main trachea
Circulatory System
Arthropods have an _______________________
-Blood (______________) bathes internal organs directly
-The body cavity is a ____________ (blood chamber)
-One(or more) heart(s) pumps ______________ into _____________
-Contraction of the heart pumps blood out __________ into _________ and relaxation draws
blood in through __________ (pores)
Sense Organs
-_________________ associated with modifications of the exoskeleton
-would otherwise act as a ________ to external stimuli
__________ - modification of the __________ for the reception of environmental information
(except light) (collectively called __________)

Hair, bristle or seta

-_______________: stimulated by movement, air flow, etc;
-_______________: stimulated by ____________ cues, etc;


Pit and/or slit organs

Campaniform organs (cuticular dome on tarsi)

Hygroreceptors (hollow cuticular peg)

-Spiders use a combination of ____________, ________ and _____________

-For most ______, sensory hairs and primary sense organs
_____________ - sensitive to very slight __________ or alterations in air current
-restricted to appendages
Slit Organs
-occur _________ or in ________ (lyriform organ)
-found on ____________ and body surface
-________________ innervate each slit **
-response to changes: tension of cuticle (strain gauge), gravity, air-borne vibrations
Compound Eye
-convex surface gives a wide _________ (ie. Up to 200 degrees)
-excellent at detecting _______
-composed of multiple ____________ units or ___________
-can analyze polarized and __________
-zone of _______________ acts as nectar guide
_____________ - cylindrical photoreceptive units that form the compound eye
-outer surface of _________________ or squares (facets)
Behaviour Complex behaviour patterns
1 _____________ - compound eyes and simple non-image forming eyes (_________)
-light production as in fireflies

_____________ - __________, heavily concentrated on antennae, mouthparts and legs

____________ (ie. Pheromones) mark trails or territories, social status, alarm
responses, kin/colony recognition
___________ - _______________ notable in crickets, grasshoppers and cicades
-attracts opposite sec, aggression and aggregation of individuals

Food Source Communication

-direction of food source indicated by angle of the _____________ relative to the _________
surface of the hive
-directly ________; food in same direction as the sun
FSC Distance
-feeding starts set up ____ to ______ from beehive

-scout bees allowed to forage and marked for identification

-__________ dance timed upon return of scout(s) to the hive
-very few bees perform _____________ when food source is less than _____ away from the high
*Read Scout Experiments in PPT

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