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ISSN 2078-2365

Energy Storage System for Power Quality

Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Rahul Nema, Anurag Trivedi

Email: rahul.nema111@gmail.com

power sources of energy i.e. hydro and thermal

availability, the sources of renewable energy based on

solar, wind and electrical energy through biomass

proving to be collaterally viable options which are

effectively compelling us to resort to them. Hence not

only in India but the world over, the renewable sources

of energy are being utilised in a big way. The

generation of electricity from them is thus possible at

such decentralized location based on their area of

availability. The main disadvantage of these kinds of

renewable energy is however

its generation

discontinuity, as well as the fact that its energy

generation is not controlled by the system operator thus

making it more difficult to integrate these plants in the

generation pool. Hence to obviate such disadvantages

and to make these alternative sources more viable, the

energy storage becomes a significant factor that can

solve the problems described above. In this paper a

Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System is used

for maintaining constant frequency as well as

mitigation of voltage sags in a decentralized power

plant and it also presents a MATLAB/ SIMULINK

model of an Electrical Generator Set and a simple

Super Capacitor energy storage system with a pulse

load.

Key Words - Load Frequency Control, Super

Capacitor

Energy

Storage

System,

MATLAB/SIMULINK.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Electric power systems are undergoing dramatic

changes in operational requirements as a result of

deregulation. Continuing electric load growth and

higher regional power transfers in a largely

interconnected network lead to complex and less

secure power system operation. At the same time,

the growth of electronic loads has made the quality

of power supply a critical issue. Power generation

meet these new demands as a result of economic,

environmental, technical, and governmental

regulation constraints.

First Author name - Rahul Nema (M.E. Student), Department of

Electrical Engineering, Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur,

(M.P.), India, E-mail: rahul_nema1984@yahoo.com

Second Author name- Dr. Anurag Trivedi (Associate Professor),

Department of Electrical Engineering, Jabalpur Engineering

College,Jabalpur, (M.P.), India, dr.anuragtrivedi@yahoo.co.in

generating plant more favourable option [1]. There

are a number of ways for installations of a small

scale electricity generating plants in locations that

are not served by the electricity grid. Typically, the

easiest and least expensive solution from the end

user's perspective is to arrange for the extension of

the electricity grid to the project site. The cost of grid

extension increases with the distance from the grid at

a rate of millions of Rupees per kilometer. Therefore

grid extension often starts to become economically

prohibitive farther than three to five km from the

grid. When grid extension is not an option, a

standalone or distributed power system can be

installed to generate electricity at a location close to

the site where the electricity is needed [1]. Now a

days electrical power generation from renewable

energy sources like wind energy, solar cells, biomass

etc having its own importance due to their low

administrative, executive costs, and short

construction time compared to large power plants

[2]. In this paper we are considering a 100 KW

biomass gasification power generating plant.

In India, the production of all types of

biomass is of around 1000 million tonnes per

annum. Agriculture and forestry are the two major

producers of biomass. Large quantities of crop

residues are burnt in the field after harvest, which

creates environmental problems and also results in

loss of soil organic matter. Biomass gasification

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

offers a vast potential to convert surplus crop

residue into fuel i.e. producer gas for power

generation. Biomass gasification based technology

can generate electricity in a decentralized mode at

low cost as compared to large thermal power plants

[3] but the main problem on these plants is to keep

the constant speed value. Frequency is an important

criterion in electric power systems. The consumers

want continuous, stable, quality and reliable energy.

For a power system, constant frequency and active

power balance must be provided. If the active power

balance is provided on the change of instantaneous

power than frequency can be maintained. In a power

system operation such as Biomass gasification based

electricity production, load frequency control is very

important for supplying efficiently electrical power

of good quality. Variations in connected loads have

always been the biggest problems to the power

system engineers. Therefore, an auxiliary must

require for the controlling of frequency oscillations.

Frequency oscillations due to large load disturbance

can be effectively overcome by fast acting energy

storage devices, because additional energy storage

capacity is provided as a supplement to the kinetic

energy storage in the moving mass of the generator

rotor. The energy storage devices share the sudden

changes in power requirement in the load [4]. A

super capacitor energy storage system (SCESS) is

composed of multi-component super capacitor (the

array of super capacitor unit), the array stores energy

in the form of field energy. Once energy is needed,

the storage system delivers energy through the

control unit. Consequently active power and reactive

power of power system is compensated timely and

accurately, and energy reaches at a balanced and

stable stage.

2.

SUPERCAPACITOR BANK

Electrical double layer capacitor. Super Capacitors

are passive electronic components that, unlike

batteries, store energy by physically separating

positive and negative charges. They offer high

power densities and provide significant energy

storage capacities. It stores the energy in the double

layer formed near the carbon electrode surface.

The Voltage across Super capacitor is given by=

(1)

Where Q is the charge stored on the Super capacitor

and C is the capacitance of Super capacitor

E= C

(2)

(SCESS) is designed for smoothing the power

fluctuation via charging and discharging the real

power which may be required due to peak demand,

transient fault and other reasons. Another important

application is voltage leveling across the load

terminal. The supercapacitors voltage

will drop

to 0 V if all the stored energy is utilized then the

constraint rated power output capability would be

violated i.e.

Therefore a lower limit

is fixed on the supercapacitors voltage

, is 50 %

of

, so that 75 % of stored energy can be

utilized efficiently [5]. Since the voltage rate of

supercapacitors cell is low therefore the

supercapacitors bank would consist of number of

supercapacitors cells in series and parallel so that the

required voltage level and sufficient useful energy

can be stored.

2.1

bank [6]=

(3)

Where:

= is the maximum energy storage capacity

= is equivalent capacitance of super capacitor

bank in Farad

= is the maximum voltage of the super

capacitor

The discharge voltage ratio the super capacitor

bank is representation as following:

%d=

100

(4)

Where;

%d = is percentage discharge ratio

= is the minimum allowable voltage limit of

the super capacitor

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

The maximum power that can be withdrawn

from the super capacitor bank can be expressed as

following as per maximum power transfer theorem:

=

(5)

Where:

= is the maximum dischargeable power in

KW

= is equivalent series resistance of super

capacitor bank in ohm

Once the voltage constraints have been

obtained i.e.

then the useful

energy ( ) that the super capacitor bank can

provide can be expressed as following:

[

=

2.2

(6)

EQUIVALENT CAPACITANCE OF

SUPER CAPACITOR BANK

bank is represented by the following formula:

=

(7)

Where:

= is equivalent capacitance of super capacitor

bank in Farad

= is cell capacitance of each cell in Farad

= are number of cell connected in series

= is number of parallel arms in super capacitor

bank

From equation (7) it is clear that to have net

higher equivalent capacitance of the bank, number

of the parallel arms ( ) should be always higher

than

thereby higher energy storage capacity.

In, general the number of series connected

cells

in one branch are imposed by the rating of

super capacitor cells maximum voltage available in

the market or in the stack.

=

(8)

Where:

= is the rating of super capacitor cell

The number of parallel branch

in the super

capacitor bank can be found by:

=

(9)

number of parallel branches must be more than

(

) and rounded upward side to nearest

integer.

Total numbers of cell in super capacitor bank

would be:

(10)

capacitor bank

= are number of cell connected in series

= is number of parallel arms in super capacitor

bank

3.

CAPACITOR BASED ENERGY STORAGE

SYSTEM

with optimum variable speed is an engine-generator

dynamics at sudden transient from low load to high

load. In case of sudden power output increase, the

engine cannot deliver the requested torque and the

result is further decrease of the speed and torque of

the engine until the undesirable stop. Engine is not

able to make sufficient torque and EGS cannot

deliver energy to the load. Problems of EGS

behaviour can be solved with speed higher than

optimum speed is or the other concept is EGS using

an energy storage device [7].

Energy storage can be achieved by

Supercapacitors. Supercapacitor represents one of

the newest innovations in the field of the electrical

energy storage. The proposed supercapacitors

energy storage system is designed to have storage of

6 KWh of energy, 400 V connected to Electrical

Generator Set (EGS) to supply the load in case of

additional power demand. The supercapacitors used

are of Maxwell Technologies, United States make

having product (BMOD0094 P075 Power module)

[8] specifications, Nominal capacitance 94 F, Rated

voltage 75 V, ESR 13 m, Operating temperature

ranges from -40C to +65C, Specific power 4.3

kWh/kg, Specific Energy 2.9 Wh/kg, Cycles

1,000,000, Lifespan 17 years (at 25 C), Maximum

continuous current 78 A, Maximum peak current (1

sec) 1,600 A, Leakage current, 50 mA. Then the

SCESS designed would be as following Table I.

TABLE I

CONFIGURATION OF SUPER CAPACITOR BASED

ENERGY STORED SYSTEM

S.N.

ITEM

Energy Storage bank

2

3

4

Voltage

Minimum Super capacitor

Voltage

Optimized Super capacitor

Voltage

SYMBOL

VALUE

6 KWh,

400 Volts

440

220

400

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

Equivalent Capacitance of

SCESS

Number of Units Connected

in Series

5

6

7

in Parallel

Required for Super

capacitor the Bank

Equivalent Series

Resistance of SCESS

9

10

4.

235

6

15

90

5.2

d

50%

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPOSED

MODEL BASED ON SUPER CAPACITOR

BASED ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM

for Supercapacitor based energy storage system;

which is connected parallel with the Electrical

Generator Set. The proposed system comprises of

125KVA Generator Set, 11KV & 0.8 pf, 2- winding

Y/Y, 11KV/400V step down transformer and

different types of loads connected to the secondary

side of the transformer.

The DC voltage is applied to IGBT/Diodes of

two- level inverter generating 50 Hz. The IGBT of

the inverter uses pulse width modulation at 900 Hz

carrier frequency, and discretized sample time of

50e-6 sec. This PWM generator or modulator can be

used to generate pulses for 3-phase, 2-level, or 3level converters using one bridge or two bridges

(twin configuration). In the diagram, the PWM

modulator generates two sets of 12 pulses (1 set per

inverter) at P1 and P2 outputs. This can operate

either in synchronized or un-synchronized mode.

When operating in synchronized mode, the carrier

triangular signal is synchronized on a PLL reference

angle connected to input 'wt'. On the other input

three sinusoidal 0.85 pu modulating signals are

provided by the 'Discrete 3-phase Programmable

Source' to obtain a modulation index of 0.85. The

carrier signals are synchronized on the modulating

signals. The harmonics generated by the inverter are

filtered by LC filter. The three coupling transformer

of 10MVA are used to connect the SCESS to the

distribution network. A SCESS of 235 F are

connected on the dc side to provide the energy/real

power. The Super capacitor energy storage

arrangement consists of double bridge two level

voltage

source

converters

as

inverter,

supercapacitors bank as energy storage device, a

coupling transformer connected in shunt to the

converts the dc voltage of the supercapacitors bank

into sets of three phase ac voltages as output. These

voltages are in phase and coupled with the

distribution system through reactance of the

coupling transformer. The VSC connected in shunt

with the distribution network can be used for voltage

regulation and compensation of reactive power,

power factor correction and elimination of

harmonics. The continuous voltage and frequency

regulation of the distribution network is performed

by injecting the shunt current for elimination of the

voltage sag across the system impedance. [10] The

value of current can be controlled by adjusting the

output voltage of the converter.

5.

5.1

SIMULATION RESULT

Generator Set is connected to 75 KW of loads. 27%

(20 KW) extra load is applied on a distribution

network for a period of 0.4-0.6 sec. required. A drop

in voltage & frequency occurred due to this extra

load during this period. In the proposed system a

supercapacitor based energy storage arrangement is

used to deliver its stored energy during the peak load

periods as well as for controlling the voltage

fluctuation. It is also used to ensure power quality of

the distribution network by maintaining its voltage

and frequency constant during the operation. A

MATLAB/ SIMULINK modeling is used to model

the entire system and the effectiveness of this

arrangement can be seen by simulating the proposed

system with and without SCESS.

CASE 1 (A) When the simulation was carried out

at 125 KVA Electrical Generator Set (EGS)

connecting it with an extra load of 27% (i.e. 20 KW)

at the distribution network, only for a period of 0.40.6 second, where 75 KW of loads are already

connected. (In fig. 1), simulation result shows

13.5% voltage sag occurred and 87.5% (350 V)

voltage appeared and simultaneously there was a

reduction in current at load end during the same

period. The value of current at the load end is 95

Amps. The simulation was run for total 0.7 second.

849

Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

Time (Sec)

Fig. 1 Voltage and current at the load end when 27% load

applied on EGS

Fig. B. Simulation model based on super capacitor based energy storage system

at 125 KVA Electrical Generator Set (EGS)

connecting it with an extra load of 27% (i.e. 20 KW)

at the distribution network, only for a period of 0.40.6 second, where 75 KW of loads are already

connected. (In fig. 2), Simulation result shows

13.5% voltage sag occurred and 87.5% (0.95 pu)

voltage appeared at the generator terminals and

simultaneously there was a increment in current due

to this voltage drop. The value of current at load is 5

amps. The simulation was run for total 0.7 second.

850

Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

was an increment in current due to this voltage drop.

The value of current at load is 130 amps. The

simulation was run for total 0.7 second.

Time (Sec)

Fig. 2 Voltage and current at the generator end when 27%

extra load applied on it

at 125 KVA Electrical Generator Set (EGS)

connecting it with an extra load of 27% (i.e. 20 KW)

at the distribution network, only for a period of 0.40.6 second, where 75 KW of loads are already

connected. (In fig. 3), 13.5% voltage sag occurred

and 87.5% (400V) voltage appeared at the output

terminal of the transformer and simultaneously there

Time (Sec)

Fig. 3 Voltage and current at the transformer end when

27% extra load applied on it

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

CASE 1 (D) When the simulation was carried out

at 125 KVA Electrical Generator Set (EGS)

connecting it with an extra load of 27% (i.e. 20 KW)

at the distribution network, only for a period of 0.40.6 second, where 75 KW of loads are already

connected, (In fig. 4) Simulation result shows the a

drop in frequency of the generator up to 49.01 Hz.

The simulation was run for total 1 second.

supercapacitors were fully charged

supercapacitor

energy

storage

arrangement

(SCESS), the SCESS are fully charged and able to

deliver its stored energy to the distribution network

to compensate the extra load. (In fig. 6) The

Simulation result shows for a period of 0.4-0.6

second the three phase circuit breaker, which is

connected at the load end, is closed and SCESS start

delivering its stored energy and maintain the desired

voltage level i.e. 1 pu at the generator end. The

simulation was run for total 0.7 second.

Time (Sec)

Fig. 4 Frequency of the generator when 27% load applied

on it

supercapacitor

energy

storage

arrangement

(SCESS), the SCESS are fully charged and able to

deliver its stored energy to the distribution network

to compensate the extra load. (In fig. 5) The

Simulation result shows for a period of 0.4-0.6

second the three phase circuit breaker , which is

connected at the load end, is closed and SCESS start

delivering its stored energy and maintain the desired

voltage level i.e. 400 V at the distribution network.

The simulation was run for total 0.7 second.

Time (Sec)

Fig. 6 Voltage and current at the generator end when

supercapacitors were fully charged

supercapacitor

energy

storage

arrangement

(SCESS), the SCESS are fully charged and able to

deliver its stored energy to the distribution network

to compensate the extra load. (In fig. 7) The

Simulation result shows for a period of 0.4-0.6

second the three phase circuit breaker, which is

connected at the load end, is closed and SCESS start

delivering its stored energy and frequency raised up

to 0.4% and the output frequency of generator was

49.45 Hz as shown in fig. 7. The simulation was run

for total 1 second.

Time (Sec)

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

switched off by the three phase circuit breaker for

period of 0.4-0.6 second. During this period the

SCESS start delivering power to the load and the

value of voltage and current reached their desired

value i.e. 400 V for voltage and 108 amps for

current. As shown in fig. 9. The simulation was run

for total 0.7 second.

Time (Sec)

Fig. 7 Frequency of the generator when supercapacitors

were fully charged

(EGS) has been installed to feed power to the 75

KW loads connected at the output terminals. The

simulation was performed for supercapacitors based

energy storage arrangement (SCESS) but the SCESS

was not charged and the main supply to load is

switched off by the three phase circuit breaker for

period of 0.4-0.6 second. During this period the

voltage across the load approaches to zero since the

SCESS was not able to supply energy to the

distribution network. As shown in fig. 8. The

simulation was run for total 0.7 second.

Time (Sec)

Fig. 8 Voltage and current at the load end when

supercapaciotrs were discharged

Time (Sec)

Fig. 9 Voltage and current at the load end when

supercapacitors were fully charged

at 125 KVA Electrical Generator Set (EGS)

connecting it with different loads applied on the

distribution network for a different period of time.

(In fig. 10 & 11) Simulation result described in the

following table that shows there is a reduction in the

value of voltage and current. In normal condition 75

KW of loads are already connected through the

EGS. The value of voltage is 400 volts and current

108 amps. The simulation was run for total 0.6

second.

S.NO.

Applied

Load

(KW)

Time

Duration

(Sec)

Voltage

(volts)

Current

(amps)

1.

20

0.1 0.2

360

98

2.

25

0.2 0.3

350

94

3.

40

0.3- 0.4

320

85

4.

50

0.4 0.5

300

80

(EGS) has been installed to feed power to the 75

KW loads connected at the output terminals. The

simulation was performed for supercapacitors based

energy storage arrangement (SCESS) but the SCESS

was fully charged and able to supply energy to the

distribution network. The main supply to load is

853

Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

Time (Sec)

Fig. 10 Voltage across the load when different loads are

applied in different time intervals

Time (Sec)

Fig. 11 Current at the load end when different loads are

applied in different time intervals

supercapacitor

energy

storage

arrangement

(SCESS), the SCESS are fully charged and able to

deliver its stored energy to the distribution network

to compensate the all the extra loads. (In fig. 12 &

13) Simulation result described in the following

table that shows the drop in voltage and current

mitigated by connecting SCESS. The simulation was

run for total 0.6 second.

S.

N.

Appli

ed

Load

(KW)

Time

Durati

on

(Sec)

Volta

ge

(volts)

Curre

nt

(amps

)

Volta

ge

(volts)

Curre

nt

(amps

)

1.

20

360

98

400

108

2.

25

350

94

400

108

3.

40

320

85

400

108

4.

50

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3 0.4

0.4

0.5

300

80

400

108

Time (Sec)

Fig. 12 Voltage across the load when supercapacitors are

fully charged

Time (Sec)

Fig. 13 Current at the load end when supercapacitors are

fully charged

6.

CONCLUSION

designed for power quality improvement of a

decentralized power generating plant. A series and

parallel combination of supercapacitor module can

store 22.7MJ (6KWh) of energy. Supercapacitors

energy storage system has been used as a storage

device and deliver the real power into distribution

network for higher rate of change of dynamic

conditions in case of transient conditions as well as

for average power demand in case of steady

conditions. The highly developed graphic facilities

available in MATLAB/SIM-Power Simulink were

used to conduct all aspects of model implementation

and to carry out extensive simulation studies in the

proposed systems. A PWM based control scheme

has been implemented to control the switches

(IGBT/Diode) in the two level voltage source

converters which control the supercapacitors to

deliver/absorb the real power as per the requirement.

As the simulation result shows that SCESS

arrangement improves the performance of

distribution network also found able to maintain

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 846-855

ISSN 2078-2365

reliability of the network. Its characteristics make it

more suitable with non conventional energy sources

for energy stabilizing purpose.

7.

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Non-Member, 9 T.Ichikawa, Non-Member,T. Takeda, Member,

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[2] Arjan M. van Voorden, Laura M. Ramirez Elizondo, Gerard

C. Paap, Senior Member, IEEE, Jody Verboomen, Member,

IEEE, Lou van der Sluis, Senior Member, IEEE The Application

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Generation

[4] Mairaj ud din Mufti, Shameem Ahmad Lone, Shiekh Javed

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Application of Super Capacitor Based Energy Storage System for Power Quality Improvement of a Decentralized Power Plant