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Department of Mechanical Engineering

TY Mechanical, ME 09002 HEAT TRANSFER


2016-2017
Course Description:
Moving heat around and converting it to other forms of energy or work is the work of a
mechanical engineer's work. With the realization that energy is a scarce and precious resource
which should not be wasted, a good understanding of thermal processes is becoming
increasingly important.
Heat can be transferred in three basic ways: by conduction, by convection and by thermal
radiation. In most situations, we have two or more heat transfer mechanisms taking place
simultaneously.
In this course, we will examine in some detail each heat transfer mechanism, at first
individually, then in a coupled fashion. We will apply concepts from other courses, such as
mathematics, fluid mechanics and physics. The theoretical material will be corroborated with lab
sessions, to maintain the vital link with reality, and especially to provide a hands-on experience
of the material taught in class. The lab sessions will cover steady-state conduction, convection
(forced and buoyancy-driven), and radiant heat transfer.
Course Content
1. INTRODUCTION
Objectives:
To understand the different heat exchange modes.
To understand the differences between the physical process background.
To understand the complexity of the real problems at the heat exchange.
Contents:
Basic mechanisms at the heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.
Objectives of the heat Exchange and applications.
Conduction, Fourier law.
Convection, Newton cooling law.
Radiation, Stefan-Boltzman law. Radiation Exchange between a surface and the
surrounding walls
2. CONDUCTION BASIS
Objectives:
To define the relationship between the temperatures distribution and the conduction heat
flux. Fourier law.
To know the thermal properties: conductivity and diffusivity of the different materials.
To obtain the global conduction equation.
Contents:
Fourier law. Thermal gradient concept.
Thermal conductivity, fundamental properties. Usual values for different materials
Global conduction equation.

Thermal diffusivity.
Global conduction equation in different coordinates systems.

3. ONE DIMENSION STEADY CONDUCTION


Objectives:
To obtain the heat flux at simple geometries from the wall surface temperatures.
Variable thermal conductivity and heat generation effects.
To obtain the heat flux at several layers walls.
To understand the electrical analogy for the heat transfer problem.
To define the overall heat transfer coefficient for a several layers wall.
Contents:
Application of the conduction law for simple walls and hollow cylinders.
Equations with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation.
Contact resistance.
Equivalent thermal resistances.
Several layers: plates, cylinders.
Critical insulation radius for pipes.
4. EXTENDED SURFACES, FINS
Objectives:
To learn the characterization of the heat transfer at fins and finned surfaces, pre-design of
finned surfaces to dissipate a heat transfer magnitude or to limit the maximum admissible
temperature.
To define effectiveness and efficiency at fins.
To characterize finned surfaces by means of the corrected efficiency.
To determine the fins optimum dimensions.
Contents:
Applications and importance of fins. Different types of extended surfaces
Global equation for heat transfer at extended surfaces.
Effectiveness and efficiency of the fin.
Heat transfer for a finned surface.
Global criteria for the use of extended surfaces.

5. TRANSIENT STATE CONDUCTION


Objectives:
Study of heat transfer processes depending on time for simplified geometries with the
assumption of uniform temperature. Necessary conditions to apply this uniform temperature
model
Contents:
Uniform temperature model.
Definition and basis for the non-dimensional numbers Biot & Fourier
Limitations for the uniform temperature model
Application examples

6. CONVECTION INTRODUCTION
Objectives:
To understand the problem of the calculation of the convection heat transfer.
To understand the origin of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers.
To learn the classification of the different convection types and how is possible their
characterization.
To know the non-dimensional numbers used to characterize the convection and the basic
structure of the mathematical correlations for the different convection types.
To know the phase change convection.
Contents:
Convection basic concepts. Convection types: Free and forced convection
Hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers Characterization of the flow type by means
of the use of the Reynolds number
Parameters to characterize the convection. Non-dimensional numbers
Correlations depending of the convection type
Introduction to the phase change convection
7. FORCED CONVECTION
Objectives:
To define the most used correlations for forced internal and external convection.
Contents:
Correlations for forced convection: External and Internal
Application for typical simple examples
8. FREE CONVECTION
Objectives:
Description of the non-dimensional numbers characteristics at free convection.
To define the most used correlations at free convection.
Contents:
Free convection global problem.
Free convection correlations.
Application for typical simple exercises.
9. HEAT EXCHANGERS

Objectives:
To know the utility of heat exchangers and some applications.
To learn the classification of heat exchangers depending of the flow and the different
typologies depending of the application.
To understand the energy balance equations for heat exchangers.
To understand the origin and how to use the different methodologies to analyze heat
exchangers: logarithmic temperature mean difference and effectiveness methods
To be able to evaluate the maximum heat Exchange at the different configurations and to
evaluate the necessary heat transfer surface.

Contents:
Heat exchangers classification. Main types and applications of heat exchangers
Energy balance in a heat exchanger
Overall heat transfer coefficient
Fouling factor
LMTD methodology.
Effectiveness methodology.
Resolution of exercises of analysis and design of heat exchangers
10 RADIATION: Fundamentals
Objectives:
To understand the radiation heat transfer mode.
The electromagnetic spectrum. Position of the thermal radiation at this spectrum.
Description of the radiation properties of the surfaces.
To know the fundamental laws for radiation at blackbody and real surfaces
Contents:
The thermal radiation.
Radiosity and irradiation.
Radiative properties of the surfaces.
Energy balance for radiation between opaque surfaces
11. RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWWEN SURFACES AT NON-PARTICIPATIVE
MEDIUMS
Objectives:
To define the view factor for different geometries. Basic properties for view factors.
To solve radiation problems for enclosures. Methods of radiosities and electric radiation
analogy. Simplifications for both methods
Contents:
View factor definition.
View factor evaluation for enclosures.
Radiation Exchange at enclosures.
Equations
Radiosity method
Electric analogy method
Radiation Exchange between parallel infinite plates.
Radiation shields
Examples of radiation problems solving procedures for simple enclosures

Books:
1. Yunus A. Cengel & Afshin J. Ghajar, Heat and Mass Transfer - Fundamental &
Applications, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill, 2010
2. Frank P. Incropera and Davis P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer', 5th
Ed., Wiley, 2002
3. Dr. V. M. Domkundwar, Text book of Heat Transfer