Sie sind auf Seite 1von 228

SOCIETY OF TRIBOL

TRIBOLOGISTS
OGISTS
UBRICA
RICA
ATION
T
AND L
LUBRICATION
ENGINEERS
71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition
May 15-19, 2016 Las Vegas, Nevada

Download STLE 2016 Annual Meeting App.


Sponsored by Sea-Land Chemical.

THE POWER TO PREVENT FOAM


AND SEPARATION
DEEP INSIDE NEW METALWORKING MACHINES, WHERE CUTTING SPEEDS AND TEMPERATURES
HAVE SOARED AND COOLANT DELIVERY PRESSURE HAS INTENSIFIED, FOAM AND FLUID SEPARATION
HAVE BECOME THE NEW MISCHIEF-MAKERS TO PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY.
SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN AND RIGOROUSLY TESTED IN HIGH PRESSURE FIELD TRIALS,
POLARTECH EA700 IS A TOTALLY NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE EMULSIFIER WHICH REMAINS STABLE
IN DIFFICULT WATER QUALITIES, AND IS COMPATIBLE WITH A WIDE RANGE OF BASE STOCKS.
PATROLLED BY OUR LEGENDARY HEROES OF PROTECTION AND PERFORMANCE,
POLARTECH EA700 DELIVERS VIRTUALLY NO FOAM AND NO FLUID SEPARATION, AS IT DRAMATICALLY
EXTENDS FLUID LIFE, KEEPS MACHINES CLEANER AND REDUCES ODORS.
POLARTECH

Visit Us At STLE
Booths 215 and 213

EA700
NO CONTEST!
www.aftonmicrobotz.com/EA700
2016. Afton Chemical Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of NewMarket Corporation (NYSE:NEU).
Polartech is a trademark of Afton Chemical Corporation.

Contents
02 Message from STLE President Martin Webster

25

Sunday/Monday Overview

26

Time Grid: Monday Technical Sessions

32

Monday Technical Sessions & Commercial


Marketing Forum

10 Ballys Las Vegas Hotel Floor Plans

57

Tuesday Overview

12 Trade Show Floor Plan with Exhibitor Names

58

Time Grid: Tuesday Technical Sessions

62

Tuesday Technical Sessions & Commercial


Marketing Forum

04 Daily Schedule at a Glance/Business Meetings


08 Index to Technical Sessions & Education Courses

14 General Information & Policies


Exhibit Hours
Registration Information

105 Wednesday Overview

Annual Meeting & Education Course Policies

106 Time Grid: Wednesday Technical Sessions

Recording Policy

110 Wednesday Technical Sessions & Commercial


Marketing Forum

Photo Policy
Cell Phone Policy

149 Thursday Overview

Future STLE Meeting Dates

150 Time Grid: Thursday Technical Sessions

16 Special Events & Networking


Golf Tournament (Sunday afternoon)
Hoover Dam Tour (Sunday afternoon)
Early Careerists Networking Event (Sunday night)
Speakers Breakfast (Monday-Thursday)
STEM Program (Monday morning)

154 Thursday Technical Sessions & Commercial


Marketing Forum
178 Student Poster Abstracts
194 Participants Index
206 2015-2016 STLE Board of Directors

Opening General Session (Monday morning)

Annual Meeting Program Committee

NLGI Certification Exam (Monday morning)

Exhibitor Advisory Committee

Welcoming Party (Monday evening)

Annual Meeting Education Committee

Presidents Luncheon (Tuesday afternoon)

Education Course Chairs

STLE Certification Exams (Thursday morning)

Technical Committees

18 Education Course Descriptions & Instructors


21 Nanotribology Special Session (Sunday afternoon)
22 Keynote Address:
Lubrication Challenges in an 850-hp NASCAR
Sprint Cup Engine, Dr. Andrew L. Randolph,
Earnhardt-Childress Racing (ECR) Engines

Industry Councils
211 STLE Award Winners & Fellows
212 Advertisers Index
213 Notes

23 Annual Meeting Exhibitors


24 Annual Meeting Sponsors

The 2016 STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition is sponsored by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers,
an international organization headquartered at 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois (USA) 60068-2376.
Telephone: (847) 825-5536. Fax: (847) 825-1456. Email: information@stle.org. Web: www.stle.org.
STLE is a not-for-profit professional society founded in 1944 to advance the science of tribology and
best practices in lubrication engineering.

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

LAS VEGAS

Message from STLEs President


Welcome to five days of world-class education,
training and networking
Dear Members, Friends and Guests,

WELCOME TO STLES 71ST ANNUAL MEETING & EXHIBITION!


Two key STLE committees, the Annual Meeting Program Committee and the

Education Committee, have assembled a challenging technical program featuring


more than 500 technical presentations. You can look forward to an outstanding week
of professional development here in Las Vegas.
In addition to the technical sessions, the meetings program includes 12 one-day
education courses taught by the leading technical experts in their respected fields
and many chances to network with and learn from your peers in the tribologyresearch and lubricant communities. I also encourage you to take time out of your
annual meeting schedule to visit with some 100 companies displaying in the trade
show. This is an opportunity to get an early look at the newest technologies the
lubricants industry has to offer.

Martin Webster, STLE


President
ExxonMobil Research and
Engineering, Annandale,
New Jersey

With so many events and activities to choose from, the only problem with STLEs annual meeting might be planning
your personal itinerary. This Program Guide and the Annual Meeting Mobile App will help you navigate an event that
grows each year.
Remember, also take advantage of the social events, including Monday evenings Welcoming Party and the
Presidents Luncheon Tuesday at noon. Youll reconnect with the entire STLE community and have a chance to
recognize the many volunteers who generously donated their service in the last 12 months to create new programs
for all of us involved in the science of tribology and best practices in lubrication engineering.
During your time in Las Vegas, be sure to put your networking skills to work, whether it involves initiating a
conversation with a colleague at an education course, technical session or during one of the scheduled refreshment
breaks.
By popular demand, weve brought back the STLE Lounge, adjacent to the trade show. The lounge is a great place
to relax and conduct business with personnel from exhibiting companies.
I also urge you to take advantage of the Commercial Marketing Forum, where you can hear commercial
presentations from the lubricant industrys most innovative companies. The forum sessions are listed with the technical
tracks in this program guide.
STLEs 2016 Annual Meeting & Exhibition is a singular opportunity to discover technical concepts and make personal
contacts that will help you better serve your employer and customers and advance your career. In just five days youll
have access to a wealth of technical information that would take you months to find on your own.
Please say hello if you see me in the hallways or meeting rooms. I look forward to taking this journey with you.

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Making Our Mark On The Specialty Hydrocarbon Market


Our mission is to provide innovative, unmatched customer service and be the best in class
operation, delivering quality products that meet your unique needs.

Visit us in
booth #219
1.800.437.3188 | 317.328.5660
www.calumetspecialty.com
www
.calumetspecialty.com | customerservice@clmt.com
TM

2016 Calumet Specialty Products


Products Partners,
Partners, L.P.
L.P
P.

LAS VEGAS

Daily Schedule at a Glance


SUNDAY, MAY 15
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon
Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum
Education Courses (8 am 5 pm)
Advanced Lubrication 301: Advanced Additives
Las Vegas 6/7
Basic Lubrication 101: Lubrication Fundamentals Jubilee 2
Condition Monitoring 101 Jubilee 1
Gears 101: Fundamentals of Gears Las Vegas 1
Metalworking Fluids 130: Metal Treatment Chemical
Las Vegas 3

2A Commercial Marketing Forum II Bronze 4


2B Lubrication Fundamentals II: Surface Coatings Bronze 3
2C Engine & Drivetrain II Bronze 2
2D Grease/Rolling Element Bearings Joint Session I Gold
2E Metalworking II Silver
2G Gears I Palace 4/5
2H Fluid Film Bearings II Las Vegas 1
2I Biotribology II Las Vegas 2
2J Power Generation I: Power Gen Lubricants Las Vegas 3
2L Synthetics & Hydraulics I Las Vegas 5

NLGI Grease 101 Las Vegas 2

2M Seals II Las Vegas 6/7

Synthetics 203: Non-Petroleum Fluids & Their Uses


Las Vegas 1

2N Surface Engineering II Jubilee 1

Nanotribology Special Session (1:30 5 pm) Palace 3

2P Nanotribology II: Nanomaterials and Nanoscale Analysis


Jubilee 3

Golf Outing (1 7 pm)

2O Materials Tribology II Jubilee 2

Hoover Dam Tour (1 5 pm)

Exhibitor Appreciation Break (3 4 pm) Ballys Event Center

Student Networking Event (7 9 pm) Liaison Lounge

Welcoming Party (6:30 8 pm) Platinum

MONDAY, MAY 16
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon
Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum
Technical Sessions (8 10 am)

TUESDAY, MAY 17
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon
Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

1A Commercial Marketing Forum I Bronze 4

Commercial Exhibits & Student Posters (9:30 am Noon &


2 5:30 pm) Ballys Event Center

1B Lubrication Fundamentals I: Rheology Bronze 3

Technical Sessions (8 am Noon)

1C Engine & Drivetrain I Bronze 2

3A Commercial Marketing Forum III Bronze 4

1D Grease I Gold
1E Metalworking I Silver

3B Lubrication Fundamentals III: Elastohydrodynamic


Lubrication Bronze 3

1H Fluid Film Bearings I Las Vegas 1

3C Engine & Drivetrain III Bronze 2

1I Biotribology I Las Vegas 2

3D Rolling Element Bearings I Skyview 3

1K Ceramics & Composites I Las Vegas 5

3E Metalworking III Silver

1M Seals I Las Vegas 6/7

3F Grease II Palace 3

1N Surface Engineering I Jubilee 1

3G Gears II Palace 4/5

1O Materials Tribology I Jubilee 2

3H Fluid Film Bearings III Las Vegas 1

1P Nanotribology I: Nanomaterials and Nanoscale Analysis


Jubilee 3

3I Biotribology III Las Vegas 2

NLGI Certification Exam (10 am Noon) Skyview 4

3K Ceramics and Composites II Las Vegas 4

Opening General Session (10:30 am Noon)

3L Synthetics & Hydraulics II Las Vegas 5

Keynote Address (Dr. Andrew L. Randolph, Technical Director,


Earnhardt-Childress Racing Engines, Welcome, NC) Platinum

3M Seals III Las Vegas 6/7

Lunch (Noon 1:30 pm) On your own


Commercial Exhibits & Student Posters (Noon 5 pm)
Ballys Event Center

Technical Sessions (1:30 6 pm)

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

3J Power Generation II: Controlling Varnish Las Vegas 3

3N Surface Engineering III Jubilee 1


3O Materials Tribology III Jubilee 2
3P Nanotribology III: Nanoparticle Additives Jubilee 3

www.stle.org

Daily Schedule at a Glance


Presidents Luncheon/Business Meeting (Noon 2 pm)
Platinum

4H Las Vegas 1 Fluid Film Bearings IV (5:30 6 pm)


Fluid Film Bearings Business Meeting

Technical Sessions (2 6 pm)

4J Las Vegas 3 Power Generation III:


Contamination Control (5 5:30 pm)
Power Generation Business Meeting

4A Commercial Marketing Forum IV Bronze 4


4B Lubrication Fundamentals IV: Computational EHL Bronze 3
4C Engine & Drivetrain IV Special Session Advances in
Lubricants and Automotive Tribology for Fuel Economy
Bronze 2
4D Rolling Element Bearings II Skyview 3
4E Metalworking IV Silver
4F Non-Ferrous Metals I: Additives Palace 3
4G Gears III Palace 4/5
4H Fluid Film Bearings IV Las Vegas 1
4I Biotribology IV Las Vegas 2
4J Power Generation III: Contamination Control Las Vegas 3

4L Las Vegas 5 Synthetics & Hydraulics III


(5:30 6 pm) Synthetics & Hydraulics Business Meeting
4M Las Vegas 6/7 Seals IV (4 4:30 pm)
Seals Business Meeting
4O Jubilee 2 Materials Tribology IV (6 6:30 pm)
Materials Tribology Business Meeting
4P Jubilee 3 Nanotribology IV: Nanoparticle
Additives (6 6:30 pm)
Nanotribology Business Meeting

WEDNESDAY, MAY 18

4K Wear I: Experimental Study of Wear Las Vegas 4

Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon

4L Synthetics & Hydraulics III Las Vegas 5

Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

4M Seals IV Las Vegas 6/7

Commercial Exhibits (9:30 am Noon) Ballys Event Center

4N Surface Engineering IV Jubilee 1

Education Courses (8 am 5 pm)

4O Materials Tribology IV Jubilee 2


4P Nanotribology IV: Nanoparticle Additives Jubilee 3
Exhibitor Appreciation Break (3 4 pm) Ballys Event Center

TUESDAY BUSINESS MEETINGS


3F Palace 3 Grease II (11:30 am Noon)
Grease Business Meeting

Advanced Lubrication 302: Advanced Lubrication Regimes


Skyview 1
Automotive Lubrication 202: Gasoline Skyview 2
Basic Lubrication 102: Basic Applications Skyview 3
Metalworking Fluids 105: Introduction to Metal Forming
Fluids Skyview 4
Synthetic Lubricants 204: Fluid Formation & Application
Skyview 6

3K Las Vegas 4 Ceramics and Composites II


(11:30 am Noon) Ceramics and Composites
Business Meeting

Technical Sessions (8 am Noon)

4B Bronze 3 Lubrication Fundamentals IV


Computational EHL (5 5:30 pm)
Lubrication Fundamentals Business Meeting

5C Engine & Drivetrain V Bronze 2

4C Bronze 2 Engine & Drivetrain IV Special


Session: Advances in Lubricants and Automotive
Tribology for Fuel Economy (5:30 6 pm)
Engine and Drivetrain Business Meeting

5A Commercial Marketing Forum V Bronze 4


5B Lubrication Fundamentals V Additives Bronze 3
5E Rolling Element Bearings III Gold
5F Non-Ferrous Metals II: Bio-Based Lubricants Palace 3
5G Wind Turbine Technology I Palace 4/5
5H Fluid Film Bearings V Las Vegas 1
5I Environmentally Friendly Fluids I Las Vegas 2

4D Skyview 3 Rolling Element Bearings II (6 6:30 pm)


Rolling Element Bearings Business Meeting

5K Wear II: Analysis of Friction and Wear Las Vegas 4

4E Silver Metalworking IV (6 6:30 pm)


Metalworking Business Meeting

5M Condition Monitoring I Las Vegas 6/7

4F Palace 3 Non-Ferrous Metals I: Additives


(5 5:30 pm) Non-Ferrous Business Meeting

5O Materials Tribology V Jubilee 2

4G Palace 4/5 Gears III (5 5:30 pm)


Gears Business Meeting

www.stle.org

5L Tribotesting I Las Vegas 5


5N Surface Engineering V Jubilee 1
5P Nanotribology V: Nanoscale Lubrication Mechanisms
Jubilee 3

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

LAS VEGAS

Daily Schedule at a Glance


WEDNESDAY, MAY 18

THURSDAY, MAY 19

Technical Sessions (1:30 6 pm)

Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon

6A Commercial Marketing Forum VI Bronze 4

Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

6B Lubrication Fundamentals VI: Tribofilms Bronze 3

STLE Certification Exams (8:30 am Noon) Palace 3

6C Engine & Drivetrain VI Bronze 2

Technical Sessions (8 am Noon)

6D Rolling Element Bearings IV Gold

7B Lubrication Fundamentals VII: Lubricant Properties Bronze 2

6F Non-Ferrous Metals III: Tribology Palace 3

7C Engine & Drivetrain VII Bronze 3

6G Wind Turbine Technology II Palace 4/5

7D Rolling Element Bearings V Gold

6H Fluid Film Bearings VI Las Vegas 1

7E Molecular Chemistry and Lubricant Rheology I Silver

6I Environmentally Friendly Fluids II Las Vegas 2

7H Fluid Film Bearings VII Las Vegas 1

6K Wear III Las Vegas 4

7K Wear IV Las Vegas 4

6L Tribotesting II Las Vegas 5

7L Tribotesting III Las Vegas 5

6M Condition Monitoring II Las Vegas 6/7

7M Condition Monitoring III Las Vegas 6/7

6N Surface Engineering VI Jubilee 1

7N Surface Engineering VII Jubilee 1

6O Materials Tribology VI Jubilee 2

7O Materials Tribology VII Jubilee 2

6P Nanotribology VI: Nanoscale Lubrication Mechanisms


Jubilee 3 (1:30 3 pm)

7P Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session II:


Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale Jubilee 3

6Q Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session I:


Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale
Jubilee 3 (3:30 6:30 pm)

Technical Sessions (1:30 5:30 pm)


8B Lubrication Fundamentals VIII: Modeling Bronze 2
8D Rolling Element Bearings VI Gold

Beverage Breaks are scheduled at 10 am and 3 pm daily.

8E Molecular Chemistry and Lubricant Rheology II Silver


8K Wear V: Wear Mitigation Las Vegas 4

WEDNESDAY BUSINESS MEETINGS

8L Tribotesting IV Las Vegas 5

6G Palace 4/5 Wind Turbine Technology II


(6 6:30 pm) Wind Turbine Technology
Business Meeting

8M Condition Monitoring IV Las Vegas 6/7

6I Las Vegas 2 Environmentally Friendly Fluids II


(5 6 pm) Environmentally Friendly Fluids
Business Meeting

8N Surface Engineering VIII Jubilee 1


8P Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session III:
Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale Jubilee 3
Beverage Breaks are scheduled at 10 am and 3 pm daily.

6K Las Vegas 4 Wear III (5:30 6 pm)


Wear-Biotribology Business Meeting

THURSDAY BUSINESS MEETINGS

6L Las Vegas 5 Tribotesting II (5 5:30 pm)


Tribotesting Business Meeting

8M Las Vegas 6/7 Condition Monitoring IV (3:30 4:40 pm)


Condition Monitoring Business Meeting
8N Jubilee 1 Surface Engineering VIII (4 5 pm)
Surface Engineering Business Meeting

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

PARTICLE COUNTS

VISIT
VISIT U
US
SA
AT
T

BOOTH
BOOTH 1126
26

HIAC PODS PORTABLE OIL DIAGNOSTIC SY


Battery Operation Carrry it to the sample point!
Fast NAS , ISO, and S
SA
AE test results iin
n less tth
han 60 se
Wide viscosity range
Results from only 15 mL
Minimize the impact of bubbles with pressurized sample de
Sample from bottles or directly on-line
Maximize uptime and performance by maintaining equipment
based on actual particle levels

HIAC 8 011+ LIQUID PARTICLE COUNTER


Lab model for R&D fast and easy to use
Sample management system ensures consistent and ac
Multiple fluid compatibilities hydraulics, jet fuels, solve
Increase throughput with fewer steps, one button samp
results in under 60 seconds
Save time with automated cleaning and flushing routine
Eliminate printing and go paperless

www.particle.com
w
w w.par ticle.com

2016 Beckman Coulterr, Inc. Beckman Coulterr, the stylized logo, and the Beckman Coulter product and service marks mentioned
herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Beckman Coulterr, Inc. in the United States and other countries.

LAS VEGAS

Index

Technical Sessions and Education Courses


SUNDAY, MAY 15

TUESDAY, MAY 17

Education Courses (All Day)

Technical Sessions am

Advanced Lubrication 301: Advanced Additives..........................18

3A Commercial Marketing Forum III .............................................62

Basic Lubrication 101: Lubrication Fundamentals .......................18


Condition Monitoring 101....................................................................18

3B Lubrication Fundamentals III: Elastohydrodynamic


Lubrication .................................................................................................62

Gears 101: Fundamentals of Gears ....................................................19

3C Engine & Drivetrain III...................................................................66

Metalworking Fluids 130: Metal Treatment Chemical ................19

3D Rolling Element Bearings I .........................................................68

NLGI Grease 101 .......................................................................................19

3E Metalworking III ..............................................................................69

Synthetic Lubricants 203: Non-Petroleum Fluids &


Their Uses....................................................................................................19

3F Grease II...............................................................................................70

Nanotribology Special Session ...........................................................21

3H Fluid Film Bearings III ...................................................................74

MONDAY, MAY 16
Technical Sessions am
1A Commercial Marketing Forum I................................................32
1B Lubrication Fundamentals I: Rheology...................................32
1C Engine & Drivetrain I.....................................................................33
1D Grease I..............................................................................................34
1E Metalworking I ................................................................................34
1H Fluid Film Bearings I......................................................................36

3G Gears II ...............................................................................................72
3I Biotribology III ..................................................................................76
3J Power Generation II: Controlling Varnish ...............................77
3K Ceramics & Composites I.............................................................78
3L Synthetics & Hydraulics II ............................................................79
3M Seals III ..............................................................................................80
3N Surface Engineering III.................................................................82
3O Materials Tribology III...................................................................84
3P Nanotribology III: Nanoparticle Additives.............................86

1I Biotribology I.....................................................................................37

Technical Sessions pm

1K Ceramics & Composites I.............................................................37

4A Commercial Marketing Forum IV.............................................87

1M Seals I.................................................................................................38

4B Lubrication Fundamentals IV: Computational EHL ............88

1N Surface Engineering I...................................................................39

4C Engine & Drivetrain IV Special Session: Advances in


Lubricants and Automotive Tribology for Fuel Economy .........88

1O Materials Tribology I .....................................................................40


1P Nanotribology I: Nanomaterials and Nanoscale
Analysis........................................................................................................40

4D Rolling Element Bearings II ........................................................89

Technical Sessions pm

4F Non-Ferrous Metals I: Additives ................................................92

2A Commercial Marketing Forum II ..............................................41

4G Gears III..............................................................................................93

2B Lubrication Fundamentals II: Surface Coatings...................42

4H Fluid Film Bearings IV...................................................................94

2C Engine & Drivetrain II....................................................................43

4I Biotribology IV ..................................................................................96

2D Grease/Rolling Element Bearings Joint Session I...............44

4J Power Generation III: Contamination Control ......................98

2E Metalworking I ................................................................................45

4K Wear I: Experimental Study of Wear ........................................98

2G Gears I ................................................................................................46

4L Synthetics & Hydraulics III ...........................................................99

2H Fluid Film Bearings II ....................................................................48

4M Seals IV ...........................................................................................100

2I Biotribology II....................................................................................49

4N Surface Engineering IV..............................................................102

2J Power Generation I: Power Gen Lubricants...........................50

4O Materials Tribology IV................................................................102

2L Synthetics & Hydraulics I..............................................................51

4P Nanotribology IV: Nanoparticle Additives ..........................104

4E Metalworking IV..............................................................................90

2M Seals II................................................................................................52
2N Surface Engineering II..................................................................53
2O Materials Tribology II ....................................................................54
2P Nanotribology II: Nanomaterials and Nanoscale
Analysis........................................................................................................55

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Index

Technical Sessions and Education Courses


WEDNESDAY, MAY 18

THURSDAY, MAY 19

Education Courses (All Day)

Technical Sessions am

Advanced Lubrication 302: Advanced Lubrication Regimes ...20

7B Lubrication Fundamentals VII: Lubricant Properties.......154

Automotive Lubrication 202: Gasoline.............................................20

7C Engine & Drivetrain VII...............................................................155

Basic Lubrication 102: Basic Application .........................................20

7D Rolling Element Bearings V .....................................................156

Metalworking Fluids 105: Introduction to Metal


Forming Fluids ..........................................................................................20

7E Molecular Chemistry and Lubricant Rheology I ...............158

Synthetic Lubricants 204: Fluid Formation & Application.........21

7K Wear IV.............................................................................................160

Technical Sessions am

7L Tribotesting III................................................................................162

5A Commercial Marketing Forum V............................................110

7M Condition Monitoring III ..........................................................163

5B Lubrication Fundamentals V: Additives ...............................112

7N Surface Engineering VII.............................................................164

5C Engine & Drivetrain V .................................................................113

7O Materials Tribology VII ...............................................................165

5E Rolling Element Bearings III .....................................................114

7P Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session II:


Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale......................166

5F Non-Ferrous Metals II: Bio-Based Lubricants......................115

7H Fluid Film Bearings VII ...............................................................159

5G Wind Turbine Technology I ......................................................116

Technical Sessions pm

5H Fluid Film Bearings V..................................................................117

8B Lubrication Fundamentals VIII: Modeling ...........................168

5I Environmentally Friendly Fluids I ............................................118

8D Rolling Element Bearings VI ....................................................170

5K Wear II: Analysis of Friction and Wear...................................120

8E Molecular Chemistry and Lubricant Rheology II..............171

5L Tribotesting I..................................................................................121

8K Wear V: Wear Mitigation ............................................................171

5M Condition Monitoring I.............................................................122

8L Tribotesting IV ...............................................................................174

5N Surface Engineering V ...............................................................124

8M Condition Monitoring IV..........................................................175

5O Materials Tribology V .................................................................125

8N Surface Engineering VIII............................................................176

5P Nanotribology V: Nanoscale Lubrication


Mechanisms.............................................................................................126

8P Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session III:


Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale......................177

Technical Sessions pm
6A Commercial Marketing Forum VI...........................................128
6B Lubrication Fundamentals VI: Tribofilms .............................129
6C Engine & Drivetrain VI................................................................130
6D Rolling Element Bearings IV ....................................................131
6F Non-Ferrous Metals III: Tribology............................................134
6G Wind Turbine Technology II.....................................................135
6H Fluid Film Bearings VI.................................................................136
6I Environmentally Friendly Fluids II...........................................137
6K Wear III .............................................................................................137
6L Tribotesting II.................................................................................138
6M Condition Monitoring II ...........................................................140

Exhibit Hours
Monday (Noon 5 pm)
Exhibitor Appreciation Hour (3 4 pm)
Evonik Raffle (3:30 pm). You must be present to win.
Tuesday (9:30 am Noon) & (2 5:30 pm)
Closed for Presidents Luncheon (Noon 2 pm)
Exhibitor Appreciation Hour (3 4 pm)
Wednesday (9:30 am Noon)
The exhibition is in the Ballys Event Center.

6N Surface Engineering VI..............................................................142


6O Materials Tribology VI ................................................................144
6P Nanotribology VI: Nanoscale Lubrication Mechanisms ..146
6Q Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session I:
Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale:.....................146

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

LAS VEGAS

Ballys Hotel and Casino


Indigo Tower

Main Floor Casino Level

26th Floor
10

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Ballys Hotel and Casino


Jubilee Tower

2nd Floor

3rd Floor

Ballys Las Vegas Hotel & Casino

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

11

EXHIBITORS

12

71st STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition May 15-19, 2016 Las Vegas, Nevada (USA)

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Now fit STLEs Entire


2016 Annual Meeting
Schedulein the Palm
of Your Hand!
Available Now: STLE Annual Meeting App

71st STLE
LE Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Ballys Las V
Vegas
egas Hotel & Casino
o
Las V
Vegas,
ega Nevada (USA)
egas,
STLEs Annual Meeting offers so much programming that keeping
track of whats happening when and where can be a challenge. Our
new mobile app lets you plan your itinerary
neraryy,, schedule appointments
and stay on top of fast-breaking meeting updates every minute of
the day. Download the appand dont miss a thing!
STLEs 2016 Annual Meeting mobile app lets you track, schedule
and connect with:
500 technical session abstractspush a button and its on
your itinerary!
Paper presenterseasily find your favorite authors
12 education courses
100-exhibitor trade show
Special events and networking opportunities
Floor plans of Ballys and exhibition
1,600 other attendees
Meeting sponsors
Local dining
Meeting updatesstay on top of late-breaking news.

Download the app


dont miss a thing!
and dont
You
acquire
You can acquir
e the app
four different
diffferent ways:
1. Download at:
www.tripbuildermedia.com/apps/stle
2. Scan the QR code on this page
3. Download from The App Store
(Apple products)
4. Download from The Play Store
(Android products)

Sponsored by Sea-Land Chemical

Society of T
Tribologists
ribologists
r
and
an Lubrication Engineers 840 Busse Highway
Highway,, Park Ridge, IL 60068
Phone: 847-825-5536 Fax: 847-825-1456 info@stle.or
info@stle.org
g www
www.stle.org
.stle.org

LAS VEGAS

General Information and Policies


71st STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition May 15-19, 2016 Las Vegas, Nevada (USA)

Exhibit Hours
Monday (Noon 5 pm)
Exhibitor Appreciation Hour (3 4 pm)
Evonik Raffle (3:30 pm). You must be present to win.
Tuesday (9:30 am Noon) & (2 5:30 pm)
Closed for Presidents Luncheon (Noon 2 pm)
Exhibitor Appreciation Hour (3 4 pm)
Wednesday (9:30 am Noon)
The exhibition is in the Ballys Event Center.

REGISTRATION INFORMATION
Attendees may register beginning on Saturday, May 14, from
Noon to 6 pm at the Grand Salon (located in Ballys Indigo
Tower). The STLE registration desk is open daily thereafter
through Thursday beginning at 7 am.

RECORDING POLICY
Audio or video recording is not permitted in any of the annual
meeting technical sessions or Commercial Marketing Forum
presentations. Audio recording is permitted in the education
courses with advance permission of the instructor. No video of
any kind is permitted in the education courses.

PHOTO POLICY
STLEs official photographer is taking photographs of technical
sessions, education courses, social events and the trade show
on Monday and Tuesday. These images will be used in print
materials promoting STLEs 2017 Annual Meeting & Exhibition
at the Hyatt Regency in Atlanta. If you do not want your photo
to appear in these materials, please step out of the picture
frame or advise the photographer after your photo is taken so
they can delete the image.

Registration for the annual meeting entitles you to attend the


technical sessions, Welcoming Party on Monday evening,
Presidents Luncheon on Tuesday afternoon, and the trade
show Monday through Wednesday and most other sanctioned
annual meeting events.

CELLULAR TELEPHONES

Presidents Luncheon guest tickets are $50 (two tickets are free
to STLE Corporate Members) and can be purchased at the
registration desk at the Grand Salon.

FUTURE STLE MEETING DATES

Attendance at business meetings of technical committees


and industry councils is open to anyone who is registered for
the meeting. See condensed schedule (pgs. 5-6) for time and
location of individual technical committee and industry council
meetings.

ANNUAL MEETING AND EDUCATION


COURSE POLICIES
All attendees must register.
A badge is required for admittance to any session or
education course.
Education course registration includes admittance to the
selected education course or courses, all technical sessions
and admittance to the trade show.
Handouts are not permitted in any technical session.

In order to not disturb speakers or follow attendees, please


keep cellular telephones on vibrate and leave the room to talk.

STLE Tribology Frontiers Conference


Nov. 13-15, 2016 The Drake Hotel Chicago
Chicago, Illinois
STLE 72nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition
May 21-25, 2017 Hyatt Regency Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia
STLE 73rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition
May 20-24, 2018 Minneapolis Convention Center with
Minneapolis Hilton and Hyatt Regency Minneapolis
Minneapolis, Minnesota
STLE 74th Annual Meeting & Exhibition
May 19-23, 2019 Omni Nashville Hotel
Nashville, Tennessee
STLE 75th Annual Meeting & Exhibition
May 3-7, 2020 Hyatt Regency Chicago
Chicago, Illinois

Handouts will be given to education course attendees.


Registration is not necessary to attend the trade show.

14

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Visit Us At STLE
Booths 113 and 115

LAS VEGAS

Special Events and Networking


71st STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition May 15-19, 2016 Las Vegas, Nevada (USA)

GOLF TOURNAMENT: LAS VEGAS


NATIONAL GOLF COURSE

Sunday, May 15
1 pm shotgun (arrive at noon for scheduling and practice)
$120 (includes green fees, golf cart rental, range balls, box lunch
and one drink ticket at the 19th Hole. Clubs can be rented for
$30. No transportation is provided.)
The National, as its usually called, has a long history in the Las
Vegas Valley. Just after completion in 1961, the National, then
called the Stardust Country Club, hosted its first professional
golf event, the LPGA Championship. Over the years, the
National has played host to celebrities from around the world.
Professional athletes, including members of the NFL, NBA,
NASCAR and PBA have held events here. The course, with its
mature landscaping and proximity to the Las Vegas Strip, make
it a truly unique and historic site.

HOOVER DAM TOUR

Sunday, May 15 (1 5 pm)


$120 (includes transportation, guide, tour and box lunch)
Visit one of the
most inspiring
man-made
wonders of the
world. Hoover Dam
is the gateway to
beautiful Lake
Mead, the largest
reservoir in
America. This
engineering marvel will be sure to amaze all of its visitors. Your
guide will provide visitors with facts about Las Vegas and
points of interest as you embark on your 45-minute journey
to Hoover Dam. You will enjoy spectacular views of the entire
Las Vegas Valley as you wind through the mountains to your
destination. Once at the Dam, you will be invited to take an
in-depth tour of this mighty wonder. Your guide will take you
through the inside of the Dam and provide interesting facts
about the facility. You will learn how it was built and how the
Dam provides services today. In addition, the new and
improved Visitors Center provides a breathtaking view of the
Dam and the Black Canyon below, where the mighty Colorado
River starts its journey.

16

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

EARLY CAREERIST NETWORKING EVENT

Sunday, May 15
This years Early Careerist Networking Event is 7-9 pm in the
Liaison Lounge at Ballys Las Vegas. Come join other students
and early careerists, as well as other STLE members for an
evening of networking and great food. If you would like more
information, please stop by the STLE Registration Desk in the
Grand Salon.

SPEAKERS BREAKFAST

Monday through Thursday, May 16-19


(7 8 am) Platinum
Lead authors and course presenters are invited to meet with
Session and Paper Solicitation Chairs for a continental breakfast
on the days of their presentations. This is a great time to review
the session schedule and note any last-minute changes.
Speakers should plan on attending.

STLE HOSTS STEM PROGRAM FOR


HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

Monday, May 16
(9 am Noon) Ballys Event Center
During STLEs 2016 Annual Meeting, the society is hosting
high school students for its 4th Annual STEM Tribology Camp.
Students, and their teachers, will have the opportunity to see
demonstrations and participate in hands-on experiments, led
by engineers and scientists, to learn about areas of research
within the fields of tribology and lubrication engineering such
as friction, viscosity, wear, and grease.
STLEs goal is to reach high school students who have an
interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering and
mathematics) and to educate them about future career
opportunities in the fields of tribology and lubrication
engineering.

www.stle.org

Special Events and Networking


71st STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition May 15-19, 2016 Las Vegas, Nevada (USA)

OPENING GENERAL SESSION

NLGI CERTIFICATION EXAM

Monday, May 16
(10:30 am Noon) Platinum

Monday, May 16
(10 am Noon) Skyview 4

STLE honors many of its most


distinguished volunteers and achievers.
Youll also hear a presentation from Dr.
Andrew Randolph, technical director for
Earnhardt-Childress Racing (ECR) Engines,
titled Lubrication Challenges in an 850-hp
NASCAR Sprint Cup Engine.

NLGIs Certified Lubrication Grease Specialist (CLGS) program


identifies those individuals who have true expertise in
lubricating greases. NLGI is proud to announce that the CLGS
will be offered during STLEs 2016 STLE Annual Meeting.
Advanced registration is required with NLGI to take the exam.
The exam starts promptly at 10 am and takes approximately
two hours to complete.

WELCOMING PARTY

STLE CERTIFICATION EXAMS

Monday, May 16
(6:30 8 pm) Platinum

Thursday, May 19
(9 am Noon) Palace 3

This is the annual meetings central networking event and a


way for you to reconnect with old friends while making new
ones. Since people come to STLEs Annual Meeting & Exhibition
from around the world, this truly is an international event. Relax,
socialize and add to your list of professional contacts through
this outstanding networking event. The Welcoming Party is a
cant miss annual meeting tradition.

All four exams Certified Lubrication Specialist, Oil Monitoring


Analyst I and II and Certified Metalworking Fluids Specialist
are conducted concurrently. Must be registered for the exams
in advance, however, onsite registration is available on a limited
basis. For more information, stop by the STLE Registration Desk
in the Grand Salon. Registration and sign-in starts at 8:30 am.
The exams start promptly at 9 am and takes approximately
three hours to complete.

PRESIDENTS LUNCHEON AND STLE


71ST ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING

Tuesday, May 17
(Noon 2 pm) Platinum
The annual meetings major business function draws virtually
all attendees for a two-hour event honoring STLEs incoming
and outgoing presidents, award winners and top volunteers.
Come honor 2015-2016 President Martin Webster with
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering and 2016-2017 President
Ali Erdemir with Argonne National Laboratory. Tickets to the
luncheon are included with annual meeting registration and
free to Corporate Member representatives (two tickets) and
students. Additional tickets may be purchased for $50 per
person at the STLE Registration Desk in the Grand Salon.

www.stle.org

Fees:
First exam: $380/STLE member, $510/Non-member
Retake exam: $190/STLE member, $255/Non-member

STAY CONNECTED AT THE


ANNUAL MEETING AND TWEET
#STLE2016
If youd like to be more involved during the annual meeting
and share information with fellow attendees, STLE encourages
you to use Twitter to tweet noteworthy sessions, photos,
questions and other valuable resources. Were also encouraging
exhibitors, sponsors and companies to use it as a way to share
useful information with attendees. Log on to Twitter
(www.twitter.com) and just tweet using the #STLE2016
hashtag. And be sure to follow STLEs twitter handle
(@STLE_Tribology) for the latest updates throughout the week
regarding the annual meeting.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

17

LAS VEGAS

Education Program Synopsis


The 2016 STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition features 12 education courses offered on
two days of the conference: Sunday, May 15, and Wednesday, May 18. If you have not yet
signed up for a course but would like to, please go to the STLE Registration Desk at the
Grand Salon (located in Ballys Indigo Tower) to check on availability.
Note: Courses start at 8 am and end at 5 pm, but please check the errata included in your
registration bag to verify. Some times might change slightly.

Metalworking Fluids 130: Metal Treatment Chemical

degree or background, although many technical terms and


concepts are covered. Experienced people attend the course to
be kept up to date on the latest developments, especially in
those areas not directly related to their job function or area of
expertise. Thus, Basic Lubrication 101 is usually attended by a
broad cross section of people such as technical, technical
service, sales, marketing, manufacturing, maintenance and
managers who in some way are involved in the industry.

NLGI Grease 101 (Presented in cooperation with NLGI)

Modules and Instructors include:

SUNDAY, MAY 15
Advanced Lubrication 301: Advanced Additives (NEW!)
Basic Lubrication 101: Lubrication Fundamentals
Condition Monitoring 101
Gears 101: Fundamentals of Gears

Synthetic Lubricants 203: Non-Petroleum Fluids & Their Uses

ADVANCED LUBRICATION 301:


ADVANCED ADDITIVES

Base Oil Fundamentals: Jim Arner, Pirr Tribology Solutions


Additives: Chris Schmid, The Lubrizol Corp.
Lubrication Fundamentals: Dan Holdmeyer, Chevron
Lubricants

Course Chair: Galen Greene, BASF Corp.

Fundamentals of Hydraulics: Nathan Knotts, Chevron

Advanced Lubrication 301 covers the molecular structures and


chemistries of lubricant additive types. Additives examined will
include antioxidants, rust inhibitors, detergents, dispersants,
antiwear additives, extreme pressure additives, friction
modifiers and rheology and viscosity modifiers.

Lubricant Test Methods: Mike Holloway, ALS Tribology

CONDITION MONITORING 101

Modules and Instructors include:

Course Chair: Jack Poley, Condition Monitoring International

Antioxidants and Rust Inhibitors: Mary Dery, BASF Corp.

Synthetics: Ken Hope, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co. LP

BASIC LUBRICATION 101: LUBRICATION


FUNDAMENTALS

Condition Monitoring 101 is targeted to individuals who are


new to Condition Monitoring (CM), helping to prepare them to
be effective participants in CM processes in a variety of roles.
CM 101 begins with justification for condition-based
monitoring, followed by an introduction to historically
established maintenance strategies, providing understanding
of the differences and benefits of each, continuing with an
overview of the steps to implement and execute a program
and concludes with instrumentation and test methods for
Condition Monitoring.

Course Chair: Dan Holdmeyer, Chevron Lubricants

Modules and Instructors include:

Detergents and Dispersants: Anil Agiral, Chevron Oronite


Extreme Pressure and Friction Modifiers: Gene Scanlon,
BASF Corp.
Rheology and Viscosity Modifiers: Sona Slocum,
The Lubrizol Corp.

Basic Lubrication 101 is primarily for the person entering the


lubrication field who needs a broad introduction to the field
of lubrication, lubrication principles and lubricating materials.
This course is also for individuals not directly involved but
who need a broad overview of lubricants and basic lubricating
components. This course does not require a formal scientific

18

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Condition Monitoring Technologies: Khalid Malik, Ontario


Power Generation
Committing to and Managing an ISFA Program; Evaluating
Your Program: Evan Zabawski, Consultant
Fluid Contamination and Degradation Tests for Condition
Monitoring: Heather Vercillo, TestOil

www.stle.org

Education Program Synopsis


GEARS 101: FUNDAMENTALS OF GEARS

NLGI GREASE 101

Course Chair: Toby Hlade, ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties

(Presented in cooperation with NLGI)

Gears 101 is designed to provide a general understanding of


industrial gearing. This course was prepared as a guide for the
user to establish a base knowledge of gears, supporting
components, lubricants, condition monitoring, wear modes and
failure analysis methodology.

Course Chair: Chuck Coe, Grease Technology Solutions, LLC

Modules and Instructors include:


Gear Function; Gear Terminology; Action Between Gear
Teeth; Gear Tooth Film Formation: Kurt Thompson,
ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties

Grease 101 is a comprehensive overview of all aspects of


lubricating grease. Grease formulation components are
thoroughly covered, including base oils and the many different
thickener types. Manufacturing technologies are reviewed, as
well as grease testing significance and methods. This course
includes discussion and examples of selecting the proper
grease for different industrial and automotive applications.
Modules and Instructors include:

Gear Manufacturing; Gearbox Supporting Components:


Dave Pelletier, ExxonMobil Fuels & Lubricants

Introduction to Greases: Chuck Coe, Grease Technology


Solutions, LLC

Factors Affecting Lubrication; Lubricant Characteristics;


Oil Requirements and Tests: David Scheetz, ExxonMobil
Lubricants & Specialties

Base Oils: Valentina Serra-Holm, Nynas AB

Gear Wear Patterns; Failure Mode and Effects Analysis;


Gear Condition Monitoring; Gear Root Cause Failure
Analysis: Toby Hlade, ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties

Grease Manufacturing Overview and Open Kettle


Manufacture; Grease Manufacturing Contractor/Kettle and
Continuous Manufacture: David Turner, CITGO Petroleum
Corp.
Grease Testing: Jaime Spagnoli, ExxonMobil Research &
Engineering

METALWORKING FLUIDS 130:


METAL TREATMENT CHEMICAL

Grease Selection: Paul Shiller, University of Akron

Course Chair: Frederick Passman, BCA, Inc.

Automotive Applications: Gareth Fish, The Lubrizol Corp.

While processing parts using metalworking fluids, there is a


need for treating, cleaning and protecting chemicals and/or
coatings. Substrates either are immersed in these chemicals
or have them applied during some point of the processing.
This course covers heat treating including oil and polymer
quenching, cleaning parts and protecting parts from rust and
corrosion. Individuals learn the basics of metallurgy as it applies
to heat treating and quenching. This course is intended for
chemists, engineers, technical support staff and field service
technicians working with and using metalworking fluids.

Application Problem Solving: Alex Dabrowski, Total


Lubricants USA, INC.

Industrial Applications: Glenn Lutz, Dow Corning Corp.

SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS 203:


NON-PETROLEUM FLUIDS & THEIR USES
Course Chair: Thomas Blunt, Krytox Performance Lubricants

Metal Treating Fluids I and II: John Duggan, DuBois


Chemicals, Inc.

Synthetic Lubricants 203 is designed primarily for formulators


and users of lubricating materials. This course provides an
overview of non-petroleum-based lubricants, their comparison
to each other and to petroleum oil. Each section covers the
chemistry, strength and weaknesses of each material and basic
application.

Metal Cleaning Fluids I: Neil Canter, Chemical Solutions

Modules and Instructors include:

Modules and Instructors include:

Metal Cleaning Fluids II: Suresh Patel, Chemetall


Metal Cleaning Fluids III: Dave Morrison, Castrol Industrial
North America, Inc.

Introduction to Synthetic Fluids: Michael T. Costello,


BASF Corp.
Polyalkylene Glycols: Martin Greaves, Dow Europe GmbH

Metal Protecting Fluids I; Dry Films: Richard Butler,


Chemtool Inc.

Silicones: Glenn Lutz, Dow Corning Corp.

Metal Protecting Fluids II: Ted McClure, Sea-Land


Chemical Co.

Esters: Gene Zehler, BASF Corp.

Polyalphaolefins: Ken Hope, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co. LP


Fluorocarbons: Thomas Blunt, Krytox Performance Lubricants
Alkylated Aromatics: Kyle Lewis, ExxonMobil Chemical Co.
Phosphates: Sal Rea, Anderol Co., Inc.

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

19

LAS VEGAS

Education Program Synopsis


WEDNESDAY, MAY 18
Advanced Lubrication 302: Advanced Lubrication Regimes
(NEW!)
Automotive Lubrication 202: Gasoline

Automatic Transmission Fluid: Scott Deskin, Chevron


Surface Texture Measurement and Analysis: Donald Cohen,
Michigan Metrology

Basic Lubrication 102: Basic Applications

BASIC LUBRICATION 102: BASIC


APPLICATIONS

Metalworking Fluids 105: Introduction to Metal Forming


Fluids

Course Chair: Dan Holdmeyer, Chevron Lubricants

Synthetic Lubricants 204: Fluid Formation & Applications

ADVANCED LUBRICATION 302:


ADVANCED LUBRICATION REGIMES
Course Chair: Galen Greene, BASF Corp.

This course goes more in-depth on lubrication regimes, wear


and wear mechanisms, as well as lubricant failure
analysis. Includes a series of lubricant failure analysis case
studies on automotive engines, gears and bearings.
Modules and Instructors include:
Lubrication Regimes: Brendan Miller, Chevron Oronite
Co., LLC
Wear and Wear Mechanisms; Automotive Engines Case
Study: Ramoun Mourhatch, Chevron Oronite Co., LLC
Lubricant Failure Analysis: Walt Huysman, Clark Testing
Gears Case Study: Toby Hlade, ExxonMobil Lubricants &
Specialties
Bearings Case Study: Paul Shiller, University of Akron

AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICATION 202:


GASOLINE

Basic Lubrication 102 is an overview of equipment systems


(gears, bearings, seals, compressors and engines) and their
lubrication requirements, including a module on grease. Like
Basic Lubrication 101, this course does not require a formal
scientific degree or background, although many technical
terms and concepts related to the use of lubricants in various
mechanical devices are covered. This course is intended for a
diverse group, including people involved in technical service,
sales, marketing, manufacturing, maintenance and managers
who want to know more about how lubricants work in service.
This course assumes fundamental knowledge of lubricants and
lubrication principles, as presented in the Basic Lubrication 101
course.
Modules and Instructors include:
Gears and Coupling Fundamentals: John Hermann,
ExxonMobil Fuels & Lubricants
Grease Fundamentals: Chris Decker, ExxonMobil
Seals: Hongmei Zhao, The Lubrizol Corp.
Compressors: Ravi Shah, Chevron Global Lubricants
Bearings and Lubrication Systems: Paul Shiller, University
of Akron
Automatic Transmission Fluids; Basic Engine: Sam Vallas,
Chevron Global Lubricants

Course Chair: Edward Becker, Friction & Wear Solutions, LLC

Automotive Lubrication 202 provides a comprehensive


overview of the various aspects of a typical automotive
tribological system, including engine, transmission, driveline
and other powertrain components. Lubrication and surface
engineering principles will be applied to provide a unified
approach to practical automotive powertrain systems.
Modules and Instructors include:
Principles of the Automotive Engine; The Future of
Automotive Propulsion: Edward Becker, Friction & Wear
Solutions, LLC
Automotive Engine and Transmission Hardware Overview:
Arup Gangopadhyay, Ford Motor Co.
Engine and Vehicle Bearings: William Hannon, The
Timken Co.
Engine Oils: Nicolas Rivera, ExxonMobil Research &
Engineering

20

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

METALWORKING FLUIDS 105:


INTRODUCTION TO METAL FORMING
FLUIDS
Course Chair: Richard Butler, Chemtool Inc.

Metalworking Fluids 105 is designed for those involved in


developing, working with and using metal forming fluids in the
manufacturing environment. This course is very useful for
formulators, technical service representatives, shop floor
personnel and coolant service managers who need to know
more about the fundamental concepts of metal forming fluids.
This course is divided into modules covering metal forming
operations, metal forming fluid chemistry, metal forming fluid
failure mechanisms, controlling contamination and microbial
growth, waste treatment and operator acceptance. By the end
of the course, participants will have gained a good
understanding of metal forming operations, formulation of

www.stle.org

Education Program Synopsis


metal forming fluids, tools for identifying and correcting metal
forming fluid failures and waste treatment of metal forming
fluids.

NANOTRIBOLOGY SPECIAL SESSION

Sunday, May 15 1:30-5 pm Palace 3

Modules and Instructors include:


Introduction to Processes, Applications and Fluid/
Lubrication Requirements; Metal Forming Fluid Failure
Mechanisms: Water Quality, Corrosion, Foam, Emulsion Size,
Residue and Cleanability: Richard Butler, Chemtool Inc.
Stamping and Blanking; Metal Forming Failure Mechanisms:
Lubrication, Concentration Control, Compatibility and
Filtration: Neil Canter, Chemical Solutions
Rolling, Forging, Heading, and Wire Drawing: Ted McClure,
Sea-Land Chemical Co.
Controlling Contamination and Microbial Growth in Metal
Forming Fluids: Frederick Passman, BCA, Inc.
Waste Treatment of Metalworking Fluids: John Burke,
Houghton International Inc.
Operator Acceptance All Instructors

SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS 204:


FLUID FORMATION & APPLICATIONS
Instructors: Thomas Blunt, Krytox Performance Lubricants

This course provides an introduction to synthetic lubricant


formulations and applications. It compares the use of these
synthetic lubricants to petroleum-based products and
compares between types of synthetic lubricants. Synthetic
Lubricants 204 is a continuation from the Synthetic Lubricants
203 (Non-Petroleum Fluids and their Uses) course, however,
attendance of the Synthetic Lubricants 203 course is not a
prerequisite.
Modules and Instructors include:
Industrial Application/Compressors: Glenn D. Short, BVA Inc.
Synthetic Lubricants in Transportation Applications:
Michael T. Costello, BASF Corp.
Synthetic Lubricants in Gear Applications: Kevin Hunter,
ExxonMobil Products Technology Deployment
Synthetic Lubricants in Food Grade Applications:
Tyler Housel, INOLEX Inc.

www.stle.org

The Nanotribology special session is


organized by STLEs Nanotribology
Technical Committee. The objective
is to provide an opportunity for
graduate student researchers, early
career scientists and industry
professionals to learn, review and
discuss fundamentals, as well as the
cutting edge of nanotribology. In
previous years, topics have included
Dr. Hong Liang
basics to intermediate education on
fundamentals of nanotribology, nanotribological
characterization techniques and analysis of friction, wear
and lubrication at the nanoscale and applications and
examples in research and manufacturing.
Participants will learn about nanoscale contact, surface
properties such as surface energy, morphology, electrical
and thermal conductivity, and hardness and how they
affect nanomeasurement, principles of probe-based
atomic force microscopes, nanoscale friction and wear
fundamentals. In areas of nanomeasurement, pros and
cons of the methodology, tool selection strategy, artifacts
and data analysis will be discussed. Additional topics that
will be covered include applications of nanotribology
such as in chemical-mechanical planarization, lubricants
and thin films, as well as biomedical applications.
Instructor: Dr. Hong Liang
Dr. Liang is a professor of mechanical engineering at Texas
A&M University. Her research group has been investigating
fundamentals in nanotribology, nanomaterials, nanomanufacturing, and surface engineering. She has
authored 14 book chapters and over 160 peer-reviewed
journal articles. Dr. Liang has been actively involved with
STLE and the tribology community for almost three
decades since she was a graduate student. She has served
as an associate editor of Tribology Transactions, Tribology
International and the Journal of Tribology, and is a former
member of STLEs board of directors. She also previously
served as chair of the STLE Annual Meeting Program and
Ceramics and Composites Technical Committees. She is a
fellow of STLE and ASME.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

21

LAS VEGAS

Keynote Address
Monday, May 16 10:30 am Noon Platinum

Dr. Andrew L. Randolph


Technical Director, Earnhardt-Childress Racing (ECR) Engines, Welcome, NC
STLE is fortunate to have Dr. Andrew L. Randolph, technical director for Earnhardt-Childress Racing (ECR) Engines,
as the keynote speaker for our 71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition.
Randolph received his doctorate in chemical engineering from Northwestern University in 1985, specializing in
the combustion properties of alcohol/diesel and alcohol/oil blends. During a 30-year career at General Motors and
in NASCAR, his work has ranged from fundamental engine research to mass-production engine development, including
Wankel rotaries to Pro Stock drag engines.
Randolphs presentation is titled Lubrication Challenges in an 850-hp NASCAR Sprint Cup Engine. Topics include:
Differences between race engines and production engines
Energy audit of a NASCAR Sprint Cup Engine, including all rotating and reciprocating losses
Challenging lubrication regimes (materials, coating, forces)
Opportunities for improvement.
A strong advocate of applying scientific principles to engine development,
Randolph is widely regarded as one of the foremost applied-combustion
experts in the world. He has contributed to five NASCAR Cup
championships with three different teams.
Since 2008, Randolph has served as technical director for
ECR Engines in Welcome, N.C., where he leads a development
team that defines the engine architecture for the Chevy
engines supplied by ECR to NASCAR and a variety of
other racing series. He has authored more than
20 technical publications and received five oral
presentation awards from the Society of
Automotive Engineers.

22

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

*Welcome New STLE 2016 Exhibitors

Annual Meeting Exhibitors


Company Name

Booth

Company Name

Booth

Company Name

Booth

Acme-Hardesty..........................................106

*FlackTech, Inc.........................................613

Adeka USA Corp........................................601

*Fluid Transfer Technologies............227

Rhein Chemie Additives/.......................319


LANXESS Corp.

Afton Chemical Corp......................213, 215

Formulaction, Inc. .....................................611

Rtec-Instruments, Inc. .............................513

ALS Tribology .............................................310

Functional Products, Inc.........................210

Rudolph Research Analytical ...............520

American Petroleum Institute .............708

GasTops, Inc. ...............................................322

Sasol Performance Chemicals ....412, 414

ANGUS Chemical Co................................415

Savant Labs.................................................212

Anton Paar, USA ........................................401

Gehring-Montgomery, Inc./ ..................518


Metall-Chemie

*Applied Graphene Materials ..........514

Halocarbon .................................................503

*AquaPhoenix Scientific.....................728

*Hangzhou Runze Chemical Co. .....521

Shanghai NACO Lubrication, ......127, 226


Co.

*Argonne National Laboratory .......706

Hangzhou Sungate Trading Co. ..........321

*Shanghai Starry Chemical Co. .......607

*Auburn University Tribology .........108


Minor and Program

Houghton International, Inc. ................419

*Shell............................................................501

Huntsman Petrochemical......................112

SKF .................................................................223

Ayalytical Instruments, Inc. ..........120, 122

Industrial Quimica Lasem......................511

Soltex...................................................312, 314

BASF .....................................................700, 702

*Ingevity.....................................................125

Solvay ..................................................507, 509

*Beckman Coulter..................................126

INEOS ............................................................410

Southwest Research Institute ..............413

Bruker ..................................................606, 608

Inolex ............................................................218

Spectro Analytical Instruments...........211

*BYK..............................................................609

KH Neochem Americas, Inc...................421

Spectro Scientific......................................320

Calumet Specialty Products ........219, 221


Partners, LP

King Industries, Inc..........................207, 209

*Sun Chemical Advanced...................423


Materials

Cannon Instrument Co. ..........................110

Lawler Manufacturing Corp..................522

Cargill Industrial Specialties .................323

Lonza.............................................................111

*C.C. Jennsen, Inc. ..................................524

Microtap USA, Inc. ....................................510

ChemCeed ..................................................512
Chemours....................................................420

Monson An Azelis........................107, 109


Americas Co.

Chemtura Corp.................................102, 104

Mnzing.......................................................306

Chevron Phillips Chemical Co..............710

Nanotech Industrial Solutions .............425

*CINRG.........................................................605

*Nanovea ...................................................311

Clariant .........................................................411

Napoleon Engineering Services..........418

*Colonial Chemical, Inc. ......................614

Nexeo Solutions........................................220

Compass Instruments/ ..................407, 409


Falex Corp.

NSF International......................................610

CRC Press.....................................................718

Koehler Instrument Co. Inc. .........313, 315

Nye Lubricants, Inc. ..................................602

Sea-Land Chemical Co...................206, 208

Taminco A Subsidiary of Eastman


Chemical Co................................................123
Tannas Co. ...................................................214
Taylor & Francis .........................................716
Taylor Hobson............................................704
Teknor Apex Co.........................................308
*Temix Oleo, SrL......................................523
The Dow Chemical Co. ...........................301
The Elco Corp....................................307, 309
The Lubrizol Corp............................406, 408
Tianhe Chemicals ............................119, 121
*Tin Cans Unlimited..............................714
Univar............................................................422

Dover Chemical Corp..............................118

Oil Filtration Systems ...........................603


A Clark-Reliance Co.

*Ducom Instruments...................327, 426

*Pall Corp. ..................................................326

Vantage Specialties, Inc..........................424

*Ele Corp.....................................................124

PCC Chemax...............................................515

VHG Labs/LGC Standards ......................615

Emery Oleochemicals....................113, 115

PCS Instruments ..............................114, 116

*Werner G. Smith Co. Inc.....................222

EPT .................................................................600

Perkin Elmer ...............................................612

Wincom........................................................224

Ergon.............................................................225

Phoenix Tribology ....................................519

*Zschimmer & Schwarz Inc................525

Evonik Oil Additives.................................201

Pilot Chemical Co. ....................................318

Zygo Corp....................................................712

ExxonMobil Chemical Co.......................101

PMC Crystal.................................................325

FedChem, LLC ............................................324

Qualice, LLC .......................................506, 508

www.stle.org

Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC .....................100

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

23

Annual Meeting Sponsors


STLE wishes to thank the following sponsors for their generous support of the 2016 Annual Meeting & Exhibition.
This list is complete through April 4. Please see signage in Ballys Las Vegas and the Mobile App for the most up-to-date list.

Palladium Plus:
More than $4,000
Afton Chemical Corp.
Registration Bags
Emery Oleochemicals
Welcoming Party
Monson Co.
Directional Floor Decals
Palmer Holland
Wi-Fi/Cyber Cafe
PMC Crystal
Refreshment Breaks plus Water Stations
Sea-Land Chemical Co.
Annual Meeting Mobile App

Titanium Plus:
More than $3,000
Evonik Oil Additives
Exhibitor Appreciation Hour Raffle
Pilot Chemical Co.
Relaxation/Re-Charging Lounge
Mnzing
Badge Lanyards

Titanium: $3,000
CRODA
Education Course Materials
ExxonMobil Chemical
Presidents Luncheon
ExxonMobil Fuels, Lubricants &
Specialties
Welcoming Party
Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC
Welcoming Party

24

Platinum: $2,000

Bronze: $500

Calumet Specialty Products Partners


Welcoming Party

Acme-Hardesty
Welcoming Party

Chemtura
Welcoming Party

AJM Additives, Inc.


Welcoming Party

Inolex
Speakers Breakfast Series

Colonial Chemical
Welcoming Party

Gold: $1,000

FedChem
Welcoming Party

Dow Corning
Welcoming Party

Huntsman
Welcoming Party

Ideas, Inc.
Welcoming Party

ICL-IP America, Inc.


Welcoming Party

Lonza
Welcoming Party

Lockhart Chemical Co.


Welcoming Party

STLE Chicago Section


Welcoming Party

Lubricor, Inc.
Welcoming Party

STLE Cleveland Section


Welcoming Party

Polaris Laboratories
Welcoming Party

STLE Hamilton Section


Welcoming Party

Royal Manufacturing
Welcoming Party

The Timken Co.


Welcoming Party

Shanghai NACO Lubrication Co., Ltd.


Welcoming Party

Silver: $750

STLE Houston Section


Welcoming Party

ChemCeed LLC
Welcoming Party

TH Hilson Co.
Welcoming Party

Compass Instruments
Welcoming Party
Falex Corp.
Welcoming Party
Integrilube
Welcoming Party
King Industries Inc.
Welcoming Party

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Visit Us At STLE Booth # 101

ExxonMobil Chemicals advanced synthetic base stocks

Innovate with confidence


Your challenge Formulate innovative lubricants that can help deliver energy
efficiency, longer drain intervals and excellent performance in extreme conditions.
Our solutions Energize your innovation with our broad portfolio of synthetic
base stocks that deliver exceptional capabilities and blending flexibility.
Find out more at exxonmobilsynthetics.com

SpectraSyn PAO

SpectraSyn Plus PAO

SpectraSyn Elite mPAO

Synesstic AN

Copyright 2015 Exxon Mobil Corporation. All rights reserved. ExxonMobil, the ExxonMobil logo, the interlocking X device and all product names herein are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation.

Esterex esters

Eciency fr
Eciency
from
om
a ne
new
w per
perspective.
spective.

You have to stay on the move to gain a lead. Thats why the
Oil Additives specialists at Evonik focus on working with you
to drive innovation and develop truly distinctive solutions. Like
premium lubricants that meet tomorrows demands and help
you boost eciency.
Open up new potential Let it flow.

To learn more,
scan the QR code or visit
evonik.com/oil-additives.

Overview
Please check the errata in your registration bag to verify course times. Some times
might change slightly.

SUNDAY, MAY 15
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon

NLGI Certification Exam (10 am Noon) Skyview 4


Opening General Session (10:30 am Noon)

Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

Keynote Address (Dr. Andrew L. Randolph, Technical Director,


Earnhardt-Childress Racing Engines, Welcome, NC) Platinum

Education Courses (8 am 5 pm)

Lunch (Noon 1:30 pm) On your own

Advanced Lubrication 301: Advanced Additives


Las Vegas 6/7
Basic Lubrication 101: Lubrication Fundamentals Jubilee 2
Condition Monitoring 101 Jubilee 1
Gears 101: Fundamentals of Gears Las Vegas 1
Metalworking Fluids 130: Metal Treatment Chemical
Las Vegas 3
NLGI Grease 101 Las Vegas 2
Synthetics 203: Non-Petroleum Fluids & Their Uses
Las Vegas 1
Nanotribology Special Session (1:30 5 pm) Palace 3
Golf Outing (1 7 pm)
Hoover Dam Tour (1 5 pm)
Student Networking Event (7 9 pm) Liaison Lounge

Commercial Exhibits & Student Posters (Noon 5 pm)


Ballys Event Center
Technical Sessions (1:30 6 pm)
2A Commercial Marketing Forum II Bronze 4
2B Lubrication Fundamentals II: Surface Coatings Bronze 3
2C Engine & Drivetrain II Bronze 2
2D Grease/Rolling Element Bearings Joint Session I Gold
2E Metalworking II Silver
2G Gears I Palace 4/5
2H Fluid Film Bearings II Las Vegas 1
2I Biotribology II Las Vegas 2
2J Power Generation I: Power Gen Lubricants Las Vegas 3
2L Synthetics & Hydraulics I Las Vegas 5
2M Seals II Las Vegas 6/7

MONDAY, MAY 16
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon

2N Surface Engineering II Jubilee 1


2O Materials Tribology II Jubilee 2

Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

2P Nanotribology II: Nanomaterials and Nanoscale Analysis


Jubilee 3

Technical Sessions (8 10 am)

Welcoming Party (6:30 8 pm) Platinum

1A Commercial Marketing Forum I Bronze 4


1B Lubrication Fundamentals I: Rheology Bronze 3
1C Engine & Drivetrain I Bronze 2
1D Grease I Gold

Exhibit Hours

1H Fluid Film Bearings I Las Vegas 1

Monday (Noon 5 pm)


Exhibitor Appreciation Hour (3 4 pm)
Evonik Raffle (3:30 pm). You must be present to win.

1I Biotribology I Las Vegas 2

The exhibition is in the Ballys Event Center.

1E Metalworking I Silver

1K Ceramics & Composites I Las Vegas 4


1M Seals I Las Vegas 6/7

Beverage Breaks are scheduled at 10 am and 3 pm


daily.

1N Surface Engineering I Jubilee 1


1O Materials Tribology I Jubilee 2
1P Nanotribology I: Nanomaterials and Nanoscale Analysis
Jubilee 3

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

25

MONDAY, MAY 16, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 1A
Commercial Marketing Forum I

SESSION 1B
Lubrication Fundamentals I

Bronze 4

Bronze 3

SESSION 1C
Engine & Drivetrain I
Bronze 2

8 8:30 am

Addressing Key Lubricant Formulating Challenges of an


Evoloving World with Novel Technologies and Superior
Technical Expertise, C. Walker, p. 32

High Pressure Viscosity and Tribology of Lubricants with


Viscosity Modifiers Additives, B. LotfizadehDehkordi, p. 32

Thermal Behaviour of an Axle Gear Set, C. Fossier, p. 33

8:30 9 am

Introducing Novitas Innovative Additives, P. Levy,


Novitas Chem Solutions, p. 32

Influence of Polymer Shear Thinning on Friction and Film


Thickness in Hydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts, H. Spikes,
p. 32

The Influence of Repeated High Energy Engagements on the


Permeability of a Paper-Based Wet Clutch Friction Material,
P. Marklund, p. 33

9 9:30 am

New Group V Liquid Amide Base Stock, S. Swaminathan,


Croda, p. 32

Enhancing Rheological Properties of Base oil with Novel


Viscosity Modifier Analyzed by Molecular Dynamics
Simulations, J. Lu, p. 33

Effect of Organic Friction Modifiers on Friction Properties


and Surface Film Formation at Steel and Paper Clutch
Materials, Y. Onumata, p. 33

The ExxonMobil Chemical Metallocene PAO Family is


Expanding, M. Calzada, ExxonMobil Chemical Co., p. 32

Temperature-Induced Changes in Viscosity Index Improvers


and How to Quantify Them, L. Cosimbescu, p. 33

Lubricant Role in Shift Performance of Manual Transmissions,


J. Mills, p. 33

9:30 10 am

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

SESSION 2A
Commercial Marketing Forum II

SESSION 2B
Lubrication Fundamentals II

Bronze 4

Bronze 3

Break

SESSION 2C
Engine & Drivetrain II
Bronze 2

1:30 2 pm

Multi-Functional Primary Amine for Water-Miscible


Metalworking Fluids, A. Rubio, p. 41

In-Situ AFM Measurements of the Interaction between


Conventional Lubricant Additives with a Novel Anti-Wear
Nanomaterial, H. Khare, p. 42

Effects of VI Improver on Passenger Car Fuel Economy in


Chassis Dynamometer Tests, D. Smolenski, p. 43

2 2:30 pm

Wetting Agents for Metalworking Fluids, J. Sullivan, p. 41

Friction Reduction by Thin-Layer Thermal Insulation in


Elastohydrodynamic Contacts, M. Bjrling, p. 42

Engine Oils Formulated for Improved Deposit Control,


A. Flamberg, p. 43

2:30 3 pm

Metallocene PAO 300, Delivering Flexibility to Formulate


Innovative Lubricants, M. Sheehan, p. 41

Carbon Allotropes as an Oil Additives, Which One Is More


Effective?, E. Omrani, p. 42

Pour Point Depressant (PPD) Selection for GF-6 One Size


Does Not Fit All, J. Ellington, p. 43

3 4 pm

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

4 4:30 pm

Meeting the Lubrication Challenges of Modern High


Performance Hydraulic Systems, Y. Wang, p. 41

Tribological Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as


Friction-Reducing and Anti-Wear Agents, H. Xiao, p. 42

Valvetrain Friction and Wear Performance of Polyalkylene


Glycol Engine Oils, A. Gangopadhyay, p. 43

4:30 5 pm

An Innovative and Non-Conventional Approach to Commercial


Engine, L. Wei, p. 41

Effect of the Molecular Orientation of Liquid Crystal on


Friction Controlled by Electric Field, Y. Gao, p. 42

Engine Friction and Wear Performances with Polyalkylene


Glycol Engine Oils, A. Gangopadhyay, p. 43

5 5:30 pm

Selection of Synthetic Base Stocks for Industrial Lubricant


Applications, D. Stonecipher, p. 41

Superlubricity between Sapphire and PTFE Achieved by Acid,


M. Deng, p. 43

Interactions of Ethanol with Friction Modifiers in Car Engine


Lubricants, H. Costa, p. 44

5:30 6 pm

New Innovations in Metalworking Additives, F. Lochel, p. 42

26

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

SESSION 1D
Grease I
Gold

SESSION 1E
Metalworking I
Silver

Extreme Pressure Effect of Solid Lubricant Additives, Namely


MoS2 and PTFE, in Lithium 12-Hydroxy Greases, R. Mulkern,
p. 34

Study of Mineral Oil-Free Metalworking Fluids Based on


Polyglycols Lubricant for Aluminum Alloys with Extreme
Pressure Properties, E. Lima, p. 34

8 8:30 am

Fullerene-Like Inorganic Nanoparticles of Tungsten Disulfide


(IF-WS2) as Antiwear and EP Additive in LiX Greases,
E. McDaniel, p. 34

Controlling Friction and Avoiding Stick-Slip Behaviour in


Hydrodynamic Slideways, M. Ingram, p. 34

8:30 9 am

Polymers to Enhance the Performance of Inorganic Grease,


D. Vargo, p. 34

Friction and Wear Performance of Titanium Alloy against


Tungsten Carbide Lubricated with Phosphate Ester, Y. Yang,
p. 36

9 9:30 am

Improved Tribological Performance Through Yttrium Oxide


as Additives in Grease, C. Kim, p. 34

IF-WS2 Nanoparticles Water Dispersion is a Multifunctional


Additive for EP, Antiwear, Antifriction and Heat Transferring
Properties Improvement: Potential Replacement for
Chlorinated Paraffin, G. Chaubey, p. 36

9:30 10 am

Break

SESSION 2D
Grease/Rolling Element Bearings I
Gold

Break

Break

SESSION 2E
Metalworking II

SESSION 2G

Silver

Palace 4/5

10 10:30 am

Gears I

Requirements from the Bearing Industry for Lubricating


Grease Technology, P. Lugt, p. 44

Alternatives to Chlorinated Paraffins in Metalworking Fluids:


A Case Study, S. Beesabathuni, p. 45

Formulating the Right Industrial Gear Oil for Enhanced Energy


Efficiency and Temperature Reduction, S. Basu, p. 46

1:30 2 pm

Extended Bearing Life Greases Tried and True or New


Technology?, G. Aguilar, p. 44

Base Oil and Emulsifier Selection Principles A Metalworking


Fluid Emulsion Stability Study, T. Norrby, p. 45

Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycol (OSP) as an Additive/Co-Base


Stock for Gear Oils, A. Kotnis, p. 46

2 2:30 pm

(2:30 pm) Grease Testing Past, Present and Future,


J. Spagnoli, p. 44

New Emulsifiers for Metalworking Fluids: Balancing


Performance, Regulation and Economics, C. Hedoire, p. 45

Environmentally Acceptable Gear Oils; The New Frontier in


Performance and Durability Improved: Mircopitting and
Scuffing Protection, Long-Term Durability, Energy Efficiency
and Environmental Protection, M. Miller, p. 46

2:30 3 pm

(2:45 pm) Emerging Greases Based on Trends from Grease


Production and Usage Survey, C. Coe, p. 44

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

3 4 pm

Grease Additive Influences on Bearing Lubrication ,G. Fish,


p. 44

High HLB Emulsifiers Generate More Foam: True or False?


Case Studies of Foam Properties of Emulsifiers in
Metalworking Fluid Formulas by DOE, Y. Zhao, p. 45

On the Influence of Viscosity Formulation in CFD Simulation


when Predicting Churning Power Losses Generated by Partly
Immersed Gears, Y. Marchesse, p. 46

4 4:30 pm

Mapping of Grease Migration in High-Speed Bearings Using


a Technique Based on Fluorescence Spectroscopy, M. Franken,
p. 44

Influence of Combination of Multi-Jet Nozzle and Low Flow


Rate of Coolant in Geometrical Deviation during Centerless
Grinding of SAE 52100 Steel, L. Gonalves Neto, p. 45

Churning Power Losses of Bevel Gears, S. Laruelle, p. 48

4:30 5 pm

New Developments in Ashless Rust Preventive Technologies,


G. Moran, p. 46

Improving Lubrication and Reliability of Open Gears,


A. Cardenas, p. 48

5 5:30 pm

Next Generation 3-Dimensional (3D) Siloxane Defoamer


Technology for Aqueous Metalworking Fluids, E. Galgoci, p. 46

Open Gear Lubrication: Condition Monitoring, R. Camalli, p. 48

5:30 6 pm

Panel Discussion

MONDAY >>
www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

27

MONDAY, MAY 16, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 1H
Fluid Film Bearings I

SESSION 1I
Biotribology I

Las Vegas 1

Las Vegas 2

8 8:30 am

Modified Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Design Utilizing


Magnetorheological Fluids, M. Braun, p. 36

8:30 9 am

Measurement of the Permeability of Polyurethane Foams:


Application to XPHD Lubrication, S. Kunik, p. 36

Tribological Properties of the Liposomes on the Surface of


Artificial Joint, Y. Duan, p. 37

9 9:30 am

An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the XPHD


Lubrication, J. Bouyer, p. 36

Characterizing the Lubricating Properties of Model Synovial


Fluids, H. Stevenson, p. 37

Introduction of Poroviscoelasticity in Hydrodynamically


Lubricated Bearings, P. Smyth, p. 37

Bio-Lubricant Behavior Under Reciprocating Motion in


Mini-Channel, A. Safari, p. 37

9:30 10 am

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

SESSION 2H
Fluid Film Bearings II

SESSION 2I
Biotribology II

Las Vegas 1

Las Vegas 2

1:30 2 pm

Break

SESSION 2J
Power Generation I
Las Vegas 3

Conducting Tribological Expertise in Living Environment:


Case of Knee Implants, M. Sava, , p. 49

A Study of Steam Turbine Oil Replacement Options for a


Nuclear Station, G. Pereira, p. 50

2 2:30 pm

About the Influence of the Asperity Contact and Flow Factor


Models on the Stribeck Curve of a Steady-State Journal
Bearing Functioning in Mixed Lubrication, R. Fatu, p. 48

Damnum ab Initio: Incipient Damage of Metal-on-Metal


Contacts, S. Niemi, p. 49

Evaluations of Hydraulic Fluids via the Hot Manifold Ignition


Test (ISO 20823), E. Burkhardt, p. 51

2:30 3 pm

Influence of Surface Texturing on the Performance of Tilting


Pad Thrust Bearings, D. Gropper, p. 48

Tribological Security and Toxicity of Wear Airborne Particles:


Design of Tribo-Bio-Compatibles Particles, B. Munteanu, p. 50

New Management Approach for Turbine Oils, Y. Shirakura, p. 51

3 4 pm

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

4 4:30 pm

A Study of Transient Lubrication in the Process of Start Up


and Shut Down of the Thrust Bearing, Z. Wang, p. 49

Tribocorrosion Behavior and Metal Ion Release of Ion Nitriding


CoCrMo Orthopedic Implant Material, W. Qingliang, p. 50

Considerations When Blending Co-Solubilizing Agents


into In-Service Turbine Oils, C. Soto, p. 51

4:30 5 pm

Analysis of a Hydrodynamic Thrust Bearing Using MultiPhysical Modeling Technique, M. Wodtke, p. 49

Mechanical and Tribological Characterization of


Nano-Cellulose Fibers Reinforced Bio-Epoxy Composites,
B. Barari, p. 50

MOV Grease Evaluations With a Modified 4-Ball Wear Test,


K. Brown, p. 51

5 5:30 pm

Efficiency Study of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Solvers:


A Comparison Between Multigrid and Semi-Analytical
Methods, J. Zhao, p. 49

Characterization of PEEK and its Composite Coatings on


Substrate of Titanium Alloy for Bioimplant Applications,
J. Song, p. 50

5:30 6 pm

28

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

SESSION 1K
Ceramics & Composities I

SESSION 1M
Seals I

Las Vegas 5

Las Vegas 6/7

Topology Optimization of a Composite Surface to Minimize


Run-In Wear Volume, M. Sidebottom, p. 37

The World in 3D New Surface Parameters for Hydraulic Rod


Sealing Systems, M. Stoll,p. 38

8 8:30 am

Design and Synthesis of a Superhydrophobic PVDF-Based


Composite, H. Choi, p. 38

Investigation of Local Friction Maxima in Mixed Seal Friction


Combining Different Friction Models, M. Zimmermann, p. 38

8:30 9 am

Grain Texture Manipulation & its Effect on the Tribological


Response of Carbides, S. Patel, p. 38

Lead Explained Impact on Tribology, Lubrication and


Leakage, M. Baumann, p. 38

9 9:30 am

Tribochemical Wear of Duplex Stainless Steels, H. Liang, p. 38

Predicting the Contact Temperature in Radial Lip Seal Systems


using a Multi-Scale Simulation Model, S. Feldmeth, p. 39

9:30 10 am

Break

Break

Break

SESSION 2L
Synthetics & Hydraulics I

SESSION 2M
Seals II

Las Vegas 5

Las Vegas 6/7

10 10:30 am

1:30 2 pm

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Sludge and Varnish in Hydraulic Fluid on Injection Molding


Machines, A. Cardenas, p. 51

Numerical Study of the Effect of Coatings in Static Metal-toMetal Seals, F. Prez-Rfols, p. 52

2 2:30 pm

Breaking Through the Barrier to Industrial HF System


Efficiency, T. Schimmel, p. 51

Dynamic Performance of Radial Lip Seals Impacts of


Operating Conditions and Lubricant Types, p. 52

2:30 3 pm

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

3 4 pm

High Performance Marine Gear Oil and Hydraulic Fluid


Formulated with Renewable Group III Base Oil That Meets
Requirements of Vessel General Permit (VGP) 2013, H. Hahn,
p. 52

Dynamic Performance of Elastomer Seal and the HighAccuracy In-line Inspection Robots in Oil and Gas Pipelines,
G. Tan, p. 52

4 4:30 pm

Development and Characteristics of High Bulk Modulus Oil,


S. Aoki, p. 52

Application of Particle-Laden Flow Modeling to Annular Seals,


C.E. Watson, p. 53

4:30 5 pm

Enhanced Lubricant Technology to Manage Entrained Air,


S. Gullapalli, p. 52

5 5:30 pm

MONDAY >>
www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

29

MONDAY, MAY 16, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 1N
Surface Engineering I

SESSION 1O
Materials Tribology I

Jubilee 1

Jubilee 2

SESSION 1P
Nanotribology I
Jubilee 3

8 8:30 am

Prevention of Spreading of Lubricant on Silicon Surfaces,


J. Leong, p. 39

Quasicrystal-Based Multi-Phase Alloys for Improved Wear


Resistance, K. Lee, p. 40

8:30 9 am

Effect of Laser Surface Texture on Lubricant Replenishment


and Wear Behaviour in Lubricated Reciprocating Line Contact,
S. Vladescu, p. 39

Effect of Stirring and Modifier on Wear Behaviour of A356


Tirring, J. Menghani, p. 40

9 9:30 am

The Role of Adhesive Forces Due to Surface Separation from


Liquid Menisci, S. Cai, p. 39

Friction Stir Processing of A-286 Stainless Steel:


Microstructural Evolution During Wear, T. Scharf, p. 40

Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Angstrom-Scale


Surface Topography on the Mechanics of Large-Scale Contact,
T. Jacobs, p. 40

9:30 10 am

Superlubricity of Thermally Annealed DLC Films on the Si3N4


Ceramic Ball, Q. Zeng, p. 39

Sequence of Microstructure Evolution Processes in


Fine-Pearlitic Steel Under Unidirectional Lubricated
Tribological Loading, C. Greiner, p. 40

Tailoring Graphene-Substrate Adhesion by Controlling Surface


Interactions, M. Elinski, p. 41

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

SESSION 2N
Surface Engineering II

SESSION 2O
Materials Tribology II

Jubilee 1

Jubilee 2

The Amazing Friction Properties of Graphene and Water,


M. Salmeron, p. 40

Break

SESSION 2P
Nanotribology II
Jubilee 3

1:30 2 pm

Effect of Laser Treatment with Different Scanning Velocity


and Shielding Gas Environment on Surface Modification of
AISI 8620 Steel, S. Roy, p. 53

The Tribological and Liquid Aluminum Adhesion Properties


of AlCrN Coatings Deposited using Modulated Pulsed Power
Magnetron Sputtering Technologies Combined with
Femtosecond Laser Surface Texture Treatment, B. Wang, p. 54

Effect of Load and Wear Track Spacing on the Strain Field


Produced during Nanowear, B. Schultz, p. 55

2 2:30 pm

Continuous Approach for the Experimental Estimation of


Surface Contact Stiffness, F. Massi, p. 53

Current Progress in the Development of MAX Phase-Based


Solid Lubricant Materials, S. Gupta, p. 54

Controllable Triboluminenscence in Crystals, L. Ma, p. 55

2:30 3 pm

Tribological Investigate of Waxy Oil Gel, Z. Lan, p. 53

Wear Mechanism of III-Nitride Semiconductor Material,


G. Zeng, p. 54

Effects of Sliding Speed on the Intensity of Triboluminescence


in Slide Contact: Experimental Measurements and Theoretical
Analyses, X. Xu, p. 55

3 4 pm

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Exhibitor Appreciation Break

4 4:30 pm

Contact Area and Maximum Equivalent Stress in Elastic


Spherical Contact with Thin Hard Coating, R. Goltsberg, p. 53

Electrical Behavior of Mechano-Chemical Deposits on Sliding


Contacts, M. Dugger, p. 54

Load Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene, Z. Ye,


p. 56

4:30 5 pm

Nanostructured Composite Ni-P Electrodeposits as Alternative


to Hard Chrome Coatings, D. Drees, p. 53

Origin of Sustained and Reproducible Macroscale


Superlubricity in Graphene-Nanodiamond Ensembles,
D. Berman, p. 55

Synthesis and Tribological Properties of Layered Double


Hydroxide Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives in Water,
H. Wang, p. 56

5 5:30 pm

Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication of Nano-and MicroStructured Surface Coatings, S. Giasson, p. 54

Predicting Friction Regimes in Metallic Contacts, M. Chandross,


p. 55

Tribological Behavior of Halloysite Clay Nanotubes as


Extreme-Pressure Additives in Metal-Forming Lubricants,
L. Pea-Pars, p. 56

5:30 6 pm

30

Slippery Physics: Soft Matter Tribology, W. Sawyer, p. 55

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Performance and service that are

LEADING EDGE
People and specialty products
you can count on.

SpectraSyn Elite mPAO


Polyalphaolefin Base Oils Group IV
SpectraSyn Plus Base Oils Group IV
SpectraSyn Polyalphaolefin Base Oils Group IV
Esterex Esters Group V
Synesstic Alkylated Naphthalene Group V
Ultra-S Base Oils Group III
Pure Performance Base Oils Group II
ConoPure Process Oils

Global Sales and Service

7010 Mykawa Houston, Texas 77033 800.228.3848 www.jamdistributing.com


Esterex, SpectraSyn, SpectraSyn Elite and Synesstic are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Ultra-S is a trademark of S-Oil Corp. and Pure Performance and ConoPure are registered by Phillips 66 Company.

Monday, May 16
Session 1A

Bronze 4

COMMERCIAL MARKETING FORUM I


8 8:30 am
Addressing Key Lubricant Formulating
Challenges of an Evoloving World with Novel
Technologies and Superior Technical Expertise
C. Walker, Dow Chemical, Midland, MI, B. Liang, Dow Chemical
(China) Investment Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China
In todays rapidly evolving world the need for new lubricants which
satisfy the changing demands of todays applications is placing
immense pressure on formulators and marketers. Safer for our
environment, more efficient, longer life, and improved equipment
reliability are just a few examples of the challenges that lubricant
formulators and marketers are facing. Dows technology specializes in
energy efficiency, enhancing durability, food grade solutions, and
environmental acceptability among others. Come learn how we are
enabling the success of our customers!

8:30 9 am
Introducing Novitas Innovative Additives
P. Levy, Novitas Chem Solutions, LLC, Bellaire, OH
Today, Novitas Chem Solutions is a major manufacturer of additives
and a distributor of synthetic base oils. But, Novitas in 2006 as a
consulting company servicing the lubricant and grease industries and
over these last 10 years we determined a need existed for new and
different additives. Fluids and greases were being asked to work in
tougher, more demanding environments, but the additives available
had not kept pace. R&D has been reduced at major additives
companies and new product develop has lagged. This presentation
will focus on new products developed by Novitas for some of the most
demanding applications, while also reviewing some of our more wellknown products where we have taken quality to the next level.

9 9:30 am
New Group V Liquid Amide Base Stock
S. Swaminathan, Croda, New Castle, DE
Croda has introduced a new-to-the-industry Group V base stock.
Priolube HS 1000 delivers outstanding hydrolytic and oxidative
stability while providing exceptional additive solvency in demanding
applications. This liquid amide technology can be used in applications
where ester performance may be limited. We will discuss this innovative
technology as well as briefly discuss some novel replacements for
chlorinated paraffins in light and medium duty metalworking
applications.

9:30 10 am
The ExxonMobil Chemical Metallocene PAO
Family is Expanding
M. Calzada, ExxonMobil Chemical Co., Baytown, TX
Automotive and industrial lubricants can help to increase fuel economy
and prolong equipment service life, which in turn can play a significant
role in improving energy efficiency and lowering GHG emissions.
ExxonMobil Chemicals metallocene PAO 300 is the latest addition
to our synthetic base stock product portfolio developed in response
to lubricant formulators desires to achieve maximum protection at
higher operating temperatures, while maintaining excellent low
temperature performance and shear stability. Science-based estimates
show that one third of the worlds total energy is lost due to friction1.
New equipment with higher energy density and smaller sumps will
subject lubricants to higher operating temperatures resulting in higher

32

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

oxidative and thermal degradation. Join us to learn how metallocene


PAO 300 helps formulators enhance lubricant performance to meet
and surpass challenging OEM standards. [1]. Introduction to Tribology,
B. Bhushan, New York; Wiley and Sons Inc., 2002.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1B

Bronze 3

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS I
VII RHEOLOGY
Session Chair: B. Miller, Chevron Oronite Co. LLC, Richmond, CA
Session Vice Chair: B. Sharma, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, IL

8 8:30 am
High Pressure Viscosity and Tribology of
Lubricants with Viscosity Modifiers Additives
B. LotfizadehDehkordi, Schaeffler Group USA, Wooster, OH, G. Doll,
P. Shiller, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, K. Mistry, The Timken
Co., Canton, OH
Previously we presented the sharp pressure induced viscosity and
pressure viscosity coefficient increase for some commercial lubricants
and laboratory synthesized lubricants with mineral and synthetic base
oils. Polymer viscosity modifiers characterization for laboratory
synthesized lubricants illustrated that the one set of sharp increase in
viscosity is associated to phase change of polymer viscosity modifiers.
In this study EHL film formation and tribological properties were
measured dynamically using WAM6 to evaluate wear and friction at
contact stresses and temperature similar to viscosity measurements.
Results demonstrated a significant amount of wear on the ball and
glass disc consistent with the dramatic sharp increase in viscosity.
Moreover, film thickness measurements for synthetic oil blended with
polymeric additives demonstrated collapse of lubricant film in the
contact zone at pressure and temperature consistent with sharp
increase in viscosity.

8:30 9 am
Influence of Polymer Shear Thinning on Friction
and Film Thickness in Hydrodynamic Lubricated
Contacts
H. Spikes, N. Marx, Tribology Group, Imperial College, London,
United Kingdom, R. Taylor, Shell Global Solutions UK, London,
United Kingdom
Viscosity modifier (VM) polymers are added to engine lubricants
primarily to reduce the viscosity-temperature dependence of their
blends. It is now widely recognised that temporary shear thinning can
make a valuable contribution to fuel economy by reducing
hydrodynamic friction. This presentation describes an experimental
study of the impact of polymer solution shear thinning on
hydrodynamic film thickness and friction. The shear thinning behaviour
of polymer solutions is measured over a wide shear rate range. Film
thickness and friction measurements are then made in low pressure,
sliding lubricated contacts using a compliant ball on flat contact. Flow
curves are then compared via hydrodynamic theory with friction and
film thickness measurements in order to quantify the impact of shear
thinning on hydrodynamic friction.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
9 9:30 am
Enhancing Rheological Properties of Base oil
with Novel Viscosity Modifier Analyzed by
Molecular Dynamics Simulations
J. Lu, P. Liu, X. He, M. Desanker, Northwestern University, Evanston,
IL, N. Ren, Ashland Inc., Lexington, KY, M. Delferro, T. Marks,
Y. Chung, Q. Wang, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Viscosity modifiers (VM) are specially designed polymers to improve
the viscosity index (VI) of the lubricant, and may also help improve fuel
efficiency at high-shear conditions with a properly designed shear
thinning behavior. Predicting the rheological properties of a VMenhanced lubricant during the molecule design stage without available
samples for direct test is always an interesting and challenging topic.
This paper reports a research on viscosity prediction for a PAO with a
novel VM by means of a newly developed MD simulation that correlates
the shear-thinning phenomenon with the change of the radius of
gyration of mixed molecules. The predictions and experimental
measurements of known VM-contained lubricants are used to prove
the feasibility and accuracy of this method. The shear thinning behavior
of the novel VM in the PAO is analyzed and its effect on the nonNewtonian transition is determined.

9:30 10 am
Temperature-Induced Changes in Viscosity Index
Improvers and How to Quantify Them
L. Cosimbescu, B. Tarasevich, Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory, Richland, WA, U. Ramasamy, University of CaliforniaMerced, Merced, CA, S. Krueger, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, J. Robinson,
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Benton City, WA, A. Martini,
University of California-Merced, Merced, CA, P. Bhattacharya, Pacific
Northwest National Laboratory, Benton City, WA
It is universally recognized that a low-viscosity engine oil will lead to
greater fuel economy. In order to mitigate the inherent thinning
tendency of these oils with increasing temperature, polymers of various
topologies and compositions are added. These additives are known as
viscosity index improvers (VII) or viscosity modifiers. Experimental data
suggests that temperature-driven conformational changes at a
molecular level or intermolecular interactions, must be taking place. To
date, there is little to no fundamental studies to provide insight into the
molecular changes of viscosity modifiers with temperature. Towards
designing future generation viscosity index improvers, a fundamental
understanding of how various topologies behave in oil would be of
benefit to those working in this field. Though it is a challenging task to
glimpse into molecular-level temperature-induced changes, DLS, SANS,
and simulations were conducted to investigate such events.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1C

Bronze 2

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN I


Session Chair: D. Uy, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI
Session Vice Chair: S. Bagi, Paccar, Inc., Mt. Vernon, WA

8 8:30 am
Thermal Behaviour of an Axle Gear Set
C. Fossier, INSA de LYON LaMCoS, Villeurbanne, France,
C. Changenet, ECAM Lyon LabECAM, Lyon, France, F. Ville, INSA
de LYON LaMCoS, Villeurbanne, France, D. Barday, V. Berier,
Volvo Group Renault Trucks, St. Priest, France
Fuel consumption is a major issue for the truck industry. Powertrain
being a source of power losses, studies are conducted to improve its
efficiency. As the trend is to have compact systems, their cooling
becomes harder and bulk temperatures may increase. The thermal

www.stle.org

exchanges inside and outside the system have to be managed or at


least understood. In the present study, a truck axle and its gear set are
analysed. As the gear set is an hypoid or a spiral bevel one, sliding and
so tooth friction are important. Other losses are mainly due to rolling
element bearings and oil churning. The power losses are calculated on
a classical basis. Two methods to obtain the bulk temperatures of the
gear set are then compared: a classical approach which focuses on the
gear set only and a global approach which considers the complete axle
using the thermal-network method.

8:30 9 am
The Influence of Repeated High Energy
Engagements on the Permeability of a PaperBased Wet Clutch Friction Material
P. Marklund, N. Lingesten, E. Hglund, Lule University of
Technology, Lule, Sweden
The behavior of a wet clutch during clutch engagement is of great
importance both for the drivability of the vehicle and the durability
of the clutch. While many different factors influence this behavior, the
focus in this work is to investigate how the permeability of the wet
clutch friction material influences the engagement and how the
permeability is changing when the wet clutch is ageing through
repeated high energy engagements in a wet clutch test rig. A test cell
for measuring the permeability of friction material mounted on clutch
discs has been developed. The oil flow through both the friction surface
and the bulk material was measured. The results indicate that repeated
clutch engagements will increase the materials bulk permeability and
decrease its surface permeability. This contradictory behavior could be
explained by a change in pore structure through repeated compression
of the friction material and surface glazing clogging surface pores.

9 9:30 am
Effect of Organic Friction Modifiers on Friction
Properties and Surface Film Formation at Steel
and Paper Clutch Materials
Y. Onumata, H. Zhao, C. Wang, A. Morina, A. Neville, University of
Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
The effect of organic friction modifiers (FMs) on friction properties at
steel and paper clutch materials was investigated, and their working
mechanism was estimated by the observation of reaction and
adsorption films formed on the surface. The FMs are essential additives
for drivetrain lubricants to manage friction properties, so that it is
highly demanded to elucidate their detailed behaviour on the
substrates. In this study, friction properties of organic friction modifiers,
oleic acid, oleyl alcohol and glycerol mono-oleate, were measured by
TE77 and MTM using steel and paper specimens. The surface films on
the post-test materials were studied by EDX, XPS and ATR-FTIR to assess
the influence of the FMs. The results indicated that the friction
properties were highly affected by the substrate material and test
temperature as well as the chemical structure of the FM. The
relationship between the friction and the surface films was also
considered.

9:30 10 am
Lubricant Role in Shift Performance of Manual
Transmissions
J. Mills, D. Shakhvorostov, A. Smirnov, C. Wincierz, Evonik Oil
Additives, Horsham, PA
The lubricating oil in a manual transmission has many different tasks. In
the bearings and gears one of its more important functions is to reduce
friction. By contrast, in the synchronizer its required to maintain high
and stable friction for smoother gear shifting at shorter shifting times.
The viscosity-temperature profile of the oil and its composition can
influence shifting performance. We utilized a fully instrumented manual
transmission operated with a robotic arm to measure shifting times as

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

33

Monday, May 16
1C

we varied oil composition, shift force, type of synchronizer, rotational


speed, and temperature. We were able to control the input shaft speed
and oil temperature and evaluated shaft speeds between 1000 and
5000 rpm and oil temperatures between 0 and 80C. In addition low
temperatures down to -40C were applied to see how the oils
properties might influence the minimum temperature at which the
gears could be engaged.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1D

Gold

9 9:30 am
Polymers to Enhance the Performance of
Inorganic Grease
D. Vargo, B. Lipowski, Functional Products Inc., Macedonia, OH
A selection of polymers including PIB, SEBS, OCP/EPDM, EVA, PIP, and
SBR was added to inorganic greases. The greases studied were
Bentonite clay-based and Silica-based grease. The grease base oils were
either mineral oil or vegetable oil. The addition of polymers into grease
changes the greases ability to resist water spray-off as measured by
ASTM D4049. Water spray-off performance can be related to the
adhesive property of the grease to the metal surface. The effect of low
temperatures on greases containing polymer additives was measured
by the US Steel mobility test.

GREASE I
Session Chair: B. Tuszynski, Unami Group, Quakertown, PA
Session Vice Chair: P. Shiller, The University of Akron, Akron, OH

8 8:30 am
Extreme Pressure Effect of Solid Lubricant
Additives, Namely MoS2 and PTFE, in Lithium
12-Hydroxy Greases
R. Mulkern, Nye Lubricants, Fairhaven, MA
The use of solid lubricant additives as extreme pressure properties for
lithium 12-hydroxy stearate greases has been well documented over
the years. This 4-Ball EP study shows the effect of MoS2 and PTFE in
tandem, as well as on their own, with respect to lithium based greases
over a wide variety of synthetic hydrocarbon base oil viscosities. Of
these two additives, MoS2 is known for its high load carrying
capabilities, while PTFE is recognized for its low coefficient of friction
properties. Both additives on their own serve as proficient performance
enhancing additives, but together have the ability to increase the load
wear index (LWI) by 100%. In a synthetic hydrocarbon base oil this
effect is further influenced by base oil viscosity. The goal of this study
was to learn about the influences of base oil viscosity, PTFE, and MoS2,
on the 4-Ball EP properties of lithium 12-hydroxy stearate greases.

8:30 9 am
Fullerene-Like Inorganic Nanoparticles of
Tungsten Disulfide (IF-WS2) as Antiwear and
EP Additive in LiX Greases
E. McDaniel, G. Diloyan, Nanotech Industrial Solutions, Avenel, NJ
There is a great demand for durable greases that can operate at a
variety of temperatures, environments, and loads while maintaining
excellent performance over time. High load carrying capacity greases
are used in almost all industries including mining, steel mills, paper mill
industries, automotive, etc. Fullerene-like nanoparticles of tungsten
disulfide (IF-WS2) are considered to be excellent antiwear, antifriction
and EP additives. Due to their unique spherical shape they outperform
2H MoS2 platelets in applications where temperature variation, high
loads, and constant metal to metal contact are factors. Due to the Nano
sized range of IF-WS2 vs. the micron size particles of 2H MoS2 the treat
rate can be significantly reduced while keeping the same performance
properties. By using 4-ball EP and 4-Ball Wear, it has been shown that
IF-WS2 nanoparticles significantly increase EP properties of LiX grease
from 250kg to 1000kg and reduce wear up to 24%.

9:30 am 10 am
Improved Tribological Performance Through
Yttrium Oxide as Additives in Grease
C. Kim, W. Dai, C. Sanchez, H. Liang, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX
The tribological performance of yettrium oxide microparticles added in
grease was investigated. Pin-on-disk experiments showed that a small
amount addition of such particles could reduce friction coefficient and
wear. Detailed surface characterization of particles and wear debris lead
us to believe that the particles displayed roles of load bearing. In this
presentation, roles of the oxide additives are discussed. Strategy for
alternative design and development of lubricants will be discussed.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1E

Silver

METALWORKING I
Session Chair: M. Pearce, W.S. Dodge Oil Co., Fountain Valley, CA
Session Vice Chair: A. Cross, Houghton International, Valley
Forge, PA

8 8:30 am
Study of Mineral Oil-Free Metalworking Fluids
Based on Polyglycols Lubricant for Aluminum
Alloys with Extreme Pressure Properties
E. Lima, Dow Chemical, So Paulo, Brazil
Extreme pressure properties in metalworking fluid for aluminum alloys
are coming a subject of recent searching and with a strong
development evolution. Also focused on main properties of
metalworking fluids as Heat Removal, Lubrication, Transport of metal
chips produced and Non staining and corrosion generation has been
considered on this study development. Considering main critical points,
this paper is proposed for bringing new technology and synergisms
between extreme pressure additives and Polyglycols base with
differential technology and putting together unique vantages from
Polyglycols use and understanding possibilities from different
functionality Polyglycols chemistries structures of extreme pressure
additives in mineral oil free.

8:30 9 am
Controlling Friction and Avoiding Stick-Slip
Behaviour in Hydrodynamic Slideways
M. Ingram, P. Norris, D. Atkinson, Afton Chemical Ltd., Bracknell,
United Kingdom
Slideways/guideways are used in manufacturing machines to ensure
the accurate positioning and movement of a tool relative to a work
piece. Any inconsistencies in the straightness or flatness of the slideway,

34

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

LOOKING FOR A
FRESH SOLUTION?
Our new range of solvents, based on Gas-to-Liquids technology,
offer high purity, low odour, reduced environmental impact and more.
Contact us today to find out how our GTL Solvents, or our full range
of Oxygenated & Hydrocarbon Solvents, can work for you.
Tel: +1 713 241 0173
Email: solventsenquiries@shell.com

Shell

GTL Fluids & Solvents

Visit Us At STLE Booth # 501

www.shell.com/
chemicals/solvents

Monday, May 16
1E

or its movement, will be transferred to the work piece resulting in errors


in the manufactured part. Thus the slideways must be consistently
straight and flat and the speed that the tool platform is translated
along its axis must be predictable. Stick-slip effects, which are known to
occur in slideways, must be avoided to ensure predictable movement
and thus precise manufacture. In this paper we discuss the
fundamental concepts of lubricating a slideway and how the friction
can be controlled through varying lubricant viscosity and by use of
surface active additives.

9 9:30 am
Friction and Wear Performance of Titanium Alloy
against Tungsten Carbide Lubricated with
Phosphate Ester
Y. Yang, C. Zhang, J. Luo, State Key Laboratory of Tribology,
Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Titanium alloys are desirable engineering materials widely used in
aeroengine and manufacturing fields due to their outstanding
characteristics. As a difficult-to-cut material, Cutting fluid is considered
as an accessory in a machining process. However few reaches have
been done to investigate the effective cutting fluid additives with
titanium alloys considering the lubricating and anti-adhesion
properties. This work investigated the tribologcal properties of some
water-based additives on titanium alloys. It was found that nonylphenol
polyoxyethylene ether phosphate ester (PPE) solution can drop the
friction coefficient, decrease the wear rate, enhance the quality of
finishing surface. The mechanism was further investigated. The
experimental results indicate that PPE presents excellent tribological
properties even better than the commercial emulsion selected in this
work, which makes it a candidate additive in developing cutting fluid of
titanium alloys.

9:30 am 10 am
IF-WS2 Nanoparticles Water Dispersion is a
Multifunctional Additive for EP, Antiwear,
Antifriction and Heat Transferring Properties
Improvement: Potential Replacement for
Chlorinated Paraffin
G. Chaubey, G. Diloyan, Nanotech Industrial Solutions, Avenel, NJ
Inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles of tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) are
known as an excellent extreme pressure, antiwear and antifriction
additive in various industrial applications. Being on a nanoscale IF-WS2
particles can be dispersed in various oils (Group I- Group V) and greases
avoiding sedimentation. In this presentation, we report a stable water
base dispersion of IF-WS2 nanoparticles that besides unique
tribological properties also provided excellent heat conductivity
properties, showing 20% increase in heat transfer. IF-WS2 nanoparticles
dispersed in water at low treat rates (0.2 wt% up to 1.4 wt%) showed
excellent EP properties reaching 1000 kg four ball weld load, 0.5 mm
wear scar diameter and 0.05 CoF. There is ongoing research studying
synergistic effect of IF-WS2 nanoparticles with other chemistries
leading to further significant improvements in tribological properties.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1H

Las Vegas 1

FLUID FILM BEARINGS I


Session Chair: F. Horvat, Duramax Marine, Hiram, OH
Session Vice Chair: M. Fillon, Universite De Poitiers, Chasseneuil
du Poitiers, France

8 8:30 am
Modified Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Design
Utilizing Magnetorheological Fluids
M. Braun, N. Moles, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
A modified hydrodynamic journal bearing design with capability to be
actively controlled through the use of magnetorheological fluids is
presented. An arrangement of electromagnets was integrated with the
bearing for controlling fluid viscosity. A modified Reynolds equation is
used for bearing design and performance prediction. An experimental
facility is used for proof of performance and comparison and validation
with numerical; results. Testing results indicate that eccentricity ratio
control through active change in working fluid viscosity is achievable
when compared to the baseline when no magnetic field was applied.
The results validated and confirm both the advantages and
disadvantages of this bearing design having the expected positive
consequence of eccentricity and orbit control, but paying a penalty in
increased heat generation and torque, as well as power consumption
from the electromagnets. Optimization may succeed in improving the
positives at the expense of the negatives.

8:30 9 am
Measurement of the Permeability of Polyurethane
Foams: Application to XPHD Lubrication
S. Kunik, Institut pPrime, Futuroscope Chasseneuil, France, A. Fatu,
Institut pPrime, Angouleme, France, J. Bouyer, Institute Pprime,
Futuroscope Cedex, France
This work was done in the context of the investigation of a new
lubrication mechanism, named eX-Poro-Hydro-Dynamic (XPHD)
lubrication that consists of self-sustained fluid films generated within
highly compressible porous layers imbibed with liquids and subjected
to external normal or tangential forces. In this study, the flow of a
Newtonian liquid through a porous medium is described, at low
Reynolds numbers, using the Darcy-Brinkman law that is strongly
dependent on the medium porosity and permeability. The in-plane
permeability has been measured experimentally for open-cell PUR
foams. The measurement method is based on parallel flow, taking into
account boundary effects to ensure a uniform flow. The liquid (water) is
drive-in at a constant pressure drop and the measurement process was
performed under various compression ratios.The results obtained in
this study indicate that measurements yield accurate and reproducible
results that can be later used to model the XPHD lubrication.

9 9:30 am
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation
of the XPHD Lubrication
J. Bouyer, Institute Pprime, Futuroscope Cedex, France, S. Kunik,
Institut Pprime, Futuroscope Chasseneuil, France, A. Fatu, Institut
Pprime, Angouleme, France
The present work addresses a new lubrication mechanism of
biomimetic inspiration, named eX-Poro-Hydro-Dynamic (XPHD)
lubrication. It consists of self-sustained fluid films generated within
highly compressible porous layers imbibed with liquids. An experimental
test rig is used to investigate the performance of a pocketed thrustbearing with a polyurethane foam slider imbibed with water or with
several non-Newtonian liquids. The test rig allows the measurement of
friction torque, temperature and pressure. A numerical model is also
proposed: starting from the Darcy-Brinkman equation and using the

36

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
classical lubrication hypothesis, the flow within the thin porous media
is predicted with a new form of the Reynolds equation. The comparisons
between the experimental and numerical results conclude this work.

investigate the lubricating film properties of model synovial fluid,


particularly proteins, under simulated physiological conditions. Novel
in-contact visualization techniques were employed to characterize
lubricant behavior using thin film interferometry and laser induced
fluorescence. This allowed us to measure film thickness, possible
protein/surface interactions and observe protein flow. Earlier work
showed the existence of a new protein-rich inlet phase which
determined film formation in the contact and this will be studied
further in the current research. Results will be presented and discussed
on lubricating film thickness under gait-like transient loads and motion
as well as protein flow and behavior.

9:30 10 am
Introduction of Poroviscoelasticity in
Hydrodynamically Lubricated Bearings
P. Smyth, I. Green, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
A potential advancement in triboelement design comes from
introducing a poroviscoelastic material at the solid-fluid interface. It is
hypothesized that poroviscoelasticity can improve triboelement
properties such as damping and wear resistance without sacrificing
significant load support and stiffness. A poroviscoelastic material has
multiple features that make it interesting for study: porous structure for
lubricant storage, a built-in dissipation mechanism, and adaptive
stiffness and damping characteristics. The current poroviscoelastic
models are based on a Zener-type material structure; however, a novel
model for viscoelasticity will be introduced. This model is based on
fractional calculus that simplifies the description of viscoelasticity while
retaining model robustness. A hydrodynamic thrust bearing will serve
as the test-bed for analysis. The proposed work has application to:
mechanical seals, biomechanics, flexible rotordynamic bearings, and
biomimetic dampers, among others.

9:30 10 am
Bio-Lubricant Behavior Under Reciprocating
Motion in Mini-Channel
A. Safari, M. Cervantes, N. Emami, Lule University of Technology,
Lule, Sweden
Synovial fluid (SF) is articular joint lubrication. It contains a linear
biopolymer called Hyaluronic acid (HA), which causes the viscoelastic
behavior. Several studies on viscoelasticity of synovial fluid or different
HA solutions have been carried out with rheometers. However, there
are very few studies investigating the effect of viscoelasticity on SF
movement and velocity distribution inside the joint gap. In this study,
HA solutions with different concentrations were studied under a
sinusoidal reciprocating movement inside a rectangular mini-channel.
The study focuses on deriving velocity distribution along channel width
with Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (micro-PIV). Very high viscosity of
the HA solutions suggests a quasi-steady behavior for this solution
under investigated sinusoidal movement. However, the results
indicated that the steady state laws are not applicable for estimating
the HA behavior because of special polymeric behavior of the HA
chains inside the solutions.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1I

Las Vegas 2

BIOTRIBOLOGY I
Session Chair: M. Varenberg, Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA

10 10:30 am Break

Session Vice Chair: A. Pitenis, University of Florida, Gainesville,


FL

Session 1K

8:30 9 am
Tribological Properties of the Liposomes on
the Surface of Artificial Joint

Las Vegas 5

CERAMICS & COMPOSITES I

Y. Duan, Y. Liu, H. Shi, J. Song, S. Wen, Tsinghua University, Beijing,


China

Session Chair: H. Xiao, China Universtiy of Petroleum, Beijing,


China

The natural synovial joints of human have very low friction coefficient
under large loads, which is closely related to the composition of
synovial fluid such as phospholipid. In the study, we studied the
lubricating properties of liposomes (lipid vesicles) under macroconditions and found its highly efficient lubricating behavior under
certain conditions, which can significantly reduce the friction
coefficient, up by 69%. In addition, liposomes can maintain a stable
friction coefficient under different speeds and loads. As we have seen,
the excellent lubrication behavior of liposomes has a close relationship
with hydration mechanism by highly-hydrated phosphocholine headgroups and morphology of liposomes adsorbing on titanium alloy,
which shows a multilayer structure. In addition, the closer to the
basement liposomes are, the stronger the interaction force and the
resistance to shear capacity are, which provides favorable conditions for
macroscopic lubrication of liposomes.

Session Vice Chair: H. Choi, Texas A&M University, College


Station, TX

9 9:30 am
Characterizing the Lubricating Properties
of Model Synovial Fluids
H. Stevenson, M. Parkes, C. Myant, P. Cann, Imperial College London,
London, United Kingdom
Hip joint arthroplasty is one of the most common orthopedic
procedures, however it remains one of the most challenging
tribological problems. Artificial hips are lubricated by synovial fluid
which contains proteins, lipids and hyaluronic acid. In this study we

www.stle.org

8 8:30 am
Topology Optimization of a Composite Surface
to Minimize Run-In Wear Volume
M. Sidebottom, M. Goldstein, X. Jia, Lehigh University, Bethlehem,
PA, F. Feppon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,
MA, N. Vermaak, B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
Composites combine materials with favorable properties to create
optimal systems. Previously, the tribological performance of composite
surfaces has been improved by parametrically rearranging, modifying,
and testing the distribution of materials within the surface. Experimental
testing has been used to evaluate the wear of composite surfaces,
which is expensive and time consuming. Recently, a continuous wear
formulation has been developed in a finite difference framework
combining Archards wear law and Pasternak foundation models to
predict wear of composite surfaces. A continuous formulation allows
for rapid computation of the final surface topography and run-in wear
volume required to reach a steady-state wear rate. This method has
been integrated within a topology optimization framework to minimize
run-in wear volume and lessen dependence on expensive tests.
Optimized surfaces were manufactured, experimentally tested, and
compared to their predicted wear performance.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

37

Monday, May 16
1K

8:30 9 am
Design and Synthesis of a Superhydrophobic
PVDF-Based Composite

Session 1M

Las Vegas 6/7

SEALS I

H. Choi, K. Lee, H. Liang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


The ability to design, control, and synthesize a material surface with
superhydrophobicity is of great interests in many engineering
applications. Here we report a cost-effective process to fabricate
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/Zirconium(IV) oxide (ZrO2) composites
with superhydrophobicity. This is achieved by combining an antisolvent that induces phase separation, i.e., the precipitation of PVDF
from the solution through a spray-on method on various liquids. The
material surfaces possess wrinkled micron-sized beads which displayed
superhydrophobicity in water without any chemical treatment. The
process developed in this research presented is a fast and simple
approach in making hydrophobic surfaces.

9 9:30 am
Grain Texture Manipulation & its Effect on the
Tribological Response of Carbides
S. Patel, M. Kuttolamadom, Texas A&M University, College Station,
TX
Manipulating the grain texture has potential to enable some level of
control of the mechanical properties of tungsten carbide-cobalt
composites. The objective of this presentation is to detail and evaluate
two procedures for controlling the surface texture of sintered carbides
starting from powder, and to evaluate the tribological response. The
first mixture consists of WC and Co powders, a binder, a plasticizer and
lubricant. The second mixture consists of WC and Co powders with
another binder. Both mixtures were rolled into sheets using highpressure rollers and then laser cut into thin discs. These discs were
stacked and then subjected to high pressure in a die. This green
compact was then thermally debound and then spark plasma sintered
to obtain bulk WC-Co. The relationships between the degree of
orientation texture and the fabrication process conditions were studied.
Pin-on-disc tests were rhen conducted to ascertain the effect of
orientation texture on the tribological response.

9:30 10 am
Tribochemical Wear of Duplex Stainless Steels
H. Liang, Z. Huang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
Duplex stainless steels are widely used in energy production.
Understanding their wear mechanisms in corrosive environments is
important for safe manufacturing. This research investigates the wear
mechanisms metals in a salt solution. Tribological experiments were
conducted using a flat-on-flat configuration with applied electrical
potential. Results showed that passivation and wear are competing
mechanisms under various conditions. This presentation discusses the
principles behind the behavior observed.

10 10:30 am Break

Session Chair: H. Zhao, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH


Session Vice Chair: N. Brunetiere, Institut Pprime, Futuroscope
Chasseneuil cedex, France

8 8:30 am
The World in 3D New Surface Parameters for
Hydraulic Rod Sealing Systems
M. Stoll, L. Hrl, W. Haas, University of Stuttgart, Institute of
Machine Components, Stuttgart, Germany
In theory, leakage and friction of hydraulic rod sealing systems are
estimated by the inverse Reynolds equation assuming a smooth
counter surface. In fact, the rod surface has an important influence
both on leakage and friction. Two-dimensional surface specifications
are well known and widely used for several decades but unable to
describe the complete rod surface. In order to distinguish surface
characteristics like for example pores or grooves, the rod surface must
be measured three-dimensional. For this purpose, 3D surface
parameters were standardized in ISO 25178. Test runs with PU U-cup
seals are performed measuring friction and leakage for differently
manufactured rods. The surfaces topography of the rods are measured
in order to calculate the 2D and 3D parameters. These parameters are
analyzed regarding their potential to predict friction and leakage of
the sealing system.

8:30 9 am
Investigation of Local Friction Maxima in
Mixed Seal Friction Combining Different Friction
Models
M. Zimmermann, M. Wangenheim, Leibniz Universitt Hannover,
Hannover, Germany, R. Bactavatchalou, Freudenberg New
Technologies SE & Co. KG, Weinheim, Germany
Sometimes friction force tests on lubricated rubber or elastomer seals
do not follow a regular Stribeck curve. Local maxima occur. Pin-on-disc
tribometer tests with seal materials and lubricants show similar
behaviour. The local maxima can be explained with the viscoelastic
material behaviour of rubber. Damping properties of rubber cause
friction when it is excited during sliding. Local maxima occur due to the
frequency dependency of the damping properties. Two effects cause
the excitation of the material. Rupturing of adhesive bonds induces
movement of single polymer chains on the surface of the rubber
material causing viscoelastic behaviour of the adhesion friction. In
addition, excitation of the material by the rough counter surface causes
hysteresis friction. Simulation tools which describe adhesion and
hysteresis friction exist. However, these models are predominately used
for dry friction. We combine such models to explain local maxima in
lubricated pin-on-disc tribometer tests.

9 9:30 am
Lead Explained Impact on Tribology,
Lubrication and Leakage
M. Baumann, F. Bauer, W. Haas, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart,
Germany
The quality of a shaft counterface is one of the critical aspects for the
proper function of a dynamic sealing system. As part of a tribological
system (radial lip seal, shaft counterface and the fluid to be sealed) the
shaft counterface is primarily responsible for friction, wear and most
important fluid tightness within a sealing system. Anisotropic, oriented
surface structures deviating from the circumferential direction of the
shaft, commonly referred to as lead, are causing a fluid pumping effect
which has a negative impact on the sealing system. Sealing failure due
to dry run, thermal damage or instant leakage are the result. This paper

38

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
presents results of three research projects combined with the longstanding experience of the Institute in terms of lead analysis. The
functional behavior of surface structure characteristics and how
leakage can be prevented will be discussed.

8:30 9 am
Effect of Laser Surface Texture on Lubricant
Replenishment and Wear Behaviour in
Lubricated Reciprocating Line Contact

9:30 10 am
Predicting the Contact Temperature in Radial
Lip Seal Systems using a Multi-Scale Simulation
Model

S. Vladescu, T. Reddyhoff, Imperial College London, London, United


Kingdom

S. Feldmeth, F. Bauer, W. Haas, University of Stuttgart, Institute of


Machine Components, Stuttgart, Germany
During operation of radial lip seals, frictional heat is generated in the
contact area between the radial lip seal and the rotating shaft. The
frictional heat results in a rise of the contact temperature, which
strongly affects the life time of the sealing system. Therefore it is very
important to know the contact temperature for designing reliable
sealing systems. At the University of Stuttgart, a multi scale simulation
model is developed, which predicts the contact temperature and
consists of three coupled parts: The meso model comprises a FEA
simulating the pressure in the contact area. In the micro model, the
fluid film in that contact area is simulated using the EHL theory to
obtain the amount of generated heat. The macro model describes the
heat dissipation by a conjugate heat transfer simulation and provides
the contact temperature as the final result. The simulation results are
validated with friction torque and temperature measurements
performed during test runs at a test rig.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1N

Jubilee 1

SURFACE ENGINEERING I
Session Chair: Z. Khan, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth,
Dorset, United Kingdom
Session Vice Chair: H. Nazir, Bournemouth University,
Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom

8 8:30 am
Prevention of Spreading of Lubricant on Silicon
Surfaces

This research, conducted in collaboration with Ford Motor Company,


aims to help understand the interactions between laser-produced
surface texture and wear behaviour in an automotive piston-liner
pairing. A recently developed, reciprocating, test apparatus was used to
conduct tests under highly loaded conditions. Specimens with a range
of pocket geometries were assessed and the resulting friction and wear
data were compared with those from a non-texture reference. These
tests showed that, as the specimens became worn and surface
roughness increased, the contact progressed further into the mixed
and boundary regime. This lead to a significant improvement in the
relative performance of the textured specimens, showing reductions in
friction of up to 70%, compared to the non-texture case. Surface texture
also reduced the volume of wear, by up to 53%, and the nature of the
results suggests that pockets reduce wear and friction via separate
mechanisms, as will be discussed.

9 9:30 am
The Role of Adhesive Forces Due to Surface
Separation from Liquid Menisci
S. Cai, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, Y. Zhao, St. Cloud
State University, St. Cloud, MN, P. Dhital, Minnesota State
University, Mankato, MN
Liquid (i.e., liquid lubricant or water) can form menisci at the interface
of contacting surfaces. Different type of forces such as meniscus and
viscous forces contribute to an adhesive force when two surfaces are
separated. The adhesion may result in stiction, high friction and
possibly high wear. The situation may become more pronounced
dependent on the physical contact configuration and the operation
conditions such as ultra-smooth surfaces in contact, fast separation, and
small normal load, as is common for micro-/nano devices. In this study,
meniscus and viscous forces due to water and liquid lubricants during
separation of two flat surfaces are studies. The roles of the involved
forces at various meniscus areas are analyzed. The factors affecting the
role change of the forces are investigated. The study provides a
fundamental understanding of the forces of separation process and it is
valuable for the design of the interfaces.

J. Leong, SIM University, Singapore, Singapore, J. Zhang, Imperial


College London, London, United Kingdom, S. Sinha, Indian Institute
of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India, A. Holmes, H. Spikes,
T. Reddyhoff, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

9:30 10 am
Superlubricity of Thermally Annealed DLC Films
on the Si3N4 Ceramic Ball

Liquid lubrication is thought to one approach toward mitigating


friction and wear in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). One of
the practical constraints of this approach is the positioning and
application of lubricant on a silicon surface to limit both spreading and
evaporation a volatility/viscosity tradeoff. Modification of liquids can
alter their behaviour additives can be introduced to promote
autophobic behaviour. In our experiments, we have used two amine
additives, known for their friction reduction properties, as well as a
commercially available multiply-alkylated cyclopentane, obtained from
Dulub. Experiments show a variety of spreading outcomes as a result of
the additives, showing a varying effectiveness in halting the spread of
the lubricant, correlated to concentration and type of additive, and in
one case, cause the hexadecane to retract. The mechanisms are then
explored for their practical use.

Q. Zeng, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi, China,


O. Erylimaz, A. Erdemir, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
DLC films were deposited on the Si3N4 ceramic ball to improve the
bearing performance of high speed ball bearing. Recently, DLC films are
treated by an annealing process under different annealing temperatures
to reduce the residual stress of DLC films. And superlubricity (0.009) of
DLC films has been evidenced at the temperature of 100oC, which is
the operating extreme temperature of high speed ball bearing under
high speed. In this work, we have studied the origin of COF values well
below 0.01 that have been obtained in certain conditions (see figure
1).Our results show that the graphitization of DLC films and oxidation
reactions are the origin of superlubricity behavior. Moreover, the
experimental data suggest that self-generated graphite oxide after the
graphitization of DLC films during the annealing process and the
doping of silicon in DLC films could be involved in a series of
tribochemical reactions leading to the transferred films with shearing
strength.

10 10:30 am Break

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

39

Monday, May 16
Session 1O

Jubilee 2

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY I
Session Chair: T. Scharf, The University of North Texas, Denton,
TX
Session Vice Chair: G. Zeng, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA

8 8:30 am
Quasicrystal-Based Multi-Phase Alloys for
Improved Wear Resistance
K. Lee, H. Liang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
Quasicrystals are known for their unique physical and mechanical
properties. We have developed a new quasicrystal-based alloy that
improves wear resistance. This alloy has multiphases with combined
strength, ductility, and hardness. Experiments in wear evaluation
showed that the quasicrystal is a hard phase while a phase containing
AlCu is more ductile. This combination enables effective block of cracks
and wear.

8:30 9 am
Effect of Stirring and Modifier on Wear Behaviour
of A356 Tirring
J. Menghani, B. Bhushan, B. Singh, D. Suthat, D. Shah, S.V.N.I.T,
Surat, India
The mechanical properties of AlSi alloys are strongly related to
the size, shape and distribution of eutectic silicon present in the
microstructure.Rare earth addition to hyper eutectic Al-Si alloy is
known but studies on effect of rae earth on A356 are limited. In
present research work effect of rare earth and stirring on
microstructural and tribological properties on cast A36 has been
studied.Alloy has been casted by addition of 0%,0.5wt%,1.5wt% rare
earth along with stirring at 0,400 and 600 rpm of stirring speed.
Microstructural characterisation of cast modified and nonmodified
A356 is done by optical microscopyand phases were detected by
XRD.Wear characterisation was done by Pin on disc wear
tribometer.The parameters selected were 45N load,240rpm and
distance of 6m.The microstructural and wear behaviour is discussed.

9 9:30 am
Friction Stir Processing of A-286 Stainless Steel:
Microstructural Evolution During Wear
T. Scharf, O. Tinubu, The University of North Texas, Denton, TX
The effect of FSP on mechanical and wear behavior was investigated
for A-286 stainless steel, an Fe-Ni-Cr-based alloy. The alloy was
characterized in as rolled (AR) + aged and FSP + aged conditions.
High frequency reciprocating sliding wear behavior and wear
mechanisms were investigated at room temperature. It was determined
that along with increasing microhardness in the stir zone, FSP resulted
in improved wear resistance. Specifically, the wear rate in the stir zone
was reduced from 1 x 10-6 to 6 x 10-7 mm3/N.m due to FSP. SEM
revealed increased coarse abrasion with the AR + aged alloy as
compared to much finer-scale microabrasion with the FSP + aged
alloy. Furthermore, cross-sectional FIB microscopy studies inside the
stir zone of the FSP + aged alloy determined that increased
microhardness was due to FSP-induced microscopic grain refinement
resulting in Hall-Petch strengthening, and the corresponding wear rate
decrease was due to even finer wear-induced grain refinement.

9:30 10 am
Sequence of Microstructure Evolution Processes
in Fine-Pearlitic Steel Under Unidirectional
Lubricated Tribological Loading
C. Greiner, J. Schneider, K. Wolff, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
Karlsruhe, Germany
The exact evolution of a materials microstructure under tribological
loading is of great importance for both materials science and tribology.
Therefore, the microstructure evolution of steel C85 pellets sliding
against steel 100Cr6 disks is characterized after different numbers of
acceleration-deceleration cycles. Focused ion beam cross-sections are
prepared along the sliding direction. Two tribologically modified
surface layers are found: One with bent grain boundaries and one of
nanocrystalline nature. We hypothesize that the second layer is formed
by breaking down the most bent regions of the first one when a critical
grain boundary bending angle is reached and then consumes it from
the top. A model originally developed for High Pressure Torsion (HPT)
was successfully applied to estimate the thickness of the fine-grained
layer and the applied shear strain.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 1P

Jubilee 3

NANOTRIBOLOGY I: NANOMATERIALS AND


NANOSCALE ANALYSIS
Session Chair: H. Ghaednia, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI
Session Vice Chair: C. Korach, University of Mount Union,
Alliance, OH

8 9 am
The Amazing Friction Properties of Graphene
and Water
M. Salmeron, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA,
J. Park, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,
Daejeon, The Republic of Korea
Graphene has not only unique electronic properties that arise from its
peculiar electronic structure, but also unique mechanical and chemical
properties. I will present and discuss some of these, including: a)
Formation of friction domains on exfoliated monolayer graphene
deposited on SiO2-Si wafers, due to ripple distortions along
preferentially crystallographic directions. Within each domain the
friction is anisotropic; b) Graphene layers grown on reactive substrates
like Ru(0001) can be split along grain boundaries by reaction with
water. Subsequently the water intercalates between graphene and the
Ru metal and changes the friction of graphene; c) Graphene flakes
exhibit superlubric properties when sliding over large graphene layers,
even at emperatures of 5K. d) Water intercalated between graphene
and mica or SiO2/Si increases friction. With the help of DFT phonon
spectra calculations we can explain the role of water in increasing
friction energy dissipation.

9 9:30 am
Experimentally Investigating the Effect of
Angstrom-Scale Surface Topography on the
Mechanics of Large-Scale Contact
T. Jacobs, A. Gujrati, S. Khanal, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
Continuum analytical theories based on the statistics of self-affine
surfaces have been applied to quantitatively describe the adhesion and
contact mechanics of randomly rough surfaces. In particular, they predict
that large-scale behavior depends strongly on Angstrom-scale surface
features. Yet these theories are not sufficiently validated experimentally
and cannot be straightforwardly applied to real-world surfaces, due to

40

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
resolution limits of conventional surface measurement techniques. In
this work, the topography of silicon and carbon-based surfaces has
been characterized across an unprecedented nine orders of magnitude
using profilometry (cm- m), atomic force microscopy ( m-nm), and a
novel transmission electron microscopy approach (nm-). Together,
these enable a complete spectral analysis of the surface and
quantitative comparison against analytical theories. Large-scale
mechanical behavior of the same surfaces was investigated using a
micromechanical tester.

9:30 10 am
Tailoring Graphene-Substrate Adhesion by
Controlling Surface Interactions
M. Elinski, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
Minimizing friction and wear in devices is a ubiquitous challenge that
impacts a number of applications. At interfaces, regions of high shear
strain between nanoscopic asperities of surfaces in sliding contact
present a demanding environment to lubricate. Recent studies have
shown that the exceptional mechanical properties of 2D nanomaterials
such as graphene renders it a strong candidate as a solid lubricant.
However, the use of graphene for oxide surfaces can be limited by its
low adhesion to such surfaces. Here, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)
of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and aromatic functionalities have been
used to tailor the surface interactions between SiO2 and graphene.
The interaction strength of the various SAMs with graphene have been
measured by AFM to investigate how the tailored surface chemistry
modulates the adhesive strength of the top graphene contact.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 2A

Bronze 4

COMMERCIAL MARKETING FORUM II


1:30 2 pm
Multi-Functional Primary Amine for WaterMiscible Metalworking Fluids
A. Rubio, Huntsman Corp., The Woodlands, TX
Huntsman Corp. offers a wide range of formulation components to the
metalworking industry. Our SURFONIC surfactant products provide
emulsification and lubricity to a formulation. We manufacture several
types of amines ranging from traditional ethanolamines and
ethyleneamines, as well as specialty products such as our JEFFAMINE
polyetheramine products, DGA Agent, and our multi-functional
JEFFADD MW-781 etheramine.JEFFADD MW-781 etheramine is a
low molecular weight, strong primary amine for the metalworking fluid
industry. Due to increasingly stringent regulations around fuel
efficiency and automobile emissions, automobile manufacturers have
increased the use of aluminum thus challenging formulators to create
metalworking fluids that are low staining on aluminum. JEFFADD
MW-781 etheramine and its salts were found to be low staining on
different aluminum alloys when compared to other aminoalcohols.

2 2:30 pm
Wetting Agents for Metalworking Fluids
J. Sullivan, Munzing, Bloomfield, NJ
The METOLAT 4000 series wetting agents are specially formulated to
give a strong reduction in dynamic surface tension, little to no foam
generation, and broad system compatibility. A low dynamic surface
tension results in rapid spreading on the metal surface during high
speed processes. This allows the fluid to get to the contact point
between the tool and the work piece to provide proper lubrication and
cooling. The METOLAT 4000 series also has the ability to accelerate
metal fines dropping and improve the cleanliness during operation by
eliminating the residue remaining on the metal surface.

www.stle.org

2:30 3 pm
Metallocene PAO 300, Delivering Flexibility to
Formulate Innovative Lubricants
M. Sheehan, ExxonMobil Chemical Co., Baytown, TX
ExxonMobil Chemical continues to expand our synthetic fluid and
lubricant base stock portfolio to meet our customers needs.
Metallocene PAO 300 is the latest addition to our portfolio of high
performance base stocks providing enhanced performance in industrial
and automotive applications to meet the increasingly stringent
requirements of these markets. Join us to hear how metallocene PAO
300 can help provide you higher performing lubricants.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Meeting the Lubrication Challenges of Modern
High Performance Hydraulic Systems
Y. Wang, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
Hydraulic systems frequently work under increased speed and pressure
to perform in the toughest environments, yet surprisingly, hydraulic
fluid specifications have remained relatively stagnant, until now. In
2014, Bosch Rexroth, a leading global equipment manufacturer,
released their new RDE 90235 specification, having previously
announced that their RDE 90220 specification was no longer sufficient
to guarantee protection in todays high performance mobile and
stationary systems. This new specification, with a host of upgraded
technical requirements, now represents one of the highest tiers for
hydraulic fluid performance and has become an important target for
todays lubricant suppliers. This presentation will compare the new
Bosch Rexroth RDE 90235 specification with Parker Denisons wellknown HF-0 specification and introduce Lubrizol AH94NA, a new
technology developed to provide the robust performance required to
meet the lubrication challenges of modern high performance systems.

4:30 5 pm
An Innovative and Non-Conventional Approach
to Commercial Engine
L. Wei, Novitas Chem Solutions, LLC, Bellaire, TX
This talk discloses a novel approach to formulate heavy diesel engine
oils by combing high performance additives and synthetic base oils
without the use of VI improvers. This unique combination, via extensive
fleet testing, gives an ultra-stable oil with outstanding driving
experience, enhanced fuel economy and unexpected benefits far
exceed to the traditional API candidates.

5 5:30 pm
Selection of Synthetic Base Stocks for Industrial
Lubricant Applications
D. Stonecipher, Chemtura Corp., Philadelphia, PA
Formulators of industrial lubricants are faced with a unique challenge
given the wide variety of end application possibilities. How do they
select the right base stock for each application? Applications range
from compressors & vacuum pumps to gear boxes & bearings, from
turbines & hydraulic systems to refrigeration & metal working. These
applications can be found across several industries including thermal
power generation, wind power generation, oil & gas, mining, cement,
food & beverage, pulp & paper, textiles, plastic extrusion, steel, &
chemical plant processing. Industrial lubricants must be designed to
handle specific ambient & operating condition variability in
temperatures, pressures, loads, & moisture levels. While additive
packages can manage some of these requirements, proper base stock
selection is critical to meeting application performance objectives such
as long equipment life, extended oil drain intervals, reduced
maintenance costs & minimal energy consumption.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

41

Monday, May 16
2A

5:30 6 pm
New Innovations in Metalworking Additives
F. Lochel, Cargill Industrial Solutions, Minneaoplis, MN
In response to the major industry challanges presented at the 2015
STLE conference, Cargill Industrial Specialties is pleased to present a
summary of their research into bio-renewable metalworking additives
that meet current and proposed regulatory mandates.

Session 2B

Bronze 3

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS II
SURFACE COATINGS
Session Chair: J. Qu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge,
TN
Session Vice Chair: M. Dube, NASA Engineering & Safety
Center, Dartmouth, MA

1:30 2 pm
In-Situ AFM Measurements of the Interaction
between Conventional Lubricant Additives with
a Novel Anti-Wear Nanomaterial
H. Khare, I. Lahouij, A. Jackson, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA, Z. Chen, G. Cooper, Pixelligent Technologies LLC,
Baltimore, MD, R. Carpick, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA
The tendency of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) to suppress
catalytic converter efficiency has motivated the development of several
anti-wear additive substitutes, most notably nanoparticles with sizes
between 20-100 nm. We previously reported on the in-situ growth of
anti-wear tribofilms formed in an AFM with a novel zirconia
nanoparticle in oil. Here, we first review the properties of these
tribofilms and discuss possible consequences of these properties for
applying the nanoparticles as an anti-wear additive. The commercial
viability and efficacy as a drop-in additive of this nanoparticle depends
greatly on nanoparticle interactions with other additives, such as
friction modifiers as well as existing anti-wear additives such as ZDDP.
This work reports on the tribological and mechanical properties of
zirconia tribofilms generated in-situ at the lubricated contact of an AFM
in mixtures of zirconia with friction modifiers and ZDDP, as well as in
fully formulated lubricants.

2:30 3 pm
Carbon Allotropes as an Oil Additives, Which
One Is More Effective?
E. Omrani, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI,
P. Menezes, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV, P. Rohatgi,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
In the present investigation, a pin-on-disk apparatus was employed to
investigate the influence of carbonous solid lubricant (graphite,
graphene, CNTs, and nano-fibers) on the tribological behavior of
lubricants containing particulate additives. The size of additives in a
lubricant influences their friction and wear performance during sliding
contact. In the experiments, aluminum pin slide against aluminum disk
in the presence of oil containing carbonous additives. A scanning
electron microscope and optical profilometer were used for
topographical studies to evaluate the influence of additive on wear
damage and surface roughness. When graphite, graphene, and CNTs
dispersed, they reduced both friction and wear rate while nano-fibers
increase COF and wear rate. In particular, the reduction in wear is due to
the formation of carbon-rich boundary film, the formation of which is
attributed to tribochemical interactions between the carbon particles
and sliding contact surfaces.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Tribological Properties of Two-Dimensional
Nanosheets as Friction-Reducing and Anti-Wear
Agents
H. Xiao, China Universtiy of Petroleum, Beijing, China, H. Liang,
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, S. Liu, China Universtiy
of Petroleum, Beijing, China, X. He, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX

2 2:30 pm
Friction Reduction by Thin-Layer Thermal
Insulation in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts

Two-dimensional nanosheets are used to reduce friction and wear in


the field of tribology. Solid lubricants, lubricant additives, and surface
coatings made from nanosheets have attracted great attention. In this
study, the tribological performance of three types of two-dimensional
nanosheets, namely graphene, yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and -zirconium
phosphate ( -ZrP), were evaluated. Graphene was deposited on alumina
and diamond surfaces as protective coating. Y2O3 and -ZrP were mixed
into mineral oiland served as lubricant additives. Results from
tribological experiments illustrates that deposition of several layers of
graphene effectively reduces friction and wear on alumina and
diamond surfaces. Y2O3 and -ZrP are able to improve lubricating
performance of mineral oil. Viscosity of mineral oil is effectively reduced
after the addition of Y2O3 and -ZrP nanosheets. Physical models were
built to describe the friction- and wear-reducing mechanisms of those
two dimensional nanosheets.

M. Bjrling, Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden,


W. Habchi, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon,
S. Bair, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, R. Larsson,
P. Marklund, Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden

4:30 5 pm
Effect of the Molecular Orientation of Liquid
Crystal on Friction Controlled by Electric Field

Friction reduction in many applications is necessary for increased


efficiency, lower emissions and conservation of natural resources. Thin
hard coatings like diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been shown to
reduce friction in full film lubricated contacts. In this work, it is shown
that contrary to common belief, the friction reduction stems mainly
from a thermal phenomenon and not only a chemical/surface
interaction one. A series of experiments has shown that a DLC coating
of a few micrometers can significantly reduce friction in an
elastohydrodynamically lubricated contact. The hypothesis presented
is that the insulating coating will influence the thermal behavior and
lead to a reduction in friction. A numerical simulation shows that
applying a thin DLC coating to metal surfaces creates an insulating
effect that due to the increased liquid lubricant film temperature at
the center of the contact, locally reduces lubricant viscosity and thus
friction.

42

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Y. Gao, L. Ma, J. Luo, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China


How do lubricants act in between two rubbing surfaces? A deep insight
into the molecular behavior should be taken during the rubbing
process, which is the so-called in situ detection. We employ a polarized
Raman spectrometer to study the alignment of a typical nematic liquid
crystal in the nano-gap of a ball-on-disc tribology test platform. In
sliding contact, shear and flow yield an anisotropy planar orientation
and turn the long axes of the molecules along the sliding direction.
Further, an electric field which applied across the lubrication film will
drive the liquid crystal arranged vertical to the friction surfaces. We
measured friction coefficient at different applied voltage. We find that
the molecular orientation of liquid crystal significantly influence the
friction coefficient, especially in the low-speed range. These results will,
we believe, be useful to gain a better understanding of the thin film
lubrication model.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
5 5:30 pm
Superlubricity between Sapphire and PTFE
Achieved by Acid

2:30 3 pm
Pour Point Depressant (PPD) Selection for
GF-6 One Size Does Not Fit All

M. Deng, C. Zhang, J. Li, J. Luo, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

J. Ellington, J. Souchik, J. Wang, A. Tsay, J. Mills, B. Zweitzig, Evonik


Industries, Horsham, PA

In the present work, a super-low friction coefficient of about 0.004 was


achieved between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and sapphire under
the lubrication of acidic solutions (pH 1.5). Such superlubricity state was
extremely stable for more than 1 hour and the wear loss can be
negligible. Moreover, the experimental results show the super-low
friction was independent of the sliding velocity and load but closely
dependent of the concentration of hydrogen ions in the contact region.
With the hydrogen ions, an asymmetrical electric double layer was
generated between the two sliding surface, which would alter the
properties of the lubricant and the interaction between the lubricant
moleculars and sliding surfaces. The superlubricity of acidic solution is
mainly attributed to the increase in viscosity due to the electrical
double layer and low shearing strength due to the easy slip in the
water layer close to PTFE.

Session 2C

Bronze 2

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN II


Session Chair: S. Tung, Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC, Norwalk, CT
Session Vice Chair: D. Uy, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI

1:30 2 pm
Effects of VI Improver on Passenger Car Fuel
Economy in Chassis Dynamometer Tests
D. Smolenski, T. Bartels, J. Liu, Evonik Oil Additives USA, Inc.,
Horsham, PA
At the 2015 STLE Annual Meeting, Evonik presented data on fuel
economy improvements obtained in engine dynamometer tests in the
US Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC),
the WLTC Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP)
and the Japanese fuel economy test, JC08. Some of these cycles have
been repeated in chassis dynamometer tests. The results of this new
work will be reported, as well as lessons learned regarding the
challenges of running fuel economy tests.

2 2:30 pm
Engine Oils Formulated for Improved Deposit
Control
A. Flamberg, J. Langston, Evonik Oil Additives USA, Inc., Horsham,
PA
Engine cleanliness is critical to the operation of a vehicle. Lubricants,
exposed to high temperatures in particular areas of the engine, form
deposits. Therefore, it is critical to understand the deposit formation
tendencies of a lubricant formulation. Modern oils are required to pass
several deposits tests for certification. One of these requirements is the
TEOST 33C test. In this work, we will review our previous TEOST 33C
test findings on the effects of engine oil formulations using different
viscosity modifiers, base oils, additive packages and other additives, on
deposit formation. Additional data will be presented on our extended
work with deposits in other tests and formulations.

www.stle.org

Control of oil viscosity increase under low temperatures remains a


crucial performance criterion. Failure to manage cold temperature
viscosity can lead to lubricant starvation, reduction in oil pumpability,
and eventually lead to catastrophic engine failure. Low temperature
viscosity standards have continued to evolve over the years and gained
further attention when ILSAC GF-4 specified an aged oil low
temperature viscosity limit to guarantee performance retention during
operation. This requirement, a key benchmark of modern passenger car
engine oils, plans to remain for ILSAC GF-6. In this paper, we will
examine a comprehensive set of engine oils in various low temperature
tests and highlight the importance of low temperature performance.
We will then consider the use of PPDs in engine oil formulations and
discuss selection guidelines to meet the stringent engine oil cold flow
standard including the aged oil viscosity bench test for low
temperature property evaluation.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Valvetrain Friction and Wear Performance of
Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils
A. Gangopadhyay, D. McWatt, R. Zdrodowski, S. Simko, Ford Motor
Co., Novi, MI, J. Cuthbert, E. Hock, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine
oil formulation has been explored. Various PAG chemistries were
explored by varying the feed stock material. Most of the formulations
have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils
were evaluated in a motored valvetrain rig in the temperature range
40C-100C and in the speed range 300 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations
showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending
on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. The wear protection
capability was evaluated using radiotracer technique. The wear profile
of some PAG oils were equal to or better than GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil while
others showed high initial wear. The wear rate of the PAG oils was not
that different from GF-5 oil. The bucket tappet surfaces were analyzed
using SEM, Auger, XPS, and ToF-SIMS to characterize tribo-film
formation and help explain the friction and wear performance.

4:30 5 pm
Engine Friction and Wear Performances with
Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils
A. Gangopadhyay, Ford Motor Co., Novi, MI, D. McWatt, Ford Motor
Co. (Retired), Livonia, MI, L. Elie, Z. Liu, Ford Motor Co., Novi, MI,
E. Hock, J. Cuthbert, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine
oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain
over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries
were explored depending on feed stock material used for
manufacturing. Most of the formulations have the same additive
package. The friction performance of these oils were evaluated in a
motored single cylinder engine with current production engine
hardware in the temperature range 40C-120C and in the speed range
500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction
reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed,
and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in motored I-4 engine showed up
to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40C-100C over GF-5
oil. The presentation will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel
economy and Sequence IVA wear tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data
will also be shared.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

43

Monday, May 16
2C

5 5:30 pm
Interactions of Ethanol with Friction Modifiers
in Car Engine Lubricants

2:30 2:45 pm
Grease Testing Past, Present and Future
J. Spagnoli, ExxonMobil Research & Engineering, Paulsboro, NJ

H. Costa, Universidade Federal de Uberlndia, Uberlandia, Brazil,


H. Spikes, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
When used as an engine fuel, ethanol can accumulate in the lubricant
during use. Previous work has shown that this ethanol contamination
affects friction and EHL film formation, and also the growth and
stability of anti-wear tribofilms. The present work uses spacer-layer
ultrathin interferometry and MTM tests to investigate how ethanol
(both hydrated and anhydrous) interacts with friction modifiers in
engine lubricants. Small amounts (5%wt.) of ethanol were added to
solutions of friction modifier (one Mo-DTC and three organic friction
modifiers) in a Group I base oil. For the three organic friction modifiers,
the presence of ethanol promoted the formation of thick viscous
boundary films so that very low friction coefficients were measured at
low entrainment speeds. For the Mo-DTC additive, the presence of
ethanol prevented the formation of a low friction film at low speeds at
70oC, but this effect disappeared at 100oC, probably due to ethanol
evaporation.

Session 2D

Gold

GREASE/ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS


JOINT SESSION I
Session Chair: G. Fish, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
Session Vice Chair: K. Mistry, The Timken Co., Canton, OH

1:30 2 pm
Requirements from the Bearing Industry for
Lubricating Grease Technology
P. Lugt, SKF Engineering and Research Centre, Nieuwegein,
Netherlands
Lubricating greases have been used since the invention of the wheel
and have developed into high performance machine elements.
Advancements are lying in the area of reduced friction torque and
extended life/relubrication intervals. In this talk the existing greases for
rolling bearings will be critically reviewed and the needs for future
development will be outlined. Since both bearing and grease life are
very long, modern test and analytical methods are required that can
relate the properties of the grease to the performance of the grease.
Some existing methods will be reviewed and the needs for improved
methods listed. Particularly grease rheology will be addressed which
has been given much attention by the grease industry and academia in
the last decades.

2 2:30 pm
Extended Bearing Life Greases Tried and True
or New Technology?
G. Aguilar, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA
As the demand for longer life / higher temperature bearing greases has
grown, the production volumes of lithium complex (Li-Cx) and calcium
sulfonate complex (CSC) have also increased. For this study, Li-Cx grease
using a common thickener system and proprietary CSC base grease
were prepared in the same base oil. The base greases were formulated
with additive systems to enhance oxidation stability, frictional and
antiwear properties. The formulated greases were then evaluated in
laboratory tests designed to measure changes in physical, chemical and
lubricating properties of the greases before and after thermal stressing.
Grease life determinations using FAG FE-9 and ASTM D3527 (high
temperature wheel bearing test) rigs were also done. The paper will
compare performance characteristics of the Li-Cx and CSC greases and
will discuss the properties that are most critical in extending grease life
in these high temperature bearing tests.

44

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

2:45 pm 3 pm
Emerging Greases Based on Trends from
Grease Production and Usage Survey
C. Coe, Grease Technology Solutions LLC, Manassas, VA

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Grease Additive Influences on Bearing
Lubrication
G. Fish, W. Ward, Jr, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
Lubricating grease represents a critical component in the lubrication of
rolling element bearings. The grease functions by providing a film of
lubricant to separate the moving surfaces of the rolling elements and
raceways. The bearing operating conditions degrade the lubricating
grease and reduce its life. By properly formulating the grease with
additives, the useful life of the rolling element bearing can be extended.
Physical additives used in greases include solid lubricants for load
carrying properties, organic polymer additives to improve the
viscometrics of the oil phase, and high molecular weight polymer for
water resistance or tackiness. Chemically active additives include rust
and corrosion inhibitors, friction modifiers, antiwear and extreme
pressure agents and antioxidants. This presentation will demonstrate
that to formulate greases for good bearing lubrication, the correct
selection of additives to improve grease stability and reduced thickener
degradation is necessary.

4:30 5 pm
Mapping of Grease Migration in High-Speed
Bearings using a Technique Based on
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
M. Franken, J. Wang, SKF Engineering & Research Centre,
Nieuwegein, Netherlands, F. Greco, SKF Product Development
Super Precision Bearings, Villar Perosa, Italy, M. van Drogen, SKF
Engineering & Research Centre, Nieuwegein, Netherlands
A novel approach that allowed the identification of active grease
reservoirs in high-speed super precision angular contact ball bearings
for spindle applications is described. To improve the design of these
grease lubricated bearings, it is necessary to measure grease migration
and determine the lubrication role of internal grease reservoirs. Hence,
a technique based on fluorescence spectroscopy is successfully applied
that allowed the identification of grease migration in such a bearing.
The results demonstrate that grease migration in these high speed
bearings is largely affected by the geometry of the bearing. Therefore,
this technique provides a new way to further improve the grease
migration in critical bearing locations in order to attain even higher
speeds and longer life.

5:30 6 pm Panel Discussion

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
Session 2E

2:30 3 pm
New Emulsifiers for Metalworking Fluids:
Balancing Performance, Regulation and
Economics

Silver

METALWORKING II
Session Chair: D. Lindsay, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA

C. Hedoire, Solvay, Aubervilliers, France

Session Vice Chair: A. Cross, Houghton International, Valley


Forge, PA

Metalworking fluid formulators and emulsifier suppliers are facing


numerous challenges with regard to performance demands, regulatory
issues and commercial pressures. Todays new generation of high-speed
machine tools require much improved foam control. Emulsifiers used
for metalworking fluids for these newer machines must provide ultralow foam and enhanced defoaming, without the need to add a
separate defoamer. Also, the worldwide strong regulatory context with
Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for substances and mixtures, but
also specific local requirements like European Biocidal Product
Regulation, trigger more stringent classification and labeling for some
emulsifiers. Solvay wishes to develop emulsifiers with milder labeling as
well as biostable emulsifier. Finally, some raw materials are not available
globally, and end users are demanding more cost-effective fluids. As a
result, new generations of emulsifiers should be based on commonly
and globally available raw materials.

1:30 2 pm
Alternatives to Chlorinated Paraffins in
Metalworking Fluids: A Case Study
S. Beesabathuni, Y. Zhao, Houghton International, Norristown, PA
Extreme pressure (EP) additives are widely used in metal working fluid
formulations to boost performance. There is a growing demand for EP
additives to cater to severe machining conditions for higher
throughout. Long chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCP) are the most
popular EP additives as they are versatile and inexpensive. However,
with the EPA regulation restricting the use of LCCP, there is an urgent
need to move towards alternative environmentally friendly EP
additives. In this study, we investigate the performance of a soluble oil
metal cutting fluid by replacing its LCCP with four alternative EP
additives: chlorinated additives, sulfur additives, phosphorous additives
and esters. The presentation will report the test results of lubricity,
emulsion stability, foam, and corrosion protection of these new
formulas. The results show it is possible to choose alternative EP
additives that offer comparable or improved performance depending
on the application.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
High HLB Emulsifiers Generate More Foam:
True or False? Case Studies of Foam Properties
of Emulsifiers in Metalworking Fluid Formulas
by DOE

2 2:30 pm
Base Oil and Emulsifier Selection Principles
A Metalworking Fluid Emulsion Stability Study

Y. Zhao, Houghton International, Norristown, PA

T. Norrby, P. Wedin, Nynas AB, Nynashamn, Sweden


There is an intimate relationship between the formulation and the
performance of metal working fluids. To investigate how the
formulation parameters and water hardness affect the emulsion
stability, a series of emulsions have been formulated where the base oil,
the emulsifier package and water hardness were parameters changed
independently, in order to investigate how these parameters affect
properties like the droplet size distribution and emulsion stability.
Results were obtained and analysed for naphthenic, Group I and Group
II base oils. The conclusions of this study will hopefully find use as a
component selection guide to metalworking fluid formulator across
geographical regions, with varying water hardness, and different access
to base oils suitable for metalworking emulsion formulations.

Exhibition Appreciation Hour and


Evonik Raffle
Two hours of dedicated exhibit time will occur at this
years trade show: Monday, May 16 and Tuesday, May
17 from 3-4 pm in the Ballys Event Center. All other
annual meeting activities will be closed during this
time. On Monday, May 16, at 3:30 pm Evonik is hosting
a raffle at Booth 201. The ticket for the drawing is
included in your registration bag. Just drop it in the
bin by Booth 201. You must be present in the exhibit
hall at 3:30 pm Monday to win.

www.stle.org

In water-based metalworking fluids, surfactants are an important


component to ensure emulsions remain stable. However, excessive use
of surfactants may cause foam problems, especially in soft water with
nonionic surfactants. Thus it is important to carefully select surfactants
in the formulation of metalworking fluids. It is common knowledge that
surfactants with high HLB values can generate high foam levels. This
presentation will report the investigation of foam characteristics in
using surfactants with a range of HLB in typical metalworking fluid
formulas using a DOE (Design of Experiment) matrix. DOE analysis
results show foam properties will depend on HLB and molecular
structures.

4:30 5 pm
Influence of Combination of Multi-Jet Nozzle
and Low Flow Rate of Coolant in Geometrical
Deviation during Centerless Grinding of SAE
52100 Steel
L. Gonalves Neto, Schaeffler Amrica do Sul INA, Sorocaba,
Sao Paulo, Brazil, R. Da Silva, R. De Paiva, Federal University of
Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, E. Bianchi,
Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP, Bauru, Brazil
The use of cutting fluid in grinding operations is indispensable to avoid
thermal damages on the workpiece. Usually a great amount of cutting
fluid is used, but industries are currently searching for more ecofriendly alternatives and more energy-efficient process. Solution can be
encountered in geometry of nozzles. This work presents results of
finishing and cilindricity deviations on hardened SAE 52100 steel
recorded after centerless grinding with coolant delivered via multi jet
nozzle at reduced flow rates. The results showed that tribological
interactions on grinding zone were improved when machining with
multi jet nozzle and flow rates up to 30 L/min.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

45

Monday, May 16
2E

5 5:30 pm
New Developments in Ashless Rust Preventive
Technologies

2 2:30 pm
Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycol (OSP) as an
Additive/Co-Base Stock for Gear Oils

G. Moran, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH

A. Kotnis, The Dow Chemical Co., Troy, MI

Rust preventives protect metal components from a wide variety of


industrial applications. There have been many changes in
manufacturing processes and requirements over the last 10 years, but
not all end users have upgraded their rust preventives to meet these
new challenges. New technologies are being developed that can
deliver excellent corrosion protection as well as other key performance
properties to allow end users to meet current and future challenges.
Industry leaders have been asking for ashless technology in hydraulics
and other applications. This work will highlight new developments in
ashless rust preventive technology that will enable end users to meet
challenging performance targets in an ever-changing manufacturing
environment.

Oil-soluble polyalkylene glycol (OSP), a new group V base fluid has low
traction coefficients, high viscosity index (VI), good low temperature
properties and low aniline point. Different group III and group IV base
oils in combination with OSPs and certain additives were evaluated for
their tribological performance. This work highlights certain synergistic
mechanisms when OSPs are included in group III and IV oil which
contain these additives. Author will present the benefits of using OSPs
in gear oil applications where the durability can be improved using
OSPs in these formulations. The presentation will highlight the
durability and friction reduction benefits in simple to complex
formulations that include OSP.

5:30 6 pm
Next Generation 3-Dimensional (3D) Siloxane
Defoamer Technology for Aqueous Metalworking
Fluids
E. Galgoci, K. Parekh, J. Mykietyn, J. Panzariello, L. Smith, Mnzing,
Bloomfield, NJ
Excessive foam generation during use of aqueous metal working fluids
is undesirable for reasons such as the reduction of lubrication and heat
removal. In order to minimize the foam, the antifoam/defoamer is a
critical component of the fluid. The proven state-of-the-art antifoams
are based on 3-dimensional (3D) siloxane technology, which utilizes
crosslinked-siloxane moieties and advanced formulation methods to
meet demanding requirements. Next generation products have now
been developed that provide enhanced performance compared to
competitive and previous 3D technologies. While maintaining excellent
washability (i.e., no coating defects), the new 3D technology offers
enhanced compatibility, excellent initial defoaming and persistence,
and superior filterability. In addition to discussing the latest innovations
of the 3D technology, this paper will also review the fundamentals of
foam stabilization and the general formulation and thermodynamic
considerations of the action of antifoams.

Session 2G

Palace 4/5

GEARS I
Session Chair: A. Clarke, Cardiff Univesity, Cardiff, United
Kingdom
Session Vice Chair: S. Berkebile, US Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

1:30 2 pm
Formulating the Right Industrial Gear Oil for
Enhanced Energy Efficiency and Temperature
Reduction
S. Basu, D. Wilkerson, J. Vinci, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
Reducing energy consumption has become a mandate for our national
manufacturing economy; industrial gearboxes are recognized as
important sources of lost power. Heavy loading, increased throughput,
high temperatures and long periods of continuous operation
contribute to energy losses and shortened equipment life. Higher levels
of efficiency can be achieved by two major routes: improved equipment
design and superior lubrication. Our investigation focuses upon the
lubrication route. Tests were conducted in an industrial scale worm gear
efficiency rig designed in our laboratory and operating under a wide
range of speeds and loading. Sharp differentiation was observed
among fluids for their impact on power loss and operating temperature.

46

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

2:30 3 pm
Environmentally Acceptable Gear Oils; The New
Frontier in Performance and Durability Improved:
Mircopitting and Scuffing Protection, Long-Term
Durability, Energy Efficiency and Environmental
Protection
M. Miller, RSC Bio Solutions, Upper Saddle River, NJ
This session will demonstrate the proven performance of environmentally
acceptable gear oils. Improved mircopitting, scuffing and gray staining
protection in extreme pressure gear applications will be demonstrated
through rig and field testing. It will show piston and vane pump
performance testing of fluids with Eaton Vickers and Parker Denison
hydraulic pumps. The session will review the extreme pressure, antiwear and frictional qualities of EALs. Environmentally Acceptable Gear
Oil performance will be compared to petroleum-based analogs in FE8
bearing wear testing, clutch friction and FZG variants testing. Long term
durability, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness will be studied
though field application case studies. Finally, the benefit of reduced
environmental impact will be discussed.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
On the Influence of Viscosity Formulation in
CFD Simulation when Predicting Churning Power
Losses Generated by Partly Immersed Gears
Y. Marchesse, ECAM LYON, Lyon, France, C. Changenet, ECAM Lyon,
Lyon, France, F. Ville, LaMCoS, Villeurbanne, France
When considering dip-lubricated gears oil churning due to fluid
circulation generated by partly immersed rotating gears is usually
considered as the major source of power loss. Since accurate loss
predictions are needed at the design stage, numerical method as CFD
may be used for studying churning effects. This has been done recently
by many authors using volume of fluid method that is able to model
few immiscible fluids by solving a single set of equations throughout
the domain. Physical properties are determined by the presence of the
component phases in each control volume. Usually the same volumefraction-averaged for density and viscosity formulations are used which
is surprising since they represent different physical concepts and other
viscosity formulations exist. A numerical model is build here to study
the effect of fraction-averaged viscosity formulation on both the fluid
flow circulation and the churning loss considering disks or gears
rotating in an oil bath.

www.stle.org

The future of live remote sampling is here!


No matter what your industry, if you need to sample fluids in real time,
CareTaker remote sampling from Fluid Transfer Technologies is the solution.

CareTaker ALRS
Automated Live Remote Sampling System

SOLENOID

FLUID TRANSFER TECHNOLOGIES


CLOSED CAP

FLUID FEED

The ultimate in Live Sampling Technology.

Closed Cap technology means your samples are


totally clean, while remotely activated sample points
connected to a central monitoring point allows you
to get temperature-controlled, live samples in a safe
environment.

RFID READER/WRITER
AND TAG

VALVE

By automating the whole process, unmatched levels of


accuracy are achieved.
FLUID RETURN

SAMPLE BOTTLE WITH


CLOSED CAP TECHNOLOGY
ACTUATOR

CareTaker LRS
Live Remote Sampling System
Straightforward to install and easy to operate.
Sample ports are routed to a single, easy-to-access sample
box which is sealable and lockable.
Sampling is carried out live, so you get a high level of
accuracy, together with safety and efficiency.
Over 5000 units have been installed worldwide.

Compromised fluid samples cost time and money.


Improve your sampling accuracy with CareTaker.
Visit us at Stand 227
Unit 1, 6 Colin Jamieson Drive, Welshpool, Western Australia 6106
PO Box 291, Welshpool WA 6986
Telephone: 08 9458 2888
Fax: 08 9458 2999

E-mail: ftt@fluidtransfer.com.au

Monday, May 16
2G

4:30 5 pm
Churning Power Losses of Bevel Gears

Session 2H

S. Laruelle, LaMCoS, Lyon, France, C. Changenet, LabECAM, Lyon,


France, F. Ville, LaMCoS, Villeurbanne, France, S. Koechlin, Leroy
Somer, Emerson Corp., Angoulme, France

FLUID FILM BEARINGS II

Increasing power density and efficiency of lubricated system is the


topic of research nowadays. In fact, thermal losses has become the
critical point as far as mechanical sizing is ensured. Churning lubrication
which is the low cost and highly used solution, for example in reducers,
gearboxes is studied in terms of prediction and modeling the
behavior of mechanical systems to limit thermal losses. Models for spur
and helical gears are already available from literature for different kind
of standard applications. Bevel gear churning behavior have not already
been fully understood, so this study focusses on providing a churning
losses model for low speed applications based on dimensional analysis.
Churning experiments on several geometries of bevel gears and two
oils have been conducted to establish and validate the model
proposed.

Session Vice Chair: J. Bouyer, Institute Pprime CNRSUniversit De Poitiers-ISAE ENSMA, Futuroscope Cedex, France

5 5:30 pm
Improving Lubrication and Reliability of Open
Gears
A. Cardenas, GIGATEC, San Luis Potosi, SLP, Mexico, G. Andrade,
Tritech, Mexico, Mexico
Maintenance and preserving of assets in the industry is nowadays one
of the main concerns for reliability, and the optimization of the
lubrication systems has proved to be one of the best ways to preserve
machinery and ensure reliability in operation. This is the case of the
maintenance of open gears. The operation under harsh conditions such
as extremely high loads, dust, humidity, contamination from the
process, shock loads, etc. are a real challenge to preserve them. That is
the reason we often find premature wear in these systems. The lifespan
of open gears can be extended with a proper maintenance, and this
often means proper lubrication. An optimal lubrication includes the
right lubricant, the proper application system, and the right viscosity,
among other factors. In this case, we are going to analyze the failure
mode and the right maintenance to prevent damages in open gears of
sugar mills.

5:30 6 pm
Open Gear Lubrication: Condition Monitoring
R. Camalli, Klber Lubrication Argentina S.A., Villa Tesei, Buenos
Aires, Argentina
An open gear is one of the most difficult mechanisms lubricate because
tribolgicamente has one of the worst working conditions for
lubricating: combination of low speeds, high loads, high temperatures,
conditions misalignments by design or operation, improper lubrication
systems and contamination among other there is a high possibility
mixed lubrication of metallic contact surfaces and the lubricant may fail
if any of the above conditions occurs. That is why we must be vigilant
and identify mechanical problems that may cause breakage of the
lubricant film to avoid or prevent premature damage. This presentation
seeks to raise a simple and practical way from the theoretical concept
of gear and through the observation and analysis of variables
diagnosing causes of damage and its relationship with lubrication

48

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Las Vegas 1

Session Chair: M. Braun, The University of Akron, Akron, OH

2 2:30 pm
About the Influence of the Asperity Contact and
Flow Factor Models on the Stribeck Curve of a
Steady-State Journal Bearing Functioning in
Mixed Lubrication
R. Fatu, CESI Angouleme, Angouleme, France, A. Fatu, Institut
Pprime, Angouleme, France
In many situations, the lubricant regime of journal bearings is not
purely hydrodynamic, which implies mixed and even boundary
lubrication. To correctly predict mixed lubrication conditions, a
numerical algorithm must integrate an asperity contact model coupled
with a hydrodynamic model of the thin film. When deterministic
solutions are not possible in acceptable amounts of computing time,
the modelling of mixed lubrication conditions is made with so-called
stochastic methods: the Reynolds equation is modified by the
introduction of flow factors and a contact model is used in order to precompute the asperity contact pressure as a function of the relative
distance between the surfaces delimiting the film. In this work it is
shown the influence of several flow factor and asperity contact models
over the friction coefficient of a steady-state journal bearing. The model
takes into account the bearing elasticity and two different specific
pressures are considered: 1 and 10 MPa.

2:30 3 pm
Influence of Surface Texturing on the
Performance of Tilting Pad Thrust Bearings
D. Gropper, L. Wang, T. Harvey, University of Southampton,
Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, K. Meck, D. Nhin Ha,
John Crane UK Ltd., Slough, United Kingdom
Surface textures have been shown to have the potential of enhancing
the performance of hydrodynamic bearings and many other
applications. However, a comprehensive literature review by the
authors has revealed that the application of surface texturing is still
limited due to major challenges, such as the complexity of
computational models and the large variety of operating conditions
encountered in conventional industrial applications. In the present
work, the potential of surface texturing for tilting pad thrust bearings is
investigated through the development of a numerical model based on
the Reynolds equation incorporating an iterative and mass-conserving
cavitation algorithm. The influence of texturing parameters on the main
bearing characteristics is explored and the interaction between optimal
texturing parameters and operating conditions is analysed.
Experimental work on a purposely designed thrust bearing test rig will
be carried out to validate and improve the numerical model.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
4 4:30 pm
A Study of Transient Lubrication in the Process
of Start Up and Shut Down of the Thrust Bearing

Session 2I

Las Vegas 2

BIOTRIBOLOGY II

Z. Wang, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China


Session Chair: S. Franklin, Philips Research, Eindhoven,
Netherlands

The transient coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical(THM) model of thrust


bearing are formulated, research the lubrication condition in the
process of start up and shut down of the thrust bearing, and study the
affect of different rotating speed, load, surface roughness and other
factors in the process of start up and Shut down of the thrust bearing.
Study the wear rate of thrust bearing under different start up and shut
down parameters, concluded that the trend of the thrust bearing life
change with the start up and shut down parameters, accordance with
the result of relevant experimental, deduce the computing method of
the times of thrust bearing start up and shut down.

Session Vice Chair: H. Stevenson, Imperial College London,


London, United Kingdom

1:30 2 pm
Conducting Tribological Expertise in Living
Environment: Case of Knee Implants
M. Sava, Y. Berthier, A. Trunfio-Sfarghiu, LaMCoS, INSA de Lyon,
Villeurbanne Cedex, France

4:30 5 pm
Analysis of a Hydrodynamic Thrust Bearing
Using Multi-Physical Modeling Technique
M. Wodtke, M. Wasilczuk, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk,
Poland
In the proposed paper the results of properties predictions for
hydrodynamic thrust bearing obtained with the use of multi-physical
modeling technique (FSI Fluid Structure Interaction) are presented.
Calculations comprised fluid film flow in the oil gap and pad
surroundings (CFD), thermo elastic deformations of the bearing
system (FEM) and pad tilting. This method allowed to analyse a set of
phenomena important for tilting-pad thrust bearing in one task,
limiting the necessity of defining boundary conditions, such as oil inlet
temperature or heat exchange coefficient at pad side walls, which has
an influence on the results of analysis. Calculations were carried out for
different bearing operating conditions, allowing to investigate the
changes of the bearing parameters with load and speed. Proposed
methodology can be interesting and valuable alternative for theoretical
evaluation of tilting-pad thrust bearing properties based on separate
solution of film and solid domains.

5 5:30 pm
Efficiency Study of Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication Solvers: A Comparison Between
Multigrid and Semi-Analytical Methods
J. Zhao, H. Qin, G. Doll, C. Ye, Y. Dong, The University of Akron, Akron,
OH
It is challenging to numerically study tribological phenomena in the
mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime due to the
coupling of dry contact and lubricant dynamics. We systematically
compare two popular numerical methods for EHL in terms of memory
requirement, converging speed, accuracy and robustness. In this first
method, we used the iterative method combined with multigrid
technique to accelerate the converging speed. The second solver is a
semi-analytical approach based on an analytical model, the Amplitude
Reduced model, and a fast Fourier transform. Compared with the
conventional iterative method, the semi-analytical method has much
faster computation speeds. Three different EHL cases, i.e., smooth
surface, sinusoidal surface and a Gaussian rough surface were studied.
Both numerical and physical results were compared and evaluated. This
study should provide a framework for the numerical development of an
EHL model, and provide a better understanding to EHL problems.

www.stle.org

This study focuses on the understanding of the tribological behavior of


two retrieved medial unicompartimental knee implants in order to
reconstruct the in vivo contact life. The first knee implant shows high
wear rate at 7 years follow-up, while the second one shows good
performances at 11 years follow-up with a minimal wear rate. The origin
of their different performances is related to the velocity accommodation
mechanism. This mechanism was identified analyzing the surface
features of the implants components. Results are correlated with
histological and biochemical analysis of adjacent tissues and fluids
(synovial membrane and synovial fluid). Thus, the UHMWPE tibial
implants at 7 years follow-up is described by an abrasive/adhesive wear
and a volumetric wear rate of 20 mm3/year. On the other side, the
UHMWPE at 11 years follow-up is described by plastic deformation, the
wear rate being ten times lower reporting to the UHMWPE at 7 years
follow-up.

2 2:30 pm
Damnum ab Initio: Incipient Damage of
Metal-on-Metal Contacts
S. Niemi, S. Marshall, A. Pitenis, K. Harris, J. Uruena, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL, D. Burris, University of Delaware, Newark,
DE, N. Argibay, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM,
W. Sawyer, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
In recent years, the number of joint replacement surgeries performed in
the US has reached upwards of 770,000, and is expected to increase to
4 million annually by 2030. Unfortunately, most replacement joints wear
out after 10-15 years, leading to a high number of surgeries being
revisions. With this expected increase in failures, there has been
renewed interest in the fundamentals of metal-on-metal surface wear.
A series of pin-on-disk experiments were conducted with self-mated
CoCrMo alloys at loads from 10 mN to over 17 N (40-700 MPa). We show
that even in the presence of 100% fetal bovine serum at 37C wear
occurs immediately upon sliding, and is evident through the entire
wear track on the first pass. Coefficient of friction measurements
ranged from =0.08 to =0.15. These friction coefficients are not
indicative of a mixed or fluid film lubrication regime, and are shown to
be characteristic of metal-on-metal sliding in the absence of aggressive
oxidation and adhesion.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

49

Monday, May 16
2I

2:30 3 pm
Tribological Security and Toxicity of Wear
Airborne Particles: Design of Tribo-BioCompatibles Particles
B. Munteanu, LaMCoS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, J. Rieu,
ILM, UCBL, Villeurbanne, France, A. Trunfio-Sfarghiu, LaMCoS, INSA
Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, Y. Berthier, LaMCoS, INSA De Lyon,
Villeurbanne, France
Paradoxically, the safety of transportation is assured by the detachment
of wear particles! For example, adherence tire/pavement is regenerated
by the detachment of tire wear particles, efficiency of car breaking is
ensured by the detachment of brake lining particles. For example, in
France, almost 20 000 tons of car brake linings are worn each year, of
which 9 000 tons in the form of airborne wear particles.
These particles will interact with the alveolar wall, altering the
pulmonary surfactant films causing severe pathologies because the
pulmonary surfactant film controls the pulmonary capacity.
This study focuses on the interaction of wear airborne particles with the
pulmonary surfactant film. This will allow to identify the significant
parameters of wear airborne particles that control their interactions
with the pulmonary surfactant films. At longer term will allow to
change the materials in contact and their friction conditions to
generate tribo-bio-compatibles particles.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Tribocorrosion Behavior and Metal Ion Release
of Ion Nitriding CoCrMo Orthopedic Implant
Material
W. Qingliang, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou,
Jiangsu, China
CoCrMo alloy (ISO5832-12) has been subjected to ion nitriding
treatment in a NH3 (ammonia) atmosphere. The materials were tested
for tribocorrosion performance in calf serum solution. And the static
immersion tests were performed to investigate metal ion release into
the SBF by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Experimental results showed that the friction coefficient decreased
with an increase of applied load. But the friction coefficient of
tribocorrosion was much higher than pure friction, due to the
combined action of corrosion products and wear debris. The material
loss caused by the mechanical wear and synergistic effect of friction
and corrosion occupied a very large proportion in total loss amount of
material. The analysis of metal ion release indicated the large size of
nitride particle phases and lots of micropore defects formed in ion
nitriding layers, directly led to the great increase of metal ion release in
SBF solution.

4:30 5 pm
Mechanical and Tribological Characterization of
Nano-Cellulose Fibers Reinforced Bio-Epoxy
Composites
B. Barari, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
Plant-derived cellulose nano-fibers (CNFs) are a new class of materials
that have been used very recently to develop bio-based composites
having remarkable mechanical and micro-structural properties. In this
study, CNF preforms prepared through freeze drying process were used
as reinforcement with bio-based epoxy in an Liquid Composite
Molding (LCM) process to manufacture the CNF/epoxy composites. The
curing kinetics of the composites were studied using isothermal and
dynamic DSC methods. Micro-structural studies as well as mechanical
and tribological characterization were performed on the cured
composites in order to understand the structure of the composites.
Enhanced tensile strength of the composites reinforced by CNFs
confirmed that the surface modification is effective to improve the

50

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

mechanical properties. Finally, tribological properties of CNF


composites were investigated using pin-on-disk apparatus and tribosurfaces were characterized using SEM method.

5 5:30 pm
Characterization of PEEK and its Composite
Coatings on Substrate of Titanium Alloy for
Bioimplant Applications
J. Song, Z. Liao, Y. Liu, Y. Duan, W. Liu, Tsinghua University, Beijing,
China
Poly(etheretherketone) is a type of polymers which may be used for
modifying the surface of bio-implant materials. In this study, the
wettability and tribological behaviors of PEEK and its composites
coatings based on Ti6Al4V alloys articulated with ZrO2 were studied in
order to assess the potential of such PEEK composite coatings for being
used as bearing materials of artificial cervical disc. The micro-structure,
contact angles, micro-hardness and tribological characteristics have
been studied. It was indicated that these coatings were mainly
orthorhombic crystalline form with 70 m thickness values on average.
Compared with bare titanium alloy, the contact angle values of PEEK
and its composite coatings increased, while micro-hardness values,
average friction coefficients and wear loss decreased significantly. After
comprehensive evaluation, the PEEK/Al2O3 coating demonstrated
optimum performances and could be applied as bearing materials of
artificial cervical disc.

Session 2J

Las Vegas 3

POWER GENERATION I: POWER GEN


LUBRICANTS
Session Chair: J. Hannon, ExxonMobil Fuels Lubricants &
Specialties, Allentown, NJ
Session Vice Chair: W. Needelman, Filtration Science Solutions,
Huntington Bay, NY

1:30 2 pm
A Study of Steam Turbine Oil Replacement
Options for a Nuclear Station
G. Pereira, Kinectrics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, K. Malik, Ontario
Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario, Canada
This study will investigate the selection for replacement steam turbine
oil (STO) used in Canadian CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium)
stations.Steam turbine oil is used to lubricate most of the moving
components within a nuclear station, specifically the turbines
responsible for moving the generator shaft.Eight different oils from
varying suppliers were chosen and tested to compare their baseline
chemical and physical parameters. The 8 different oils were exposed to
a catalyst, heat and oxygen to promote accelerated oxidation for
several weeks. Each sample was evaluated against various performance
parameters. A report card matrix was generated to score all the oils
tested, which eventually led to a chosen candidate.The compatibility
and lifetime of the equipment will be discussed, as well as the various
types of lubrication required to operate a safe nuclear plant. A brief
overview of CANDU reactors will be discussed; as will the difference
between US and Canadian nuclear facilities.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
2 2:30 pm
Evaluations of Hydraulic Fluids via the Hot
Manifold Ignition Test (ISO 20823)

4:30 5 pm
MOV Grease Evaluations With a Modified 4-Ball
Wear Test

E. Burkhardt, ICL Industrial Products, Ardsley, NY

K. Brown, Eco Fluid Center Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada,


W. Mackwood, S. Wilson, Chemtura Canada, West Hill, Ontario,
Canada, T. Austin, Canoil Canada Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Among the many fire tests which have been developed to evaluate the
fire properties of hydraulic fluids in different fire scenarios, the Hot
Manifold Ignition Test (ISO 20823) is useful as a predictor of not only
the approximate temperature required for a hot surface to ignite a fluid
but also whether the fluid could potentially support a vertical burn or a
pool fire.ISO 20823 clearly distinguishes between HFD-R (phosphate
ester) fluids and HFD-U fluids (polyol esters and polyalkalene glycols),
with differences between these classes of fluids reported to be 200 C or
more. Accurate temperature measurement and control for the test
apparatus is not as critical when comparing HFD-R to HFD-U fluids.
Temperature control and measurement issues become more critical
when trying to compare different types of HFD-R fluids. Results of our
evaluations with various phosphate esters will be presented.

MOVs (motor operated valves) are used by the hundreds in power


stations because they can be remotely operated. Some of these can be
on safety related systems at nuclear power stations so they have to
work right. The gearboxes can be grease lubricated and this grease can
also be used to lubricate the valve stems. A few of the important
components, including the worm and stem nut, are made of copper
alloys and stations had reported OEs (operating events) because of
excessive stem nut wear. One question was whether the greases and
the testing was both adequate. Unfortunately many standard wear
tests use steel specimens which might not be suitable for bronze stem
nuts and stainless steel stems. Consequently the 52100 steel balls in
ASTM D2266 4-Ball Wear Test were replaced with bronze and stainless
steel balls. Testing showed that some of the antiseize pastes and some
non EP greases did not do well. Calcium sulfonate thickened greases
are used by some MOV OEMs and these did quite well.

2:30 3 pm
New Management Approach for Turbine Oils
Y. Shirakura, S. Aoki, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, R.
Yamada, Idemitsu Lubricants America Corp., Detroit, MI
Current high efficiency turbines like gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC)
for LNG thermal power generation and advanced ultra-supercritical
system for coal fired power generation are pushing their lubricants to
temperatures and conditions that have never been seen in the market.
Further, for large power plants generating megawatts of electricity,
long-term stable operation is required, which means management of
turbine oils is important. It is therefore the mission of oil manufacturers
to develop management technologies that enable prompt assessments
of the status of turbine oils. We introduce new management methods
for turbine oils using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)
and a colorimeter that allow easy and prompt measurements.

Session 2L

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break

Injection Molding Machines have been used for many years in the
industry of plastics due to its advantages, which include: longevity in
operation, low maintenance required and above all, precision. Almost
all of these benefits come from the hydraulic system. The hydraulic
system works near the machine parts that are very hot, since some
plastics have to be heated up to 400 F or more to be able to be
injected. Therefore, if any part of the hydraulic system fails, the whole
machine will shut down causing loss of production. So, it is crucial that
the hydraulic fluid is reliable even under these conditions. In this case,
we will analyze the failure mode and the solution for valves affected by
Sludge and Varnish in this type of machines.

4 4:30 pm
Considerations When Blending Co-Solubilizing
Agents into In-Service Turbine Oils
C. Soto, J. Mehta, Fluitec International, Jersey City, NJ
The use of Group II and III base oil formulations often require the
addition of Group V oils as co-solubilizing agents. Sometimes, similar
co-solubilizing agents are added to in-service oils at treat rates of 315% to improve the deposit characteristics and assist in dissolving
organic deposits in the system. More knowledge is needed however on
the properties of such field blends. Key topics explored in this
investigation include the impact that high treat rates of co-solubilizing
agents will have on the lubricant properties including aniline point,
oxidation resistance, hydrolytic stability, demulsification and foaming
characteristics.

Las Vegas 5

SYNTHETICS & HYDRAULICS I


Session Chair: R. Davidson, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA

2 2:30 pm
Sludge and Varnish in Hydraulic Fluid on
Injection Molding Machines
A. Cardenas, GIGATEC, San Luis Potosi, SLP, Mexico

2:30 3 pm
Breaking Through the Barrier to Industrial HF
System Efficiency
T. Schimmel, Evonik Oil Additives USA, Inc., Horsham, PA, M. Alibert,
F. Maehling, Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany
Within the construction and off-highway equipment markets, the
efficiency benefits of high Viscosity Index (VI) hydraulic fluids (HF) are
common knowledge. These heavy-duty and demanding HF
applications make-up around 60 percent of the HF market. The
remaining 40 percent is a mix of industrial applications, including
hydraulic presses, elevators, metal-forming machinery and plastics
injection molding equipment. For many of these industrial HF systems,
fluid viscosity has not been considered as a design parameter by the
anufacturers. In doing so, extensive field testing suggests that they are
ignoring as much as a five percent improvement in efficiency, a
significant gain from equipment that typically runs 24/7. In test design
collaboration with major injection molding OEMs, and subsequently
performing field tests supervised by these same OEMs, Evonik
specialists have verified this level of efficiency improvement.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

51

Monday, May 16
2L

4 4:30 pm
High Performance Marine Gear Oil and Hydraulic
Fluid Formulated with Renewable Group III Base
Oil That Meets Requirements of Vessel General
Permit (VGP) 2013

Session 2M

H. Hahn, P. Vettel, J. Brown, J. Wells, Novvi LLC, Emeryville, CA

Session Vice Chair: K. Malik, Ontario Power Generation,


Pickering, Ontario, Canada

The Vessel General Permit (VGP) regulation issued in December 2013 is


driving radical changes in the choice of gear and hydraulic oil used on
ships around the world. Environmental requirements of VGP 2013 on
lubricants are defined by bioaccumulation, biodegradability, and
aquatic toxicity. At the same time, constant advancement of hydraulic
pump and gear design imposes increased thermal and mechanical
stresses on lubricants. Therefore, modern day marine lubricants need to
provide enhanced technical and environmental performance while
maintaining compatibility with elastomers, coatings, and other parts.
Renewable Group III base oils manufactured from naturally engineered
farnesene were used to formulate synthetic marine gear oil and
hydraulic fluid that meets requirements of VGP 2013 regulation. Their
unique combination of synthetic performance and environmental
benefits will be compared to other lubricants while discussing various
formulation strategies to meet the VGP regulation.

4:30 5 pm
Development and Characteristics of High Bulk
Modulus Oil
S. Aoki, T. Nagai, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, R. Yamada,
Idemitsu Lubricants America Corp., Detroit, MI
The most important role of a hydraulic fluid is transmission of power
among various roles. Although hydraulic drives have an advantage of
high power density, volumetric shrinkage of hydraulic fluids due to
pressure causes various disadvantages such as delay of hydraulic
response and compression energy loss. Hydraulic fluids of new concept,
high bulk modulus oils, have been developed as a new approach to
improve the performance of a hydraulic servo system. The high bulk
modulus oil differs from conventional mineral and synthetic oils, and is
characterized by its high bulk modulus. This means that the oil resists
compression even under pressure, reducing compression loss during
use and giving it superior efficiency, responsiveness, and locational
accuracy. Accordingly, this oil is expected to become new generation
lubricating oil. The new oil has sufficient practical performances, such as
oxidation stability and anti-wear property.

5 5:30 pm
Enhanced Lubricant Technology to Manage
Entrained Air
S. Gullapalli, Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc., Houston, TX
Lubricants such as hydraulic oils are often used in environments
wherein air is introduced into the oil through mechanical agitation,
leaky seals, sharp bends and unoptimized reservoir/baffle designs. Air
entrainment refers to dispersed air bubbles within the oil of diameters
less than 1mm. Air entrainment is an industry wide issue that results in
increased energy consumption, higher equipment maintenance,
reduced equipment life and safety concerns. Some of the negative
consequences of air in the lubricant are increased oil oxidation, spongy
operation, wasted horsepower, microdieseling and cavitation. At Shell,
in the Lubricants Discovery Hub our innovation team has developed
enhanced lubricant technology to manage entrained air effectively by
fundamentally understanding its bad actors. Through the use of
innovative feedstocks and optimized formulation techniques, it is
possible to create premium fast air-release lubricants that can protect
equipment from hazards of air entrainment.

52

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Las Vegas 6/7

SEALS II
Session Chair: H. Zhao, The Lubrizol Corp, Wickliffe, OH

2 2:30 pm
Numerical Study of the Effect of Coatings
in Static Metal-to-Metal Seals
F. Prez-Rfols, S. Lundstrm, R. Larsson, P. Wall, A. Almqvist, Lule
University of Technology, Lule, Sweden
In a static metal-to-metal seal, the fluid percolates through the network
of channels constituting the aperture between the two contacting
rough surfaces. For the percolation to cease the flow must not seep
through even the very smallest constrictions. Obviously, the surface
topography has a particularly strong influence on the leakage through
a metal-to-metal seal. This is connected to the conformability, which
can also be controlled by means of a coating. Therefore, it is important
to understand how a coated surface topography deforms under normal
loading and to include this in the mathematical model of the seal. In
this work, a contact mechanics model for rough surfaces exhibiting
multi layered properties is adopted in order to assess the effect of the
coating on deformation. By means of numerical simulations answers to
questions such as how thick a hard coating can be and how soft a
coating can be, before it significantly affects the plastic deformation
and the sealability.

2:30 3 pm
Dynamic Performance of Radial Lip Seals
Impacts of Operating Conditions and Lubricant
Types
T. Haque, ExxonMobil, Paulsboro, NJ
Radial lip seals are used in many mechanical systems operating
industrial equipment to prevent lubricant contamination and leakage.
A thin coherent lubricant film is formed at the shaft/seal interface as a
result of shaft rotation that provides sealing between the lubricant and
the environment. The performance of a radial lip seal depends on many
factors including lubricant/elastomer interactions, operating conditions,
and material properties. With the growing demand of higher power
and machine reliability, OEMs are gradually pushing the operational
limits (speed, temperature, etc.), which pose greater challenges to the
existing lubricant-seal systems. This paper will focus on the influence of
base stock and additive on the wettability and sealing performance of
radial lip seals.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Dynamic Performance of Elastomer Seal and
the High-Accuracy In-line Inspection Robots
in Oil and Gas Pipelines
G. Tan, Guangzhou Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Co.
Ltd., Huangpu District, Guangzhou city, Guangdong province,
China, D. Wang, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping
District, Beijing, China, H. Xing, F. Qing, Guangzhou Mechanical
Engineering Research Institute Co. Ltd., Huangpu District,
Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China
In the petroleum industry, in-line inspection robot used for pigging is
usually driven by the rubber sealing-cup, and due to the characteristics
of the wax-debris and elastomer sealing-cup, the in-pipe robot is found
to be hard to regulating in the pipelines with a stable state, especially
in the waxy oil&gas pipelines. Large diameter pipelines are being used
in China in last decade, in-pipe robots tribology get more and more

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
attentions and the world was shocked by its hard wax-debris
enviroment. Two different mechanisms was presented by which the
elastomer in contact area between pipe and debris in sliding contact.
Based on this, it carries out a discussion on the dynamic sealing model.
Research results show that self-regulating seals can improve the wholelife reliability of robots, and more thorough the tribological study is, the
smaller the oscillation is; the broader the theoretical and testing
researches are, the less the plug-risk is. Finally, an application example is
given.

4:30 5 pm
Application of Particle-Laden Flow Modeling
to Annular Seals
C.E. Watson, B. Weaver, H. Wood, Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA
This presentation explores the application of particle-laden flow
models to computational modeling of annular seals. Particle laden flow
is a two-phase flow model where one phase is a continuous fluid and
the other phase is a collection of small immiscible particles. In this
presentation, two case studies are used to illustrate the application of
this multiphase fluid dynamic model to annular seals. The first
application is a windback seal used in oil lubricated machinery in
conjunction with a gas face seal to separate the lubricant and the face
seal. The second application is to follow the trajectory of dust in a
labyrinth seal used in conjunction with a bearing to prevent the dust
from damaging the bearing.

Session 2N

Jubilee 1

SURFACE ENGINEERING II
Session Chair: Z. Khan, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth,
Dorset, United Kingdom
Session Vice Chair: H. Nazir, Bournemouth University,
Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom

1:30 2 pm
Effect of Laser Treatment with Different Scanning
Velocity and Shielding Gas Environment on
Surface Modification of AISI 8620 Steel
S. Roy, S. Sundararajan, Iowa State University, Ames, IA
Laser heat treatment is a very well-known technique for surface
modification of a material leaving the properties of bulk material
unaffected.The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of
different shielding gas(nitrogen,argon and air) and scanning velocity
(70-110 inch/min) on the surface modification of AISI 8620 steel.In
terms of surface modification,the study focused on observing retained
austenite (RA) content using XRD technique,surface micro-hardness
and cross sectional microstructure using optical microscopy and field
emission scanning electron microscopy.There was no significant
correlation observed between scanning velocity and RA% on
surface.The max RA was below 20% in all samples.The hardness of
sample surface decreased with increasing scanning velocity for
nitrogen and argon shielded experiments due to varied heat input.The
laser treated top layer was composed of needle like martensite and
retained austenite whereas the base metal was of pearlite and ferrite.

2 2:30 pm
Continuous Approach for the Experimental
Estimation of Surface Contact Stiffness
F. Massi, D. Tonazzi, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy,
Y. Berthier, LaMCoS CNRS INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France
Simulations involving contact problems are affected by several key
parameters, which are not yet completely understood. In contact
mechanics several issues are largely affected by the value of the

www.stle.org

contact stiffness between the contact pairs, which can modify both the
local stress distribution and the system dynamics. This work is aimed to
estimate the contact stiffness by comparison between experiments and
simulations. A test bench has been developed in order to measure, by
dynamic tests, the contact stiffness both in sticking and sliding
conditions, for different surface topographies, third body layers and
materials. With respect to the existing approaches, the continuous
modelling of the system allows for accounting for the effective area of
the contact, while the system design allows for introducing the relative
sliding velocity, with different contact pressures and roughness. Results
show the dependence of the contact stiffness with different
parameters.

2:30 3 pm
Tribological Investigate of Waxy Oil Gel
Z. Lan, S. Liu, H. Xiao, D. Wang, China University of PetroleumBeijing, Beijing, China
Frictional resistance force produced by wax plug plays a dominant role
in pipeline pigging. In order to calculate the frictional resistance force,
frictional behavior of waxy oil gel was investigated using a home-made
tribometer. Effects of several impact factors, including wax
concentration of waxy oil gel, sliding velocity, and normal force, on
tribological behaviors of the wax plug were discussed in this study. The
results show that the maximum static friction and the coefficient of
sliding friction are negatively related to wax concentration. Coefficient
of sliding friction increases with velocity at the concentration of 20%wt
wax in the waxy oil gel. Sliding friction force was found to increase with
normal force. A physical model describing the contact of two waxy oil
gel surfaces was built based on the experimental results.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Contact Area and Maximum Equivalent Stress in
Elastic Spherical Contact with Thin Hard Coating
R. Goltsberg, I. Etsion, Technion, Haifa, Israel
A finite element analysis was used in order to investigate the elastic
contact of a sphere with a thin hard coating compressed by a rigid flat.
A proper normalization of the dimensional contact parameters, such as
the contact area, load, interference and maximum equivalent von Mises
stresses in the coating and in the substrate was used to obtain a
universal model of the elastic contact. This model provides empirical
relations between these contact parameters for a wide range of
mechanical and geometrical properties, which are different from the
classical Hertz solution for a homogeneous sphere compressed by a
rigid flat. The model also introduces a new approach for calculating the
limit of elasticity in the coated system.

4:30 5 pm
Nanostructured Composite Ni-P Electrodeposits
as Alternative to Hard Chrome Coatings
D. Drees, E. Georgiou, Falex Tribology NV, Rotselaar, Belgium,
A. Zoikis-Karathanasis, T. Kosanovic Milickovic, I. Deligkiozi, Centre
for Technology Research and Innovation, Limassol , Cyprus, J. Celis,
KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Ni-P nanocomposites have attracted the scientific and industrial
interest mainly due to their mechanical and chemical characteristics.
A potential application, is as a replacement for hard chrome coatings, as
chromium plating poses serious environmental and hazard issues. This
study presents the synthesis, characterization and tribological
properties of nanostructured electrodeposited Ni-P coatings containing
dispersed SiC and CNT nanoparticles. The microstructure-property
relationship for these nanocomposites, as well as their tribological
performance are compared to existing industrially applied hard chrome
coatings and state-of-the-art benchmark materials. The results clearly
illustrate that Ni-P nanocomposite coatings can be used to replace hard

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

53

Monday, May 16
2N

chrome coatings. Furthermore, it should be pointed out, that


electrodeposition is a very flexible technique that can be easily
implemented on the industrial scale.

5 5:30 pm
Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication of Nanoand Micro-Structured Surface Coatings
S. Giasson, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
We investigated the effect of structure and elasticity of coatings on
friction using soft and hard nano- and micro-particles covalently
attached on silica-based substrates into monolayers of heterogeneous
coverage but equivalent surface patterns. All structured surfaces
exhibited weak adhesion and the friction coefficients (10-3<<10-2)
were similar or even lower than that measured on smooth coated
surfaces. In addition, the structured surfaces could sustain higher loads
(with low and without surface damage) than the smooth ones. The
lowest friction coefficient was measured between hard structured
surfaces most probably due to the negligible elastic contribution and
the effect of asperities on reducing the real contact area. Soft patterned
surfaces provide elastic effects that can be tuned via change in pH
which induce changes in the swelling. The friction coefficient decreased
(from 10-1 to 10-2) with increasing swelling of immobilized NPs.

Session 2O

Jubilee 2

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY II
Session Chair: A. Pitenis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
Session Vice Chair: M. Sidebottom, Lehigh University, Bethlehem,
PA

1:30 2 pm
The Tribological and Liquid Aluminum Adhesion
Properties of AlCrN Coatings Deposited using
Modulated Pulsed Power Magnetron Sputtering
Technologies Combined with Femtosecond Laser
Surface Texture Treatment
B. Wang, E. Block, N. Worts, A. Korenyi-Both, J. Squier, G. Bourne,
S. Midson, M. Kaufman, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO
It has been established that femtosecond laser patterning of surfaces
can be used to make them either hydrophobic or hydrophilic. However,
it has not been determined whether wetting of liquid metals are
effected in the same manner or how such patterning affects wear
properties. In this study, we attempt to answer these questions by
producing an H13 steel surface that has been modified by a
femtosecond laser to create various surface textures followed by
deposition of an oxidation-resistant AlCrN coating using modulated
pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS). The MPPMS technique
has the ability to produce fully dense, smooth coatings. The structural
and tribological properties of the resulting surfaces as well as their
wetting behavior with a liquid aluminum alloy were characterized by Xray diffraction, pin-on-disk wear tests, and a recently- developed
aluminum adhesion test and the results of these studies will be
presented and discussed.

highly damage tolerant, thermal shock resistant, readily machinable,


and with Vickers hardness values of 28 GPa, are anomalously soft for
transition metal carbides and nitrides. Previously it was shown that
MAX Phase-based composites can be used as shafts against SA (Super
Alloys) foils for different foil bearing applications at 50,000 rpm from RT
till 550oC during thermal cycling. In this paper, I will present some of
the recent studies of MAX Phase based solid lubricant materials.

2:30 3 pm
Wear Mechanism of III-Nitride Semiconductor
Material
G. Zeng, N. Tansu, B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
III-nitride materials have been extensively applied to solar cells,
thermoelectricity, power electronics, etc. due to their remarkable
electronic properties. Particularly, III-nitride-based multi-quantum well
cover wide spectral range from near infrared down to ultraviolet and
make III-nitride irreplaceable in our modern LED industry. However,
when compared with research for III-nitrides optoelectronic properties,
there is still lack of their mechanical properties study, especially the
wear performance when subjected to harsh environments. GaN coating
have remarkably low wear rate of ~ 810-9mm3/Nm. Here, we aim to
understand this low wear rate through multiscale characterization
techniques to analyze the wear performance of GaN and try to find out
the controlling factor and wear mechanism. The experimental results
demonstrate that GaN has an ultra-low wear rate, approaching
diamond and this property highly depends on several factors, including
crystallographic direction and humidity.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Electrical Behavior of Mechano-Chemical
Deposits on Sliding Contacts
M. Dugger, B. Nation, R. Colbert, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM
Reactions between damping fluids and electrical contact surfaces
containing copper have previously been shown to lead to the
formation of a high molecular weight insulating deposit at room
temperature, due to mechanical contact alone in the absence of
electrical signals. These films can reduce friction, but also increase
electrical contact resistance. In the present work, the conditions
required for passage of current through the deposit and the resulting
impact of that current on the deposit and the electrical contact
materials has been investigated. It has been found that at sufficiently
high electrical potential and/or current values, current will flow through
the insulating deposits created by surface reactions, resulting in a
subsequent lowering of electrical contact resistance at that location.
The fundamental mechanisms associated with these changes in
contact resistance of surface deposits will be discussed.

2 2:30 pm
Current Progress in the Development of MAX
Phase-Based Solid Lubricant Materials
S. Gupta, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND
It is well known that Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases (over 60+ phases) are
thermodynamically stable nanolaminates. These phases display
unusual, and sometimes unique, properties. These phases possess a
Mn+1AXn chemistry, where n is 1, 2, or 3, M is an early transition metal
element, A is an A-group element, and X is C or N. These phases are

54

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
4:30 5 pm
Origin of Sustained and Reproducible Macroscale
Superlubricity in Graphene-Nanodiamond
Ensembles

Session 2P

NANOTRIBOLOGY II: NANOMATERIALS AND


NANOSCALE ANALYSIS

D. Berman, S. Deshmukh, S. Sankaranarayanan, A. Erdemir,


A. Sumant, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
Maintaining sustained superlubricity at macro and engineering scales,
has been challenging so far. Earlier efforts were focused on realizing the
structural superlubricity at nanoscale, where near zero friction
originates from perfect incommensurability of sliding lattice planes in
graphite. We experimentally demonstrate that superlubricity can be
realized at macroscale by combined uses of graphene and
nanodiamonds sliding against a DLC surface (Science 348(2015)).
During sliding graphene patches wrap around nanodiamonds and form
nanoscrolls with reduced contact area, while DLC provides a perfect
incommensurate surface to achieve superlubricity (COF of 0.004) for
extended duration. Our large-scale molecular dynamics simulations
elucidate the mesoscopic link that bridges the nanoscale mechanics
and macroscopic experimental observations. This discovery provides a
fundamental basis for developing a universal friction mechanism that
could predict frictional behavior of 2D materials systems.

5 5:30 pm
Predicting Friction Regimes in Metallic Contacts
M. Chandross, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuqueruqe, NM,
S. Cheng, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University,
Blacksburg, VA, N. Argibay, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM
Tribologists often rely on phenomenological models to describe the
various regimes of metal wear. Pure metals such as gold exhibit high
friction/wear, while nanocrystalline metals often show lower
friction/wear. A connection between hardness and friction is often used
to explain this response and to guide designs. We present simulations
and experiments that demonstrate a general framework for connecting
materials properties to tribological response. We show that competition
between grain refinement and coarsening explains the transient and
steady state tribology of metals and leads to the different tribological
behaviors. This will enable the engineering of tribological contacts
based on grain boundary kinetics. Sandia National Laboratories is a
multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia
Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin
Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear
Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

5:30 6 pm
Slippery Physics: Soft Matter Tribology
W. Sawyer, A. Pitenis, J. Uruena, K. Schulze, R. Nixon, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL
Recent experiments with polyacrylamide (pAAm) hydrogels in a selfmated (i.e. twinned) Gemini sliding contact have shown friction
behavior contrary to the classic Stribeck curve. This surprising behavior
could be described by soft condensed matter physics, where thermal
fluctuations are known to dominate polymer networks. Soft matter
tribology studies similarly suggest a molecular view of a blurred
(thermal) potential surface with minimal energy barriers to sliding. The
resulting shear stresses during sliding are likely related to the shearing
of solvent (water) through the thermally fluctuating polymer chains at
the surface. The amplitude of their thermal vibrations is therefore
directly related to the mesh size, and any mechanism that increases the
fluctuating amplitudes or decreases the polymer concentration will
drastically decrease the surface shear stresses and result in lower
friction coefficients.

www.stle.org

Jubilee 3

Session Chair: C. Wen, Petronas Group Technical Solutions,


Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Session Vice Chair: K. Sinha, Chevron Oronite LLC, Bellaire, TX

1:30 2 pm
Effect of Load and Wear Track Spacing on the
Strain Field Produced during Nanowear
B. Schultz, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, N. Mara, N. Li,
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, M. Kennedy,
Clemson University, Clemson, SC
Many studies have characterized the wear mechanisms and change in
mechanical properties of thin films produced when worn using
nanoindenter systems. Understanding the extent of the strain field
produced for each parallel linear pass is essential in understanding the
limitations and sensitivities when using a nanoindenter for wear. While
empirical models indicate that the strain across these wear boxes can
be either uniform or heterogeneous, depending on the load and pass
spacing with a conispherical tip, this experiment will show how these
strain changes are distinct enough to change the measured hardness.
To determine a potential strain field change, nanoindentation was
performed inside the boxes at altered loads to determine if a strain
field alteration could be observed in changes in hardness and modulus
in a copper thin film. 10-step indents (200-2000 N) were indented into
40x40, 60x60, and 80x80 m wear boxes with single pass normal wear
loads ranging from 25-800 N.

2 2:30 pm
Controllable Triboluminenscence in Crystals
L. Ma, K. Wang, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, X. Xu, Beijing
Forestry University, Beijing, China, J. Luo, Tsinghua University,
Beijing, China
Triboluminescence, a historic phenomenon, has been drawing much
attention in the past several decades. The rupture of the material, the
triboelectrification, as well as other mechanisms have been invoked to
account for the origin of triboluminescence, but which is still not well
understood. Here we report facile approaches to control the
triboluminescence intensity with a spectrum ranging from ultraviolet to
near-infrared, in particular, identify the properties of such luminescence
under different conditions, by rubbing sapphire against silica. This will
shed new light on both the origins of applications of
triboluminescence in crystals.

2:30 3 pm
Effects of Sliding Speed on the Intensity of
Triboluminescence in Slide Contact: Experimental
Measurements and Theoretical Analyses
X. Xu, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China, L. Ma, J. Luo,
Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Triboluminescence (TL) is the emission of light produced by rubbing or
striking two materials together. Here, the light emission has been
observed from the sliding contact between two disks under dry
condition. The effects of the sliding speed on the intensity of TL have
been experimentally investigated. The results show that the intensity of
the emission light increases significantly with the sliding speed. A
theoretical model is also proposed and an analytical expression is
deduced for the intensity of TL in the slide contact. The theoretical
prediction is found consistent with the experimental results. The
present work may be helpful to the understanding of the mechanism
of light emission when friction.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

55

Monday, May 16
2P

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4:30 5 pm
Load Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene
Z. Ye, University of California-Merced, Merced, CA, P. Egberts,
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, G. Han, A. Johnson,
R. Carpick, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, A. Martini,
University of California-Merced, Merced, CA
A hysteresis between the loading and unloading segments of
nanoscale friction versus load measurements has been observed on a
variety of substrates, including graphene, polymers, silica and mica. This
friction hysteresis is manifested by increasing friction with increasing
load (loading) and then decreasing friction with decreasing load
(unloading), where friction measured at a given load is less during
loading than during unloading. Here, we probe the origins of load
dependent friction hysteresis for friction between atomic force
microscope (AFM) tips and graphene using experiments and molecular
dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations are used to examine and
compare the load-dependent friction hysteresis in both vacuum and
humid air conditions. The simulations are then used to explore
variations of the surface topography and the water meniscus, both of
which determine the contact area and adhesion at interface, and in
turn, influence the measured frictional behavior.

5 5:30 pm
Synthesis and Tribological Properties of Layered
Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles as Lubricant
Additives in Water
H. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Luo, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua
University, Beijing, China
Surface-modified layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets were
synthesized and well dispersed in water. Tribological evaluation with a
ball-on-disk tribometer shows that both friction-reducing and antiwear
property of LDH nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives
under high contact pressure can be dramatically improved because of
exhibiting a good lubricating layer between asperities, owing to their
small lateral size and excellent dispersion. Compared with the pure
water, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth, and width of the
wear track with the addition of LDH decreased by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5%,
and 59.5%, respectively. Our investigations enrich the research about
water-based lubricants and has potential value in energy saving,
machining, equipment operation and other practical industrialization.

5:30 6 pm
Tribological Behavior of Halloysite Clay
Nanotubes as Extreme-Pressure Additives in
Metal-Forming Lubricants
L. Pea-Pars, M. Irigoyen, D. Maldonado, P. Garca-Pineda, J. Guerra,
J. Taha-Tijerina, Universidad de Monterrey, Garza Garcia, Nuevo
Leon, Mexico
Nanoparticles have been recently used as additives for improving
tribological performance of lubricants. Halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs)
are naturally-occurring, low-cost, and non-toxic, making them attractive
as eco-friendly EP additives. In this study, HNTs were homogeneously
dispersed with varying concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.10 wt%) into a
polymeric lubricant for metal-forming applications and tested under
extreme pressure (EP) conditions. The tribological properties of
nanolubricants were characterized with two different methods. The
ITeE-PIB Polish method for testing lubricants under scuffing conditions
on a four-ball-tribotester was conducted in order to obtain the loadcarrying capacity (poz); a block-on-ring test at extreme-pressures was
used to obtain wear volume loss and coefficient of friction (COF).
Results showed that 0.10 wt% HNTs successfully improved the scuffing
load and the load-carrying capacity of the lubricant by 40% and ~30%,
respectively.

Registration available for STLE


Certification Exams
All four of STLEs certification exams: Certified
Lubrication Specialist, Oil Monitoring Analyst I and II
and Certified Metalworking Fluids Specialist will be
conducted concurrently on Thursday, May 19 from 9
am to Noon in Palace 3. Individuals must be registered
for the exams in advance, however, onsite registration
is available on a limited basis. For more information,
stop by the STLE Registration Desk in the Grand Salon.
Registration and sign-in starts at 8:30 am. Fees: First
exam: $380 (STLE member), $510 (Non-member),
Retake exam: $190 (STLE member), $255 (Non-member).

Share your STLE 2016 Annual Meeting Presentation


with Submission of an Extended Abstract
Each year, STLEs annual meeting is known for its exceptional technical content. With more than 500 papers to choose from, a
major concern for attendees is scheduling conflicts, as they sometimes miss presentations that they would like to hear or
cannot share materials with their colleagues who are unable to attend the meeting.
In an effort to provide attendees with the opportunity of not missing a presentation, STLE encourages speakers to submit
either a 2-3 page extended abstract or provide digital PDF copies of their annual meeting presentation slides.
For more information, visit www.stle.org or email Karl Phipps, presentations@stle.org to submit materials.
*Please note: Attendees can download STLE 2016 Annual Meeting presentations online at www.stle.org during and
immediately following the meeting. Also, presentations can be accessed through the STLE Annual Meeting Mobile App.
Be sure to check both the STLE website and Mobile App for the latest updates on presentations that have been added by
speakers, as they become available.

56

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

GO FARTHER,
GO MORE EFFICIENTLY,
GO WITH US.
Rigorously challenged in the most extreme environments.
Dow teamed up with Richard Childress Racing to test and develop premium
greases and gear lubricants that can endure the punishing conditions of
the race track. The result? Improved lubrication, reduced fluid
migration, and increased efficiency.
Now its your turn in the drivers seat.

Your project is our project. Your focus is our focus. We at Dow are fully
committed to collaborating with you to enable your formulating success. Our
experts will share that knowledge in groundbreaking technical presentations.
Join the conversation online or at STLE 2016.
Booth 301 | www.dowatstle.com
Join us at www.linkedin.com/company/dow-performance-lubricants
The DOW Diamond Logo is a trademark of The Dow Chemical Company
The stylized No. 3 and the RCR checkered flag logo are registered trademarks of RCR Enterprises, LLC. Austin Dillons
name, likeness, signature, and the AD stylized logo are registered trademarks of Austin Dillon. All trademarks and the likeness of the No.3 race car are used under license from their owners. LinkedIn, the LinkedIn logo, the IN logo and InMail are
registered trademarks or trademarks of LinkedIn Corporation and its affiliates in the United States and/or other countries.

Overview
Please check the errata in your registration bag to verify course times. Some times
might change slightly.

TUESDAY, MAY 17
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon
Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

Technical Sessions (2 6 pm)


4A Commercial Marketing Forum IV Bronze 4
4B Lubrication Fundamentals IV: Computational EHL Bronze 3

Commercial Exhibits & Student Posters (9:30 am Noon &


2 5:30 pm) Ballys Event Center

4C Engine & Drivetrain IV Special Session Advances in


Lubricants and Automotive Tribology for Fuel Economy
Bronze 2

Technical Sessions (8 am Noon)

4D Rolling Element Bearings II Skyview 3

3A Commercial Marketing Forum III Bronze 4

4E Metalworking IV Silver

3B Lubrication Fundamentals III: Elastohydrodynamic


Lubrication Bronze 3

4F Non-Ferrous Metals I: Additives Palace 3

3C Engine & Drivetrain III Bronze 2


3D Rolling Element Bearings I Skyview 3
3E Metalworking III Silver
3F Grease II Palace 3
3G Gears II Palace 4/5
3H Fluid Film Bearings III Las Vegas 1
3I Biotribology III Las Vegas 2
3J Power Generation II: Controlling Varnish Las Vegas 3
3K Ceramics and Composites II Las Vegas 4
3L Synthetics & Hydraulics II Las Vegas 5
3M Seals III Las Vegas 6/7

4G Gears III Palace 4/5


4H Fluid Film Bearings IV Las Vegas 1
4I Biotribology IV Las Vegas 2
4J Power Generation III: Contamination Control Las Vegas 3
4L Synthetics & Hydraulics III Las Vegas 5
4K Wear I: Experimental Study of Wear Las Vegas 4
4M Seals IV Las Vegas 6/7
4N Surface Engineering IV Jubilee 1
4O Materials Tribology IV Jubilee 2
4P Nanotribology IV: Nanoparticle Additives Jubilee 3
Exhibitor Appreciation Break (3 4 pm) Ballys Event Center

3N Surface Engineering III Jubilee 1


3O Materials Tribology III Jubilee 2
3P Nanotribology III: Nanoparticle Additives Jubilee 3
Presidents Luncheon/Business Meeting (Noon 2 pm)
Platinum

Exhibit Hours
Tuesday (9:30 am Noon) & (2 5:30 pm)
Closed for Presidents Luncheon (Noon 2 pm)
Exhibitor Appreciation Hour (3 4 pm)
The exhibition is in the Ballys Event Center.
Beverage Breaks are scheduled at 10 am and 3 pm
daily.

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

57

TUESDAY, MAY 17, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 3A
CMF III

SESSION 3B
Lubrication Fundamentals III

SESSION 3C
Engine & Drivetrain III

Bronze 4

Bronze 3

Bronze 2

SESSION 3D
Rolling Element Bearings I
Skyview 3

8 8:30 am

Tianhe Chemicals Tianhe Chemicals


Additives Division An Introduction,
S.K. Raghuram, p. 62

Investigation of the Difference in Liquid


Superlubricity Between Water- and Oil-Based
Lubricants, J. Li, p. 62

Scientific Approach to Development of HighEfficiency Lubricants, A. Petterson, p. 66

Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on


Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings, C. DellaCorte, p. 68

8:30 9 am

Dodecene-Based Synfluid PAOs: Volatility,


Viscosity Index and CCS Advantages!, K. Hope,
p. 62

Effects of Oil-Air Lubrication on the Film


Forming Behavior at High Speeds, H. Liang,
p. 64

The Role Additive Chemistry Plays in


Increasing and Decreasing Timing Chain
Wear, C. Esche, p. 66

High-Speed Effects of Silicon Nitride Balland


Rollers on Rolling Bearing Life, E. Zaretsky,
p. 68

9 9:30 am

Sea-Land Chemical Finding Its Purpose,


J. Clayton, p. 62

Estimation of Temperature and Effects of


Oxidation in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication, J. Kelly, p. 64

A Modified Auto-Engine Oil Drain Plug for


In-Situ Ultrasonic Viscosity Monitoring,
R. Mills, p. 66

Accelerated Life Testing of Pyrowear 675 Material on Ball-on-Rod Rolling Contact Fatigue
Tester at 218 0C (425 0F), H. Trivedi, p. 68

9:30 10 am

HyGold 5000BS Next Generation Group I


Bright Stock, E. Casserly, p. 62

Elastohydrodynamic Friction Properties of


Well-Defined Base Fluids, H. Spikes, p. 64

In-Manufacture Running-In of Engine


Components by Using the Triboconditioning
Process, B. Zhmud, p. 66

Effect of Case Hardening on Fatigue Life


Predictions of Bearing Steels, N. Londhe, p. 68

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

Break

Break

10:30 11 am

ANGUS Chemical Co. A History of MWF


Innovation, M. Lewis, p. 62

Effects of Micro EHL Loss in Boundary


Regime Sliding, R. Erck, p. 64

A Study of the Effect of Aged Engine Oil on


the Wear Mechanism of Engine Oil Pump,
F. Motamen Salehi, p. 66

Rolling Contact Fatigue of Case Carburized


Steels, A. Walvekar, p, 68

11 11:30 am

Lubrizol Expands MWF Biocide Portfolio,


G. Kirsch, p. 62

Tribological Properties of Oil Soluble


Polyacrylates with Hydroxyethyl Group,
K. Yamamoto, p. 64

Correlating Laboratory Oil Coking Rig Tests


to Diesel Engine Tests to Understand the
Mechanisms Responsible for Turbocharger
Compressor Coking, D. Uy, p. 66

Rolling Contact Fatigue Crack Propagation in


Nitrided Alloyed Steels, M. Le, p. 69

Correlative Consideration with Deposit


Formation and Oil Characteristics,
K. Wadayama, p. 68

EHA Pump Cam Bearing Failure and Life


Extension Analysis, B. Jalalahmadi, p. 69

11:30 Noon

Fighting MWF Corrosion in a Changing


Market: Lubrizols Trusted Solutions, B. Faber,
p. 62

SESSION 4A
CMF IV
Bronze 4
2 2:30 pm

2:30 3 pm

3 4 pm

Afton Chemicals Key Driver Seminar


Gearing up for the Future: An OEM
Perspective of Industrial Gear Oil Dynamics,
D. Gajewski, p. 87

Exhibitor Break

SESSION 4B
Lubrication Fundamentals IV

SESSION 4C
Engine & Drivetrain IV

Bronze 3

Bronze 2

SESSION 4D
Rolling Element Bearings II
Skyview 3

Elastohydrodynamic Study Using


Discontinuous Finite Volume Method,
P. Singh, p. 88

New Heavy-Duty Motor Oils to Enable the


Next Generation of Low GHG Diesel Engines:
API CK-4 and API FA-4, S. Whitacre, p. 88

Influence of Contact Conditions and Steel


Properties on Propagation of Rolling Contact
Fatigue Cracks, P. Rycerz, p. 89

Studies of Elastohydrodynamic Llubrication


Using CFD-Based Finite-Volume Technique,
D. Lee, p. 88

Lubricant Developments for Advanced


Drivetrain Hardware, G. Guinther, p. 89

A More Accurate and Faster Method to


Obtain the Force and Moment Distribution in
Roller Bearing, S. Zhu, p. 89

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

4 4:30 pm

Pour Point Depressant Considerations when


Blending With Re-refined Base Stocks,
R. Gomes, p. 87

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of


Coated Specimens under EHL Point Contact
for Film Thickness and Friction
Characterization, D. Pickens, p. 88

A Holistic View of the Role of Lubricants in


Fuel Efficiency, J. Bansal, p. 89

Thermoelastic Contact with a Rough Surface


Involving Distributed Inhomogeneities,
Q. Zhou, p. 89

4:30 5 pm

High Performance Gear Oils, D. Stonecipher,


Chemtura Corp., p.87

PMD Method for Numerical Solution of ThinFilm and Mixed Elastohydrodynamic


Lubrication, W. Pu, p. 88

Mechanical Friction Reduction Trends in


Engines, A. Gangopadhyay, p. 89

A Notation for Elementary Solutions of


Inhomogeneous Contact Analysis by the
Semi-Analytical Method, X. Zhang, p. 90

5 5:30 pm

The Latest in Estolide Development,


J. Bredsguard, Biosynthetic Technologies, p. 87

Lubrication Fundamentals Business Meeting

Q&A Session

Effective Elastic-Plastic Properties of a Half


Space Containing Multiple Heterogeneities
Under Indentation, K. Amuzuga, p. 90

5:30 6 pm

The Past and Present Versus the Future in


Automotive Engine Oils, T. Dasbach, Institute
of Materials, p. 87

Engine and Drivetrain Business Meeting

Influence of the Balls Kinematics and


Ball/Race Contact Models on Quasi-Static
Approaches for Ball Bearing, C. Servais, p. 90

6 6:30 pm

58

Rolling Element Bearings Business Meeting

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

SESSION 3E
Metalworking III
Silver

SESSION 3F
Grease II

SESSION 3G
Gears II

SESSION 3H
Fluid Film Bearings III

Palace 3

Palace 4/5

Las Vegas 1
8 8:30 am

Chemiometric Approach in Developing New


Biostable Water Soluble MWFs, M. Bellini,
p. 69

Energy Efficiency and Lubrication


Mechanisms of Polypropylene Thickened
Greases, J. Leckner, p. 70

A Parametric Study of Micropitting


Formation Using a Microstructure-Based
Damage Model, N. Bolander, p. 72

Adenosine Triphosphate Testing to Evaluate


Biofilm Dispersants, F. Passman, p. 69

Effect of Microstructure and Rheology on


the Grease EHL Film Thickness at Medium
Speeds, F. Cyriac, p. 70

Standardization of Micropitting Test acc. FVA


54/7 Status of Preparation Work, T. Tobie,
p. 72

Inertia Effect and the Turbulence Effect on


the Lubrication Performance of the High
Speed Water-Lubricated Thrust Bearings,
Z. Song, p. 74

8:30 9 am

Metalworking Fluid Rapid Testing for


Microbial Resistance, N. Webb, p. 69

Free-Surface Flow of Lubricating Greases,


L. Westerberg, p. 70

Mixed Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in


Hypoid Gears, V. Dr. Simon, p. 72

Identification of Stiffness and Damping


Coefficients of a Hydrostatic Bearing with
Angled Injection and Textured Housing,
P. Jolly, p. 74

9 9:30 am

Vapor Phase of Dicyclohexylamine Can


Inhibit Biofilm Formation, V. Stoldt, p. 69

Investigation into the Dynamic Particle


Generation of Lubricating Greases,
W. Flaherty, p. 72

Thermal Modeling of a Twin-Discmachine,


G. Isaac, p. 74

Water Lubricated Main Shaft Bearings with


Three Layer Bush Modern Solution for
Marine Industry, W. Litwin, p. 76

9:30 10 am

Break

Break

Break

Break

10 10:30 am

Influence of Biocides Behavior on Biofilm


Control, M. Rioux, p. 70

Inferiority Complex? Dropping Point


Enhancement in Grease, J. Kaperick, p. 72

Effects of Micro-Geometry Features and


Profile Error on Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication of Helical Gears, A. Clarke, p. 74

Lubrication and Accelerated Life Studies


of Water-Lubricated Journal Bearing with
Different Lubricating Material, Y. Han, p. 76

10:30 11 am

Study of Contamination and Performance of


Biodegraded Cutting Fluids, M. Finzi, p. 70

Fretting and Scuffing Wear of Grease


Lubricated Bearing Steel Contacts, A. Saatchi,
p. 72

Influences on the Wear Behavior of Small


Module Gears Lubricated with High
Consistency Greases, H. Schultheiss, p. 74

Water Cooled Thrust Bearing: An


Experimental Investigation, N. Farooq, p. 76

11 11:30 am

Much Ado About Amides: Formulating


Alkanolamides in Metalworking Fluids,
E. Schnellbacher, p. 70

Grease Business Meeting

Fault Diagnosis of Planetary Gear


Transmission Based on EEMD and Vibration
Spectrum Analysis, Y. Zhang, p. 74

Study on Stribeck Curves for WaterLubricated Rubber Bearings with Spiral


Grooves, G. Zhou, p. 76

11:30 Noon

SESSION 4E
Metalworking IV
Silver

SESSION 4F
Non-Ferrous Metals I
Palace 3

SESSION 4G
Gears III
Palace 4/5

SESSION 4H
Fluid Film Bearings IV
Las Vegas 1

Tools for Screening Process Fluids


Performance, A. Tomala, p. 90

Water Dispersible Corrosion Inhibitors for


Aluminum Cutting Fluids, A. Michael, p. 92

Tribological Assessment of Gear Materials for


Loss of Lubrication Survivability, K. Radil, p. 93

Dynamic Response of Polymers for Journal


Bearing Linings, S. Glavatskih, p. 94

2 2:30 pm

Twist Compression Test (TCT) Boundary


Lubrication Results of Chlorinated Parrafin
(CP) and CP Replacements on Various Metals,
T. McClure, p. 90

Al Cold Rolling Recovery of Rolling Oil From


Exhaust Air, O. Seiferth, p. 92

Scuffing Resistance and Starved Lubrication


Behavior in Helicopter Gear Steels:
Dependence on Surface Coatings, M. Riggs
p. 93

Transient Performance of Tilting-Pad Journal


Bearings Coated with PEEK or White Metal,
J. Bouyer, p. 94

2:30 3 pm

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

3 4 pm

Evaluating the Next Generation of


Metalworking Fluids and Industrial
Lubricants Using Non-Standard Test Methods,
B. Dubbert, p. 92

Antioxidants and Charge Control Additives


for Ester Oils, T. Karis, p. 92

The Progression of Gear Tooth Damage in a


Loss-of-Lubrication Event, S. Berkebile, p. 93

Temperature Monitoring of PEEK Bearings,


J. Zhou, p. 94

4 4:30 pm

Grinding of Inconel 718 Alloy with Air-OilWater Mixture Delivered by MQL Technique,
R. Da Silva, p. 92

Waste Water Treatment Technologies,


A. Knopp, p. 93

Investigation of Solid Lubricants for Use in


Aviation Gearboxes, J. Ewin, p. 93

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of


the Effects of Polymer-Lined Journal Bearings
on the Dynamic Behavior of a Simple Rotor
Bearing System, T. Snyder, p. 94

4:30 5 pm

Chemistry-Structure-Performance
Relationship of Various Organic Stain
Inhibitors in MWF, H. Kim, p. 92

Non-Ferrous Business Meeting

Gears Business Meeting

Experimental Study of the Influence of


Scratches on Two-Lobe Journal Bearing
Performance, C. Giraudeau, p. 94

5 5:30 pm

Fluid Film Bearings Business Meeting

5:30 6 pm

A Type of Plant Oil-Based Cutting Fluid for


Machining Titanium Alloy, C. Zhang, p. 92

Metalworking Business Meeting

www.stle.org

TUESDAY >>

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

59

TUESDAY, MAY 17, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 3L
Synthetics & Hydraulics III

SESSION 3I
Biotribology III

SESSION 3J
Power Generation II

SESSION 3K
Ceramics & Composites II

Las Vegas 2

Las Vegas 3

Las Vegas 4

Reactive Nature of Oil Degradation Products


(AKA Varnish Precursors) and How it Impacts
Possible Strategies to Extend the Life of
Turbine Oil, G. Livingstone, p. 77

Research of Particle Friction in the Annular


Plug During the Oil and Gas Drilling, L. Yang,
p. 78

Additive Technology for Halogen-Free Room


Temperature Ionic Liquids, E. Nyberg, p. 79

8 8:30 am

Las Vegas 5

8:30 9 am

Effect of Alcohol on the Formation and


Lubricating Properties of Salivary Pellicle on
Human Tooth Enamel, J. Zheng, p. 76

Influence of Base Oil on Turbine Oil Varnish,


J. Hannon, p. 77

Substituting Tungsten Carbide (WC) as


Cutting Tools and for Wear Protection by
Niobium Carbide (NbC), M. Woydt, p. 78

The Synthesis and Tribological Performance of


Phosphonium/Phosphate-Based Ionic Liquids
as Friction-Reducing Engine Oil Additives,
M. Welmers, p. 79

9 9:30 am

Effects of the Silica Particles Properties on


the Tribological Removal of Teeth Biofilms,
M. Popa, p. 76

The Solution to Fix Varnish Issue in Gas


Turbine Lubricants, B. Bai, p. 77

Sliding Friction and Casing Wear Behavior of


PCD Reinforced WC Matrix Composites Under
Water Lubrication, K. Zhang, p. 78

Analysis of the Tribochemical Behaviour of


Ionic Liquids in Contact with Steel and
Titanium Substrates in High Vacuum
Environment, F. Pagano, p. 79

9:30 10 am

On the Preventive Effect of Polysaccharide


Food Gum on Dental Erosio, L. Zheng, p. 77

Influence of Solvents, Filtering Oil


Temperature and Incubation Period on
Membrane Patch Color, T. Kon, p. 78

Challenge between Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites and Microcomposites for Tribological Applications, A. Dorri Moghadam, p. 79

Characterization and Analysis of Ultra-Thin


Boundary Lubrication Film with Novel
Heterocyclic Friction Modifier, X. He, p. 79

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

10:30 11 am

Friction and Wear in Live Cell Mucin,


J. Uruena, p. 77

Healthy Evaluation of Long-Term Used Gas


Turbine Oil by the Membrane Patch
Colorimetry, T. Honda, p. 78

11 11:30 am

Behavior and Mechanism of Ultralow Friction


of Basil Seed Gel, Y. Liu, p. 77

Media Selection for Treating Fluid Degradation


in Group II & Group V Turbine Oil Mixturesedia,
J. Mehta, p. 78

11:30 Noon

Break
Performance of High TBN Sulficylates, J. Wei,
p. 80

Utilizing a Hot Liquid Process Simulator


(HLPS) Test to Predict Fouling Characteristics
of High Performance Compressor Lubricants,
B. Branson, p. 80
Ceramics and Composites Business Meeting

Response of Artificial Cell Membranes to


Normal and Shear Stresses, R. EspinosaMarzal, p. 77

SESSION 4I
Biotribology IV

SESSION 4J
Power Generation III

SESSION 4K
Wear I

Las Vegas 2

Las Vegas 3

Las Vegas 4

2 2:30 pm

Tactile Feedback About Various Surfaces and


Governing Factor Discriminating Touch
Sensibility, M. Kim, p. 96

Mechanisms Responsible For Electrostatic


Discharges Associated With Liquid Filters,
W. Needelman, p. 98

2:30 3 pm

Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity


on the Frictional Behaviour of Human Skin,
M. Masen, p. 96

Higher Purity Lubricants for Large Steam &


Gas Turbines Create New Issues Through the
Generation & Longevity of Electrostatic
Charges in the Oil, G. Munson, p. 98

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

3 4 pm

Break
Panel Discussion

SESSION 4L
Synthetics & Hydraulics III
Las Vegas 5
Preparation and Evaluation of Metallocene
Polyalphaolefin (PAO) Based on -olefins
made from Coal, J. Li, p. 99

Sliding Wear of Spark Plasma Sintered


CrFeCoNiCu High Entropy Alloy Coatings:
Effect of Aluminum Addition, X. Ji, p. 98

Exhibitor Break

Substitution of Group I Base Oils in Industrial


Lubricants- Applications in Model Hydraulic
Fluid Formulations, T. Norrby, p. 99

Exhibitor Break

4 4:30 pm

Artificial Human Skin Simulating In-Vivo


Friction and Deformation for Dry and Moist
Skin Conditions, S. Franklin, p. xxx

A Novel, Condensate Polymer Coalescer for


Free Water Removal from Steam Turbine
Lubricating Oils, J. Duchowski, p. x98

Experimental Study of the Wear Process at


the Rod/Seal Interface in a Reciprocating
Sealing System, S. Tsala p. 99

Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycols A Versatile


Component for Enabling the Formulation of
Modern Gear Lubricants, M. Greaves, p. 100

4:30 5 pm

Understanding Lubrication During Shaving,


S. Whitehouse, p. 96

Purification of In-Service Hydraulic and


Lubrication Fluids A Review of Commonly
Used Methods, K. Farooq, p. 98

Experimental Study of the Removal of the


Tribofilm Generated by Zinc Dialkyl
Dithiophosphate, P. Parsaeian, p. 99

Performance of Lubricants Formulated with


a New Group V Base Stock, M. McElwain,
p. 100

5 5:30 pm

Biomimetic Wall-Shaped Hierarchical


Microstructure for Gecko-Like Attachment,
M. Varenberg, p. 96

Power Generation Business Meeting

Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Al2O3 and SiC


Particles Reinforced Aluminium-Based MMCs
by Taguchi Method, J. V. Menghani, p. 99

5:30 6 pm

Multi-Scale Finite Element Model for


Predicting Hysteresis Coefficient of Friction of
Slip-Resistant Shoes, S. M.Moghaddam, p. 96

Wear Resistance Experiments on Phosphorus


Eutectic Cast-Iron with Double-Doped Rare
Earth, T. Li, p. 99

Synthetics & Hydraulics Business Meeting

6 6:30 pm

60

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

SESSION 3M
Seals III
Las Vegas 6/7

SESSION 3N
Surface Engineering III

SESSION 3O
Materials Tribology III

SESSION 3P
Nanotribology III

Jubilee 1

Jubilee 2

Jubilee 3

Comparison of Navier-Stokes and ReynoldsBased Thermofluid Models for a NonContacting Compliant Finger Seal for
Aerospace Applications, S. Kline, p. 80

Optimization of Nickel-Based Composite


Nanocoatings for Tribological Systems with a
Focus on Water-Lubrication Produced by
Pulse Electrodeposition, Z. Khan, p. 82

Low-Temperature Friction Variation with


MoS2-Based Lubricants, J. Lince, p. 84

Effect of Particle Morphology and Structure


on Durability of MoS2 Nanoparticle Tribofilm,
M. Lorenzo Martin, p. 86

8 8:30 am

Leaking Through Spiral-Grooved Gas Face


Seal with Arbitrary Gap Shape, A. Vinogradov,
p. 80

Computational Wear and Corrosion


Evaluation of Novel Coatings for Automotive
and Aerospace Applications, H. Nazir, p. 82

An Investigation of Ti Doped MoS2


Performance in Dry and Lubricated Conditions
Under Rolling Contact, H. Singh, p. 85

Effect of Nanoparticle Size on the Tribological


Properties of Nanolubricants, L. Pea-Pars
p. 86

8:30 9 am

Experimental Study of Flow Visualization on


Dry Gas Seal Face, M. Ochiai, p. 80

The Impact of High Salt and Dust Particles


on the Surface Durability of Waste-Gate
Turbocharger End Links, A. Saeed, p. 82

Temperature Dependent Wear and Friction


of MoS2 at the Extremes, T. Babuska, p. 85

Tribological Behavior of WS2 Nanoparticles in


PAO Base Oil on Smooth and Rough Surfaces,
F. Dassenoy, p. 86

9 9:30 am

Mixed Lubrication Numerical Model by Inverse


Lubrication Theory & Experimental Verification
of Hydraulic Rod Seals, C. Wu, p. 80

Production of Few Layer Graphene by Liquid


Phase Exfoliation as a Nano-Composite Candidate for Surface Engineering, S. Shah, p. 84

Environmental Sensitivity of MoS2 Coatings:


Probing the First Few Layers, J. Curry, p. 85

Tribological & Wear Characteristics of Fluids


Containing Suspensions of Nano-Encapsulated
Phase Change Materials, J. Shelton, p. 86

9:30 10 am

Break

Break

Break

10 10:30 am

Break
Analysis of Intermittent Rub in Mechanical
Face Seals, P. Varney, p. 82

Slurry Erosive Wear Behaviour of TiO2 30


wt% Inconel-718 Plasma Sprayed Coatings
on Al6061 Substrate, R. Chinnakurli
Suryanarayana, p. 84

Experimental Micro-Mechanical Characterization of a Dry Lubricated Macro-Contact to


Develop DEM Tribological Models, G. Colas,
p. 85

Submicrometer Carbon Spheres as Lubricant


Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction,
A. Alazemi, p. 86

10:30 11 am

The Effect of Machine Vibration on the


Dynamic Behavior of Mechanical Face Seal,
I. Green, p. 82

Slurry Erosive Wear Behavior of HVOF


Thermally Sprayed Titania Coatings,
R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, p. 84

Fretting Wear Behavior of Cu-MoS2 and


Cu-MoS2-WC Coatings Fabricated by Cold
Spray, Y. Zhang, p. 85

The Effects of Different Additives on the


Tribological Behavior of WS2 Nanoparticles
in Lubricants Correlation Calculations,
I. Jenei, p. 86

11 11:30 am

Modelling of the Roughness Induced


Pressure Generation between Parallel
Surfaces, N. Brunetiere, p. 82

Evolution of the Nano-Scale Mechanical


Properties of Tribofilms formed from
Low- and High-SAPS Oils, M. Kalin, p. 84

Microstructure and Tribology Behavior of


Tungsten Disulfide Solid Lubricant Films by
Atomic Layer Deposition, Y. Sun, p. 85

Investigation of the Stability and Tribological


Performance of Ionic Nano Liquids, Q. Zou,
p. 87

11:30 Noon

SESSION 4M
Seals IV
Las Vegas 6/7

SESSION 4N
Surface Engineering IV

SESSION 4O
Materials Tribology IV

SESSION 4P
Nanotribology IV

Jubilee 1

Jubilee 2

Jubilee 3

Analysis of an End Face Mechanical Seal with


Internal Valving for Low Power Applications,
J. Stieha, p. 100

Bonding Preference of Hydrocarbon


Molecules on a Lubricated Disk Surface,
C. Yeo, p. 102

Discrimination of the Bulk Material and


Tribological Properties of PTFE Based
Composites Through Post-mortem Analysis,
M. Villavicencio, p. 102

Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid-Mediated


Dispersions of Nanomaterials as High
Performance Additives for Lubricants, P. von
Czarnecki, p. 104

2 2:30 pm

The Lift Effect of Waviness Errors in


Aerodynamic Lubrication. Application to
the Analysis of Annular Segmented Seals,
M. Arghir, p. 100

Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface


Modification (UNSM) Technique on Wear and
Micropitting in Boundary Lubricated SteelSteel Contacts, H. Qin, p. 102

Wear and Friction Behaviour of SelfLubricating Polymer Composite Bearing


Materials, M. Rodiouchkina, p. 103

Metal Disulfide Nanoparticles as Lubricant


Additives for the Automotive Industry,
F. Dassenoy, p. 104

2:30 3 pm

Exhibitor Break

Exhibitor Break

Seals Business Meeting

Exhibitor Break

A Universal Model for an Elastic-Plastic


Coated Spherical Contact with Moderate to
Large Coating Thicknesses, Z. Chen, p. 102

Investigating the Evolution of Transfer Films


in Polymer Tribology, A. Jean-Fulcrand, p. 103

Tribological Studies on Molybdenum


Coatings, P. Nataraj, p. 102

Quantitative Characterization of Solid


Lubricant Transfer Films, D. Haidar, p. 103

New Insights into Friction and Wear from


Atomic-Scale Measurements: The Role of
Energy Barriers, R. Carpick, p. 104

3 4 pm
4 4:30 pm

4:30 5 pm

Developing a Mechanistic Framework for


Wear of PFA Fluoropolymer/Alumina
Composites, M. Sidebottom, p. 103

Interactions between MoS2 Nanotubes and


AW/EP Tribofilms, A. Tomala, p. 104

5 5:30 pm

A Quantitative Wear Model of Tribological


Polymer Composites, J. Ye, p. 103

Friction and Wear Behavior of Blends of


Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles and
Overbased Additives in Common Paraffinic
Lubricant Oils, A. Akbarzadeh, p. 104
6 pm Nanotribology Business Meeting

5:30 6 pm

Materials Tribology Business Meeting

www.stle.org

Exhibitor Break

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

TUESDAY
61

Tuesday, May 17
Session 3A

Bronze 4

COMMERCIAL MARKETING FORUM III


8 8:30 am
Tianhe Chemicals Tianhe Chemicals Additives
Division An Introduction
S.K. Raghuram, VP, Mumbai, India

environmentally sustainable additives, ANGUS Chemical Company


leverages more than 70 years of nitroalkane chemistry experience.
As the worlds only company dedicated to nitroalkanes and their
derivatives, ANGUS has the products, ideas and technical expertise
needed to improve metalworking fluid additives extending fluid life
while inhibiting corrosion and enhancing biocide performance. This
talk will explore how ANGUS enables metalworking fluid innovation,
citing real-world examples and research to demonstrate its overall
effectiveness in helping your metalworking fluids perform even better.

8:30 9 am
Dodecene-Based Synfluid PAOs: Volatility,
Viscosity Index and CCS Advantages!

11 11:30 am
Lubrizol Expands MWF Biocide Portfolio

K. Hope, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co., The Woodlands, TX

Biocide additives prevent microbial growth and are extremely


important not only to maintain the critical properties of metalworking
fluids (MWF), but also to protect the health and safety of the workers.
Globally, Lubrizol offers a range of biocide additives with different
ingredients that enable use in aqueous metalworking fluids of varying
pH levels. Some of our biocide additives are designed for use in MWF
concentrates, some can be used as tankside additives to eliminate
problematic bacterial and fungal growth in diluted fluids, and others
can be used either in concentrate or tankside applications. Lubrizol is
proud to announce that in 2016, we will be adding five new
CONTRAM MB biocides to our portfolio for the U.S. market. These
additives, many of which are registered for both concentrate and
tankside use, offer a variety of alternatives for various biological control
needs. This talk will focus on the performance of these biocides,
including the current CONTRAM ST-1 technology.

Although dodecene-based Synfluid PAOs have been available for


many years, specific property advantages that these synthetic base
oils address is seen as a good fit for todays engine oil needs, now and
even more so for the future. Initially, dodecene-based PAOs were
conceptualized and commercialized due to decene feedstock
constraints. However, in addition to the increased feedstock availability,
these materials also have a high viscosity index, improved cold crank
simulator viscosity and, especially important, low Noack volatility.
These benefits are providing formulation flexibility for low viscosity
engine oils that are being developed for energy savings. This
presentation will focus on the physical and chemical properties that
enable improvements for todays and tomorrows engine oils as well as
other industrial lubricants.

9 9:30 am
Sea-Land Chemical Finding Its Purpose
J. Clayton, Sea-Land Chemical Co., Westlake, OH
Learn why Sea-Land Chemical Co. employees are inspired. We are
excited to share our purpose and how it will benefit our customers
and suppliers. SLC Testing Services has now settled in Cleveland, OH
and will continue to provide testing services.

9:30 10 am
HyGold 5000BS Next Generation Group I
Bright Stock
E. Casserly, T. Langlais, Ergon, Inc., Jackson, MS
Trends in finished lubricant technologies threaten the viability of
legacy Group I refineries and associated bright stock production
capacities. Rest assured, Ergon Refining, Inc. is investing in meeting the
markets demand for high-quality bright stock. In Q3 2016, Ergon will
release the newest in Group I bright stock technology with their
HyGold 5000BS. Ergon manufactures HyGold 5000BS through a
propane deasphalting and severe hydrotreating process, yielding a
unique combination of high viscosity, low pour point, low odor, good
solvency, and a high flash point. HyGold 5000BS has excellent color and
appearance versus competitive bright stocks. HyGold 5000BS is suitable
for use in a wide range of applications where product viscosity and
appearance remain critical. Please join us for an interactive discussion
regarding Group I bright stock supply/demand, bright stock refining
technology/performance properties, and the economics of viscosity in
finished lubricant formulations.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
ANGUS Chemical Co. A History of MWF
Innovation
M. Lewis, K. Alexander, P. Brutto, N. Webb, ANGUS Chemical Co.,
Buffalo Grove, IL
In the world of metalworking fluids, having a long-lasting, globally
approved fluid with great lubricity helps reduce costs and improves
productivity. To meet the growing demand for better performing and

62

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

G. Kirsch, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH

11:30 am Noon
Fighting MWF Corrosion in a Changing Market:
Lubrizols Trusted Solutions
B. Faber, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
Changes in the corrosion inhibitor market have forced panic on many
fluid providers in the metalworking industry. An urgent search is on for
capable, sustainable, and economical alternatives to products that are
leaving the market space. Lubrizol has a portfolio of trusted options to
deliver ferrous corrosion protection in water-dilutable metalworking
fluids, and has a robust and flexible product line to meet the varying
needs of the industry. This presentation will cover carboxylic acid
options for making corrosion inhibitor salts, as well as a refresh on
amine carboxylate products that are ready for use.

Session 3B

Bronze 3

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS III


ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION
Session Chair: R. Mourhatch, Chevron Oronite, Richmond, CA
Session Vice Chair: R. Erck, Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, IL

8 8:30 am
Investigation of the Difference in Liquid
Superlubricity Between Water- and Oil-Based
Lubricants
J. Li, J. Luo, C. Zhang, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
In the work, we showed that the liquid superlubricity of water-based
lubricants can be achieved between sapphire and sapphire while the
oil-based lubricants cannot realize superlubricity in the same condition
when the contact pressure is higher than 100 MPa. But with pressure
reducing to 50 MPa, the friction coefficient of oil-based lubricants can
translate from non-superlubricity to superlubricity while the friction
coefficient of water-based lubricants keeps constant. The calculated
friction results indicate that the superlubricity is linked to pressure and

www.stle.org

INTRODUCING

ANGUS is proud to introduce CORRGUARD FLEX as its latest addition


to the CORRGUARD family of metalworking fluid additives. Enabling
metalworking fluid manufacturers and end users to reduce downtime,
operating costs and waste, CORRGUARD FLEX is designed for optimized
functionality, providing enhanced flexibility, excellent neutralization and
pH control, ease-of-use, and longer fluid life.
Ask for new CORRGUARD FLEX and leverage the proven benefits of our
unique array of amino alcoholsbacked by ANGUS deep formulating,
testing and regulatory expertise.

TTake
ake your best metalworking fluids and make them even better
better..
Contact us at info@angus.com
Were
Were here to help. Visit
Visit us at:

STLE 2016 Booth #415


We make the best perform better.

Get improved performance and functionality


from your metalworking fluids.

Superior multi-functionality
Outstanding compatibility in a broad range of
metalworking fluid formulations.

Expanded benefitsextended fluid life


Improves corrosion control, pH control and works
with a wide range of biocidesall while increasing
fluid performance life.

Exceptional ease-of-use
Completely water-solubleenabling metalworking
fluid formulators to further optimize their fluids
functionality.

Globally compliant
Broadly registered to support your global formulation
requirements.

Tuesday, May 17
3B

pressure-viscosity coefficient. When pressure is high, the pressureviscosity coefficient has to be as small as possible to achieve
superlubricity, but when pressure is low, the suerplubricity can be
achieved in a wide range of pressure-viscosity coefficient. Finally, the
superlubricity region dependent on pressure and pressure-viscosity
coefficient was established, which is useful for us to design
superlubricity system.

8:30 9 am
Effects of Oil-Air Lubrication on the Film
Forming Behavior at High Speeds
H. Liang, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
The film forming behavior of an oil-air lubrication has been
investigated and compared with that of an oil-jet lubrication in present
work. Images of a microscopic oil reservoir and interference were
obtained by using a ball-on-disc test rig up to 30 m/s. The oil supply
efficiency at 30m/s under the oil-air lubrication is 30 times higher than
that under the oil-jet lubrication, and the film thickness reduction in the
starved regime is much slower than that under the oil-jet lubrication.
The contribution of high-pressure compressed air and micron-order oil
droplets tofilm formation was discussed. More micron-order oil droplets
can spread onto the disc while less of them are driven away by the
centrifugal effects. As a result, the oil supply efficiency of the oil-air
lubrication is improved. The high pressure compressed air can blow off
the oil in the contact region and intensify the film oscillation though it
can help to cool down the contact to a limited extent.

9 9:30 am
Estimation of Temperature and Effects of
Oxidation in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication
J. Kelly, R. Shah, Koehler Instrument Co. Inc., Bohemia, NY
This paper deals with the subject of thermal elastohydrodynamic
lubrication (EHL) and how temperatures can be estimated in
elastohydrodynamic contacts. An attempt has been made to explain
why it is essential to study temperature effects in EHL and the process
of thermal EHL modeling has been elucidated by solving a simple
thermal EHL model. The temperatures obtained by this simple model
seem to agree well with literature. As a second part of this paper a
comparison between temperatures in the EHL contact as obtained by
mechanical models and chemical model has been made. The contact
temperature required to consume the lubricant by oxidation during a
micro sample wear test is determined by a chemical kinetic model.
Finally, the discrepancy between the temperatures obtained by both
the chemical kinetic model and the mechanical model has been
discussed with various plausible explanations to account for the
temperature difference.

64

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

9:30 10 am
Elastohydrodynamic Friction Properties of
Well-Defined Base Fluids
H. Spikes, J. Zhang, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom
There is currently great interest in reducing friction in lubricated
mechanical components. In components based on concentrated
contacts, such as gears and rolling bearings, friction originates in part
from the EHD friction of the lubricant. In such contacts all lubricants,
including even simple molecular fluids, show extensive shear thinning
and this controls the EHD friction. In order to build useful predictive
solutions of EHD friction we need valid descriptions of this shear
thinning behaviour. Unfortunately there is still considerable uncertainty
concerning appropriate models to describe stress-strain rate behaviour
in EHD conditions [1]. This paper describes experimental friction
measurements on a range of simple, pure base fluids have well-defined
molecular structures. The results are analysed in terms of the main,
proposed models of lubricant rheology in EHD conditions.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Effects of Micro EHL Loss in Boundary
Regime Sliding
R. Erck, O. Ajayi, C. Lorenzo-Martin, G. Fenske, Argonne National
Laboratory, Argonne, IL
A hard steel ball was slid against hard steel disks which had strongly
directionally ground surfaces (striations). The friction coefficient during
low-speed (boundary regime) lubricated sliding was continuously
measured. The coefficient of friction rose from 0.1, which is typical,
to as high as 0.3 whenever the ball was sliding near-parallel to the
grinding ridges on the disc surface. We trace the origin of the frictional
force to the loss of micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication, combined
with side leakage. This conclusion is supported by the persistence of
the frictional spikes in tests conducted under conditions where
longitudinal ridge profile would be preserved (nitride coated and fullyformulated engine oils) and rapid disappearance of frictional spikes
under conditions where blunting would be expected to occur.

11 am 11:30 am
Tribological Properties of Oil Soluble
Polyacrylates with Hydroxyethyl Group
K. Yamamoto, ADEKA Corp., Tokyo, Japan, M. Muraki, Shonan
Institute of Technology, Kanagawa, Japan, K. Nakamura, Tokyo
Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
Tribological properties of polyacrylates (PAs) with and without
hydroxyethyl group (HE) were studied compared to polymethacrylates
(PMAs) under the partial EHL and the boundary lubrication conditions.
Oil film thickness and traction were determined with the roller-on-disk
testers. The polymers with HE produced a thick oil film and reduced the
traction in the low speeds. The friction-velocity characteristic was
examined with a pin-on-disk tester. The coefficients of friction for PMA
increased with decreasing velocity, meanwhile those for the polymers
with HE kept low level. These indicate that HE was adsorbed on the
surfaces in the low speeds and thus made a contribution to increased
oil film thickness and low friction level. Anti-wear tests showed PA with
HE was the most effective in preventing wear among all the polymers.
It was inferred that the surface protective films formed by reaction
between HE and the surface contributed to the reduction of wear.

www.stle.org

Tuesday, May 17
Session 3C

Bronze 2

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN III


Session Chair: D. Uy, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI
Session Vice Chair: S. Bagi, Paccar, Inc., Mt. Vernon, WA

8 8:30 am
Scientific Approach to Development of
High-Efficiency Lubricants
A. Petterson, Lule University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden,
D. McCarthy, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden
Reductions in fuel consumption, emissions and overall environmental
impact are of critical importance to the future of the transport and
construction industries. One means of contributing to these goals is
by utilising high-efficiency lubricants. The specification and
development of such lubricants can benefit from a more scientific
approach based on the identification of specific system requirements.
Methods to develop long-drain capable high-efficiency lubricants have
been investigated and described. One successful approach uses the
Stribeck curve to identify the predominant lubrication regimes for the
principal tribological contacts in a given system. Through knowledge
of the lubrication regime, the most suitable lubricant technology can
be determined, enabling formulation for overall increased system
efficiency and drain intervals.

8:30 9 am
The Role Additive Chemistry Plays in Increasing
and Decreasing Timing Chain Wear
C. Esche, S. Donnelly, V. Gatto, G. Mazzamaro, M. Patel, S. Tung,
Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC, Norwalk, CT
OEMs have introduced new engine technology to meet the tough fuel
economy and emission targets legislated by governments around the
world. One new engine technology recently introduced is the
turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine (T-GDI). Unfortunately
the T-GDI engine is experiencing higher than normal timing chain wear.
The automobile manufacturers judge the timing chain wear problem
to be such a significant concern that the next generation passenger car
motor oil specification is expected to have a timing chain wear engine
test as part of the GF-6 specification. This presentation will show ZDDP,
the decades-long mainstay antiwear additive for engine oils, may
promote timing chain wear with certain formulation styles. We will also
present data showing ashless organophosphorus antiwear additives
and organomolybdenum compounds as possible solutions for reducing
wear. A general mechanism for timing chain wear will be discussed.

9 9:30 am
A Modified Auto-Engine Oil Drain Plug for
In-Situ Ultrasonic Viscosity Monitoring
R. Mills, R. Dwyer-Joyce, M. Schirru, O. Manfredi, The University of
Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Tighter legislation governing vehicular emissions means engine OEMs
are increasing combustion pressures and temperatures, reducing
lubricant viscosity and applying emission reduction strategies such as
stop-start technology. These changes place greater pressures on the
lubrication systems. Currently, analysis of fleet lubricant samples is
typically performed at intervals with samples extracted and analysed in
the laboratory. This paper outlines a non invasive ultrasonic method
that has been developed to enable simple in-field measurement of
parameters such as viscosity. A specially instrumented sump plug for a
passenger car was fabricated and shear polarised ultrasound used to
determine the bulk lubricant viscosity. Oil viscosity was measured
during different driving conditions. The research shows the practicalities
of the technique which is additionally being developed to measure
in-situ properties within functional contacts such as journal bearings.

66

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

9:30 10 am
In-Manufacture Running-In of Engine Components
by Using the Triboconditioning Process:
Compatibility with PC-11 & ILSAC GF-6 Motor Oils
B. Zhmud, Applied Nano Surfaces Sweden AB, Uppsala, Sweden
Ever increasing power density and torque output of modern TSI and
TDI engines, in combination with the introduction of low-viscosity
low-SAPS lubricants and general engine downsizing resulting in fewer
cylinders to bear the load, tends to stress the engine beyond the limits
foreseen in the classical engine design. Triboconditioning is an
industrial surface finishing process which attempts to carry out
running-in of components during their manufacture. By applying the
Triboconditioning treatment on the cylinder bores, camshafts,
crankshafts, bearing surface of the small connecting rod eye, the
tribological performance and endurance of the engine components
can be significantly improved. In comparison with a baseline engine
configuration using standard production machined components and a
SAE 30 motor oil, the same engine with Triboconditioned components
and SAE16 motor oil affords a reduction in the friction mean effective
pressure (FMEP) by as much as 30%, boosting fuel economy by 3-4%.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
A Study of the Effect of Aged Engine Oil on the
Wear Mechanism of Engine Oil Pump
F. Motamen Salehi, A. Morina, A. Neville, University of Leeds, Leeds,
United Kingdom
This paper proposes an experimental methodology for understanding
the effect of oil contamination on friction and wear of engine oil pump.
Firstly, a lab-based artificial ageing of engine oil with the addition of
carbon black, diesel and water has been conducted. Secondly, the
performance of these lubricants on friction and wear was evaluated
under boundary lubrication conditions. The wear mechanism and
chemical nature of tribofilms formed in tribological tests were
addressed using SEM/EDX and Raman. It has been concluded that the
interaction between soot and additives during the ageing process is
the main cause of high wear rather than removal of the tribofilm by
soot. Wear was also found to increase by the ageing time of the oil and
the most wear occurred in the presence of all contaminants as
expected. Chemical analysis of the lubricated surfaces in the post-test
phases has indicated that the thickness of the reaction layer on the
wear scar was reduced with ageing of the oil.

11 11:30 am
Correlating Laboratory Oil Coking Rig Tests
to Diesel Engine Tests to Understand the
Mechanisms Responsible for Turbocharger
Compressor Coking
D. Uy, G. Pranis, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI, A. Michlberger,
N. Secue, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH, M. Lance, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, A. Morelli, A. Gangopadhyay,
Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI
Turbocharger compressor efficiency loss is a well-known phenomenon
in diesel engines, which can result from deposit formation on the
compressor housing. In this presentation we will describe an oil mist
coking rig that provides the means for performing highly reproducible
experiments as a function of temperature, flow and pressure. By
analyzing results from these tests and those from 90-h compressor
coking tests on a diesel engine, both of which ran several different
engine oil formulations, it was possible to establish correlations
between the characteristics of deposits and their effect on compressor
efficiency. The physical and mechanical characteristics of these
deposits, as well as parameters affecting deposit formation such as the
chemistry of the oil formulations, temperature, oil aerosol particle sizes,
and mass of oil mist flow will be discussed.

www.stle.org

Tuesday, May 17
3C

11:30 Noon
Correlative Consideration with Deposit Formation
and Oil Characteristics
K. Wadayama, F. Yokoyama, Y. Iwama, IHI Corp., Yokohama, Japan
Viscous deposit could be often observed in gas turbines and
automotive turbo-chargers occur when fluid liquid oil intermittently
comes in contact with high-temperature metal surfaces above 250C.
Even in a relatively low temperature below 200C, semi-solid deposit
formation occurs inside the compressors of automotive turbo-chargers.
Both deposits form a thin film on metal surfaces due to the oxidization
and carbonization of lubricant. In addition, deposit on the surfaces of
plain bearings in oil-lubricated compressors occurs at a relatively low
temperature around 100C, where oxidization does not usually take
place easily. Various deposits can be observed in the operation on
actual machines. The deposit formation could be affected by the
composition, reactivity and nature of oils. In this study, using the simple
way of analysis and characteristic evaluations, some factors have the
correlation with the deposit formation tendency were considered
through some actual cases.

Session 3D

Skyview 3

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS I

9 9:30 am
Accelerated Life Testing of Pyrowear 675 Material
on Ball-on-Rod Rolling Contact Fatigue Tester
at 218 0C (425 0F)
H. Trivedi, UES Inc., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, L. Rosado, Air Force
Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, OH
This research presents rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life performance of
martensitic stainless steel Pyrowear 675. Different heat treatments of
Pyrowear 675 were evaluated for RCF life. Results with the Pyrowear
675 material in a hybrid configuration (silicon nitride rolling elements)
are compared to M50 in an all metal and hybrid configurations.
Bearings were RCF life tested on ball-on-rod tester at maximum
Hertzain stress values of 5.5 GPa (hybrid bearing) and 4.8 GPa (all metal
bearing) and at a temperature of 218 0C using gas turbine engine oil
confirming to MIL-PRF-23699G. Hybrid Pyrowear 675 bearings showed
significant improvement in fatigue life and wear resistance compared
to all metal and hybrid M50 bearings. After testing, RCF rod specimen
was analyzed for white etching region (WER) and dark etching regions
(DER) and tribo-film formation. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
showed anti-wear tribo-film formation on the Pyrowear 675 bearings.

9:30 10 am
Effect of Case Hardening on Fatigue Life
Predictions of Bearing Steels

Session Chair: B. Jalalahmadi, Sentient Science Corp., Buffalo, NY

N. Londhe, N. Arakere, G. Subhash, University of Florida, Gainesville,


FL

8 8:30 am
Microstructural and Material Quality Effects
on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic
Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings

Finite Element Models were developed to study the effects of case


hardening on Hertzian contact surface and subsurface stress fields.
Effects of elastic modulus variation with depth due to case hardening
are included in the model [Klecka, Subhash & Arakere, Tribology
Transactions, 2013, DOI: 10.1080/10402004.2013.818393]. The peak
contact pressure and stress fields were found to be highly sensitive to
case depth. Steeper gradients in the case layer resulted in greater drop
in peak contact pressure. Three different load life exponents were used
to analyze the effect of peak contact pressure change on the predicted
fatigue life [Londhe, Arakere & Haftka, Tribology Transactions, 2015, DOI:
10.1080/10402004.2015.1021943]. It was observed that case hardening
results in significant improvement of fatigue life for ball bearings. Also,
for a given peak Hertzian stress and case depth, bearing fatigue life
increases with the bearing size due to change in position of peak
subsurface shear stress.

C. DellaCorte, S. Howard, F. Thomas, M. Stanford, NASA, Cleveland, OH


Compared to steel, intermetallics (60NiTi) have lower rolling contact
fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod tests.
Microstructural flaws reduce fatigue life in simplified 3-ball specimens
but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi
bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality
grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm
bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with
material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures
at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no
failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made
from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack
type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not
fail even in long-term tests. The data suggests that the simplified RCF
test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance.

8:30 9 am
High-Speed Effects of Silicon Nitride Ball and
Rollers on Rolling Bearing Life
E. Zaretsky, Erwin V. Zaretsky, PE, Chagrin Falls, OH, P. Gupta, PKG,
Inc., Cliffton Park, NY, F. Oswald, Fred B. Oswald, PE, Prescott, AZ
Previously published analysis reported that under normal operating
speeds, less than one million (106) DN, the resultant calculated lives of
all steel bearings will have a longer fatigue life than an equivalent
hybrid (steel/silicon nitride) rolling-element bearing under the same
operating (load and speed) conditions. The current analysis extends the
previous analysis to speeds of 3 X 106 DN for a 133-mm bore angularcontact ball bearing and a 165-mm bore cylindrical roller bearing. The
computer program ADORE was modified to include the Gupta-Zaretsky
(GZ) bearing life model and incorporate the lives of the rolling elements
(balls or rollers) in addition to those lives of the inner and outer races.
This model is compared with an updated Lundberg-Palmgren (LP)
rolling-element bearing life model. Both the LP and GZ bearing life
models show qualitatively the same results. At all conditions, the GZ
model predicts longer fatigue lives than the LP model.

68

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Rolling Contact Fatigue of Case Carburized Steels
A. Walvekar, F. Sadeghi, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
An elastic-plastic FE model to investigate the RCF of case carburized
steels is proposed. Micro-indentation tests conducted on the case
carburized 8620 steel demonstrated that the hardness varies linearly
with depth. The hardness gradient was modeled by changing the yield
strength with depth. The model employs Mises based plasticity with
kinematic hardening. Continuum damage mechanics approach was
utilized to capture material degradation due to fatigue damage.
Material dependent damage parameters were determined using the SN
results for torsional fatigue of the bearing steel. The model was used to
compare the RCF lives of through hardened and case carburized
bearing steel with different case depths. The results show that as the
case depth increased the RCF lives also increased and approached the
values obtained for the through hardened material. From the results of
this study, a modifying factor accounting for the effect of the case
depth on fatigue was developed.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
11 11:30 am
Rolling Contact Fatigue Crack Propagation
in Nitrided Alloyed Steels

8:30 9 am
Adenosine Triphosphate Testing to Evaluate
Biofilm Dispersants

M. Le, F. Ville, LaMCoS, Villeurbanne Cedex, France, France, X. Kleber,


J. Buffire, MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, J. Cavoret,
LaMCoS, Villeurbanne Cedex, France, France, M. Sainte-Catherine,
DGA, Paris, France, L. Brianon, DCNS Group, La Montagne, France

F. Passman, Biodeterioration Control Associates, Inc., Princeton, NJ

Gas-nitriding process, widely used by gear and rolling element bearing


manufacturers, increases the superficial hardness and introduces
compressive residual stresses known to improve Rolling Contact
Fatigue (RCF) resistance. Using this technique on most of the alloyed
steels however leads to carbide precipitation at grain boundaries
specifically parallel to the surface. Previous authors experiments
revealed the effect of these precipitates on crack propagation. They
explained the RCF response dissimilarities observed on various nitrided
layers with similar mechanical properties but different microstructures
(carbide network morphology differences). The present paper consists
in analyzing the behavior and the role of compressive residual stresses
induced by gas nitriding on crack growth during RCF. The RCF failure
scenarios in nitrided alloyed steels with regards to the effect of carbides
and compressive residual stresses are finally proposed.

11:30 am Noon
EHA Pump Cam Bearing Failure and Life
Extension Analysis
B. Jalalahmadi, Sentient Science Corp., Buffalo, NY
Premature fatigue failures of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator (EHA)
pump cam bearing of a specific commercial airplane occurred during
endurance testing. Sentient Science conducted failure and life
extension analysis of this angular contact ball bearing using its
DigitalClone-Component (DCC) tool. The DCC model has been
developed considering true contact stresses, material microstructure,
lubrication effects, crack initiation mechanisms, and probabilistic
methods. Customer provided the EHA pump cam bearing operating
conditions, geometry and a M50-SiNi bearing sample. DCC successfully
simulated bearing pitting and spalling damage, and showed predicted
fatigue life does not meet requirements of this application. Sensitivity
analyses (material, surface roughness, residual stress, and bearing
contact angle) were performed using DCC model to identify best
combination of design parameters for life extension of this bearing.
An optimum configuration was recommend to meet the requirements.

Session 3E

Silver

METALWORKING III
Session Chair: G. Foltz, Cimcool Fluid Technologies, Ludlow, KY
Session Vice Chair: A. Cross, Houghton International, Valley
Forge, PA

8 8:30 am
Chemiometric Approach in Developing New
Biostable Water Soluble MWFs
M. Bellini, Bellini Spa, Zanica, Bergamo, Italy
The latest legislative changes related to specific substances regularly
used in the production of water soluble MWFs led the company
Bellini SPA to develop new formulation technologies without using
formaldehyde releaser biocides, boric acid and secondary amines.
This presentation focusses on the chemometric approach and the
design of experiment (DOE), thanks to which we managed to develop
water soluble MWFs even more biostable than products based on
borates and formaldehyde releaser biocides. Various phenomena such
as foam, corrosion resistance and aluminum staining were taken into
consideration while developing our new technology. Comparative tests
between our water soluble MWFS and the well-known water miscible
MWFs will be take in account.

www.stle.org

The use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing for metalworking fluid


(MWF) condition monitoring has been described previously. This paper
reports its use to monitor biofilm accumulation in an electroplating
system and to evaluate the efficacy of five candidate treatment
formulations. Heavy (>3 Log pg tATP/cm2) biofilm biomass was
detected on the internal surface of PVC piping at Stage 13 of a multistage electrocoating system. A variety of chemical agents had been
tried without success. Laboratory tests were run to evaluate candidate
formulation on sections of biofilm coated PVC piping from the
electrocoating system. Performance was evaluated based on D[tATP]
(biofilm biomass), D[cATP] biomass in system fluid, and total suspended
solids. The most promising formulation based on lab tests was
evaluated in the infected system. The treatment reduced biofilm [tATP]
by >3Log pg/cm2.

9 9:30 am
Metalworking Fluid Rapid Testing for Microbial
Resistance
N. Webb, ANGUS Chemical Co., Buffalo Grove, IL
When creating a metalworking fluid (MWF), a formulator goes to great
lengths to ensure the end user achieves the best results for their
application while remaining within regulatory and customer
requirements. Quick tests can assess corrosion, staining, foaming, and
lubricity to hone chemical selection and optimize the MWF. Still pH
stability, corrosion, staining, fluid clarity and lubricity may suffer due to
fluid degradation by microbial contamination. Currently, there are only
a few ways to determine if a fluid will resist microbial attack. However,
these methods can either take months to obtain data or merely
confirm suspicions of fluid contamination. This presentation compares
standard challenge testing to a proprietary rapid test for gauging
microbial resistance. This method could enable MWF producers to
quickly evaluate and enhance formulations which may potentially
reduce time-to-market for new products.

9:30 10 am
Vapor Phase of Dicyclohexylamine Can Inhibit
Biofilm Formation
V. Stoldt, Heinrich Heine University of Dusseldorf Medical Center,
Dusseldorf, Germany
Dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), a common additive in metalworking fluids
(MWF) with a small vapor pressure of 0.04 mbar at 20C, has both
biocidal and anticorrosive properties. Surprisingly we observe reduced
biofilm formation on surfaces of MWF collecting basins in correlation to
the presence of DCHA frequently. These surfaces were not immersed.
Hence, the hypothesis is that vapor phase of DCHA can inhibit
microbial growth and biofilm formation. Lawns of microbes grown at
30C overnight on the surface of nutrient agar coated cuvettes were
exposed to vapor phase of a 0.025 % DCHA containing MWF and
measured in a spectral photometer at 600 nm in comparison to the
control MWF without DCHA. Susceptibilities to DCHA vapor phase of
eight bacterial and eight fungal strains recovered from MWF were
different. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was almost completely inhibited in
growth and Pseudomonas oleovorans of about 50%. The conclusion is,
MWF with DCHA can inhibit biofilm formation via its vapor phase.

10 10:30 am Break

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

69

Tuesday, May 17
3E

10:30 11 am
Influence of Biocides Behavior on Biofilm Control

Session 3F

M. Rioux, M. Prioli, Lonza, Alpharetta, GA

GREASE II

The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fluids


(MWFs) is a serious problem to the metal removal industry.
Microorganisms can adapt to changes in nutrient availability,
environmental stresses, and presence of toxic compounds. One
particularly important example of bacterial adaptation is the ability of
biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is a well-known problem in
management of metalworking fluid systems due to persistence of
microorganisms within biofilms and the reappearance of various
species of bacteria is often observed after the use of biocides and/or
cleaning of delivery systems and replacement of cooling fluid. We have
evaluated the antimicrobial activity of biocides at different contact
times and concentrations against biofilm produced using industrial
isolates. The results demonstrate the viability of biofilm microbes when
exposed to different treatments.

11 11:30 am
Study of Contamination and Performance of
Biodegraded Cutting Fluids
M. Finzi, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlndia, Brazil
The metalworking fluids (MWF) due to their lubri-cooling properties
reduce tool wear, increase tool life, lower cutting forces, power
consumption and improve surface roughness. MWF are highly
susceptive to physical, chemical agents and biodegradation, reducing
tool life, lowering productivity, harming the machine tool operator and
the environment. In the present study the profile of the microbiological
contamination (time and origin; biofilm composition; and biome) was
raised after samples of in-use water base MWFs were collected in two
metal-mechanical sectors. Bacteria recovered from the industries were
used to biodeteriorate a fresh MWFs (vegetable and mineral base) and
their lubri-cooling performance were studied and compared to the
fresh ones. The collected samples showed high level of contamination
(108 CFU/mL) composed predominantly by Gram-negative bacilli and
almost immediate contamination when new samples of MWFs is
introduced in the machine tool.

11:30 am Noon
Much Ado About Amides: Formulating
Alkanolamides in Metalworking Fluids
E. Schnellbacher, Additives International, Flint, MI
Working with amides can be compared to the game of Othello a
minute to learn and a lifetime to master. Knowing how to select the
right amide for a specific application can be a simple or difficult task.
Why do we use them? Amides are cost-effective ingredients which
effect alkalinity, lubricity, coupling agents, emulsifiers, rust preventives
and other properties. This paper will discuss how the choice of base
components and the equimolar ratios can affect your MWF formulation.
Several types of amides will be presented. Their chemical and physical
characteristics will be discussed. A research matrix will examine how
different amides are useful for various substrate metals, metalworking
formulations, applications, and chemistries. The results will be discussed
and conclusions presented.

70

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Palace 3

Session Chair: M. Benes, Baker Hughes, The Woodlands, TX


Session Vice Chair: B. Tuszynski, Unami Group, Quakertown, PA

8 8:30 am
Energy Efficiency and Lubrication Mechanisms
of Polypropylene Thickened Greases
J. Leckner, R. Westbroek, Axel Christiernsson International AB, Nol,
Sweden
The lubrication mechanism of grease produced with polypropylene as
a thickener is fundamentally different compared to regular soap based
greases. The effect of this is seen in extended relubrication intervals,
lower self-induced running temperatures and longer component life
both in industrial applications and in laboratory tests. In this study we
analyze this behavior and show that it can be explained by differences
in the replenishment mechanisms that exists between polypropylene
and soap thickened greases. This difference leads to longer grease life
and a much wider possible base oil viscosity range when using a
polymer thickened grease.

8:30 9 am
Effect of Microstructure and Rheology on the
Grease EHL Film Thickness at Medium Speeds
F. Cyriac, P. Lugt, R. Bosman, C. Padberg, K. Venner, Univeristy of
Twente, Enschede, Netherlands
In this study the parameters influencing the film thickness of six
greases in a rolling elastohydrodynamically lubricated contact under
fully flooded conditions are analyzed. The grease film thickness was
found to be higher than their corresponding bled oil suggesting the
presence of thickener in the contact. Other than the viscosity of the
bled oil, the film thickness of the greases were found to be
independent of rheological properties characterized by steady and
dynamic shear. AFM measurements of the thickener micro-structure
showed that the relative increase in the film thickness due to
entrainment of the thickener was proportional to the ratio of thickener
volume fraction and the size of the thickener. Hence, with the same
concentration, smaller thickener particles create thicker films than
larger thickener particles. With the limited number of greases that we
studied this varied between 1% and 85%.

9 9:30 am
Free-Surface Flow of Lubricating Greases
L. Westerberg, E. Hglund, J. Li, Lule University of Technology,
Lule, Sweden, P. Lugt, University of Twente/SKF ERC, Enschede,
Overijsel, Netherlands, P. Baart, SKF ERC, Nieuwegein, Netherlands
Grease lubrication is traditionally used in a great variety of mechanical
systems such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears where it has been
shown more advantageous than oil, mainly due to its consistency
allowing the grease to stay inside the system and not leak out. Free
surface effects play an important role in rolling bearings and open
gears as the configuration normally is filled with about 30% grease to
avoid heavy churning. In this study an analytical model of the
stationary uniform flow on a rotating disc is developed and validated
with experiments. The model results in the velocity profile for the flow
in the thin fully yielded viscous layer in connection to the surface as
well as an expression for the plug flow region on top of the viscous
layer. Experiments with two different greases having NLGI grade 1 and
2 respectively shows it is possible to obtain a good fit with the
analytically obtained thickness using the rheological parameters for
actual greases.

www.stle.org

WHERE LUBRICANT CHEMISTRY MEETS

VERSATILITY

Introducing SynPrime
Lubricant Esters
from PolyOne

F
For
or mor
more
e information
information on SynPrime
SynPrime Lubricant Es
Esters,
ters,
please visit poly
polyone.com/synprime
one.com/
/synprime or call 1.866.POL
1.866.POLYONE
POL
LYONE

Tuesday, May 17
3F

9:30 10 am
Investigation into the Dynamic Particle
Generation of Lubricating Greases

Session 3G

Palace 4/5

GEARS II

W. Flaherty, J. Galary, Nye Lubricants, Inc., Fairhaven, MA


This study examines the phenomenon of Dynamic Particle Generation
in Lubricating Greases. This Particle Generation occurs in bearings, ball
screws, and other mechanical devices when dynamic conditions are
present and should not be confused with Outgassing which is related
to the pressure effects on a system. This is a critical factor in many
systems as particle generation can contaminate critical systems or
processes causing them to fail. These failures can lead to excessive
costs, production lines going down, and equipment damage. This
particle generation phenomenon was studied using a custom test rig
utilizing a high precision cleanroom ball-screw to simulate true
application conditions. This paper will show the tendencies of certain
base oils and thickener chemistries to generate particles and which
ones present advantages of improved durability and environmental
cleanliness for critical processes and applications.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Inferiority Complex? Dropping Point
Enhancement in Grease
J. Kaperick, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA
The steady increase in the percentage of lithium complex greases in
NLGIs survey of global grease production is likely a reflection of the
desire for lubricants that will last longer in more severe, higher
temperature applications. This surge in demand for higher dropping
point greases has brought additional interest in alternative methods
of producing them. A study was undertaken to investigate different
borate chemistries used to raise the dropping point of lithium greases
to the level usually associated with complex greases. Points of focus
include effectiveness in raising dropping point, as well as the effect on
other performance areas including friction, wear, corrosion and
performance in high temperature bench and rig tests.

11 11:30 am
Fretting and Scuffing Wear of Grease Lubricated
Bearing Steel Contacts
A. Saatchi, P. Shiller, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, K. Mistry,
C. Hager, The Timken Co., Canton, OH, G. Doll, The University of
Akron, Akron, OH
Fretting and scuffing are types of wear that occur in mechanical
systems subjected to low amplitude reciprocating sliding contact. In
this study, lithium complex, calcium sulfonate and polyurea thickened
greases with various bleed rates were tested in a reciprocating sliding
contact tribometer to investigate the correlation between the oil
release mechanisms of the greases and fretting wear. In some cases, the
effect of solid lubricant additives on fretting wear was also studied. It
was observed that the wear rate of 52100 bearing steel as well as the
fretting wear mode varied with grease type, bleed rate, and solid
lubricant additives. Specifically, calcium sulfonate greases and greases
with high bleed rates were found to be the most effective at reducing
fretting wear.

11:30 am Noon Grease Business Meeting

72

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session Chair: S. Berkebile, US Army Research Laboratory,


Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
Session Vice Chair: J. Ewin, Propulsion and Power, NAVAIR,
Patuxent River, MD

8 8:30 am
A Parametric Study of Micropitting Formation
Using a Microstructure-Based Damage Model
N. Bolander, Sentient Science Corp., Idaho Falls, ID, B. Jalalahmadi,
Sentient Science Corp., Buffalo, NY
Micropitting strongly depends on numerous parameters includeding
surface finish, material microstructure, degree of sliding, loading,
temperature, etc. In this work, a model is developed to assess the risk of
micropitting versus other failure modes under a wide range of these
conditions to help optimize designs for greater reliability and efficiency.
A mixed-EHL analysis is performed to determine the detailed surface
pressure and traction results considering details of the surface
roughness profile and asperity interaction. These stresses, along with
flash temperature calculations are input to a finite element analysis of
the near surface microstructure. A damage model is then applied at the
grain level to predict crack initiation and propagation in an iterative
fashion. The model is then exercised to explore the predominant
surface failure modes under various combinations of operation and
material properties.

8:30 9 am
Standardization of Micropitting Test acc. FVA
54/7 Status of Preparation Work
T. Tobie, K. Stahl, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Garching,
Germany
Micropitting on gears is strongly influenced by the tribological system
of flank surfaces and gear lubricant between them. As the chemical
interaction of base oil and additive components with the gear material
is normally not predictable, the micropitting performance of gear
lubricants has to be determined experimentally. The FZG-micropitting
test is a widely used test procedure for gear oil micropitting performance
evaluation. The test is basically described in FVA-information sheet 54/7,
but the document was never intended as a full test specification. In
order to ensure the reliability and comparability of the test results, the
German standardization committee NA 060-34-19 has started to
prepare a standard. Statistical data for the test were determined in a
round robin and detailed requirements with regard to test preparation,
test course and test evaluation were specified. The presentation gives
an overview of current status of work to establish a standardized
micropitting test.

9 9:30 am
Mixed Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in
Hypoid Gears
V. Dr. Simon, Budapest University of Technology and Economics,
Budapest, Hungary
In hypoid gears, the thin film of lubricant is not sufficient to completely
separate the surfaces. This is the regime of mixed elastohydrodynamic
lubrication (EHL) in which the applied load is shared by the asperities
and the lubricant film. A full numerical solution for the mixed
elastohydrodynamic lubrication in hypoid gears is presented in this
paper. The equation system and the numerical procedure are unified
for a full coverage of all the lubrication regions including the full film,
mixed, and boundary lubrication. In the hydrodynamically lubricated
areas the Reynolds equation is used. In the asperity contact areas the
Reynolds equation is reduced to an expression equivalent to the

www.stle.org

Tuesday, May 17
3G

mathematical description of dry contact problem. Using this model,


the pressures, film thickness, and power losses in the mixed lubrication
regime are predicted. The transient nature of gear tooth mesh is
included. The effectiveness of the presented method is demonstrated
by using hypoid gear examples.

behavior, were investigated using case carburized, small module gears


(mn=1 mm). The operating conditions, especially rotational speed, were
shown to have a significant effect on gear wear behavior. Increasing
rotational speed did not necessarily lead to lower wear. Also, the grease
composition was shown to affect wear behavior.

9:30 10 am
Thermal Modeling of a Twin-Discmachine

11:30 am Noon
Fault Diagnosis of Planetary Gear Transmission
Based on EEMD and Vibration Spectrum Analysis

G. Isaac, J. Cavoret, F. Ville, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France,


C. Changenet, LabECAM, ECAM Lyon, Lyon, France, G. Beck,
S. Becquerelle, Hispano-Suiza, SAFRAN, Colombes, France
The accurate estimation of friction coefficient is of primary importance
to predict the behavior of a lubricated mechanical system as gear units.
Although numerous analytical relationships have been established to
quantify the gear friction coefficient, there is still no consensus about
a general model. As a consequence, various traction machines such as
twin-disc machines or ball-on-disc apparatus are used to obtain traction
curves and then to determine experimentally a friction coefficient.
Literature agreed to analyze these curves into three regimes: the linear
region (Newtonian), the non-linear one (non-Newtonian) and the
thermal region. Based on correlations between experimental
measurements performed on a twin-disc machine and numerical
calculations using the thermal network methodology, the aim of this
study is to evaluate with accuracy the temperature of each element
that makes up a traction machine in order to better evaluate the
thermal effects onto the friction coefficient.

Y. Zhang, J. Wang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China


Planetary gear transmission has extensive application in many
engineering fields, especially in bad working conditions such as heavy
load and time-variant speed. Fault diagnosis of planetary gear
transmission via vibration analysis is an important way to reduce
accident loss. For the planetary gear transmission vibration signal is
nonlinear and non-stationary, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
(EEMD) is adopted as a de-noising and filtering method. In this study,
the vibration spectrum of normal gears and gears with different faults
are analyzed in stationary and non-stationary speed conditions
respectively, providing a good value for reference in planetary gear
transmission fault identification.

Session 3H

Las Vegas 1

FLUID FILM BEARINGS III

10 10:30 am Break

Session Chair: A. Dadouche, National Research Council Canada,


Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

10:30 11 am
Effects of Micro-Geometry Features and Profile
Error on Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of
Helical Gears

Session Vice Chair: A. Fatu, Institut Pprime, Angouleme, France

A. Clarke, K. Sharif, H. Evans, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United


Kingdom, R. Frazer, B. Shaw, University of Newcastle, Newcastle,
United Kingdom
The paper presents the results of transient elastohydrodynamic
lubrication (EHL) analyses of a pair of helical gears over the meshing
cycle. The test gears considered are being used as a basis for assessing
changes in gear contact functionality in terms of profile errors. Their
involute profiles are modified by tip relief, and by axial crowning
chosen to ensure that edge contact occurs during testing. The influence
of tip relief on the EHL contacts is shown in terms of elevated contact
stress and EHL film thinning. Results are also presented for analyses
where profile deviations resulting from the manufacturing process,
measured using a 2 mm diameter spherical probe in a gear measuring
machine, were used to specify the gear flank geometry, including tip
relief. These show the significant changes in elastohydrodynamic
performance brought about by profile deviations.

8:30 9 am
Inertia Effect and the Turbulence Effect on the
Lubrication Performance of the High Speed
Water-Lubricated Thrust Bearings
Z. Song, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
The effect of the inertia force of the water film and the turbulence on
the lubrication performance of the water-lubricted thrust bearing
cannot be neglected. A lubrication model considering the inertia effcts
and the turbulence is established for the water-lubricated tilting-pad
thrust bearings by conducting the Navier-Stokes equation. The inertia
effect on the lubrication performance is simulated under the different
thickness, load, and rotating speed conditions.

9 9:30 am
Identification of Stiffness and Damping
Coefficients of a Hydrostatic Bearing with Angled
Injection and Textured Housing
P. Jolly, Institut Pprime, Chasseneuil du Poitou, France

11 11:30 am
Influences on the Wear Behavior of Small Module
Gears Lubricated with High Consistency Greases
H. Schultheiss, T. Tobie, K. Stahl, FZG (Technische Universitt
Mnchen), Munich, Germany
Small module gears (mn1 mm) are increasingly important in drive
technology due to ever more rigorous requirements regarding, e.g.
performance and weight. They can be found in numerous applications
which are subject to very different operating conditions. Often, small
module gear applications are grease lubricated. This results in the
lubrication supply mechanism (i.e. channeling/circulating) playing an
important role in regard to the resultant gear failure mode. In the
experimental investigations conducted herein, the focus was on gear
wear. The influence of the operating conditions and the grease
composition on the lubrication supply mechanism, and thus wear

74

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

The present work deals with experimental results of a hybrid bearing


with angled injection, 6 recesses and for smooth, partially textured or
fully textured housing. The rotor is centered and the operating rotating
speed is 2, 4 and 6 krpm. The supply pressures are 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 MPa.
The operating fluid is water. For given working conditions, a set of
dynamic excitations, imposed to the rotor, provide complex
impedances that are used for identifying dynamic coefficients.
According to many pressure plugs distributed along the housing, the
pattern of the pressure field in the recess and the thin fluid film near
the recess is reconstructed. The bearing flow rate is also measured.
Experimental results are discussed and compared to evaluate the
benefits of a textured housing.

www.stle.org

Oil, Fuel & Coolant Testing


Training & Consulting
Visit Booth #310 and learn how ALS Tribology can
tailor a fluid analysis program that can help you:
Reduce costly repairs
Limit unplanned downtime
Increase equipment availability
Extend oil drain intervals
Evaluate product performance
www.alsglobal.com
Contact us for more information about our products/services
T 1.877.835.8437 | E nainfo@alstribology.com

RIGHT SOLUTIONS RIGHT PARTNER

Tuesday, May 17
3H

9:30 10 am
Water Lubricated Main Shaft Bearings with
Three Layer Bush Modern Solution for Marine
Industry
W. Litwin, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland,
I. Matsuoka, KEMEL, Tokyo, Japan, N. Hirata, MIKASA, Hiroshima,
Japan
Water lubricated sliding bearings are increasingly popular in marine
and hydropower industry. Such popularity is partly due to their simple
construction which also means a relatively low price. Properly designed
and installed water lubricated bearings may well last for over a decade.
During the last decade their traditional range has been expanded with
new, modern products like three layer bearing bush. The work presents
results of experimental research conducted on comparable sliding
bearings with various bushes. Movement resistance, pressures in
bearing interspace and shaft orbits were measured and analysed.
Additionally conducted research determined that certain bearings
continue to work properly despite lack of lubricant flow and cooling.
This is due to low motion resistance levels resulting low friction co heat
generated in the friction zone of such bearings is sufficiently low to be
dispersed into surroundings once bearing temperature rises and
stabilizes at a safe level.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Lubrication and Accelerated Life Studies of
Water-Lubricated Journal Bearing with Different
Lubricating Material
Y. Han, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, J. Wang, Chongqing
University, Chongqing, China, G. Zhou, Sichuan University, Chengdu,
China, J. Li, K. Xiao, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
Water-lubricated journal bearings have been widely used in presentday rotating machinery, such as propeller, turbines, pump and so on,
because of their simplicity, non-pollution and low cost. However they
are usually in mixed lubrication regime due to the ultra-low viscosity of
water, which will cause seriously asperity contact and wear. This study
presents a serious of experiments results of water lubricated Journal
bearing under various extern load and rotation speed, to evaluate the
Stribeck curve, wear model, failure mechanism. And water lubrication
performance and wear ability of Rubber, polyimide, polyetheretherketone and polytetrafluoroethylene are studied with 150 hours continuous
operation, in order to propose an accelerated life model for water
lubricated Journal bearing with different material. Then accelerated life
tests with 50 hours continuous operation under high load and high
rotation speed conditions are conducted to validate the accelerated life
model.

11 11:30 am
Water Cooled Thrust Bearing: An Experimental
Investigation
N. Farooq, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, J&K, India
The present work is purely an experimental effort to investigate various
key operating parameters in sector shaped water-cooled thrust
bearings in order to enhance the performance characteristics. During
this study, thermal effects and its control is a main focus. Thrust
bearings can handle much axial load if an alternate mechanism of
cooling is introduced which subsequently, increases the life cycle of the
system, ensures smooth operation and prevents the mean time
between failures. The results during investigation seems pragmatically
help full for designers and engineers to a great extend.

76

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

11:30 am Noon
Study on Stribeck Curves for Water-Lubricated
Rubber Bearings with Spiral Grooves
G. Zhou, J. Wang, Sichuan University, Chendu, Sichuan, China,
Y. Han, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, B. Wei, Sichuan
University, Chendu, Sichuan, China
A finite line contact 3D mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication model
of water-lubricated rubber bearing with spiral grooves (SGWLRB) was
established. The effects of load, spiral angle, bearing clearance as well as
surface roughness on the Stribeck curves of SGWLRB were studied with
the numerical method. Through experiments, the Stribeck curves of
SGWLRB were obtained, and the theoretical model was validated by the
test. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental results, the
load capacity, lubrication and failure mechanism of SGWLRB were
revealed, and the judgment criteria for the lubrication condition of
SGWLRB were proposed.

Session 3I

Las Vegas 2

BIOTRIBOLOGY III
Session Chair: Y. Berthier, LaMCoS, INSA De Lyon, Villeurbanne,
France
Session Vice Chair: M. Masen, Imperial College London, London,
United Kingdom

8:30 9 am
Effect of Alcohol on the Formation and Lubricating
Properties of Salivary Pellicle on Human Tooth
Enamel
J. Zheng, Q. Zeng, L. Zheng, Z. Zhou, Tribology Research Institute,
Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
Salivary pellicle acts as an effective lubricant to decrease dental friction
and wear in mouth. However, the influence of alcohol on the lubricating
properties of salivary pellicle is known little. Therefore, the influence of
alcohol on the morphology and adhesion and lubricating properties of
salivary pellicle on the surface of human tooth enamel was investigated
by microscopic examinations and nanoindentation/scratch tester in this
paper. Saliva samples were collected from a young male volunteer after
rinsing mouth with deionized water and alcohol solution in different
concentrations (20%, 40% and 60%), respectively. Results showed that
both the consistence and thickness of salivary pellicle decreased after
alcohol stimulation, and the decrease became increasingly obvious
with the increase of alcohol concentration. The stimulation of alcohol
could result in a reduction of the adhesion strength of salivary pellicle
with tooth surface, and then decrease its lubricating properties.

9 9:30 am
Effects of the Silica Particles Properties on
the Tribological Removal of Teeth Biofilms
M. Popa, S. Descartes, Y. Berthier, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France,
F. Peditto, L. Guy, Solvay Silica, Collonges au Mont dOr, France
The purpose of tooth cleaning is the removal of dental biofilm and
food debris. It involves mechanical, biochemical and physical
mechanisms. It is largely accepted that the cleaning of teeth is mainly
realized by the particles present in the composition of toothpastes that
act as abrasives. Nevertheless the complex mechanisms involved in
tooth cleaning are not yet fully understood. Therefore, our work studies
the elimination of dental biofilm using a biomimetic system composed
of (1) a toothbrush, (2) a modified glass sample in order to mimic
enamel surface (with its biofilm ) in terms of surface morphology,
chemistry and microbiology, and (3) a simplified toothpaste, a silica
based slurry. A full discussion of the tribological results, in context with
SEM and AFM analysis of the surfaces and the third body layer, will be
used to analyze the effects of different sizes, porosity and hardness of
the abrasive silica particles.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
9:30 10 am
On the Preventive Effect of Polysaccharide
Food Gum on Dental Erosion

11:30 am Noon
Response of Artificial Cell Membranes to Normal
and Shear Stresses

L. Zheng, School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest


Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, J. Zheng, Tribology
Research Institute, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu,
Sichuan, China

R. Espinosa-Marzal, T. Shoaib, Y. He, Y. Chen, P. Nalam, University of


Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL
Rapid growth in nanotechnology is increasing the likelihood of
engineered nanomaterials coming into contact with human, and there
are raising concerns over their biological impact. Little is known about
the mechanisms underlying cell damage by nanomaterials but some
studies suggest that adhesion of the nanoparticles to the cell
membrane followed by endocytosis a process by which the cell
membrane engulfs the nanoparticle is needed for cell damage. This
thermodynamically favorable process should be significantly
influenced by the mechanical properties of the complex architecture of
cells and cell membranes, as it involves significant strain energy and
surface energy. To elucidate the contribution of the mechanical
properties of cells on endocytosis, we have investigated the viscoelastic
behavior of a non-biological model system that mimics the cell
architecture under normal and shear loading.

Citric acid is a common ingredient in beverages, however, its potential


to erode dental hard tissue is a health concern in dentistry. In this
paper, the erosion behavior of human tooth enamel in the citric acid
solutions (pH=3.2) modified with two kinds of polysaccharide food
gums, Xanthan gum and Acacia gum, respectively, were studied in vitro,
aiming to explore those preventive effects on dental erosion. The
nanomechanical and microtribological properties of enamel were
investigated using nano-indentation/scratch techniques. Results
showed that no obvious honeycomb-like structures appeared on
enamel surface after 10 min erosion in the citric acid solution modified
with 0.03 wt% Xanthan gum. Its surface hardness and Youngs modulus
were higher but its friction coefficient and wear loss were lower
compared to those of the enamel after 10 min erosion in citric acid
solution. Concerning the preventive effect on dental erosion, Arabic
gum was significantly inferior to Xanthan gum.

Session 3J

10 10:30 am Break

POWER GENERATION II: CONTROLLING


VARNISH

10:30 11 am
Friction and Wear in Live Cell Mucin

Session Chair: W. Needelman, Filtration Science Solutions,


Huntington Bay, NY

J. Uruena, T. Bhattacharjee, A. Pitenis, K. Schulze, T. Angelini,


W. Sawyer, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Session Vice Chair: S. Rea, Anderol Specialty Lubricants, East


Hanover, NJ

The human body is a mechanical assembly with a multitude of


interfaces. Understanding the physical interactions between the mucin
networks at these sliding interfaces is of importance because they are
vital to human health. Mucin is an entangled network of glycosylated
proteins that facilitates lubrication between all sliding interfaces in the
body. Studies have set out to characterize friction properties of
extracted mucin from living tissue, yet purified reconstituted mucin
presents challenges that affect experimentation. A monolayer of
human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi) naturally producing mucin is
an ideal platform to explore in situ friction measurements. Here, cells
and mucin have been dyed separately to monitor any change in
morphology due to sliding. This method revealed that cell damage
was accompanied by high friction and complete mucin removal,
whereas low friction coefficients were associated with slight removal
of the mucin layer and no observable damage to the cells.

8 8:30 am
A Study of the Reactive Nature of Oil Degradation
Products (AKA Varnish Precursors) and How it
Impacts Possible Strategies to Extend the Life
of Turbine Oil
G. Livingstone, C. Soto, J. Mehta, Fluitec International, Jersey City, NJ
A primary cause of oil degradation in turbine oils is oxidation. Oxidation
byproducts are known to result in the formation of varnish and
deposits. The chemical reactivity of varnish causing compounds is
explored as it relates to the various strategies to extend the life of inservice turbine oils such as bleed and feed, fluid top-up or additive
replenishment.

11 11:30 am
Behavior and Mechanism of Ultralow Friction
of Basil Seed Gel

8:30 9 am
Influence of Base Oil on Turbine Oil Varnish
J. Hannon, ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialities, Allentown, NJ

Y. Liu, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Beijing, China


In the present work, a plant-based biomaterial named basil seed gel
(BSG) is found to have excellent lubricating property. The lubricating
behavior of BSG is evaluated by a specifically designed apparatus
without damaging its natural structure. An ultralow friction coefficient
about 0.003 is obtained between BSG and the glass plate surface.
Further characterizations reveal that the gel of basil seed has a threedimensional network microstructure, which may provide a favorable
condition for holding water molecules to form hydration layers. The
network constitutes of crosslinking polysaccharide sheets, which are
easy to shear and easily adsorbed on the glass surface to form a stable
nanoscale flat layer. A possible lubrication mechanism is employed that
the easy-to-shear and easy-to-adsorb performance of BSG as well as the
superior lubricating property of hydration layer lead to the ultralow
friction.

www.stle.org

Las Vegas 3

Much has been represented about the influence of base oil in the
formation of turbine oil related varnish. This presentation offers lab, test
rig and field experience that demonstrate balanced turbine oil
formulations blended in higher quality base oils offer improved turbine
oil service life.

9 9:30 am
The Solution to Fix Varnish Issue in Gas Turbine
Lubricants
B. Bai, Dow Chemical China Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China
Varnish formation has been the typical issue for hydrocarbon lubricant
in modern gas turbines, this affects cooling efficiency and causes servo
valve malfunctions. There are several ways to make improvement
through optimizing lubricant formulation or installing super filtration,
this brings additional maintenance cost. However, these methods can
not fix varnish issue completely. The final solution is to use polyalkylene
glycol based synthetic gas turbine lubricant. Polyalylene glycol based

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

77

Tuesday, May 17
3J

lubricant has inherent property to eleminate varnish formation, field


performance trial in several gas turbines proves its varnish free
performance. The recent lubricant specification in GEK32568H already
included polyalkylene glycol lubricant as non-varnishing type.

Session 3K

9:30 10 am
Influence of Solvents, Filtering Oil Temperature
and Incubation Period on Membrane Patch Color

Session Chair: W. Dai, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

T. Kon, T. Honda, University of Fukui, Fukui, Fukui, Japan, A. Sasaki,


Maintek Consultant, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Japan

8 8:30 am
Research of Particle Friction in the Annular Plug
During the Oil and Gas Drilling

In recent years, a particularly varnish-cause-problem has become a


serious problem in thermal power generation. To reduce these
problems, the authors have developed the condition monitoring
method for oxidative deterioration of turbine oils by membrane patch
color. However, membrane patch color is influenced by filtering
condition: solvents, filtering oil temperature, incubation period, and so
on. In this paper, we investigated the influence of solvents, filtering oil
temperature and incubation period on the membrane patch color.
Sample oils were prepared and degraded by a rotating pressure vessel
oxidation test. Petroleum ether and heptane were used as the solvents.
Sample oils were filtered in different conditions, that is changed solvents,
filtering oil temperature and incubation period, then membrane patch
color was measured by the Colorimetric Patch Analyzer (CPA). Results
show that membrane patch color was changed by solvents, filtering oil
temperature and incubation period.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Healthy Evaluation of Long-Term Used Gas
Turbine Oil by the Membrane Patch Colorimetry
T. Honda, University of Fukui, Fukui, Fukui, Japan
In recent years, a particularly varnish-cause-problem has become a
serious problem in thermal power generation. Varnish is caused by the
oxidative deterioration of turbine oils. Thus, to reduce these problems,
the authors have developed the condition monitoring method for
oxidative deterioration of turbine oils by membrane patch color. To
develop the diagnosis method that was able to predict a condition and
the life of the gas turbine oil that had been used for a long term, and to
correspond also to a rapid performance decrease, the effectiveness of
the evaluation by the color of menbrane patch was investigated.

11 11:30 am
Media Selection for Treating Fluid Degradation
in Group II & Group V Turbine Oil Mixturesedia
J. Mehta, C. Soto, Fluitec International, Jersey City, NJ
Group V oils are finding uses as (1) carriers fluids for additive packages
and (2) co-solubilizers blended with mineral oils. As these fluids operate
in rotating equipment they are exposed to conditions resulting in
hydrolysis and oxidation byproducts. This paper discusses the
treatment options available for the removal of these byproducts.

78

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Las Vegas 4

CERAMICS AND COMPOSITES II


Session Vice Chair: K. Lee, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX

L. Yang, Y. Guo, D. Wang, China University of Petroleum (Beijing),


Beijing, China
Particles plug during drilling is more and more serious around the
world for the widely use of the horizontal well and large extended
reach well in the oil and gas drilling, it has become the focus for
researchers to study the particles removal property. Particles moving
property relies on the interaction among the particle, casing, drilling
pipe and the medium. The particle friction factor influenced the
moving property a lot including the friction between particles and
friction between particles and other materials. Particles with different
materials, density and size have been used to study the particle friction
characteristics. Different types of the fluid medium have been used as
the lubricants, The viscosity and the density are tested. The moving
velocity and the load are also investigated for the friction behavior.

8:30 9 am
Substituting Tungsten Carbide (WC) as Cutting
Tools and for Wear Protection by Niobium
Carbide (NbC)
M. Woydt, BAM, Berlin, Germany, H. Mohrbacher, Niobelcon BvBa,
Schilde, Belgium
As a refractory carbide, niobium carbide (NbC) is a forgotten carbide
with hidden properties like wear resistance, this qualifying it for the
group of materials with enhanced wear resistance. Nb4C3, Nb6C5 and
other short and long range ordered phases occur in the region of
homogeneity of NbCx (0.75< x <1.0) in the phase diagram. This enables
the tailoring of properties and offers a much wider process window
that for WC. The impact of tailored properties of sliding wear and
cutting performance will be shown. Cutting tests under emulsion and
coolant-free operation of Co and Fe3Al bonded, straight NbC versus WC
based inserts against different alloys will be highlighted.

9 9:30 am
Sliding Friction and Casing Wear Behavior of
PCD Reinforced WC Matrix Composites Under
Water Lubrication
K. Zhang, Z. Wang, D. Wang, China University of Petroleum (Beijing),
Beijing, China
The friction and casing wear properties of PCD reinforced WC matrix
composites were investigated using a cylinder-on-ring wear-testing
machine against N80 casing steel counterface under water lubrication.
The results indicate that the friction and casing wear rate of PCD
reinforced WC matrix composites are the lowest among the materials.
As the applied load and sliding speed steadily increase, the friction
coefficients of PCD reinforced WC matrix composites decrease. In
addition, the casing wear rates increase with increasing load, but
decline with sliding velocity. The dominant wear mechanism of the PCD
composite is the micro-cutting wear, accompanied by adhesive wear.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
9:30 10 am
Challenge between Aluminum Matrix
Nanocomposites and Microcomposites for
Tribological Applications

8:30 9 am
The Synthesis and Tribological Performance of
Phosphonium/Phosphate-Based Ionic Liquids as
Friction-Reducing Engine Oil Additives

A. Dorri Moghadam, E. Omrani, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,


Milwaukee, WI, P. Menezes, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV,
P. Rohatgi, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI

M. Welmers, M. Mueller, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre


Haute, IN
Ionic liquids (ILs) are materials who have a melting temperature below
100oC and are being studied for their use as solvents, lubricants, and
additives among other applications. ILs are characterized by their
organic moieties which prevent regular crystallization. ILs are desirable
as lubricant additives because of their low vapor pressure, high thermal
stability, nonflammability, and miscibility with organic compounds
similar to those found in lubricants. An advantage of using ILs as
additives is their ability to be fine-tuned by varying the identity of the
cation and anion. In my research I have successfully synthesized novel
symmetric and asymmetric anionic phosphate diesters and I have
coordinated these phosphodiesters with asymmetric alkyl
phosphonium cations. I have tested these ILs in SAE 10W30 engine oil
for their tribological performance in wear reduction. I will be presenting
on the correlation between a variety of functional moieties and their
relative lubricities.

Reinforcement of aluminum alloys results in development of advanced


hybrid metal matrix micro/nanocomposites with precise balances of
physical, mechanical and tribological properties. The present research
focuses on the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties
of aluminum metal matrix macro/nanocomposites reinforced with TiB2
and Al2O3 particles. Results showed better COF for composites rather
than aluminum due to self-lubrication properties of TiB2 particles.
However, the COF of micro/nanocomposites are the same. Besides, the
wear rate of Al/TiB2/Al2O3 nanocomposites were improved
significantly in comparison with aluminum alloys and Al/TiB2/Al2O3
macro-composites due to higher hardness of the nanocomposites.
In addition, when the micro particles detached from the matrix, they
act as third body abrasion particles. Therefore, the wear rate of microcomposites is higher than nanocomposites and the worn surface of
micro-composites is rougher.

9 9:30 am
Analysis of the Tribochemical Behaviour of Ionic
Liquids in Contact with Steel and Titanium
Substrates in High Vacuum Environment

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11:30 am Panel Discussion

F. Pagano, A. Igartua, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar, Spain, I. Minami, Lule


University of Technology, Lule, Sweden, E. Berriozabal, IK4Tekniker, Eibar, Spain, N. Drr, C. Gabler, AC2T Research GmbH,
Wiener Neustadt, Austria, A. Valea, University of the Basque
Country (EHU/UPV), Bilbao, Spain

11:30 am Noon Ceramics and Composites


Business Meeting

Session 3L

Las Vegas 5

SYNTHETICS & HYDRAULICS III


Session Chair: N. Knotts, Chevron, Richmond, VA

8 8:30 am
Additive Technology for Halogen-Free Room
Temperature Ionic Liquids
E. Nyberg, Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden, N. Drr,
AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria, A. Igartua,
Fundacin TEKNIKER, Eibar, Spain, I. Minami, Lule University of
Technology, Lule, Sweden
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) are increasingly being studied
as advanced lubricants due to inherent properties such as thermal
stability, low volatility, and non-flammability. While traditional lubricants
are being optimized by additive technology, researched RTILs have
generally been additive-free due to a lack of miscible additives.
Recently, new RTILs have been designed for improved solvency of
synthetic lubricant additives. In this work, RTIL samples based on
tetralkylphosphonium cations have been evaluated. They are halogenfree and hydrophobic to minimize corrosion. Five RTILs were evaluated
in a steel-steel tribotest where the results showed excellent tribological
performance for RTILs with friction modifying and anti-wear additives
designed for synthetic lubricants. These novel RTILs combined with
additives demonstrate high potential as advanced lubricants due to
their persistent nature in combination with excellent tribological
performance.

www.stle.org

In order to develop new lubricants it is necessary to understand the


processes that take place in a tribocontact. For this reason, it is
necessary to develop new analytical techniques that monitor gas
triboemission occurring during tribotests to additionally account for
chemical reactions initiated by rubbing surfaces. Such findings are
fundamental to understand the involved tribomechanism. The
lubrication processes of several types of ionic liquids have been studied
under boundary conditions both on steel and titanium surfaces. Gas
analysis was performed using the ultra-high vacuum tribometer CatriUHV that was coupled with a mass spectrometer. The results revealed
an induction period needed to initiate reactions of the lubricants with
the rubbing surfaces once the tribotest was started. It could be shown
that ionic liquids provided lubricity to steel surfaces but failed with
titanium. Tribofilms were examined by means of XPS spectroscopy.
Tribomechanisms are described.

9:30 10 am
Characterization and Analysis of Ultra-Thin
Boundary Lubrication Film with Novel
Heterocyclic Friction Modifier
X. He, M. Desanker, D. Pickens, M. Delferro, Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL, N. Ren, F. Lockwood, Valvoline, Lexington, KY, T. Marks,
Y. Chung, Q. Wang, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Several sulfur-and-phosphorus-free heterocyclic friction modifiers (FMs)
were synthesized for reducing friction in the boundary lubrication
regime. Experiments were conducted using a PCS EHL instrument, with
which both the film thickness and traction were measured. Over a wide
temperature range, these novel FMs have shown to reduce friction by
up to 70% and wear by 95% in the boundary lubrication regime.
Experimental results indicate that the presence of these heterocyclic
FMs result in a thicker boundary film than a standard base oil and
commercially available FMs, thus markedly improve friction and wear
performance. We believe that the generation of thicker lubricant films is
a result of the unique molecular structure of these heterocyclic FMs
interacting with the base oil and the tribo-contact surfaces.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

79

Tuesday, May 17
3L

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Performance of High TBN Sulficylates

on leakage, pressures, and temperatures, when the shaft and pad


surfaces are considered either isothermal or adiabatic. Cases considering
heat transfer to solid surfaces are also considered. The clearance is static
and operating at speeds of 5 and 20 krpm, with pressure differentials of
0 psig and 25 psig.

J. Wei, W. Mackwood, Chemtura Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada


Detergent additives play a key role in the lubricant formulations for
maintaining engine cleanliness, providing neutralization and corrosion
inhibition. In this work, we developed sulficylates with total base
number (TBN) up to 450, which are reaction products of sulfonate
and salicylate. Their performances were evaluated and compared with
traditional additives such as sulfonate, phenate and salicylate. The test
results indicated that the sulficylates are equivalent to traditional
additives in anti-wear property, and show equivalent or better
performance in detergency, anti-oxidation and deposit control. It is
very interesting that all sulficylates are much better than traditional
additives in rust prevention and friction reduction. Therefore, they
can be used as multifunctional additives. In addition, the synthesized
sulficylates show better performance than simple blends of sulfonate
and salicylate.

11 11:30 am
Utilizing a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS)
Test to Predict Fouling Characteristics of High
Performance Compressor Lubricants
B. Branson, Alcor Petrolab, Arlington, TX, S. Rea, I. Ooms, J. Blume,
Anderol Specialty Lubricants (a division of Chemtura Corp.),
East Hanover, NJ, N. Wicker, Alcor Petrolab, Arlington, TX
Understanding the role of various base oil molecules and additives
in the fouling characteristics of compressor lubricants is a critical
component of lubricant development. Bench-scale testing, such as
ASTM D943 (TOST) or ASTM D2270 (RPVOT), may have limited value
because the tests require long exposure times and/or fail to predict
actual in-service performance. The Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS)
is a test instrument used to evaluate the fouling behavior of a broad
range of fluids, from aviation turbine lubricants to anti-coking additives
for crude oils. There is a good correlation between test data and
in-service performance. We will discuss selection of HLPS test
conditions for evaluation of high performance compressor lubricants.
Three compressor oils with varying real-world fouling performance
have been characterized using the HLPS test. HLPS testing of
compressor lubricants provides a new resource for scientists and
engineers focused on product and application development.

Session 3M

8:30 9 am
Leaking Through Spiral-Grooved Gas Face
Seal with Arbitrary Gap Shape
A. Vinogradov, Samara State Aerospace University, Russia, Samara,
Russian Federation
Techniques which are used for the calculation of the gas face seal
performances are based on a joint solving of the three differential
equations: the fluid motion, the continuous lubricant flow and the
thermodynamic equation of state. The equation of the pressure
distribution in the gas gap for the spiral-grooved seal is defined for
spiral-grooved gas bearing. This distribution defines only for conic gap
shape. The existing techniques of the spiral-grooved seal calculation
have been developed for the plane-shape gap or the conical gap.
Actually the seal has a complex gap shape that differs from the cone. In
this paper, each pressure value is determined for corresponding radius
value, while the dimensionless coefficients are considered as a function
of radius. This paper proposes the design technique of the spiral-grooved
gas face seal.

9 9:30 am
Experimental Study of Flow Visualization on
Dry Gas Seal Face
M. Ochiai, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Japan
In this study, experimental visualization of dry gas flow on grooved dry
gas seal face are treated experimentally. Dry gas seals are widely used
for turbomachinery such as jet engine, gas turbine compressors.
Recently, they are being required to much further reduce of gas
leakage from many industries. It has known that sealing characteristics
depend strongly on the groove geometry on the seal face. Therefore,
we conducted the optimization of groove geometry for improving the
sealing characteristics. Moreover, the optimized dry gas seal was made
and it was verified the effectiveness. In this study, it is intended that the
changing air flow from the difference groove geometry is verified.
Therefore, the experimental apparatus to perform the leakage quantity
measurement and visualization experiment was made. Moreover, it was
conducted the leakage quantity measurement and visualization
experiment of the air lubricating flow under the conditions of
bidirectional rotation.

Las Vegas 6/7

Session Chair: K. Malik, Ontario Power Generation, Pickering,


Ontario, Canada

9:30 10 am
A Mixed Lubrication Numerical Model by Inverse
Lubrication Theory and Experimental Verification
of Hydraulic Rod Seals

Session Vice Chair: H. Zhao, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH

C. Wu, F. Guo, S. Suo, X. Jia, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

SEALS III

8 8:30 am
Comparison of Navier-Stokes and ReynoldsBased Thermofluid Models for a Non-Contacting
Compliant Finger Seal for Aerospace Applications
S. Kline, M. Braun, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
The fluid film between the rotor and the pad of one element of a single
padded finger seal is modeled using the Navier-Stokes and the Reynolds
equations respectively, coupled with the energy equation. The pad
surface is single wedged in the circumferential direction and is similar
to a two-dimensional plane slider bearing. The working fluid is air,
acting as an ideal gas, and based on the bearing Reynolds number, the
flow regime is laminar. The cases presented consider both constant and
variable fluid properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity) effects

80

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

This paper first uses the inverse hydrodynamic lubrication (IHL) method
to numerically simulate mixed lubrication condition. In this numerical
model, the hydrodynamic effect on the seal inlet is taken into account
as well as the asperities contact pressure. How to determine the
position of the inflection point in the pressure inlet profile is discussed
in detail; and the coupling relation among the fluid pressure, asperities
contact pressure and static contact pressure by FE analysis is also given
in this paper. The leakage and friction are calculated from the mixed
lubrication model under different fluid pressures (the maximum is 30
MPa) and rod speeds conditions; and they agree well with the
experimental results which are measured by the bench test developed
by the authors. Also, the comparison with the present existing full film
lubrication model by IHL method has been shown.

10 10:30 am Break

www.stle.org

V I S I T U S AT B O O T H N O . 7 1 0

Deesignned for
forr ex
extrreme perfformance
or
ormance

TUESDAY, 8:30 AM
WEDNESDAY, 5:00 PM

www.synfluid.com

Tuesday, May 17
3M

10:30 11 am
Analysis of Intermittent Rub in Mechanical
Face Seals

Session 3N

Jubilee 1

SURFACE ENGINEERING III

P. Varney, I. Green, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA


Mechanical face seals are complex mechanical systems, where dynamic,
fluid, and thermoelastic effects ideally work in concert to provide
successful operation. In reality, however, system complexities and
unforeseen effects hinder the understanding of seal operation.
Consequentially, seals become unpredictable and fail unexpectedly.
This work builds upon a comprehensive model of a flexibly-mounted
stator (FMS) mechanical face seal, including angular and axial modes of
vibration for transient (e.g., start-up and shut-down) and steady-state
operation. Face coning is incorporated via thermoelastic deformation,
where heat is generated by viscous and frictional effects. Here, the
operating conditions generate both intermittent and repeated rubbing
contact. Seal face contact is incorporated via an elastoplastic rough
surface contact model. Results are provided for a real seal and its
operating parameters, and interpreted with respect to fault diagnostics
and seal design.

11 11:30 am
The Effect of Machine Vibration on the Dynamic
Behavior of Mechanical Face Seal
I. Green, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
Frequently machines in which seals operate are subject to autonomous
vibration. The seals would consequentially respond to such vibration,
responses that can be quite substantial. The objective here is, therefore,
to provide the analytical means for the investigation of machine
vibration on the dynamic behavior of mechanical face seals.

11:30 am Noon
Modelling of the Roughness Induced Pressure
Generation between Parallel Surfaces
Application to Mechanical Seals
N. Brunetiere, Institut Pprime, Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex,
France
This paper presents a theoretical model of the hydrodynamic pressure
build-up between parallel surfaces. According to the Reynolds theory,
it is not possible to generate a pressure between flat parallel sliding
surfaces. However, experimental results demonstrated that mechanical
seal surfaces can be separated by a full fluid film if the sliding speed is
high enough. Several theories including roughness effect were
proposed to explain this unexpected lift-off. The real demonstration
of the roughness induced pressure generation has been possible only
recently with the development of deterministic mixed lubrication
models. A transverse pumping mechanism which varies from place
to place with the surface topography can explain the pressure build-up.
A theoretical model considering this pumping effect is proposed. It is
applied to mechanical face seals where surfaces are nominally parallel
to model the hydrodynamic pressure generation which is at the origin
of the faces separation.

Session Chair: Z. Khan, Faculty of Science & Technology,


Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom
Session Vice Chair: A. Saeed, Bournemouth University,
Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom

8 8:30 am
Optimization of Nickel-Based Composite
Nanocoatings for Tribological Systems with a
Focus on Water-Lubrication Produced by Pulse
Electrodeposition
Z. Khan, R. Bajwa, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset,
United Kingdom, V. Bakolas, W. Braun, Schaeffler Technologies
GmbH & Co. KG, Herzogenaurach, Germany
Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the
tribological performance of various nickel-based nanocomposite
coatings with focus on water-lubricated contacts. These coatings were
produced by pulse electro co-deposition technique under constant
pulse current and chemical composition conditions. Results reveal that
the reinforcement of nano-sized particles into nickel matrix shows
significant effects on wear resistance, corrosion resistance and
interfacial adhesion properties. The influences of various nanoparticles
on mechanical and microstructured surface properties were studied by
using the indentation method, scanning electron microscopy/EDS and
X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques respectively.

8:30 9 am
Computational Wear and Corrosion Evaluation
of Novel Coatings for Automotive and Aerospace
Applications
H. Nazir, Z. Khan, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset,
United Kingdom
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are deposited by using PVD or
sputtered methods, mainly targeting sliding contacts in automotive
engines and other applications. DLC failure means limiting of the
lifetime, especially within IC engines. Therefore, DLC coated
components are susceptible to wear associated with debris release
resulting in fretting corrosion which is one of the biggest challenges of
sliding contacts coatings. This research is a direct response to the above
challenges to develop reliable coating for automotive and aerospace
applications by innovative pulse electro deposition (PED) techniques.
The research presents surface morphology, structural properties,
chemical composition, corrosion resistance and wear resistance of
novel DLC coatings which have been investigated by various laboratory
techniques. Moreover, computational methods have been utilised to
evaluate the wear and corrosion resistance of DLC coated components,
the accuracy of which have been validated.

9 9:30 am
The Impact of High Salt and Dust Particles on
the Surface Durability of Waste-Gate
Turbocharger End Links
A. Saeed, H. Nazir, K. Wilton-Smith, Z. Khan, Bournemouth
University, Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom
In performance, heavy-duty diesel engine may come across
environmental and operating conditions during which high salt and
dust particles start to accumulate within the engine components. These
deposits together with high temperatures of approximately 670C
often result in engine failures. The current research evaluates the
surface modification and durability issues of waste-gate end-links of a
diesel engine due to high salt and dust particles accumulation. Two
types of waste-gate end-links (a) zinc coated steel and (b) stainless steel

82

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

YOURE INVITED!

Exhibitor
Appreciation Hour
Monday
T
nday and Tuesday
Tuesday,
uesday
y,
May 16 & 17, 2016, 3-4 pm

Ballys Las Vegas Hotel & Casino - Events Center


Refreshments will be served!
The trade show is a major component of STLEs Annual Meeting. At this years show,
STLE will be making it even easier for you to fit a visit to the exhibition into your
personal itinerary with two hours of dedicated exhibit time--no need to worry about
missing an education course or technical session!
Come view the newest products and services from the lubricant industrys leading
companies. Over 100 exhibitors are in Las Vegas looking to do business with you.
As part of the Exhibitor Appreciation Hour, Evonik Oil Additives is holding a raffle on
Monday, May 16, at 3:30 pm in the exhibit hall. You must be present to win. Evonik is
raffling three Amazon Echo wireless speakers.
To reserve a spot at the 2017 STLE exhibition at the Hyatt Regency in Atlanta, contact
Tracy Nicholas VanEe at 630-922-3459, tnicholas@stle.org.
2016 Exhibit Schedule
Monday:
Tuesday:

Noon-5 pm (dedicated hour 3-4 pm)


9:30 am-Noon & 2-5:30 pm (closed for Presidents Lunch - Noon-2 pm.

Also, there will be a second dedicated hour 3-4 pm)


Wednesday: 9:30 am-Noon

Download 2016 STLE Annual


Meeting App. Sponsored by
Sea-Land Chemical.

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, 847-825-5536, www.stle.org, info@stle.org.

Tuesday, May 17
3N

end-links were exposed to tests designed to deposit high salt and dust
particles simultaneously on their surfaces for 500 hours in an
environmental simulator. Surface images were recorded to obtain
surface modifications during the test. The surfaces of the zinc coated
end-links were observed to have lost surface and durability integrity
after the tests.

9:30 10 am
Production of Few Layer Graphene by Liquid
Phase Exfoliation as a Nano-Composite
Candidate for Surface Engineering
S. Shah, H. Nasir, NUST Islamabad Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan,
Z. Khan, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, United
Kingdom
This paper reports high concentration production of unoxidized
graphene through liquid phase exfoliation assisted with sonication.
During sonication the temperature was maintained below 30oC. SEM,
AFM, TG/DTA and XRD were used to characterize the produced
graphene. Both SEM and AFM results confirm the production of few
layer graphene. AFM results also shows that exfoliation efficiency and
amount of graphene increases by increasing sonication time. EDX
analysis shows that the graphene is free from contamination on its
surface. TG/DTA results show that the produced graphene were
thermally stable up to 700oC. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used
to determine the concentration of produced graphene, and the
investigations demonstrate that the graphene production increases by
increasing sonication time. Elastic modulus, Poisson ratio and thermal
conductivity of these newly developed graphene would significantly
contribute to the nano-composite surface engineering area.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Slurry Erosive Wear Behaviour of TiO2 30 wt%
Inconel-718 Plasma Sprayed Coatings on Al6061
Substrate
R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, PES Institute of Technology,
Bangalore, Karnataka, India, S. Rupanagudi, BMS College of
Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, A. Nagaraj, BMSCE,
Bangalore, India, V. B.N., BMS College of Engineering, Bangalore,
Karnataka, India, Z. Khan, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth,
Dorset, United Kingdom
The present investigation is aimed at developing plasma sprayed
TiO2 30 wt% Inconel-718 coatings on Al6061 substrate and to
evaluate its microstructure, microhardness and slurry erosive wear
resistance. TiO2 30 wt% Inconel-718 powders were thermally sprayed
on Al6061 substrate by Air Plasma Spray process. An average particle
size of 50m was adopted to achieve dense and uniform coatings of
thicknesses 200 m and 250 m. The developed coatings were subjected
to microstructural studies, microhardness and slurry erosive wear tests
in 3.5% NaCl solution with sand as erodent. Microstructural studies
reveal dense coatings of TiO2 30 wt% Inconel-718 Inconel 718
coating with good bond and minimal porosities. The slurry erosive wear
resistance of developed coatings are superior when compared with
that of uncoated Al6061 substrate under identical test conditions.

11 11:30 am
Slurry Erosive Wear Behavior of HVOF Thermally
Sprayed Titania Coatings
R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, PES Institute of Technology,
Bangalore, India, S. N, DSCE, Bangalore, India, A. H, RVCE, Bangalore,
India, Z. Khan, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset,
United Kingdom

coatings, its applications in naval components is being restricted. In the


light of the above, the present work focuses on the development of
titania coatings on mild steel substrates and assessment of its
performance in sand slurry containing 3.5% NaCl simulating the marine
water conditions. The effect of slurry concentration, rotational speed
and the impinging particle size on the slurry erosive wear behavior of
the developed coatings and the uncoated mild steel substrate are
studied. It is observed that the slurry erosive wear resistance of the
developed titania coatings in 3.5 % NaCl- silica sand slurry is
significantly higher when compared with the mild steel substrate.

11:30 am Noon
Evolution of the Nano-Scale Mechanical Properties
of Tribofilms formed from Low- and High-SAPS
Oils and ZDDP on DLC Coatings and Steel
M. Kalin, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
The mechanical properties of tribofilms have a great influence on
both friction and wear, and are some of the most important parameters
for effective boundary films. The evolution of the nano-mechanical
properties of tribofilms formed in steel/steel, steel/a-C:H and steel/SiDLC contacts lubricated with two commercial oils containing different
amounts of SAPS additives (E6 and E7 grade) and a mineral base oil
containing the ZDDP additive were examined in this investigation for
two very different time periods. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was
used in different modes to measure the topography, film thickness and
stiffness, while the nanohardness was measured with a nano-indenter.
In addition, a FTIR microscope was used on selected samples to explain
some of the tribofilms mechanical modifications with chemical
changes. The results have shown that the tribofilms evolution and
growth are very much surface and additive dependent, and are
different for steel and DLC coatings.

Session 3O

Jubilee 2

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY III


Session Chair: N. Argibay, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM
Session Vice Chair: J. Curry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA

8 8:30 am
Low-Temperature Friction Variation with
MoS2-Based Lubricants
J. Lince, H. Kim, J. Kirsch, S. Didziulis, The Aerospace Corp., Los
Angeles, CA
Unlike liquid-based lubricants, the tribological properties of solid
lubricants were previously thought to remain constant at temperatures
below ambient. Recent studies of MoS2 and PTFE have indicated that
friction can increase when the materials are cooled below ambient
temperature. However, other studies have contradicted these results.
For spacecraft applications, there is particular interest in determining
if the friction of MoS2-based lubricants changes at low temperatures
in vacuum. We have developed a high-vacuum pin-on-disk tester to
study variation in friction from ambient temperature down to 100K.
Studies were conducted on sputter-deposited Au-MoS2 coatings as
well as commercial bonded MoS2 coatings. We found that friction
increases by a factor of two as temperature is lowered below 220K
(-53C), regardless of the type of MoS2 coating. The results will be
discussed, as well as the challenges of performing cryogenic friction
testing in vacuum.

Titania is a popular powder material for thermal spraying in particular


through HVOF owing to its low thermal conductivity. However due to
the lack of database as regards the slurry erosion resistance of Titania

84

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
8:30 9 am
An Investigation of Ti Doped MoS2 Performance
in Dry and Lubricated Conditions Under Rolling
Contact

10:30 11 am
Experimental Micro-Mechanical Characterization
of a Dry Lubricated Macro-Contact to Develop
DEM Tribological Models

H. Singh, K. Mutyala, Timken Engineered Surface Laboratories,


The University of Akron, Akron, OH, R. Evans, The Timken Co.,
Canton, OH, G. Doll, Timken Engineered Surface Laboratories,
The University of Akron, Akron, OH

G. Colas, S. Pajovic, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,


A. Saulot, Universit de Lyon, LaMCoS, INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5259,
Villeurbanne, France, M. Renouf, Universit de Montpellier, LMGC,
CNRS UMR 5508, Montpellier, France, Y. Berthier, Universit de
Lyon, LaMCoS, INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5259, Villeurbanne, France,
T. Filleter, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

In the study, Ti containing MoS2 coating was deposited on M50 and


52100 steel specimens using magnetron sputtering. TEM and EDX
analysis reveals that MoS2 contains about 16 at% Ti and has an
amorphous structure with a featureless morphology. The performance
of the deposited coating was evaluated in dry (vacuum & air) and
lubricated conditions under rolling contact. Lubricated performance of
Ti-MoS2 was compared with the steel on steel in synthetic oils with and
without additives. In dry conditions, the performance observed to be
dependent on the amount of material that can participate in the
contact. However in lubricated conditions, MoS2 was found to work
synergistically with hydrocarbons in the oil to form protective tribofilms
comprised of amorphous hydrocarbon and MoS2. It was found that
these unique tribofilms can produce significant increases in the rolling
contact fatigue lives of the M50 and 52100 bearing steels.

9 9:30 am
Temperature Dependent Wear and Friction of
MoS2 at the Extremes

11 11:30 am
Fretting Wear Behavior of Cu-MoS2 and
Cu-MoS2-WC Coatings Fabricated by Cold Spray

T. Babuska, B. Nation, M. Chandross, N. Argibay, Sandia National


Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, J. Curry, B. Krick, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, PA
Findings from an investigation of the temperature dependent friction
and wear behavior of pure and composite metal disulfide solid
lubricant coatings in the range -150C and 150C will be presented,
along with a description of a custom testing apparatus that enables
rapid and continuous temperature fluctuations in an inert gas
environment. We compare run-in and steady-state friction behavior for
nitrogen-impinged highly oriented through-the-film pure MoS2
coatings and a sputtered MoS2-Sb2O3-C coating. We will also discuss
observations of temperature-dependent friction behavior, and its
apparent breakdown with the onset of high wear using macro-scale
tribological testing. Latest results of molecular dynamics simulations
with polycrystalline lamellar MoS2 and changes in friction behavior due
to the addition of water and oxygen will also be discussed.

9:30 10 am
Environmental Sensitivity of MoS2 Coatings:
Probing the First Few Layers
J. Curry, L. Ju, H. Luftman, N. Strandwitz, M. Sidebottom, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, PA, N. Argibay, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM, B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has extraordinarily low friction and high
wear life in dry and inert environments. However, the friction and wear
of MoS2 are environmentally sensitive. Oxygen poses problems as
temperatures rise and MoS2 oxidizes, increasing break-loose friction. In
low earth orbit, atomic oxygen can easily oxidize MoS2. In humid
environments, a disruption to low shear strength interfaces between
MoS2 lamellae presumably increases friction. The mechanisms
associated with this environmental poisoning of MoS2 coatings have
largely remained a mystery. Utilizing High Sensitivity Low Energy Ion
Scattering (HS-LEIS), the first few layers of MoS2 coatings were
investigated across a range of temperatures and environments to
understand interactions between MoS2 and oxygen, water and atomic
oxygen. This is combined with environmentally controlled
microtribology experiments to link surface chemistry to tribological
performance.

10 10:30 am Break

www.stle.org

Quantitative predictions of the dry lubrication efficiency of magnetron


sputtered coatings, such as MoS2 used in space applications,
necessarily goes hand in hand with the quantitative prediction and
modeling of the third-body layer creation and its rheology. The study
aims to inform Discrete Element Method based numerical models with
relevant quantitative physical and micro-mechanical data determined
experimentally from MoS2 lubricated contacts. Mechanical
characterization (Youngs modulus, yield strength, toughness) of the
coating is conducted by AFM-based micro-deflection tests of microcantilever beams fabricated by FIB milling of the MoS2 coating.
Interactions between the different bodies constituting the contact are
characterized via adhesion measurements with custom beaded (glass,
steel) AFM cantilevers. First results have validated the deflection test
approach. Differences in the adhesion between a 10 m bead and the
materials inside and outside the friction track are observed.

Y. Zhang, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, S. Descartes,


INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, R. Chromik, McGill University,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Fretting wear of cold-sprayed Cu, Cu-MoS2 and Cu-MoS2-WC coatings
was evaluated in ambient conditions with varied normal loads. An
energy approach was applied to quantify wear and showed, for MoS2containing coatings, there was a threshold normal load (~150 N) above
which an abrupt increase in wear occurred. Microanalysis on the wear
debris at different test durations suggests this was due to formation
and ejection of large metallic wear debris during running-in. This wear
mechanism was facilitated by the presence of MoS2, which created
weak particle boundaries in the coating. Adding WC to the coating
helped to decrease wear by developing a WC-rich tribological
transformed structure (TTS) layer, which was revealed by microanalysis
of the wear scars at different stages. Cross-sectional microstructure of
the debris and wear scars was used to evaluate the role of MoS2 and
WC on material flow and microstructural modification induced by
fretting.

11:30 am Noon
Microstructure and Tribology Behavior of
Tungsten Disulfide Solid Lubricant Films by
Atomic Layer Deposition
Y. Sun, Z. Chai, X. Lu, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
The synthesis, structure and tribological performance of tungsten
disulfide (WS2) solid lubricant films prepared by atomic layer
deposition were studied. An 8 nm layer of zinc sulfide (ZnS) film was
previously deposited on bare Si (100) substrates by ALD to promote the
growth of the WS2 films. The results showed that the WS2 films grown
on Si (100) and the ZnS coated Si (100) substrates were equally 175 nm
and polycrystalline with a ~ 5 nm interface area where the basal planes
were oriented parallel to the substrate surfaces. The WS2 films grown
on the ZnS coated Si (100) substrates showed dense and homogeneous
hexagonal crystal structure due to the catalyst of ZnS. Therefore, the
films deposited on the ZnS coated Si (100) substrates exhibited very
long wear life with a steady friction coefficient of 0.046. In addition,
transfer film could be detected on Si3N4 balls.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

85

Tuesday, May 17
Session 3P

Jubilee 3

NANOTRIBOLOGY III: NANOPARTICLE


ADDITIVES
Session Chair: C. Korach, University of Mount Union, Alliance, OH
Session Vice Chair: Z. Ye, University of California-Merced,
Merced, CA

8 8:30 am
Effect of Particle Morphology and Structure
on Durability of MoS2 Nanoparticle Tribofilm
M. Lorenzo Martin, D. Dandurand, O. Ajayi, J. Bansal, Argonne
National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, F. Dassenoy, P. Afanesiev, Ecole
Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France
Recent studies have shown that addition of MoS2 nanoparticles to oil
lubricant can reduce friction and wear by forming a low shear and
protective tribofilm surface layer. MoS2 are available in different
morphologies and structures, including platelet, spherical and hollow
fullerene forms. This paper presents an experimental study of the
durability in terms of load carrying capacity of two different MoS2
nanoparticles, namely inorganic fullerene (IF-MoS2), about 30-50 nm in
diameter and a spherical nanoparticle about 50-80 nm in diameter.
Durability was assessed under reciprocating sliding, using a 52100 steel
roller on 52100 steel flat and a step load increase protocol. The tribofilm
formed from IF-MoS2 added to PAO4 showed significantly lower
friction and higher load carrying capacity compared to the ones from
the spherical particles. This is attributed to the morphology defect
structure and the ease of exfoliation of MoS2 platelet to form a well
bonded and more durable tribofilm.

8:30 9 am
Effect of Nanoparticle Size on the Tribological
Properties of Nanolubricants
L. Pea-Pars, Universidad de Monterrey, Garza Garcia, Nuevo Leon,
Mexico, A. Martini, University of California-Merced, Merced, CA,
D. Maldonado, Universidad de Monterrey, Garza Garcia, Nuevo
Leon, Mexico
This study investigates the effect of the size of nanoparticle additives
on the tribological properties of a poly-alpha olefin (PAO) base oil. TiO2
nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 5-1500 nm were dispersed in
PAO with varying concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.10 wt.%) by
ultrasonication. Wear tests were then performed in a T-02 four-ball
tribotester according to ASTM D5183 in order to characterize the effect
of the nanoparticle size on the wear scar diameter and coefficient of
friction. The experiments were complemented by molecular dynamics
simulations of TiO2 nanoparticles confined and sheared in nanoscale
gaps. Trends in the effect of nanoparticle size on sliding interface
behavior were calculated in the simulation and then compared to those
measured experimentally. The atomic-scale detail available in the
simulations was used to help understand the observed effects of
nanoparticle size on friction and wear.

9 9:30 am
Tribological Behavior of WS2 Nanoparticles in
PAO Base Oil on Smooth and Rough Surfaces
F. Dassenoy, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France, P. USSA, Ecole
Centrale de Lyon / TOTAL, Ecully, France, B. Vacher, T. Le Mogne,
Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France, B. Thiebaut, TOTAL, Lyon,
France
The research done on the lubricating properties of nanoparticles at the
laboratory scale have mainly been done on smooth surfaces. However,
industrial applications normally run at high temperatures and industrial
surfaces are rougher than those used in laboratory. For this reason, it is
important to study the effect of nanoparticles when lubricating rough

86

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

surfaces. In this work, friction test were carried out using industrial WS2
nanoparticles on smooth and rough surfaces. Results show that the
nanoparticles reduce significantly not only friction coefficient but also
wear in presence of rough surfaces. XPS and TEM characterization
proved that nanoparticles are trapped in the steel grooves of the flat
before being liberated to provide proper lubrication in the case of
deficient fed of nanoparticles to the contact.

9:30 10 am
Tribological and Wear Characteristics of Fluids
Containing Suspensions of Nano-Encapsulated
Phase Change Materials
J. Shelton, S. Garapati, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL
Many investigators have chosen to add nano-particulate suspensions
of varying types and concentrations to enhance the tribological
characteristics of the base fluid. However, these nano-particulates may
not inherently affect the corresponding heat transfer characteristics.
In this investigation, we propose the addition of a new type of nanoparticulate suspension that could potentially do so through the
encapsulation of a phase change material as its core. We have
synthesized silicon dioxide nanocapsules containing a palmitic acid
(PA) phase change material as its core. These nanocapsules were added
to mineral oil base fluids and experimentally investigated for the
resulting nanofluids friction and wear characteristics on a pin-on-disk
tribometer. These results were compared against similarly synthesized
SiO2 nanoparticle/mineral oil nanofluids. Finally, we discuss the effect
of the phase change material core on the tribological characteristics
of the new nanofluid.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Submicrometer Carbon Spheres as Lubricant
Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction
A. Alazemi, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Ultrasmooth submicrometer carbon spheres are demonstrated as an
efficient additive for improving the tribological performance of
lubricating oils. Carbon spheres with ultrasmooth surfaces are
fabricated by ultrasound assisted polymerization of resorcinol and
formaldehyde followed by controlled heat treatment. The tribological
behavior of the new lubricant mixture is investigated in the boundary
and mixed lubrication regimes using a pin-on-disk apparatus and
cylinder-on-disk tribometer, respectively. The new lubricant
composition containing 3 wt % carbon spheres suspended in a
reference SAE 5W30 engine oil exhibited a substantial reduction in
friction and wear (1025%) compared to the neat oil, without change in
the viscosity. The significantly better tribological performance of the
hybrid lubricant is attributed to the perfectly spherical shape and
ultrasmooth surface of carbon sphere additive filling the gap between
surfaces and acting as a nanoscale ball bearing.

11 11:30 am
The Effects of Different Additives on the
Tribological Behavior of WS2 Nanoparticles
in Lubricants Correlation Calculations
I. Jenei, LTDS/Instrumentation Physics, Ecole Centrale de
Lyon/Stockholm University, Lyon/Stockholm, France, F. Svahn,
S. Csillag, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, F. Dassenoy,
Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Lyon, France
The friction reducing properties of inorganic fullerene-like
nanoparticles (IFN) have been demonstrated [1]. The use of these IFN in
readily available lubricants, however, is not straightforward.
Commercially available lubricants contain several additives, e.g., antiwear additive, antioxidants, etc. The chemicals in these additives could
change the surface chemistry of the contact zone and thus could block
the beneficial effects of the IFN. In this work we performed tribotests

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
with ball-on-disk geometry using lubricants composed of PAO base oil,
different additives and WS2 nanoparticles. A comparison was being
made between lubricants with and without nanoparticles. The
tribofilms formed on the wear marks were analyzed with a scanning
electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray
spectrometer. Further analysis was carried out which revealed strong
correlations between elemental composition of the tribofilm and
external parameters such as friction coefficient or wear rate.

refined base stocks have a particular wax interaction appetite as a


component as well as in fully formulated fluids, with and without pour
point depressants, in fresh and aged oil. This presentation will share
data with oils from 6 re-refiners.

11:30 am Noon
Investigation of the Stability and Tribological
Performance of Ionic Nano Liquids

Gears are found at the heart of many industrial processes. Gear sizes
range from very small to very large and can be found in a multitude of
industries including thermal power generation, wind power generation,
oil and gas, mining, cement, food and beverage, pulp and paper, textiles,
plastic extrusion, steel, and chemical plant processing. Gears are
designed to operate over a wide range of conditions: from low to high
speeds, from low to high loads, from dry to wet and cold to hot
ambient conditions. Correct lubrication of industrial gears is a
challenge, given the many types of gears and gear systems (e.g. bevel,
helical, spur, worm, hypoid, planetary). Proper lubricant selection is key
to achieving long equipment life, extended oil drain intervals, reduced
maintenance costs and minimal energy consumption.This presentation
will share best practices in selecting components and finished fluids for
gear oil applications.

4:30 5 pm
High Performance Gear Oils
D. Stonecipher, Chemtura Corp., Philadelphia, PA

Q. Zou, D. Pena, O. Mcintee, L. Gara, Oakland University, Rochester,


MI
In previous studies, nanoparticles and ionic liquids have been used
separately as oil additives and have been shown to reduce friction and
wear. In this study, the stability and tribological performance of ionic
nano liquids (INLs), which combine nanoparticles and ionic liquids
together as oil additives, were investigated. Zinc oxide nanoparticles
were dispersed in a mixture of polyalphaolefin oil and ionic liquid using
an ultrasonic homogenizer. The coefficient of friction was studied using
a ball-on-disk tribometer. The wear track was measured using a Bruker
Contour GT-K Optical Profiler and the wear volume was calculated. The
effects of concentration and load on the coefficient of friction and wear
were investigated. The effects of ultrasonic mixing time and
concentration on the stability of the solution were also studied.

Session 4A

COMMERCIAL MARKETING FORUM IV


2 3 pm
Afton Chemicals Key Driver Seminar Gearing
up for the Future: An OEM Perspective of
Industrial Gear Oil Dynamics
D. Gajewski, SIEMENS AG, Bocholt, Germany
The constantly evolving needs of industrial gearbox end-users are
driving continuous improvement in drive technology. Gears today
should be smaller, lighter and if possible, requiring less maintenance.
These changes in drive technology have also increased the
performance requirements of industrial gear oils. Longer service
intervals, compatibility with materials, improved wear protection under
conditions of increasing power density, and sometimes filled-for-life, are
key needs of modern high-performance gear oils. We will explore how
lubricant marketers can help respond to these changes in drive
technology.

4 4:30 pm
Pour Point Depressant Considerations when
Blending With Re-refined Base Stocks
R. Gomes, J. Souchik, B. Zweitzig, Evonik Oil Additives USA Inc.,
Horsham, PA

J. Bredsguard, Biosynthetic Technologies, Irvine, CA


Estolides are an environmentally acceptable base oil often referred to
as a biosynthetic. Over the last few years, they have gained
recognition for their performance and environmental qualities, allowing
companies to formulate high performance products that are seen as
environmentally friendly. They are synthesized from vegetable oil and
are biodegradable and nontoxic, yet have strong performance
characteristics. This presentation will provide a current update on the
estolide technology. Breakthroughs also continue to take place in the
commercialization of estolides as production capabilities scale up and
new process steps are developed, driving production costs down. Most
lubricant companies are now experimenting with new formulations
containing estolides, and market interest continues to grow.

Bronze 4

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break

5 5:30 pm
The Latest in Estolide Development

5:30 6 pm
The Past and Present Versus the Future
in Automotive Engine Oils
T. Dasbach, Institute of Materials, Midland, MI
The Institute of Materials (IOM) provides reliable and unbiased data on
the physical, chemical and performance-associated characteristics of
automotive oils obtained from the worldwide marketplace. With the
wealth of data generated from testing thousands of oils, IOMs database
has become a respected source of independent information. There has
been an increase in the number of automobiles that require the lower
viscosity weight oils. There is a balance between viscosity improvement
and shear stability to obtain the optimum performance. It is very
difficult and costly to distinguish the difference in oil quality except by
its effects on the engine. The only other approach and limited to
those that are technically experienced is through carefully run
engine-simulating bench tests. This presentation will focus on recent
studies of the variations found in some of the critical oil properties.

Re-refining oil is an energy efficient and environmentally beneficial


method of utilizing used oil. Processing techniques for re-refining oil
have advanced significantly in the last decades providing superior
quality base oils that can be used to formulate modern engine, gear
and transmission fluids. In the past, one concern about the use of rerefined base oils was their low temperature performance. In this study
we examined the low temperature performance of current North
American, South American and European re-refined base oils in
comparison to virgin mineral oils of equal group stock classification.
Low temperature data will be presented to demonstrate whether re-

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

87

Tuesday, May 17
Session 4B

Bronze 3

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS IV
COMPUTATIONAL EHL
Session Chair: P. Shiller, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
Session Vice Chair: N. Doerr, AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener
Neustadt, Austria

2 2:30 pm
Elastohydrodynamic Study Using Discontinuous
Finite Volume Method
P. Singh, P. Dutt, P. Sinha, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, U.P., India
We develop and analyze a new Discontinuous Finite Volume Method
(DVM) for solving 2-D point contact EHL problem. A complete
algorithm has been presented in this paper. GMRS technique is
implemented to solve the matrix obtained after the formulation. A new
approach followed in which discontinuous piecewise polynomials are
used for the trial functions. It is natural to assume that the advantages
of using discontinuous functions in FEM should apply to FVM. The
nature of the discontinuity of the trial function is such that the
elements in the corresponding dual partition have the smallest
support, as compared with the cases when conforming (Classical FVM).
Film thickness calculation is done using singular quadrature approach.
Few results have been presented and discussed in brief. Method is well
suited for solving EHL point contact problem and can be used as
commercial software. Results are compared with simple finite
difference scheme to validate the accuracy of above scheme.

2:30 3 pm
Studies of Elastohydrodynamic Llubrication
Using CFD-Based Finite-Volume Technique
D. Lee, D. Dini, A. Kadiric, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom
Most current approaches to elastohydrodynamic (EHL) contact
modelling rely on Reynolds based methods. Although successful in
providing significant insight into fundamentals of EHL, such methods
suffer from a number of drawbacks including not accounting for
gradients through the film thickness, inlet heating and shear thining.
One of the ways in which EHL predictions can be improved is by
solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in parallel with the elasticity
equations. This paper utilises one such approach where CFD methods
implemted using the OpenFOAM package are used to provide more
accurate predictions of EHL. A finite volume technique is used to solve
for both fluid and solid domain providing an efficient and stable
method able to model high pressures and shear rates. This paper
focuses on new results aimed to establish the influence of operating
conditions and lubricant properties on EHL behaviour as well as
parametrically determine the limits of Eyring-Reynolds equations.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Coated
Specimens under EHL Point Contact for Film
Thickness and Friction Characterization
D. Pickens, Z. Liu, X. He, T. Nishino, Q. Wang, Northwestern
University, Evanston, IL

and friction, and the numerical solutions are compared with the
experimental data. The results showed that in the case of simple sliding
(SR=2) and at higher speeds, the friction is lower for the uncoated balls;
however, at lower speeds, the friction is considerably lower for the
coated balls with the difference in friction between coated and
uncoated ball becoming even more apparent at higher operating
temperatures.

4:30 5 pm
PMD Method for Numerical Solution of Thin-Film
and Mixed Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
W. Pu, Si Chuan University, Cheng Du, China
Converged and accurate numerical solutions of thin-film and mixed
EHL become more difficult, and solution process with a fixed single
discretization mesh for the solution domain appears to be quite slow,
especially when the lubricant films and surface contacts coexist with
real machined roughness involved. In the present study, a set of sample
cases with and without machined surface roughness are analyzed
through the PMD method, and the obtained results are compared with
those from the direct iteration method with a single fixed mesh.
Besides, more numerical analyses with and without surface roughness
in a wide range of operating conditions are conducted to investigate
the influence of different compound modes in order to optimize the
PMD procedure. It is observed that, no matter with or without surface
roughness considered, the PMD method is stable for transient mixed
EHL problems and capable of significantly accelerating the EHL
solution process while ensuring numerical accuracy.

5 5:30 pm Lubrication Fundamentals


Business Meeting

Session 4C

Bronze 2

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN IV SPECIAL


SESSION ADVANCES IN LUBRICANTS
AND AUTOMOTIVE TRIBOLOGY FOR FUEL
ECONOMY
Session Chair: S. Bagi, Paccar, Inc., Mt. Vernon, WA
Session Vice Chair: P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute, San
Antonio, TX

2 2:30 pm
New Heavy-Duty Motor Oils to Enable the Next
Generation of Low GHG Diesel Engines: API CK-4
and API FA-4
S. Whitacre, Chevron Lubricants, Richmond, CA
Two new engine oil specifications have been established in response to
heavy engine manufacturer requests for new lubricant technology to
coincide with 2017 model year engines/vehicles that meet more
stringent greenhouse gas emission requirements. These new oils, which
will be licensed as API CK-4 and API FA-4, will deliver drastically
improved oxidation stability, oil aeration control, and resistance to
viscosity loss due to shear as well as introduce a new low viscosity
option for optimized fuel economy. This presentation outlines the two
specifications and the new products that will enable the next
generation of fuel efficient engine technology.

The elastohydrodynamic (EHL) and mixed EHL film thicknesses and


friction of the interfaces formed by steel balls coated with different
CrMo layers and different discs are experimentally studied with a PCS
EHL tribometer; and the measured data are compared with those
obtained from using an AISI 52100 uncoated steel ball. The ball
coatings vary in coating methods, coating thickness, and coating time.
A numerical mixed-EHL model is applied to simulate the film thickness

88

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
2:30 3 pm
Lubricant Developments for Advanced Drivetrain
Hardware

Session 4D

Skyview 3

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS II

G. Guinther, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA


Lubricants have historically been relied upon to enable or protect new
automotive technologies to achieve their fullest potential in terms of
vehicle performance and energy conservation. The demands on the
fluids are continually increasing as smaller engines with higher power
densities are developed. The resulting operating conditions,
incorporating technologies like turbocharged direct-injection engines,
coating technologies, and advanced drivetrain components requires
lubricants with complex chemical and physical properties. Of course
these same lubricants must also be backward-compatible with the
existing car park which spans a large breadth of technology. Afton sees
a need for broader interactions between hardware and lubricant
developers to co-design SYSTEMS that enable the best from each
technology.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
A Holistic View of the Role of Lubricants in
Fuel Efficiency
J. Bansal, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
The need to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has made fuel
efficiency one of the most important issues for todays transportation
industry. The vehicle manufacturers are working very hard to bring new
hardware technologies on stream to respond to the increasingly
stringent CO2 emission regulations around the world. Lubricants have
an important role in this quest for fuel efficiency. To date the major
emphasis has been on minimizing the boundary friction and/or the
lubricant viscous drag. However, there are many other ways in which a
lubricant can directly or indirectly contribute to vehicle fuel efficicny,
some of which may not be receiving the amount of attention they
deserve.

4:30 5 pm
Mechanical Friction Reduction Trends in Engines
A. Gangopadhyay, Ford Motor Co., Novi, MI
Mechanical friction losses in an engine consumes about 7-10% of the
total energy input. Therefore, reducing mechanical friction can
contribute directly to fuel economy improvement, often at a low cost.
There have been incremental improvements in friction reduction in
tribologically critical engine parts through improved finish, materials,
engine oil, and design leading to substantial gain in fuel economy. This
presentation will briefly review lubrication regimes in critical engine
components and opportunities for friction reduction, followed by
industry trends in application of these various attributes for friction
reduction.

5 5:30 pm Q&A Session


5:30 6 pm Engine and Drivetrain Business
Meeting

www.stle.org

Session Chair: N. Bolander, Sentient Science Corp., Idaho Falls, ID

2 2:30 pm
Influence of Contact Conditions and Steel
Properties on Propagation of Rolling Contact
Fatigue Cracks
P. Rycerz, A. Kadiric, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom
Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life data is normally obtained by testing
large sets of samples until pitting failure. This approach allows for
quantification of RCF lives but it does not offer much insight into the
mechanisms driving the initiation and propagation of cracks. The study
presented here attempts to better explain the behaviour of RCF cracks
in terms of contact conditions and material properties. Pitting
experiments were performed using a triple contact RCF rig on
specimens made of a range of steels, including through-hardened
52100, M50 and case-carburised 16MnCr5. The experimental set-up
includes a crack detection sensor, capable of detecting cracks at a very
early stage, so that propagation rates can be monitored. Measured
crack propagation rates are related to contact conditions and an
attempt is made to explain the observed crack behaviour in terms of
properties and microstructures of the steels studied as well as
predicted stress intensity factors.

2:30 3 pm
A More Accurate and Faster Method to Obtain the
Force and Moment Distribution in Roller Bearing
S. Zhu, D. Nelias, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, W. Zhang,
Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, W. Gao,
INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France
This paper shows an enhanced method to update slicing technique to
calculate forces and moments acting on bearing rollers. Based on a
specific expanded slicing technique mixed with Hertz theory, the
classical empirical formula can be replaced by a simplified elastic
deformation formula to get the load on each slice, also considering
interactions among slices. A small number of slices is sufficient to
accurately predict both forces and moments. Roller forces and
moments can be obtained in a faster and more accurate manner, which
in fine permits to obtain the bearing load distribution in complex
transmissions and gearboxes in a faster way.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Thermoelastic Contact with a Rough Surface
Involving Distributed Inhomogeneities
Q. Zhou, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, X. Jin, Z. Wang,
J. Wang, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, L. Keer, Q. Wang,
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Frictional heating often causes failure of elements subjected to
significant rubbing. This work explores the thermoelastic rough surface
contact of bodies with multiple inhomogeneities. The thermoelastic
problem is formulated by using frequency response functions or
influence coefficients, while the stress field of the inhomogeneities is
modeled via the numerical equivalent inclusion method. Heterogeneous
thermoelastic contact on a rough surface is then numerically solved
based on conjugate gradient method. The full 3D FFT techniques and
the mesh differential refinement scheme recently developed are
incorporated into the proposed solution method to enhance the model
efficiency and flexibility. Computations of several heterogeneous
thermoelastic contact cases are conducted and the influences of the
inhomoegeities are discussed.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

89

Tuesday, May 17
4D

4:30 5 pm
A Notation for Elementary Solutions of
Inhomogeneous Contact Analysis by the
Semi-Analytical Method
X. Zhang, X. Jin, Z. Zhang, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China,
Q. Zhou, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, Q. Wang,
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Contact involving material inhomogeneities usually exhibits strong
non-linearity, and must be solved by the numerical method. By taking
advantage of the Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) technique in
conjunction with the numerical equivalent inclusion method (NEIM),
we recently proposed a unified method of solution for handling
inhomogeneous contact problems. This work presents the
fundamentals of our micromechanical modeling. A summarization of
the related elementary solutions in the numerical computations is
reviewed in accordance to a newly developed notation, which is able to
efficiently formulate the contribution from constant excitation
distributed over a cuboidal (or rectangular in the two-dimensional
case) domain.

5 5:30 pm
Effective Elastic-Plastic Properties of a Half
Space Containing Multiple Heterogeneities
Under Indentation
K. Amuzuga, T. Chaise, D. Nelias, LaMCoS/INSA-LYON, Villeurbanne,
France
The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of
heterogeneities content on the effective properties of a body under
contact loading. First, a heterogeneous elastic-plastic half space is
subject to a contact load and the macroscopic response in term of
load-displacement relation is analyzed. The macroscopic elastic-plastic
properties (elastic modulus, yield stress) are provided by identification
with the indentation curve of a homogenous half-space with
equivalent properties, this using a reverse Levenberg-Marquadt
algorithm. A semi analytical method is used for the indentation
simulations due to its efficiency to solve contact problems when the
contacting bodies are heterogeneous and/or behave plastically. This
method offers the possibility to obtain the nonlinear macroscopic
behavior compared to more classical homogenization methods that are
(1) used to investigate properties in the elastic domain only and (2) not
accurate for a volume close to a free or loaded surface.

5:30 6 pm
Influence of the Balls Kinematics and Ball/Race
Contact Models on Quasi-Static Approaches
for Ball Bearing
C. Servais, J. Bozet, University of Lige, Lige, Belgium
The frictional power dissipated within dry lubricated ball bearings is a
prime concern, especially for high-speed applications. Nevertheless, the
exact balls behavior is still a source of interrogations. First, a comparison
of several ball/race contact models has been performed by prescribing
the kinematical variables. This has been done by using an existing
quasi-static approach to reach the ball bearing equilibrium. Second, a
parametric study has been carried out on the ball kinematics. This time
the contact model remained fixed. The results demonstrate the
predominance of the kinematics on the ball bearing behavior with an
emphasis on the dissipated power within ball/race contacts. This shows
that the kinematics must be rightly computed. On the other hand, the
ball/race contact model doesnt necessitate a high refinement in order
to evaluate the ball bearing equilibrium. Conversely, this refinement is
essential for a precise evaluation of the power losses.

6 6:30 pm Rolling Element Bearings Business


Meeting

90

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 4E

Silver

METALWORKING IV
Session Chair: K. Eisenhauer, Integrilube, Bonita Springs, FL
Session Vice Chair: P. Zhao, Houghton International, Norristown,
PA

2 2:30 pm
Tools for Screening Process Fluids Performance
A. Tomala, AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria,
A. Naveira Suarez, SKF, Group Manufacturing Development Centre,
Gothenburg, Sweden, M. Rodriguez Ripoll, AC2T Research GmbH,
Wiener Neustadt, Austria
Process media have an enormous effect on the manufacturing
performance fulfilling the functions such as lubrication, corrosion
protection, cleaning and cooling. Screening and testing of the process
fluids targeting machining performance is poorly reported in literature.
There is a huge potential in research on machining contact tribology
parameters for example the influence of oil droplet size distribution,
wetting, viscosity and tension, alteration and ageing due to
perturbation of composition. Tribological characterization of
manufacturing process in labscale have shown that applying simple
model test (SRV and Brugger tester) are useful for assessing the friction,
wear and corrosion properties of the metalworking fluids, and thus can
serve as useful screening tools. Bench top scale tribometers can
simulate better the field conditions, however the results not always
correlate with existing results in manufacturing environment.

2:30 3 pm
Twist Compression Test (TCT) Boundary
Lubrication Results of Chlorinated Parrafin (CP)
and CP Replacements on Various Metals
T. McClure, Sea-Land Chemical SLC Testing Services, Valparaiso, IN
Twist compression is a bench test that creates lubricant starvation
under high pressures and sliding contact. It is used to evaluate the
boundary and E.P. performance of metalworking lubricants designed
for severe operations. The current work utilizes this test to compare the
performance of chlorinated paraffin with partial and full CP
replacement chemistries on various metals including stainless steels,
inconel, titanium, low carbon steel, and advanced high strength steel.
The aim is to provide useful data for planning CP replacement projects
for specific metals.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Evaluating the Next Generation of Metalworking
Fluids and Industrial Lubricants Using
Non-Standard Test Methods
B. Dubbert, Engineered Lubricants, Maryland Heights, MO
The demands put on industrial fluids presently and in the future for
health, safety, performance and cost are requiring more in depth
evaluation of fluid performance and more creativity in test methods.
Industry standard additives are being removed from the market or
being limited in use, thus creating opportunities to research new, novel
chemistries and combinations. The versatility of pin and vee and four
ball testing have made both tests industry standards. Flexibility of test
material gives formulators many tools for evaluating base fluids,
additives and the behavior of both in fully formulated products.
Increased demands have shown that two fluids that appear to be equal
by a standard test method may be found to perform quite differently
by a modified test method. Laboratory and correlating field results
using non-standard pin and vee and four ball methods will be
presented in this discussion.

www.stle.org

From the lab

to the field
We can help design and demonstrate performance
in all phases of lubricant development.
QCustom additives
QField technical service
QStandard and unique QFormula development
application testing

The specialty additive company!

See us
at booth
307/309

The Elco Corporation


216-749-2605, sales@elcocorp.com or www.elcocorp.com

Tuesday, May 17
4E

4:30 5 pm
Grinding of Inconel 718 Alloy with Air-Oil-Water
Mixture Delivered by MQL Technique
R. Da Silva, D. Oliveira, P. De Castro, A. Marques, . Machado,
Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
E. Emannuel, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria
Grinding of nickel superalloys has been always a topic of interest
among machining users. Due to low heat conductivity of nickel alloys
and abrasive wheels, as well as the high strength resistance of nickelbased alloys, heat is mainly concentrated at the grinding zone during
machining. Thus, it is important to search for correct combination of
cutting parameters and lubri-cooling environment when grinding
Inconel 718 alloy to prevent thermal damages and poor finishing of
machined workpiece. This work presents the results of finishing and
microhardness after grinding of Inconel 718 alloy in presence of a airoil-water mixture delivered by the MQL technique. SEM images of
machined surfaces were captured and used to understand the
interactions between the Inconel 718 and abrasive wheels. Results
showed that mixture of air-oil-water with MQL can provide as good
finishing as traditional coolant delivery. No significant variation in
microhardness was observed after grinding with MQL.

5 5:30 pm
Chemistry-Structure-Performance Relationship
of Various Organic Stain Inhibitors in MWF
H. Kim, F. Anthony, Chemetall/Albemarle, New Providence, NJ
The primary role of stain/corrosion inhibitor is to build up the barrier
on the metal surface to prevent access of corrosive species. In this role,
inhibitor acts through three sequential steps; displacing water
molecule, adsorbing on the metal surface and forming film by electron
transfer to or from metal/metal oxide surface. The anti-staining
efficiency of inhibitor would be dominated by its molecular
chemistry/structure and feasibility of charge transfer. For metalworking
fluids (MWFs), the anti-staining performance mostly relies on various
carboxylate, phosphate and silicate inhibitor systems. The choice of
those stain inhibitors depends on the type of alloys, composition of the
alloy, metalworking fluid composition, pH and temperature, etc. Along
this line, in this presentation we present our recent investigation on
chemistry-structure-performance relationship of various aluminum
stain inhibitor systems including amine carboxylates, phosphates,
silicates and complex esters.

5:30 6 pm
A Type of Plant Oil-Based Cutting Fluid for
Machining Titanium Alloy
C. Zhang, Y. Dai, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, T. Liu, Tianjin
Research Institute for Advanced Equipment, Tsinghua University,
Tianjin, China
Titanium alloys are recognized as difficult-to-cut materials due to their
low thermal conductivity, high chemical activity and small elastic
modulus. In this work, we use oxidized rapeseed oil as base oil to
develop a type of cutting fluid for machining titanium alloy. The
formula also includes some functional additives, such as emulsifier, rust
and corrosion inhibitor, anti-foaming agent, bactericide, etc. The
lubrication property of the emulsion was investigated by the ball on
disc tribo-tester with a WC ball and TC4 alloy disc. The friction
coefficient is as low as 0.2 and no adhesion can be found during the
test. The emulsion also shows an excellent anti-seizing property. In
addition, the emulsion presents anti-corrosion property for cast iron,
steel, and nonferrous metals. The anti-foam property and antibacterial
property of the emulsion are also investigated and satisfy the
requirement for cutting fluid.

6 6:30 pm Metalworking Business Meeting

92

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 4F

Palace 3

NON-FERROUS METALS I: ADDITIVES


Session Chair: M. Shafiei, Novelis Global Research & Technology
Center, Kennesaw, GA
Session Vice Chair: A. King, Houghton International, Valley
Forge, PA

2 2:30 pm
Water Dispersible Corrosion Inhibitors for
Aluminum Cutting Fluids
A. Michael, Clariant Corp., Mt. Holly, NC
Water-soluble and water-dispersible corrosion inhibitors are used for
formulating synthetic, semi-synthetic, and milky emulsions. Waterdispersible corrosion inhibitors have become important components
due to their ability to protect a wide range of metals. The rising interest
for these additives is due to light-weight materials such as aluminum
alloys, magnesium, titanium, and high strength steels that are
increasing in use in many industries; offering benefits such as reducing
weight and improving energy and fuel efficiency. At the same time
traditional ferrous metals such as steel, along with copper and cobalt
remain in the manufacturing process or as a part of the equipment and
tools. A comprehensive test program was initiated which evaluated
different chemistries according to varying performance criteria, ranging
from steel protection, inhibition of staining on aluminum, reduced
copper & cobalt leaching, to lubrication properties, foaming behavior,
and electrolyte stability.

2:30 3 pm
Al Cold Rolling Recovery of Rolling Oil From
Exhaust Air
O. Seiferth, Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH, Research &
Development, Bonn, Germany, S. Draese, Hydro Aluminium Rolled
Products GmbH, Grevenbroich, Germany
The main component of lubricants in cold rolling of aluminum are
hydrocarbon base oils. During application at the cold mills, the
hydrocarbons form both oil vapor and oil mist. The recovery of the
rolling oil from the exhaust air of the mill and its re-introduction into
the rolling process provide significant economical and ecological
benefits. This paper presents the technology of exhaust air purification
systems making use of wash oil for the absorption of the rolling oil
hydrocarbons. The properties of the wash oil are discussed with regard
to the processes of absorption and subsequent distillative separation of
the rolling oil. In addition, special emphasis is put on the control of
both wash oil and recovered rolling oil using dedicated analytical
testing methods.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Antioxidants and Charge Control Additives
for Ester Oils
T. Karis, WD (a Western Digital Co.), San Jose, CA
Fluid dynamic bearing spindle motors are now ubiquitous in magnetic
recording disk drives. Areas of continuous improvement for these
motor bearings are minimizing the motor voltage and electric charge
buildup in the oil and limiting oil oxidation. This talk describes the
development of an ester oil formulation with antistatic additives and
a kinetic model for synergistic formulation of antioxidants. Novel
polyaromatic charge control additives have the potential to offer
improved motor voltage stability relative to the currently used aromatic
amines. A kinetic model that includes the synergistic effects of primary
and secondary antioxidants and metal catalyst on oil oxidation lifetime
is employed to guide the formulation. Knowledge of the chemistry

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
provides a significant benefit because it reduces the development cycle
time and lowers the total cost to obtain improved motor lifetime.

4:30 5 pm
Waste Water Treatment Technologies

S. Berkebile, K. Radil, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen


Proving Ground, MD

A. Knopp, AEP Gavin Plant, Ravenswood, WV, S. Shively, Evoqua,


Columbus, OH

Loss of the primary lubrication system in high-speed rotorcraft


transmissions results in the rapid failure of the component gears due to
degradation of the material at the gear contact. The degradation is a
result of the absence of a protective liquid lubricant film and
inadequate heat removal. A study has been conducted to understand
the progression of physical and chemical changes in steel gear teeth
subjected to loss of lubrication by operating a series of gears for
increasing durations after turning off the lubrication source. The
surfaces of gear teeth have been characterized using optical, electron
and x-ray microscopies and spectroscopies. The surface and nearsurface morphology and composition will be presented, and the
relationship between scuffing damage, thermally promoted oxidation,
and additive chemistry during the rapid heating before failure will be
discussed.

We want to introduce and discuss current wastewater treatment


technologies that are available to treat various types of waste water.
These technologies vary in size and simplicity and some are even
geared totally for specific waste water components. The current EPA
outfall discharge limits have gotten more intricate and specific, and the
technologies out there have had to evolve as well to meet these new
limits.

5 5:30 pm Non-Ferrous Business Meeting

Session 4G

4 4:30 pm
The Progression of Gear Tooth Damage in
a Loss-of-Lubrication Event

Palace 4/5

Session Chair: H. Yoon, Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL

4:30 5 pm
Investigation of Solid Lubricants for Use
in Aviation Gearboxes

Session Vice Chair: S. Berkebile, US Army Research Laboratory,


Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

J. Ewin, K. Clark, J. Ullmann, K. Lee, A. Viray, NAVAIR, Patuxent River,


MD

GEARS III

2 2:30 pm
Tribological Assessment of Gear Materials
for Loss of Lubrication Survivability
K. Radil, US Army, Cleveland, OH
As part of its certification process for military and civilian rotary aircraft
the FAA requires the main rotor gearbox to operate for 30 minutes after
a loss-of-lubricant (LOL) event to allow time for the aircraft to maneuver
and land safely. To address this requirement a series of reciprocating
pin-on-plate tests were conducted on common and prospective gear
materials to identify the tribological properties that may play a role in
the survivability of gears operating without proper lubrication. The test
conditions were based on closely matching the sliding speed, contact
pressure, and temperatures present near the pitch point of spur gears
operating in NASA Glenns spur gear test rig during a LOL test. Friction
data collected throughout the test will be presented along with posttest wear measurements of the pins and plates.

2:30 3 pm
Scuffing Resistance and Starved Lubrication
Behavior in Helicopter Gear Steels: Dependence
on Surface Coatings
M. Riggs, S. Berkebile, N. Murthy, US Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
The performance of rotorcraft drivetrains under starved lubrication
conditions is critical to safety in the event that the lubrication system is
compromised. A ball-on-disk tribometer is used to simulate entraining
velocities, slide-to-roll ratios, and contact stresses relevant to aerospace
gears under fully flooded and interrupted oil supply conditions. The
relative performance of advanced helicopter gear steels with surface
coatings is studied with respect to relevant gear contact conditions. To
demonstrate the tolerance to starved lubrication conditions, the
frictional behavior and time to failure when the oil supply is interrupted
will be presented. The comparison of surface coatings under normal
and starved lubrication provides an initial assessment of each coatings
relative performance under conditions present in high-power and highspeed aerospace drivetrains.

Gearboxes have historically required oil lubrication to provide wear


resistance and heat dissipation for the internal gears and bearings;
however smaller Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that are becoming
prevalent for military and commercial use may not require oil
lubrication for their small gearboxes. Bench tests were performed on
diamond like carbon (DLC) and other solid lubricant coatings applied to
superfinished AISI 9310 steel. The coatings were evaluated using a
Wedeven Associates Machine (WAM) and the U.S. NAVY Ryder rig at
various speeds and loads to quantify the time to failure. The objective
was to quantify the operating envelope of these technologies in an oil
free gearbox system.

5 5:30 pm Gears Business Meeting

Authors and Presenters Invited to Attend


Speakers Breakfast
Lead authors and course presenters are invited to the
Speakers Breakfast (Monday through Thursday, May
16-19) from 7-8 am in the Platinum Room to meet with
Session and Paper Solicitation Chairs for a continental
breakfast on the days of their presentations. This is a
great time to review the session schedule and note
any last-minute changes. Speakers should plan on
attending.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

93

Tuesday, May 17
Session 4H

Las Vegas 1

FLUID FILM BEARINGS IV


Session Chair: B. Bou-Said, LaMCoS INSA De Lyon, Villeubanne,
France
Session Vice Chair: A. Cristea, Tecnitas, Levallois-Perret, France

2 2:30 pm
Dynamic Response of Polymers for Journal
Bearing Linings
S. Glavatskih, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm,
Sweden, M. Cha, Waukesha Bearings, Rickmansworth,
Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, I. Santos, DTU, Lyngby, Denmark
Dynamic response of polymer materials, which are potential candidates
for use as compliant linings in fluid film bearings, is evaluated. A small
amplitude harmonic excitation force is applied to the test specimens.
Obtained data is analysed with a frequency response function to
identify equivalent stiffness and damping of polymers.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), a PEEK
based composite and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE) of various thicknesses are investigated. The results are
presented and discussed.

2:30 3 pm
Transient Performance of Tilting-Pad Journal
Bearings Coated with PEEK or White Metal
J. Bouyer, M. Fillon, Institute pPrime, Futuroscope Cedex, France,
H. Katsuki, S. Mori, Daido Metal Co., Ltd., Inuyama, Japan
Modern guiding mechanical systems of rotors are nowadays designed
with a special care of energy consumption, but are still source of
significant power losses. In recent years, the downsizing of those
components led to a high need of performance optimization, efficiency
becoming a priority. One of the ways to achieve this goal is the use of
materials with good friction properties under steady-state and/or
transient regimes. The aim of the present study is to investigate how
the bearing layer materials (PEEK, Babbitt) could influence the
performance of a journal bearing during transient periods of startup
and shutdown. The studied tilting-pad journal bearings are 100 mm in
diameter, with a L/D ratio of 0.4, 5 pads and load on pad configuration.
Both local (temperature) and global (friction torque, shaft eccentricity)
measurements are discussed. It is shown the known insulating property
of the PEEK material as well as its ability to show a lower friction than
that of white metal.

4:30 5 pm
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the
Effects of Polymer-Lined Journal Bearings on the
Dynamic Behavior of a Simple Rotor Bearing
System
T. Snyder, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, F. Horvat, Duramax
Marine, Hiram, OH, M. Braun, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
This paper is concerned with the experimental and numerical
characterization of the dynamic behavior of a simply supported rotorbearing system wherein one of the two support bearings is a polymerlined journal bearing typical in marine stern tube and vertical pump
applications. Impact hammer modal testing is employed to determine
the system natural frequencies in the free-free and supported
conditions and the results are compared with numerical results
obtained from a simple finite-element rotordynamic model. Proximity
sensors positioned along the shaft and at the journal bearing are used
to reconstruct the system mode shapes and the rotor orbits. The
polymer constituency and bearing location relative to rotor discs
effects on the overall rotor-bearing system response are evaluated
under ideal conditions and subject to rotating unbalance and
misalignment. The model results have direct application to the design
of the drive trains for marine applications.

5 5:30 pm
Experimental Study of the Influence of Scratches
on Two-Lobe Journal Bearing Performance
C. Giraudeau, J. Beaurain, M. Helene, EDF, Clamart, France, M. Fillon,
J. Bouyer, Institute pPrime , Futuroscope Cedex, France
During maintenance operations, one often found issue is the
degradation of the supporting and guiding components for the
rotating shafts due to the apparition of scratches. To examine this issue,
a numerical software has been developed. In order to validate and to
complete the elaborated modeling, experimental tests have been
carried out on the Pprime Institute test bench. A preloaded two-lobe
journal bearing (diameter: 100 mm, length: 68.4 mm, preload: 0.5)
lubricated with an ISO VG 46 mineral oil has been tested. Scratches
were fashioned on the shaft at two different axial locations, varying
their depth and their width. Pressures and temperatures have been
measured for different rotational speeds and applied loads. At least, 8
configurations (unscratched, 6 with an only scratch and 1 with two
scratches) have been tested and all data have been compared to the
numerical results.

5:30 6 pm Fluid Film Bearings Business


Meeting

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Temperature Monitoring of PEEK Bearings
J. Zhou, Waukesha Bearings Corp., Pewaukee, WI
PEEK has been used as a bearing material for over 30 years. Its high
operating temperature limit, wide fluid compatibility, good corrosion
resistance, relatively low coefficient of friction and good tribology
characteristics have all contributed to its fast adoption in applications
where traditional fluid film bearing materials have limited life or are not
suitable. These include water-lubricated applications, electric
submersible pumps and turbomachinery susceptible to unplanned
shutdowns under full load. The acceptance of PEEK bearings for
gas/steam turbines and compressors, however, is still limited. One
reason for the slow switch to PEEK from traditional bearing materials is
that the traditional temperature monitoring methods used for babbitt
bearings do not provide sufficient warning of bearing distress for PEEK
bearings. The test results of two alternative methods of temperature
monitoring for PEEK bearings are presented in comparison to the
typical method for babbitt bearings.

94

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Exhibition Appreciation Hour and


Evonik Raffle
Two hours of dedicated exhibit time will occur at this
years trade show: Monday, May 16 and Tuesday, May
17 from 3-4 pm in the Ballys Event Center. All other
annual meeting activities will be closed during this
time. On Monday, May 16, at 3:30 pm Evonik is hosting
a raffle at Booth 201. The ticket for the drawing is
included in your registration bag. Just drop it in the
bin by Booth 201. You must be present in the exhibit
hall at 3:30 pm Monday to win.

www.stle.org

Savant
Savant Gr
Group
oup

a wor
world
w
orld
ld of lubrica
lubrication
lubr
ication
ica
tion
understanding

Visit us at booth #212 at the


STLE 201
201 Annual Meeting

Vision.
Vision. Guidanc
Guidance.
e. Understanding
Understanding.. Global LLeadership.
eadership.
Savant Laboratories, a world-class independent
testing laboratory and research center has
more than four
four decades of experience
providing insight, knowledge, and guidance
through lubrication testing, innovations, and
collaboration. This knowledge base and
experience has helped us to become a leader
in lubrication testing and research. We make
this wealth of experience and knowledge
available to you.
Participant
Participant in ASTM Cross
Cross Check and TM
TMC
C Monitoring
Monitoring P
Programs
Prrogr
grams
ams
A

Our extensive services can help you:


Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q

S A V A N T

L A B S

Meet industry and OEM specifications


Prepare for
for future industry requirements
Identify and solve fluid problems
Evaluate performance of new blends
Develop new test methods
Per form quality control monitoring

Explore how Savant Labs can help support


your vision. Visit: SavantLab.com
Q

ISO
IS
O 9001:2008 C
Certified
ertified
R

Tuesday, May 17
Session 4I

Las Vegas 2

BIOTRIBOLOGY IV
Session Chair: A. Dunn, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, IL
Session Vice Chair: B. Raeymaekers, University of Utah, Salt
Lake City, UT

2 2:30 pm
Tactile Feedback About Various Surfaces and
Governing Factor Discriminating Touch
Sensibility
M. Kim, Y. Lee, J. Park, Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea,
Swon-Si, Gyeong Gi-Do, Republic of Korea
Touch experience about various surfaces is closely related with surface
profiles and material properties of human skin and surfaces. In the
product design procedure, it was always aim that users can feel
comfortable and interesting experience using their items. To interpret
the relation between touch experience and tribological behavior
during relative motion, finger-sliding experiments using 10 sample
surfaces were carried out. In addition, to quantify the tactile feedback
in numerical value, investigations inquiring touch feeling about sample
surfaces were conducted. From these two experimental results, this
paper suggested governing factor discriminating the tactile sensibility
of various surfaces using several statistical methods such as nonlinear
regression. In the result, this study suggested the methodology to
predict the tactile feedback and discriminate the surfaces.

2:30 3 pm
Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity
on the Frictional Behaviour of Human Skin
M. Masen, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom,
M. Klaassen, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands
The environmental conditions such as temperature and relative
humidity are known to influence the frictional behaviour of skin. The
exact contribution of the individual parameters however, is unclear. In
this work, the effects of these parameters are studied using a custombuilt setup in which both temperature and humidity can be controlled.
Friction experiments were conducted on in vivo human skin using
woven textile samples. The results show an increased friction at both
increasing temperature and humidity, with the effects being more
pronounced at warmer and more humid environments; at 37C the
friction increase observed when increasing the relative humidity from
40% to 80% was approximately four times larger than at 25C. The
underlying mechanisms behind these effects and the implications for
(medical) product design, e.g., for products for pressure ulcer
prevention, are discussed.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Artificial Human Skin Simulating In-Vivo Friction
and Deformation for Dry and Moist Skin
Conditions
S. Franklin, Philips Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands, M. Nachman,
West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
The friction and deformation behaviour of human skin is strongly
affected by its hydration state. Commercially-available synthetic skin
materials do not simulate this behaviour sufficiently well. In vivo friction
and indentation deformation experiments were carried out using the
human volar forearm of a healthy 29 year old Caucasian woman and
compared with various synthetic materials in order to develop a new
moisture-sensitive synthetic skin equivalent. Analogous to skin the
artificial skin model was built up of two different layers: a very soft

96

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

under-layer simulating the dermis and hypodermis, and a stiffer


hydrophilic moisture-absorbing top layer simulating the epidermis.
The friction and deformation behaviour of the new synthetic skin
model under dry and moist environmental conditions was shown to be
very similar to that of human skin. This development has potential for
use as a test-bed in the predevelopment of devices that interact with
the skin in a mechanical way.

4:30 5 pm
Understanding Lubrication During Shaving
S. Whitehouse, C. Myant, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom, A. Stephens, Procter & Gamble, London, United Kingdom,
P. Cann, D. Dini, Imperial College London, Surrey, United Kingdom
Traditional experimental techniques to measure in-contact lubrication
properties involve hard contact interfaces. However, there are many
applications where one or both of the contacts are soft. Shaving is one
such example which is interesting to study as a typical razor cartridge
consists of both hard and soft components and is loaded against skin
during use. Skin is a difficult material to model due to the variation in
its mechanical properties, which depend on the individual person and
environmental conditions. In-contact fluid flow imaging using laser
induced fluorescence has been developed to better mimic skin
contacts and show fluid distribution and film thickness in a hardsoft
contact and a softsoft contact.

5 5:30 pm
Biomimetic Wall-Shaped Hierarchical
Microstructure for Gecko-Like Attachment
M. Varenberg, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA,
H. Kasem, A. Tsipenyuk, Technion Israel Institute of Technology,
Haifa, Israel
Most biological hairy adhesive systems involved in locomotion rely on
spatula-shaped terminal elements, whose operation has been actively
studied during the last decade. However, though functional principles
underlying their amazing performance are now well understood, due to
technical difficulties in manufacturing the complex structure of
hierarchical spatulate systems, a biomimetic surface structure featuring
true dynamic attachment still remains elusive. To try bridging this gap, a
novel method of manufacturing gecko-like attachment surfaces is
devised based on a laser-micromachining. This method overcomes the
inherent disadvantages of photolithography and opens wide
perspectives for future production of gecko-like attachment systems.
Advanced surfaces featuring thin-film-based hierarchical shearactivated elements are fabricated and found capable of generating
friction force of several tens of times the contact load, which makes a
significant step towards true gecko-like adhesive.

5:30 6 pm
Multi-Scale Finite Element Model for Predicting
Hysteresis Coefficient of Friction of SlipResistant Shoes
S. M.Moghaddam, A. Acharya, K. Beschorner, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
Predicting shoe-floor friction via computational modeling is a
significant step towards preventing slip accidents. A multi-scale finite
element model was used to predict the hysteresis coefficient of friction
(COF) and whole shoe contact area between eight different shoes and
vinyl flooring. Shoe-floor-contaminant COF measurements were
conducted using a portable slip tester and canola oil. Experimental
contact area of each shoe was quantified by covering the surface of the
shoe with ink and loading it against the floor at the same vertical force
as used in the COF measurements. Results demonstrated a correlation
between the predicted COF and experimentally measured COF
(r=+0.78), the predicted and experimentally measured contact area
(r=+0.67), and the predicted contact area and experimentally measured
COF (r=+0.71). These results demonstrate capability of the model to
predict contact area and COF of shoe-floor contaminant friction.

www.stle.org

Visit Us At STLE Booth # 308

Tuesday, May 17
Session 4J

Las Vegas 3

POWER GENERATION III: CONTAMINATION


CONTROL
Session Chair: S. Rea, Anderol Specialty Lubricants, East
Hanover, NJ
Session Vice Chair: J. Hannon, ExxonMobil Lubricants &
Specialities, Allentown, NJ

vacuum dehydration is impractical as it requires too much time at


typical pressure and temperature conditions. In systems where water
ingression on large scale has to be routinely dealt with vacuum
dehydrators are augmented with coalescers for removal as much free
water as possible before the main stream enters the dehydrator. In this
paper we present a coalescer based on a novel, condensate polymer
structure that proved itself surprisingly successful in removing water
from oils typically employed in steam turbine lubricating systems to
saturation levels in a single pass under normal operating conditions.

2 2:30 pm
Mechanisms Responsible For Electrostatic
Discharges Associated With Liquid Filters

4:30 5 pm
Purification of In-Service Hydraulic and
Lubrication Fluids A Review of Commonly
Used Methods

W. Needelman, Filtration Science Solutions, Inc., Huntington Bay, NY

K. Farooq, Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) associated with filters has been linked to


problems in several industries, including power generation, aerospace,
hydraulics, and bulk fluid handling. Reported problems include:
explosions, pinhole leaks through polymeric containers and conduits,
fluid degradation, and damage to filters. Suggestions for reducing ESD
in these systems are often ad hoc and difficult to implement. This is
the second paper of a series reporting on a program with two
objectives: (1) develop practical guidelines for designers and end-users
to alleviate and/or prevent ESD in these types of systems, and (2)
establish these guidelines on firm physical and chemical principles.
After presenting an overview of filter-related ESD, this paper focuses
on mechanisms of charge separation (charge transfer) between filter
media and the surrounding liquid, on the nature of charge carriers
created in solid and liquid phases, and on the accumulation of these
charged species resulting in sparking.

Fluids in hydraulic and lubrication systems get contaminated with


water, air/gases and in some applications with lighter hydrocarbons,
refrigerants and solvents. Fluid conditioning, the terms used for the
removal of these contaminants combined with filtration to remove
particulate contaminant, is a relatively straightforward and cost
effective maintenance to make these fluids suitable for continued use,
thus extending their service life and reducing waste. Notable among
the methods commonly used for fluid conditioning are the mass
transfer vacuum dehydration and flash distillation-vacuum
dehydration methods. This paper discusses the relative merits of the
common fluid purification methods and presents experimental data
that demonstrates the effects of temperature and pressure on water
and gas removal.

2:30 3 pm
The Introduction of Higher Purity Lubricants
for Large Steam and Gas Turbines Create New
Issues Through the Generation and Longevity
of Electrostatic Charges in the Oil
G. Munson, Fluid Assets, LLC, Madison, CT
Electrostatic charging and streaming currents have been well
documented in litterature for more than a decade. Dr. Akira Sazaki has
cited several examples of materials and conditions which exacerbate
the charge generation phenomenen. Field measurements of the
magnitude of these charging events and discharge phenomenon are
problematic. The strong influance or air in oil creating charging within
filters has been repeatedly documented in the laboratory, but not as
easily in the field. it is known that if there is air recirculating in the oil
or hydraulic fluid, there is a stronger probability of generating varnish.
The presence of varnish can now be easily documented with the QSA
or MPC test in the laboratory. Recent developments reveal a new test
method able to quantify he existance of air in the in-service oil with
surprising correlation to air in the machine operation. this test now
being evaluated in the beta format will be discussed.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
A Novel, Condensate Polymer Coalescer for
Free Water Removal from Steam Turbine
Lubricating Oils
J. Duchowski, E. Koch, HYDAC FluidCareCenter, Sulzbach, Saar,
Germany
Hydraulic and lubricating systems are subject to periodic ingression of
large quantities of water. When upsets occur, water content can exceed
the oil saturation limit such that it forms a binary phase system with
the carrier fluid. Free water being particularly undesirable, solutions for
its rapid removal are urgently sought for. Removal of free water by

98

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

5 5:30 pm Power Generation Business


Meeting

Session 4K

Las Vegas 4

WEAR I: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WEAR


Session Chair: J. Bomidi, Baker Hughes, The Woodlands, TX
Session Vice Chair: A. Clarke, Cardiff Univesity, Cardiff, United
Kingdom

2:30 3 pm
Sliding Wear of Spark Plasma Sintered
CrFeCoNiCu High Entropy Alloy Coatings:
Effect of Aluminum Addition
X. Ji, Hohai University, Changzhou, China
High entropy alloys are considered attractive coating materials
due to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance.
CrFeCoNiCuAlx (x= 0, 1, 2, 3) high entropy alloy coatings were
fabricated on carbon steel substrate using spark plasma sintering (SPS).
The microstructure evolved from FCC to FCC-BCC mixed structure. The
dry sliding wear behavior of the HEA coatings was investigated using a
ball-on-disk sliding tribometer (Nanovea, CA) with a Silicon Nitride ball.
The domain wear mechanism was abrasive wear accompanying with
oxidative wear. In all of the HEA coatings, CrFeCoNiCuAl3 possess the
lowest wear rate 0.8810-4 mm3/m and CrFeCoNiCuAl2 has the lowest
coefficient of friction 0.195 during 1000 m sliding distance at 1 m/s
sliding velocity under 20 N normal load. Comparing with 52100 steel,
spark plasma sintered CrFeCoNiCu high entropy alloy coatings exhibit
outstanding sliding wear resistance.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
4 4:30 pm
Experimental Study of the Wear Process at
the Rod/Seal Interface in a Reciprocating
Sealing System

5:30 6 pm
Wear Resistance Experiments on Phosphorus
Eutectic Cast-Iron with Double-Doped Rare Earth

S. Tsala Moto, Y. Berthier, G. Mollon, Universit de Lyon, LaMCoS,


INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5259, Villeurbanne Cedex, France,
A. Bertinotti, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, Molsheim, France

T. Li, X. Lu, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang,


China, D. Zou, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo, W. Li, L. Wang,
C. Zhang, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang,
China

Improvement of the reliability of reciprocating sealing systems requires


a control of leakage and wear at the rod/seal interface. In order to study
the tribological behavior of the rod/seal contact in such elastomeric
sealing actuator, a test rig of the piston is designed in a planar
configuration, according to the contact conditions assessed at the
interface in the real system. The tests are performed in several
conditions: dry and wet contacts, a wide range of speeds, lengths of the
stroke and numbers of cycles. Furthermore, a large amount of data
(force, displacement) is collected during each test. In addition, the
groove is transparent in such a way that a high-speed camera is used
on the side to capture images for a Digital Image Correlation study.
Finally, experimental analyses are performed on the worn samples and
compared to new samples. This experimental study helps to explain the
wear process at the rod/seal interface.

In this study, using lanthanum-cerium rare earth alloy as a modifier, the


rare earth content of cast iron sample is divided into 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%,
0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1%. For the above samples, it needs to analyze the
mechanical properties and abradability. For mechanical properties,
tensile strength, compressive strength, impact toughness, hardness and
other mechanical properties are analyzed to sum up the relationship
between the mechanical behaviors and the amount of rare earths. At
the same time, wear test is carried out, through results of wear weight
and micro-structure such as graphite, matrix organization, primary
austenite and eutectic group, to look for the relationship between
micro-structure and wear resistance, and a model of the abrasion
quantity and rare earth content is established. By all the test on
mechanical properties and abradability, the optimum cast iron with
double doped earth would be found among the test samples.

4:30 5 pm
Experimental Study of the Removal of the
Tribofilm Generated by Zinc Dialkyl
Dithiophosphate

Session 4L

Las Vegas 5

SYNTHETICS & HYDRAULICS III

P. Parsaeian, A. Neville, A. Ghanbarzadeh, University of Leeds,


Leeds, United Kingdom

Session Chair: A. Larson, The Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI

Understanding the true mechanisms of combined formation and


removal processes of the tribofilm generated by zinc dialkyl
dithiophosphate (ZDDP) is significantly important. It was reported that
the growth of such films is a combined process of formation and
removal at the same time in the contact. For better understanding the
mechanism of tribofilm removal it is important to understand the
tribochemistry phenomena and to find the true mechanisms of wear in
the presence of the tribofilm. Main focus of this study is to show the
physical concept of removal of the tribofilm and to investigate the
effect of different parameters such as temperature, load and water on
tribofilm formation and removal. Experimental results strongly support
the fact that tribofilm forms and removes at the same time and these
processes in combination characterize the behaviour of the
tribosystems. XPS analyses were carried out to see the difference in
chemical structure of the tribofilm before and after removal.

2 2:30 pm
Preparation and Evaluation of Metallocene
Polyalphaolefin (PAO) Based on -olefins made
from Coal
J. Li, J. Xu, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Shanghai, China
With the rapid development of the coal-chemical industry in China, the
production of olefins making by coal has been increased to a certain
huge capacity. In the same time, how to use the olefins with high
added-value has attracted more and more attentions. Based on the
cooperations with LuAn Group Co., one of the largest coal-chemical
company in China, we prepared metallocene polyalphaolefin base
stocks with different viscosity such as PAO4, PAO6, PAO8 and so on
using -olefins made from coal as raw materials. In addition, the
properties of the base oils has been evaluated using standard methods,
and the results indicate these base oils show good thermal oxidative
stabilities, high viscosity index and excellent fluidities under low
temperature.

5 5:30 pm
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Al2O3 and SiC
Particles Reinforced Aluminium-Based MMCs
by Taguchi Method
J. V. Menghani, Svnit Surat, Surat, India, B. Kumar, Itm Universe
Vadodara, Pali, Rajasthan, India
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are advanced materials that result
from a combination of two or more materials in which superior
mechanical and wear properties are realized. MMCs have become one
of the most significant superior materials used for automotive,
aerospace, general engineering applications and defense. SiC and
Al2O3 particle reinforced metal matrix composites were fabricated by
stir casting technique. Wear test was carried out on Pin-on-disc wear
testing machine. Optimization of wear test was carried out by using
taguchi analysis. An orthogonal array L4 and analysis of variance were
used to investigate the effect of wear parameters load, sliding speed
and sliding distance on wear behavior of composites. The worn surfaces
were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy
Dispersive Electroscope (EDS) to study the wear mechanism and
chemical characterization of composites.

www.stle.org

2:30 3 pm
Substitution of Group I Base Oils in Industrial
Lubricants- Applications in Model Hydraulic Fluid
Formulations
T. Norrby, L. Malm, P. Salomonsson, Nynas AB, Nynashamn, Sweden
Group I mineral base oil is the workhorse of the industrial lubricants
business. The world base oil market is currently undergoing rapid
change, driven mainly by the technical demand from automotive
applications, impacting also all other lubricant applications. These
highly paraffinic base oils make their way into industrial lubricant
formulations, so called over-blending. Important chemical and physical
differences exist: the viscosity range covered is Gr I is wider, and the
solvency offered by Group II and Group III, with higher aniline points,
and lower aromatic content, is far smaller than that of Group I base oils.
Nynas has created a new range of products with viscosity and solvency
closely matching those of existing SN Group I base oils. We conducted
studies of the new base oil, and on model hydraulic fluids based on

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

99

Tuesday, May 17
4L

these. The results suggest that it is possible to reproduce the key


features of Group I base oils, and to formulate hydraulic fluids based on
these base oils.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycols A Versatile
Component for Enabling the Formulation of
Modern Gear Lubricants
M. Greaves, Dow Chemical, Horgen, Switzerland
Oil-soluble polyalkylene glycols (OSP) are a versatile formulation
component and find use as performance additives or as primary base
oils in enabling the formulation of modern gear lubricants. These
oxygen rich polymers can help boundary and mixed-EH&D friction
control, improve the efficacy of surface active materials such as
corrosion inhibitors and extreme pressure additives and also act as seal
swell additives. As primary base oils their unique air release properties
for use in compact gear systems will be discussed and compared with
conventional products. Examples of their versatility for formulating
products for the marine and food processing industries will be
discussed.

4:30 5 pm
Performance of Lubricants Formulated with
a New Group V Base Stock
M. McElwain, I. Hobday, G. Stansfield, Croda, Yorkshire, United
Kingdom
Synthetic esters have long been utilised within lubricant formulations
to provide improved lubricity, oxidative stability, thermal stability,
additive compatibility, seal swell and many other performance
characteristics. Esters can be tailored to provide good to excellent
hydrolytic stability for many applications where there is the potential
for water ingress, but there are several demanding applications where
hydrolytic stability needs to be further improved upon to ensure that
the formulated lubricant continues to perform to the required standard.
Croda has previously presented the topic of liquid amides; products
that are not susceptible to hydrolysis, and therefore have the potential
to meet the market need for ester-like performance but with improved
hydrolytic stability. This paper will build upon previously presented data
and investigate whether there are further performance benefits from
using this technology, such as deposit and sludge control.

5:30 6 pm Synthetics & Hydraulics Business


Meeting

Stay Connected at the Annual Meeting


and Tweet #STLE2016
If youd like to be more involved during the annual
meeting and share information with fellow attendees,
STLE encourages you to use Twitter to tweet
noteworthy sessions, photos, questions and other
valuable resources. Were also encouraging exhibitors,
sponsors and companies to use it as a way to share
useful information with attendees. Log on to Twitter
(www.twitter.com) and just tweet using the
#STLE2016 hashtag. And be sure to follow STLEs
twitter handle (@STLE_Tribology) for the latest
updates throughout the week regarding the annual
meeting.

100

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 4M

Las Vegas 6/7

SEALS IV
Session Chair: N. Brunetiere, Institut Pprime, Futuroscope
Chasseneuil Cedex, France
Session Vice Chair: K. Malik, Ontario Power Generation,
Pickering, Ontario, Canada

2 2:30 pm
Analysis of an End Face Mechanical Seal with
Internal Valving for Low Power Applications
J. Stieha, L. Stephens, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
Certain end face mechanical seal geometries are utilized with internal
valving ports machine into their faces that create a complex sealing
requirement from the high pressure at some of the ports to low
pressure (typically atmospheric) at both the seal OD and ID and lower
pressures at other ports. During operation, friction is generated
between the surfaces causing power loss from the system. In low
power applications, the mechanical seal can greatly reduce the
effectiveness of the system and therefore the seal requires much
needed component consideration to reduce the power loss. In this
presentation, we are investigating the surface roughness and
geometrical properties, material selection, face pressure, and other
components to reduce the power loss of the seal and stay within an
acceptable leakage limit. Analysis of the seal surfaces is accomplished
using white light interferometry, SEM, and EDS. Correlation between
seal leakage and torque and important properties will be presented.

2:30 3 pm
The Lift Effect of Waviness Errors in
Aerodynamic Lubrication. Application to the
Analysis of Annular Segmented Seals
M. Arghir, Institute Pprime, Universit de Poitiers, Futuroscope
Chasseneuil, France
The goal of the present work is to explain the lift effect of theoretically
flat pads in annular, segmented seals. At zero rotation speed, the pads
are in contact with the rotor. With increasing speed, the segments lift. A
small radial clearance is created and prevents the rubbing contact
between the segment and the rotor. When the pads have shallow
pockets, the resulting Rayleigh step bearing generates the lift. However,
the annular, segmented seals may also have flat pads. The source of the
lift effect must then be looked for in the inherent waviness errors of the
pads. High linear velocities combined with small amplitudes of the
waviness errors enhance the compressibility effects and may sometime
lead to net lift forces. The present work underlines under which
circumstances the lift effect can be created by flat pads. It is shown that
lift does not appear in all circumstances but the probability that a pad
with waviness errors might create lift is larger than the opposite
situation.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm Seals Business Meeting

www.stle.org

Monson is now part of


Azelis Americas
New company str
strengthens
engthens its commitment to specialty
JOLTPJHSZHUK[LJOUPJHSZLY]PJLVLYPUNHIYVHKLYUL[^VYR
JOLTPJHSZHUK[LJOUPJHSZLY]PJLVLYPUNHIYVHKLYUL[^VYR
of support and value to its U.S. and Canadian partners.
Monson Companies is now part of Azelis Americas
AmericasHNSVIHS[LHTVMS\IYPJHU[ZHUKTL[HS^VYRPUN
HNSVIHS[LHTVMS\IYPJHU[ZHUKTL[HS^VYRPUN
L_WLY[Z4VUZVU^PSSUV^ILHISL[VVLYP[ZJ\Z[VTLYZHUL]LUIYVHKLYSPULVMWYLTP\TWYVK\J[Z
L
_WLY[Z4VUZVU^PSSUV^ILHISL[VVLYP[ZJ\Z[VTLYZHUL]LUIYVHKLYSPULVMWYLTP\TWYVK\J[Z
ZZHSLZZ\WWVY[HUKZLY]PJLZ[OYV\NOP[ZL_WHUKLKWVY[MVSPVVMZ\WWSPLYZ6\Y3\IYPJHU[Z 4L[HS^VYRPUN
HSLZZ\WWVY[HUKZLY]PJLZ[OYV\NOP[ZL_WHUKLKWVY[MVSPVVMZ\WWSPLYZ6\Y3\IYPJHU[Z 4L[HS^VYRPUN
Technical
T
echnical Center will continue to support our sales team, customers and suppliers with unmatched
MMVYT\SH[PVUHUK[LJOUPJHSHZZPZ[HUJL3L]LYHNL[OLM\SSYHUNLVM[LJOUPJHSYLZV\YJLZZHSLZZ[HHUK
VYT\SH[PVUHUK[LJOUPJHSHZZPZ[HUJL3L]LYHNL[OLM\SSYHUNLVM[LJOUPJHSYLZV\YJLZZHSLZZ[HHUK
X\HSP[`WYVK\J[ZVUS`4VUZVUKLSP]LYZI`JVU[HJ[PUNcustomer
X
\HSP[`WYVK\J[ZVUS`4VUZVUKLSP]LYZI`JVU[HJ[PUNcustomer sales and service at 1-800-235-0957,
or via email to csr@monsonco.com for your local Monson sales repr
rrepresentative.
epresentative.
4VUZVU*VTWHUPLZ154


Pioneer DriveLeominster,
 
MA 01453 1-800-235-0957

w^^TVUZVUJVJVTwww.azelisamericas.com


*
*VTL]PZP[\ZH[:;3,)VV[OZ
VTL]PZP[\ZH[:;3,)VV[OZ
LUBRICANTS & METAL
WORKING FLUIDS

Creating
Creating value, gr
growing
owing together

Tuesday, May 17
Session 4N

Jubilee 1

SURFACE ENGINEERING IV
Session Chair: Z. Khan, Faculty of Science & Technology,
Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom
Session Vice Chair: A. Saeed, Bournemouth University,
Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom

2 2:30 pm
Bonding Preference of Hydrocarbon Molecules
on a Lubricated Disk Surface
C. Yeo, J. Song, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX
Under high operating temperature condition, hard-disk-drive (HDD)
components can promote increased outgassing that can influence the
tribological performance of head-disk-interface (HDI). The vaporized
chemical contaminants inside the HDD are typically from products of
adhesive and elastomer initiators, adhesive monomers and primers,
grease constituents, elastomeric monomers, and plasticizers. It has been
known that alkane hydrocarbons were predominant molecules for HDD
outgassing failures. In this study, we investigate the bonding mechanism
and preference of hydrocarbon molecules to a lubricated disk surface
using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The lubricated disk was
made of Z-Tetraol on top of DLC coating, while hydrocarbon was
modeled using alkane. From the simulation results, it was observed that
the hydrocarbon molecules had higher bonding preference to the
backbone materials of Z-Tetraol, which was more facilitated at higher
temperature.

2:30 3 pm
Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface
Modification (UNSM) Technique on Wear and
Micropitting in Boundary Lubricated Steel-Steel
Contacts
H. Qin, Z. Ren, C. Ye, Y. Dong, G. Doll, The University of Akron, OH
An ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique has
been used to treat bearing steel specimens. Tribological behaviors of
the UNSM-treated and untreated specimens were investigated in both
mixed mode and reciprocating sliding contact under boundarylubricated conditions. Friction coefficients, micropitting damage, wear
volumes, changes in surface profiles, and changes in surface roughness
values of specimens were studied as a function of stress cycles. Results
showed that UNSM-treated specimens have lower friction coefficients
and higher wear and micropitting resistance than the untreated
specimens. The improvements in wear and micropitting resistance may
be attributed to increased surface hardness and refined grain sizes. The
UNSM technique may be a useful tool to improve the durability and
tribological performance of contacting surfaces of mechanical
components such as bearings, gears, and seals.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
A Universal Model for an Elastic-Plastic Coated
Spherical Contact with Moderate to Large
Coating Thicknesses

functions of the interference are also found for the above wide range.
Normalizing the contact parameters by their corresponding values at
the second yield inception in the substrate enables a universal model
that provides empirical relations between the various dimensionless
contact parameters.

4:30 5 pm
Tribological Studies on Molybdenum Coatings
P. Nataraj, R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, S. K.S, R. T, PES Institute of
Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Molybdenum possesses excellent lubricity properties even at elevated
temperature & excessive load. HVOF process the king of thermal
spraying techniques is quite popular in developing molybdenum
coatings for tribological applications. Meagre information is available as
regards the tribological behaviour of molybdenum coatings developed
through HVOF process. In the light of the above, the present work
focuses on the development of molybdenum coatings on A36 & SS304
substrates by HVOF process. The developed coatings have been
subjected to microstructural studies, microhardness and tribological
assessment. Molybdenum coatings possesses lower coefficient of
friction and higher wear resistance when compared with uncoated A36
and SS304 subtrates.

Session 4O

Jubilee 2

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY IV
Session Chair: G. Blackman, DuPont Central Research &
Development, Wilmington, DE
Session Vice Chair: J. Ye, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei,
Anhui, China

2 2:30 pm
Discrimination of the Bulk Material and
Tribological Properties of PTFE Based
Composites Through Post-mortem Analysis
M. Villavicencio, A. Saulot, Universit de Lyon, INSA-Lyon,
Villeurbanne, France, M. Renouf, Universit de Montpellier,
Montpellier, France, G. Colas, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON,
Canada, J. Adrien, Universit de Lyon, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne,
France
In tribological applications, self-lubricated cages are used to lubricate
rolling bearings instead of using greases. RT/Duroid5813 (a composite
of PTFE, MOS2, and fibers) has been successfully used as a reliable
lubrication material for cages; however, his sole manufacturer Rogers
Corporation has ceased its production in the 90s. PGM-HT (based on
the same components) has been selected as a replacement;
nonetheless its behavior is not well understood, especially under
tribological applications. The target of this project is to study the
internal morphologies of both composites and to link them to friction
behavior. To this end, SEM, x-ray tomography and ImageJ analysis were
carried out. The dimensions, orientation, and distribution of the
components have been highlighted. The previous results of the bulk
material have been confronted to the debris particles generated during
friction, obtained by elementary test that reproduce the double transfer
mechanism of a self-lubricating bearing.

Z. Chen, R. Goltsberg, I. Etsion, Technion, Haifa, Israel


A finite element analysis is used to investigate the elastic-plastic
contact behavior of a coated sphere compressed by a rigid flat. The
study concerns hard coatings having moderate to large thicknesses
and a wide range of mechanical properties of coatings and substrates.
The first and second critical interferences corresponding to the yield
inceptions in the coating and substrate, respectively, are found for the
large range of material properties and coating thicknesses. Dimensional
contact parameters such as the contact load and contact area as

102

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
2:30 3 pm
Wear and Friction Behaviour of Self-Lubricating
Polymer Composite Bearing Materials

5 5:30 pm
Developing a Mechanistic Framework for Wear
of PFA Fluoropolymer/Alumina Composites

M. Rodiouchkina, K. Berglund, R. Larsson, Lule University of


Technology, Lule, Sweden

M. Sidebottom, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, C. Junk, H. Burch,


G. Blackman, DuPont Central Research & Development,
Wilmington, DE, B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA

During the last years, hydropower have been used to control and
regulate power output due to an increased use of other renewable
energy sources. Thus, higher demands are put on the self-lubricated
bearings used in hydro power applications due to the changes in
operating conditions which are dominated by high pressures and low
sliding speeds. In this study, the influence of high pressure and low
sliding speed operating conditions on the wear and friction behavior of
some of the commercial available bearing materials for hydropower
turbines is investigated in a reciprocating block-on-block configuration.
Furthermore, the relationship between the mechanical material
properties of the polymer composites and the test results is
investigated.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break


4 4:30 pm
Investigating the Evolution of Transfer Films
in Polymer Tribology
A. Jean-Fulcrand, M. Masen, J. Wong, Imperial College London,
London, United Kingdom

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is the most notable fluoropolymer for


tribological applications because of its uniquely low friction coefficient.
Its high wear rate is overcome by compositing PTFE with fillers; some
PTFE-alumina composites can have wear rates ~10,000 times less than
unfilled PTFE. PFA (PerFluoroAlkoxy), a perfluorinated TFE-copolymer,
has a much lower melt viscosity than PTFE, allowing it to be injection
molded. Although the friction coefficient is greater than PTFE, the wear
rate of Teflon PFA 340 similarly decreases from ~3.7x10-4 mm3/Nm
(unfilled) to ~5.0x10-8 mm3/Nm through the addition of alumina
particles at 10 wt.%. The multi-scale chemical and mechanical
mechanisms of this wear reduction will be explored by pairing
tribological experiments with material characterization techniques.
Primary hypotheses for the wear reduction include a symphonic
combination of tribochemical reactions, shear-induced changes in
material crystallinity, and multi-scale mechanics.

5:30 6 pm
A Quantitative Wear Model of Tribological
Polymer Composites

High-performance polymers are being investigated as replacements


for lubricants in high temperature applications due to their selflubricating properties. When a polymer is rubbed against a metal
surface, a polymer transfer film may form on the metal. In this study,
a fixed polymer ball was rubbed against a rotating smooth steel disc.
The effects of the operating conditions and the contact temperature
on the formation of the transfer film were investigated, as well as the
effects of the formation of a transfer film on friction and wear. The
morphology, chemical composition and molecular orientation of the
transfer film have been characterised using techniques such as Raman
spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR and DSC. Results show that the degree of
crystallinity, the chemical composition and the molecular alignment of
polymer chains within the transfer film are different from that of the
pristine polymer.

J. Ye, H. Zhang, J. Zeng, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui,


China

4:30 5 pm
Quantitative Characterization of Solid Lubricant
Transfer Films

6 6:30 pm Materials Tribology Business


Meeting

D. Haidar, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, J. Ye, Hefei University


of Technology, Hefei, Anhui, China, D. Burris, University of
Delaware, Newark, DE

Registration available for STLE


Certification Exams

Solid lubricants are important for a variety of applications where


traditional lubricants are impractical. These materials are often mated
against hard metallic surfaces of higher surface energy and deposit a
transfer film to the counterface. Studies have shown that the transfer
film is representative of the wear behavior, yet describing its quality
thin, uniform, tenacious has been subject to interpretation. Recently,
three methods were proposed for quantifying transfer film quality: area
fraction, film thickness, and free-space length Lf (size domains of
exposed counterface within film region). Of these three metrics, freespace length distinguished itself as well correlated to wear rate for the
ultralow wear material 5%wt. alumina 95% PTFE nanocomposite. In this
study, we assess each methods ability to quantify wear rate for a range
of polymeric materials: PTFE nanocomposites, PEEK nanocomposites,
PPS, PET, and epoxy.

www.stle.org

Polymeric solid lubricants form protective transfer films at the metallic


hard counterface, which mitigate friction and wear significantly. Despite
the overwhelming evidence that various transfer film characteristics are
related to the wear reduction mechanism, no strong correlation
between certain transfer film property and wear was claimed due to
the shortage of quantitative studies. Our prior results suggested surface
energy and adhesion dominate the wear resistance of the transfer film
in dry sliding. First, we propose here a quantitative wear model based
on the surface energy difference between the two sliding surfaces in a
polymer-metal friction pair. Second, we report detailed measurements
of surface energy and wear performance using a well-known PTFE
nanocomposite which validates the model.

All four of STLEs certification exams: Certified


Lubrication Specialist, Oil Monitoring Analyst I and II
and Certified Metalworking Fluids Specialist will be
conducted concurrently on Thursday, May 19 from 9
am to Noon in Palace 3. Individuals must be registered
for the exams in advance, however, onsite registration
is available on a limited basis. For more information,
stop by the STLE Registration Desk in the Grand Salon.
Registration and sign-in starts at 8:30 am. Fees: First
exam: $380 (STLE member), $510 (Non-member),
Retake exam: $190 (STLE member), $255 (Non-member).

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

103

Tuesday, May 17
Session 4P

Jubilee 3

NANOTRIBOLOGY IV: NANOPARTICLE


ADDITIVES
Session Chair: K. Sinha, Chevron Oronite LLC, Bellaire, TX
Session Vice Chair: H. Ghaednia, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI

2 2:30 pm
Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid-Mediated
Dispersions of Nanomaterials as High
Performance Additives for Lubricants
P. von Czarnecki, M. Ahrens, T. Schubert, Iolitec Ionic Liquids
Technologies, Heilbronn, Germany
The influence of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricants and as lubricant
additives has been investigated over the past years.[1,2] Recently, it has
been found that anti-wear properties can be improved by the addition
of carbon allotropes such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphite and
graphene platelets to base oils.[3] In addition, some highly surface
active ILs can be used to prepare stable dispersions of nanoparticles
that show itself a good tribological performance. In our contribution we
will present our latest results on the use of ionic liquids as high
performance additives for lubricants, on dispersions of tribological
interesting nanomaterials as well as on possible new lubricants based
on the combination of ionic liquids and nanomaterials.

2:30 3 pm
Metal Disulfide Nanoparticles as Lubricant
Additives for the Automotive Industry

5 5:30 pm
Interactions between MoS2 Nanotubes and
AW/EP Tribofilms
A. Tomala, M. Rodrguez Ripoll, AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener
Neustadt, Austria, M. Kalin, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana,
Slovenia, M. Remkar, Institute Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia
The use of Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) nanoparticles is an
emerging concept in lubrication, which aims to enhance tribological
properties of lubricants, such as friction-reducing properties, anti-wear
and load-carrying capacity. However, in fully-formulated lubricants
other properties such as oxidation and corrosion preservation are
essential to provide a comprehensive protection against degradation.
As a consequence, the coexistence of nanoparticles with conventional
additives is unavoidable in fully-formulated products. The main
objective of this research work is to investigate the tribological
performance of MoS2 nanotubes accompanied with conventional
additives. The results show synergetic interactions between MoS2
nanotubes with selected detergents and AW additives and antagonistic
interactions with selected EP additives and dispersants. The nanotubes
and surface interaction mechanism changes depending on the
supplementary additive ability to form durable tribofilm.

5:30 6 pm
Friction and Wear Behavior of Blends of Calcium
Carbonate Nanoparticles and Overbased
Additives in Common Paraffinic Lubricant Oils
A. Akbarzadeh, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA,
K. Shams, S. Solaimani, S. Akbarzadeh, Isfahan University of
Technology, Isfahan, The Islamic Republic of Iran

The tribological properties of new lubricants containing nanoparticles


have been extensively investigated these last past years. Special interest
has been paid to nanoparticles made of metal dichalchogenides like
MoS2 and WS2. In boundary lubrication regime and when used in
dispersion in oil, these nanoparticles exhibit exceptional friction
modifier and anti-wear properties. However, despite all the research
work done until now on the tribological properties of nanoparticles,
only few studies have been done on the effect of the nanoparticles in
real life conditions. In this work, the effect of MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles used as lubricant additives in the lubrication of automotive
engine and gearboxes has been studied. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the performances of metal dichalcogenides nanoparticles in
an engine test and in a steel gearbox for the automobile industry.

The friction and wear behavior of blends of calcium carbonate


nanoparticles and colloidal solvents in common paraffinic lubricant oils
is studied. Calcium carbonate with a crystalline structure called calcite is
used as nanoparticles. Calcite with an average particle size of 70 nm
was blended with the common additives such as overbased calcium
sulfonate, overbased magnesium sulfonate detergents and Zinc Dialkyl
Dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as anti-oxidant to produce nanolubricant. The
wear test on samples was carried out by pin on disc method at the
normal load of 90 N, velocity of 0.1 m/s, and a running distance of 1000
meters. The weight loss of discs due to wear was determined right after
the wear test. Further, deformation of the surface of the discs after the
wear test was studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM)
photography and atomic force microscope (AFM). Results revealed that
addition of 1 % calcite nanoparticles leads to remarkable reduced wear
and friction.

3 4 pm Exhibitor Appreciation Break

6 6:30 pm Nanotribology Business Meeting

F. Dassenoy, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France

4 5 pm
New Insights into Friction and Wear from
Atomic-Scale Measurements: The Role of
Energy Barriers
R. Carpick, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
New insights into friction and wear from atomic force microscopy
(AFM) and in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are
presented. First, nanocontacts with 2-dimensional materials like
graphene are discussed, where friction depends on the number of
layers. An initial model attributing this to puckering [1] is now
enhanced by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showing a strong
role of energy barriers due to interfacial pinning and commensurability.
An even stronger effect occurs with fluorinated graphene. AFM and MD
show that high static friction arises from the high energy barriers to
motion due to fluorination [2]. Second, the origins of nanoscale wear
using combined TEM-AFM is discussed. Wear of silicon sliding on
diamond follows a kinetic model where energy barriers for chemical
bonding are strongly affected by stress [3,4].

104

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Materials Performance &


Protection

Solutions for a Changing World

Lonza offers a broad portfolio of products to meet the challenges of the metal working
fluid formulator. Our customers benefit from our regulatory and technical expertise, and
Lonza is committed to offering next generation products that can stand up to changing
regulatory standards around the world.
Consult us for:
Preservation Technologies
Metal Treatment
Platforms for Corrosion Inhibition
Visit Lonza at booth #111 to learn more about our specialty products.
E: materialsprotection@lonza.com

www.lonza.com

Visit Us At STLE Booth # 518

Overview
Please check the errata in your registration bag to verify course times. Some times
might change slightly.

WEDNESDAY, MAY 18
Registration (7 am 6 pm) Grand Salon
Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum
Commercial Exhibits (9:30 am Noon) Ballys Event Center
Education Courses (8 am 5 pm)
Advanced Lubrication 302: Advanced Lubrication Regimes
Skyview 1

Technical Sessions (1:30 6 pm)


6A Commercial Marketing Forum VI Bronze 4
6B Lubrication Fundamentals VI: Tribofilms Bronze 3
6C Engine & Drivetrain VI Bronze 2
6D Rolling Element Bearings IV Gold
6F Non-Ferrous Metals III: Tribology Palace 3
6G Wind Turbine Technology II Palace 4/5

Automotive Lubrication 202: Gasoline Skyview 2

6H Fluid Film Bearings VI Las Vegas 1

Basic Lubrication 102: Basic Applications Skyview 3

6I Environmentally Friendly Fluids II Las Vegas 2

Metalworking Fluids 105: Introduction to Metal Forming


Fluids Skyview 4

6K Wear III Las Vegas 4

Synthetic Lubricants 204: Fluid Formation & Application


Skyview 6

6M Condition Monitoring II Las Vegas 6/7

6L Tribotesting II Las Vegas 5


6N Surface Engineering VI Jubilee 1

Technical Sessions (8 am Noon)

6O Materials Tribology VI Jubilee 2

5A Commercial Marketing Forum V Bronze 4

6P Nanotribology VI: Nanoscale Lubrication Mechanisms


Jubilee 3 (1:30 3 pm)

5B Lubrication Fundamentals V Additives Bronze 3


5C Engine & Drivetrain V Bronze 2
5E Rolling Element Bearings III Silver
5F Non-Ferrous Metals II: Bio-Based Lubricants Palace 3

6Q Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session I:


Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale Jubilee 3
(3:30 6:30 pm)

5G Wind Turbine Technology I Palace 4/5


5H Fluid Film Bearings V Las Vegas 1
5I Environmentally Friendly Fluids I Las Vegas 2

Exhibit Hours

5K Wear II: Analysis of Friction and Wear Las Vegas 4

Wednesday (9:30 am Noon)

5L Tribotesting I Las Vegas 5

The exhibition is in the Ballys Event Center.

5M Condition Monitoring I Las Vegas 6/7

Beverage Breaks are scheduled at 10 am and 3 pm


daily.

5N Surface Engineering V Jubilee 1


5O Materials Tribology V Jubilee 2
5P Nanotribology V: Nanoscale Lubrication Mechanisms
Jubilee 3

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

105

WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 5A
CMF V

SESSION 5B
Lubrication Fundamentals V

SESSION 5C
Engine & Drivetrain V

Bronze 4

Bronze 3

Bronze 2

8 8:30 am

A New European Source for Renewable


Pelargonic and Azelaic Acid, S. Facco, p. 110

Microencapsulation of Friction Modifiers,


F. Zhao, p. 112

A Complete 3-D Description of the Elastic


Behavior of a Piston Ring and its Influence on
the Tribological Behavior of the Piston RingCylinder Liner Interface, L. Mastrandrea, p. 113

8:30 9 am

Altalub 5300 Revolutionizes the


Metalworking World, S. McCabe, p. 110

The Effectiveness of Lubricant Additives in


Preventing Soot Induced Wear, I. Hobday,
p. 112

Adjustable-Angle Reciprocating Tribometer


for Ring-on-Liner Testing, N. Demas, p. 113

9 9:30 am

The Latest Trends in Oil Condition Monitoring,


N. Christenssonp. 110

Comparison of Different Types of Friction


Modifier Additive, H. Spikes, p. 112

Theoretical Analysis of Stroke Length Versus


Scuffing in Reciprocating Rigs, P. Lee, p. 113

TTT Tapping-Torque-Testsystem, M. Mueller,


p. 110

Tribological Performance of Model Oils


Containing Ionic Liquid Additives Influenced
by Oxidative Degradation, N. Doerr, p. 112

Using the Ultra Shear Viscometer and


Understanding the Effect of Measurement
Method on the Results, P. Lee, p. 113

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

Break

10:30 11 am

Synergy in Metalworking Fluids: AKYPO ROX


(NIO) and AKYPO (EC) Based on PO/EO,
C. Broer, p. 110

How Oxidative Degradation Can Influence


Tribolayer Chemistry of Model Oils Containing
Ionic Liquid Additives, N. Doerr, p. 112

Technical Benefits of Oil Soluble Polyalkylene


Glycols in Engine Oil Compositions, N. KhelidjSuedmeyer, p. 114

11 11:30 am

HOCUT 4000 Series: Performance Plus


The Next Generation in Water-Miscible Metal
Removal Fluids, D. Mazur, p. 110

Selection of Pour Point Depressants,


J. Guevremont, p. 113

Observations of Power Cylinder Component


Wear to Advanced Spark Ignited Combustion
Technologies, C. Wileman, p. 114

New Biobased Lubricant Packages for Saw


Guide and Chain Oils, D. Vargo, p. 112

Filtration Effects on Foam Inhibitors and


Optically-Detected Oil Cleanliness, A. Martini,
p. 113

A New Test Rig for Simulation of Piston Ring


Friction, M. Sderfjll, p. 114

SESSION 6A
CMF VI

SESSION 6B
Lubrication Fundamentals VI

SESSION 6C
Engine & Drivetrain VI

Bronze 4

Bronze 3

Bronze 2

1:30 2 pm

Renewable Raw Materials for Applications in


Hydraulic Fluids, V. Aruta, p. 128

Mechanisms of ZDDP Antiwear Tribofilm


Growth Revealed In Situ by Nanoscale SingleAsperity Sliding Contact, R. Carpick, p. 129

Tribological Feasibility Study of OxygenDiffusion Case-Hardened Titanium Diesel


Piston in CJ-4 and PC-11 Engine Oils, J. Qu,
p. 130

Residual Stress Measurement of M50 Ball


Bearings Using the Contour Method, D. Isaac,
p. 131

2 2:30 pm

Emery Oleochemicals A Global Producer of


Corrosion Inhibitor and Lubricant Chemistries,
J. Sliner, p. 128

ZDDP Tribofilm Formation under Pure Sliding


Conditions, Y. Shimizu, p. 129

Challenging the Linear Wear Rate Assumption:


An In-Situ Stylus Profilometer for a Reciprocating Tribometer, T. Kamps, p. 130

Investigation of the Brinell Dent Resistance of


Hybrid Rolling Element Bearings with 60NiTi
Races and Si3N4 Balls, S. Howard, p. 131

2:30 3 pm

CINRG Systems Inc., B. Quesnel, p. 128

Correlating Chemical Composition, Mechanical


Properties, and Tribological Behavior of Ionic
Liquid Tribofilms, J. Qu, p. 129

Optimising Surface Texture to Reduce


Friction in Piston-Liner Contacts,
T. Reddyhoff, p. 131

Spall Propagation Characteristics of


Refurbished VIM-VAR AISI M50 Bearings,
J. Mason, p. 132

9:30 10 am

11:30 Noon

Gold

Break

3:30 4 pm

Enhancing MW Formulation with Multipurpose


Lubricant Additives, Anticorrosion and Low
Foam Emulsifiers, M. Patel, p. 128

Understanding Friction Reduction


Mechanism of Polyalkylene Glycol Engine
Oils, A. Gangopadhyay, p. 130

Scuffing of Diesel Engine Cast Iron Liner: Role


of Tribochemical Surface Film, O. Ajayi, p. 131

A New Test Rig for the Investigation of


Rolling Bearings in the Centrifugal Field,
D. Hochrein, p. 132

4 4:30 pm

Vacuum Dehydration Oil Purification System


The Most Reliable Way to Keep Your Oil
Absolutely Clean and Dry, K. Kaihlanen, p. 129

Impacts of Oil Contaminants on the


Performance of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP,
Y. Zhou, p. 130

Embedability Behaviour of Some Pb-Free


Engine Bearing Materials, D. Gebretsadik,
p. 131

Tribochemical Investigation of the Micropitting


Induced by ZDDP Anti-Wear Additive & Effect
of a Potential Additive on Reducing ZDDPInduced Micropitting, S. Soltanahmadi, p. 132

4:30 5 pm

VANLUBE 407 Antioxidant Blend, B. Fuller,


p. 129

Study of Gear Oil Additive Tribofilms Using


XANES, M. Costello, p. 130

5:30 6 pm

Synfluid mPAOs: High Viscosity Base Oils for


Exceptional Lubes and Greases, K. Hope, p. 129

Microstructural Changes in Aerospace


Bearing Materials under Accelerated Rolling
Contact Fatigue Life Testing, M. Kirsch, p. 132

6 6:30 pm

GTL Solvents Offer Fresh Solutions for the


Metalworking Industry, R. Wiersma, p. 129

Elucidation of the Action of Functional Groups in


the Coexisting Ashless Compounds on the Tribofilm
Formation and Friction Characteristic of ZnDTPFormulated Lubricating Oils, Y. Matsui, p. 130

Hysteresis Phenomenon of Turbocharger


Sub-synchronous Frequency Vibration,
L. Begin, p. 131

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Break

SESSION 6D
Rolling Element Bearings IV

3 3:30 pm

106

Break

Break

Break

www.stle.org

SESSION 5E
Rolling Element Bearings III
Gold

SESSION 5F
Non-Ferrous Metals II

SESSION 5G
Wind Turbine Technology I

SESSION 5H
Fluid Film Bearings V

Palace 3

Palace 4/5

Las Vegas 1
8 8:30 am

Rolling Bearing Cage Optimization Using


Simulations, L. Stacke, p. 114

New Base Oils for the Aluminum Industry:


Moving Along the Vegetable Road,
A. Joassard, p. 115

Effect of Housing Support on Bearing


Dynamics Explicit Finite Element Modeling,
L. Cao, p. 114

Biobased Lubricant Additives Derived from


Limonene, G. Biresaw, p. 115

Lubricant Effects on White Etching Cracking


Failures in Thrust Bearing Rig Tests, T. Haque,
p. 116

Design Consideration of Thrust Foil Bearings


Operating with Refrigerant Gas, A. Prabhakar,
p. 117

8:30 9 am

Dynamic Behaviors of Counter-Rotating


Cylindrical Roller Bearing with Different
Mounting Configurations, W. Gao, p. 114

Base Oil Lubricants Derived from Yellow and


Brown Grease, D. Garbark, p. 115

A Study of Microstructure Alterations in


White Structure Flaking Failure of Wind
Turbine Bearings Through High Pressure
Torsion Processes, L. Wilches Pena, p. 116

Two-Way Coupled Reynolds, Rayleigh-Plesset


and Energy Equations for Fully Transient
Cavitation Modeling, K. Pierson, p. 117

9 9:30 am

Closing the Loop and Sustainable Cutting


Oils, S. Kailas, p. 116

A Study of Microstructure Alteration in SAE


52100 Bearing Due to Classic Rolling Contact
Fatigue and White Etching Crack, V. Smelova,
p. 116

Effects of Variable Properties on the Gas Film


Hydrodynamics in the High-Speed Micro Gas
Thrust Bearings, Q. Chen, p. 117

9:30 10 am

Break

Break

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

Bearing Thermal Failure Mechanism Analysis,


Y. Wang, p. 115

Lubricants from Renewable Group III


Synthetic Hydrocarbons Derived from
Farnesene, P. Vettel, p. 116

Role of Hydrogen in White Structure Flaking of


Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings through Serial
Sectioning Analysis, A. Richardson, p. 117

Analysis of Cavitation, Dynamics, and Solid


Deformation of Simple Slider Bearings Using
CFD, T. Snyder, p. 118

10:30 11 am

Damage Analysis in High Loaded Oscillating


Bearings, E. Houara Komba, p. 115

Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and


Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax,
R. Harry-OKuru, p. 116

Premature Bearing Failures and White


Etching Cracks, K. Stadler, p. 117

Numerical Study on the Effect of Oil Removal


from Aero-Engine Bearing Chamber and
Improvement, Y. Lyu, p. 118

11 11:30 am

A Study of the Dominant Drivers of WhiteEtching Crack Formation in a Three-Ring on


Roller Contact, B. Gould, p. 117

Analysis of Oil-Gas Interaction in the AeroEngine Bearing Chamber, J. Zhao, p. 118

11:30 Noon

Preloaded Bearing Applications in a Helicopter


Transmission System: A Performance
Evaluation, A. Gunduz, p. 115

Break

SESSION 6F
Non-Ferrous Metals III

SESSION 6G
Wind Turbine Technology II

SESSION 6H
Fluid Film Bearings VI

Palace 3

Palace 4/5

Las Vegas 1

Determination of Boiling Behavior of Rolling


Emulsions on Hot Aluminum Slab,
K. Januszkiewicz, p. 134

Integrated Test and Simulation of Large-Size


Bearings for Wind Turbines, J. Binderszewsky,
p. 135

Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an


Unbalanced Flexible Rotor Supported by
Elastic Bearings Lubricated with PiezoViscous Polar Fluids, B. Bou-Said, p. 136

1:30 2 pm

Filtration and Particle Size of an Aluminium


Cold Rolling Coolant, P. Deneuville, p. 134

Influence of Contact Conditions and


Lubricant Properties on Pitting Failures in
Rolling-sliding Contacts, F. Manieri, p. 135

Elastogasdynamic Model for Air Foil Journal


Bearings: Hysteresis Prediction Including
Preloading Effects, M. Mahner, p. 136

2 2:30 pm

Stain Potential: Aluminum Cold Rolling


Applications, R. Blithe, p. 134

Experimental Results of Different Oil


Condition Monitoring Approaches for Wind
Turbine Gearboxes in an Oil Sensor Test
Bench, D. Coronado, p. 135

Design of a Non-Contact Electromagnetic


Exciter Used for High-Speed Journal Bearings,
L. Wang, p. 136

2:30 3 pm

Break

Break

Break

3 3:30 pm

Evaluation of Wear Response Under Reciprocating Sliding of A390 Alloy when Squeeze Casting
Pressure and Stroke Length Vary, T. Harish, p. 134

Performance Characterisation of Wind Turbine


Gear Oils, K. Topolovec Miklozic, p. 135

Dynamic Coefficients Identification of WaterLubricated Hybrid Journal Bearings Using


Non-Contact Excitation, G. Chen, p. 136

3:30 4 pm

Investigation of Galling Failure in Cutting


and Punching of Aluminum Sheets for
Automotive Applications, M. Shafiei, p. 134

Maximizing Wind Turbine Gear Oil Life,


J. Leather, p. 235

Parallel Computing of Multiobjective


Optimization of Air Bearing, H. Chen, p. 136

4 4:30 pm

Tribology of Aluminum Sheet Processing for


Automotive Applications, M. Shafiei, p. 134

Evaluation of Gerabox Oil and Grease Analysis


Results from Wind Turbines Combining
Statistically Based Limit Values and Trend
Analysis, S. Bots, p. 135

4:30 5 pm

Panel Discussion (5 6 pm)


Wind Turbine Tribology Business Meeting

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

WEDNESDAY >>
107

WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME
Environmentally Friendly Fluids I

SESSION 5K
Wear II

SESSION 5L
Tribotesting I

Las Vegas 2

Las Vegas 4

Las Vegas 5

SESSION 5I

SESSION 5M
Condition Monitoring I
Las Vegas 6/7

8 8:30 am

Interaction Study Between Raw Materials in


a Brake Pad Formulation, F. Vivier, p. 120

Triboemission Imaging to Study Coating


Failures, A. Ciniero, p. 121

New Condition Monitoring Method of Oil and


Machine Elements by Lubricant Color
Analysis, A. Ito, p. 122

8:30 9 am

Tribological Behaviour of Tool Steels Operating


at Elevated Temperatures, L. Pelcastre, p. 120

Application of Ultrasonic Sensing to


Monitoring Lubrication Condition in a
Refrigeration Compressor, T. Oyamada, p. 121

New Scenario for Lubricated Machines, How


Big Data Analytics and Industry 4.0 are
Changing the Game, J. Alarcon, p. 122

Oxidation Performance of Various Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants, T. Kuchta,


p. 118

Study of Accelerated Life Model for Harmonic


Drive with the Failure Form of Adhesive Wear,
J. Li, p. 120

Temperature Rise at the Sliding Interface


Between a Carbon Steel and DLC Film,
S. Yamamoto, p. 121

Retrospective Approach for Establishing


Predictive Wear Signatures for Lubricating
Oils, B. Byrne, p. 122

Frictional Behavior of Ester Base Stocks,


M. Hof, p. 118

Tribological Compatibilities of Surface-Coated


Fuel Claddings for Accident-Tolerant Fuels
with Zr-Based Structural Materials, Y. Lee,
p. 120

Accurate Determination of Limiting Friction


of Tribo-Pairs through Model Scale Tribotests,
K. Pondicherry, p. 121

Diagnosing Varnish Problems in Lube Systems


with Normal MPC Values, T. Chen, p. 122

Break

Break

9 9:30 am

9:30 10 am

10 10:30 am

Break

10:30 11 am

High Yield Performance of Reusable Positively


Charged Zeolite in Skeletal Isomerization
Reaction of Oleic Acid, M. Sarker, p. 118

11 11:30 am

11:30 Noon

Effect of Soot in the Boundary Friction


Regime, K. Pondicherry, p. 121

Asset Condition Assessment: A Case Study


from Theory to Reality, M. Yarlott, p. 124

Fundamental Lubricity Protection of BioHydraulic Fluids Versus Conventional


Petroleum Hydraulic Fluids, P. Haines, p. 120

Stick-Slip in Piezoelectric Inertia Drive


Motors Contact Life and Tribological Circuit,
F. Dubois, p. 122

Quantitative Measurements of Lubricant


Contaminants Using a Microsensor Array
Based on Back Propagation Artificial Neural
Network, X. Zhu, p. 124

Water Contamination Control in Hydraulic


and Lubrication Systems using a Membrane
Dehydrator, S. Majumdar, p. 120

High Temperature Wear Evaluation of


Materials: Challenges and Industrial Case
Studies, E. Georgiou, p. 122

Development of Tribological Diagnostic


Technology by the Color of Membrane Patch,
E. Kitahara, p. 124

SESSION 6I
Environmentally Friendly Fluids II
Las Vegas 2

Friction and Wear Mechanism of


Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearing
Under Drilling Fluid Condition, Y. Li, p. 121

Break

SESSION 6K
Wear III

SESSION 6L
Tribotesting II

SESSION 6M
Condition Monitoring II

Las Vegas 4

Las Vegas 5

1:30 2 pm

Fast Biodegradable Always the Optimum


Property for Lubricants?, W. Bartz, p. 137

High Sensitivity Inductive Pulse Sensor for


Metallic Wear Debris Detection Based on
Parallel LC Resonance Method, X. Zhu, p. 137

Tribological Modification on the Glass Fabric/


Phenolic Laminate Composite Under Water
Lubricating, F. Yan, p. 138

2 2:30 pm

Application and Performance Comparison of


Greases that are Certified as Environmentally
Acceptable Lubricants, D. Adams, p. 137

A Multibody Meshfree Method for ThirdBody Simulation, G. Mollon, p. 137

Tribological Characterization of a Hybrid


Nanoparticles Additive in a Biolubricant
Under Boundary Lubrication, J. Abere, p. 138

Condition-Based Lubrication, D. Martin, p.140

Analysis of Scratches Generated on GaN


Substrates During Polishing, C. Zou, p. 137

Design and Development of Novel Test


Instruments to Assess Tribological Effects of
Nanofluids, G. Molina, p. 138

Using Oil Analysis to Extend Warranty Period


on O&M Equipment, C. Silva, p. 140

2:30 3 pm

Break

3 3:30 pm
3:30 4 pm

Break

Break

Mechanisms of Chip Formation During


Circular Sawing of Supermartensitic Stainless
Steel, C. Sanchez, p. 137

Some Problems in EHL Film Measurement


of Finite Line Contacts under Oscillating,
X. Chen, p. 140

Grease Condition Sensor for Rolling Element


Bearings: Dielectric Property Measurements of
Water Contaminated Grease, N. Dittes, p. 140

4 4:30 pm

Impact of Third-Body on Wear Mechanisms,


M. Renouf, p. 138

Experimental Modeling and Optimization of


the Tribocharging Process in a Sliding Contact
between Polymeric Materials, Y. Prawatya,
p. 140

A Novel Ultrasonic Sensing Technique to


Measure Viscosity In-Situ in Journal Bearings,
M. Schirru, p. 142

4:30 5 pm

Modeling of the Wear Particles Formation in


Mixed Lubricated Sliding Line Contacts,
A. Akchurin, p. 138

A Novel Device for the Study of Transient


Effects in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,
M. Masen, p.140

A New Approach to Elemental and Wear


Debris Analysis, A. Toms, p. 142

An ElasticPlastic Investigation of Third Body


Effects on Fretting Contact in Partial Slip,
A. Ghosh, p. 138

Tribotesting Business Meeting

5 5:30 pm

5:30 6 pm

108

Panel Discussion

Break

Las Vegas 6/7

Environmentally Friendly Fluids Business


Meeting

Wear-Biotribology Business Meeting

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

SESSION 5N
Surface Engineering V

SESSION 5O
Materials Tribology V

SESSION 5P
Nanotribology V

Jubilee 2

Jubilee 3

Development of Polymer Brushes for the


Lubrication of Silicon Nitride-Steel Contacts,
S. Watson, p. 124

Design and Performances of Adaptive


Lubricating Composites in a Wide Temperature
Range, J. Jia, p. 125

Molecular Mechanisms of Aqueous Boundary


Lubrication by Mucinous Glycoproteins and
their Engineered Mimics, S. Zauscher, p. 126

Frictional Behavior of (PEI/GO)x Solid


Lubricant Coatings on Steel Substrates in
Extreme Environments, P. Saravanan, p. 124

Tribological Challenges in 3D Printing with


Liquid-Like Solids and Complex Fluids,
C. OBryan, p. 125

Investigation on the Atomically Smooth


Surface with Step-Terrace Structure of GaN
Wafer after Chemical Mechanical Polishing,
H. Gong, p. 124

Friction and Yielding in Liquid-like Solids,


T. Bhattacharjee, p. 125

Confined Lubricant at a Molecular Scale


Under Transient Tribological Conditions,
A. Crespo, p. 126

9 9:30 am

Tribological Performance & Tribofilm


Formation on Microwave PECVD DiamondLike Carbon Films Under Boundary
Lubrication Conditions, H. Zhao, p. 125

Superlubricity in Soft Matter, A. Pitenis, p. 125

Steric Effect of Thickening Agents in


Interfacially Confined Liquid Lubricants,
K. Tamura, p. 126

9:30 10 am

Break

Break

Jubilee 1

SESSION 6N
Surface Engineering VI
Jubilee 1

8 8:30 am

8:30 9 am

Break

Break

10 10:30 am

Time-Dependence of Hydrogel-Solid
Lubrication Investigated by Steady Shear
Tribo-Rheology, A. Dunn, p. 126

Experimental Study of the Liquid-Mediated


Adhesion between Contacting Rough
Surfaces, A. Rostami, p. 128

10:30 11 am

Tribological Rehydration: Directly Observing


the Loss and Recovery of Interstitial Fluid,
A. Moore, p. 126

Ionic Liquids Confined in Rough Contacts,


R. Espinosa-Marzal, p. 128

11 11:30 am

Slow Rise, Take it Easy: Local Mesh Size


Control of Thermal Fluctuation Lubrication,
K. Schulze, p. 126

Supramolecular Assembly and Nanotribological Properties of Mucic Acid Mediated by


Molecular Modulators, H. Shi, p. 128

11:30 Noon

SESSION 6O
Materials Tribology VI
Jubilee 2

SESSION 6P
Nanotribology VI

SESSION 6Q
Materials Tribology

Jubilee 3

Jubilee 3

Development and Evaluation of Low Friction


and Low Wear TiSiCN and DLC-Based Coatings
for Automotive Valvetrain, J. Lin, p. 142

Evaluating Drilling Muds: A Novel Tribometer


Designed to Evaluate Geological Sliding
Contacts, P. Egberts, p. 144

Tribological Properties of Nanodiamonds in


Aqueous Suspensions: Effect of the Surface
Charge, J. Krim, p. 146

1:30 2 pm

Measurements and Simulations of Full-Field,


Sub-Grain Surface Deformation in Tantalum,
C. Battaile, p. 142

Understanding Sliding Wear Behavior


through High Pressure Torsion (HPT) Testing,
S. Descartes, p. 144

Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on the


Orientational Behavior of Nano LC
Lubricating Film, M. Gao, p. 146

2 2:30 pm

Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Sapphire


Wafer Using Mixed Silica Nanoparticles,
Y. Zhou, p. 142

Influence of Sputter Deposited Solid


Lubricant Thickness on Plain Journal Bearing
Life, B. Nation, M. Dugger, p. 145

Tribochemical Synthesis of Nano-Lubricant


Films From Adsorbed Molecules at Sliding
Solid Interface, X. He, p. 146

2:30 3 pm

Break

Break

A Study on Tribological Performance of Black


Oxide Coating for Bearing Applications,
V. Brizmer, p. 144

Numerical Investigation on Electrical


Transmission Ability of a Shearing Powder
Layer Application to Powder Lubricant,
C. Zeng, p. 145

Low Friction and Wear of Si Wafer and


Graphite Achieved by UNSM Technique,
A. Amanov, p. 144

High Temperature Lubrication in Hot Sheet


Metal Forming, J. Hardell, p. 145

Insight into the Mechanisms of High


DLC Wear When Lubricated with MoDTCcontaining Lubricants in DLC/Steel Contacts,
S. Kosarieh, p. 144

High Temperature Friction and Wear in Open


and Closed Tribo-Systems, S. Hernandez,
p. 145

Corrosion and Wear Behaviour of Zr-Ti-N Thin


Films, J. Menghani, p. 145

Break

Break
Ultralow Wear Fluoropolymer Composites:
Putting Together the Mechanistic Pieces,
C. Junk, p. 146

3:30 4:30 pm

Surface Identity, Modification and Evolution


in Polymer Tribology, K. Harris, p. 148

4:30 5 pm

Nano-Rheology of Hydrogels Using Direct


Drive Force Modulation Atomic Force
Microscopy, R. Carpick, p. 148

5 5:30 pm

Effects of Structure of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphates on Tribological Properties of


Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Film Under
Boundary Lubrication, H. Okubo, p. 148
Measurement of the Energy Dissipation of
Copolymer in Non-Contact Regime Using
Atomic Force Microscopy, S. Shi, p. 148

www.stle.org

3 3:30 pm

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

5:30 6 pm

6 6:30 pm

WEDNESDAY
109

Wednesday, May 18
Session 5A

Bronze 4

9:30 10 am
TTT Tapping-Torque-Testsystem

COMMERCIAL MARKETING FORUM V

M. Mueller, Microtap GmbH, Taufkirchen, Germany, J. Hepp,


Compass Instruments, Inc., Sugar Grove, IL

8 8:30 am
A New European Source for Renewable
Pelargonic and Azelaic Acid. The Integrated
Biorefinery of Matrca Pioneering Biorefinery
for Innovative and Sustainable Bio-Products,
Building-Blocks, Intermediates and Additives

With a torque- and process-controlled thread-tapping machine (cutting


and forming) in completion with its integrated analysis software the
TTT System tests efficiently and inexpensively the capability and the
performance of MWF metal working fluids and tools. In search of the
smallest possible friction coefficient the TTT system provides and
records the values related to five torque inidcators: max. torque, torque
mean value, standard deviation, Gaussian curvature (distribution of
torques), integral (tool wear) as well as Delta Temperatures and depicts
the full details. The TTT System offers ideal possibilities for standardized
and competitive comparison/evaluation of neat oils, emulsions and
polymer lubricants. It is a multiple development and evaluation system,
which provides insights in to the features of lubricants and lubricant
formulation techniques during practical machining and delivers reliable
and repeatable results in regard to performance capability of metal
working fluids.

S. Facco, NOVAMONT SPA., Novara, Italy


Matrca is an integrated biorefinery that, starting from agricultural raw
materials and vegetable scraps, produce a range of chemical products
through innovative and low-impact processes. Lubrication is a key
applicative fields for Matrca products. Azelaic acid is a well-known
complexing agent for lithium greases while pelargonic acid is used in
corrosion inhibitor systems. Both acids together with the short chain
linear acids obtained in Matrcas process are an important raw material
for the synthesis of high performance esters base-stocks (high thermal
stability, low Pour Point, high lubricity and high viscosity index). Esters
of pelargonic acid have been used since years in high demanding
applications (i.e. turbine oils): nowadays car industry, marine sector,
agriculture and many other areas, are lubrication sectors which do
request performance combined with an advantageous environmental
and safety profile (biodegradability, low flammability).

8:30 9 am
Altalub 5300 Revolutionizes the Metalworking
World
S. McCabe, Ingevity, North Charleston, SC
In the metalworking world, precision is essential when state-of-the-art
parts are cut from high-performance metal. When precision is of utmost
importance, Altalub 5300 is the lubricant of choice. Altalub 5300, built
on our Tall Oil Fatty Acid (TOFA) chemistry, is designed for the future.
This patent-pending technology offers exceptional lubricity. On top of
that, its easy to formulate with because of its low molecular weight and
offers hydrolytic stability. When you choose to formulate with Altalub
5300 as your lubricant, your customers and their tools will thank
you. We will also be presenting exciting new data around Diacid 1550,
the topic of our CMF presentation last year, which addresses its
corrosion inhibition and emulsification properties.

9 9:30 am
The Latest Trends in Oil Condition Monitoring
N. Christensson, Eralytics GmbH, Vienna, Austria, J. Hepp, Compass
Instruments, Inc., Sugar Grove, IL
Accurately monitoring contaminants, degradation products and
additive levels is essential to achieve optimal performance of
lubricating systems and minimizing failure rates. In engine applications,
thinning of the lubricating oil due to fuel dilution can cause serve
damage unless detected at an early state. Here we discuss a ten
position auto sampler using ASTM D7094 (continuously closed cup
flash point) to provide fuel dilution measurements with up to 10
samples per hour with unattended operation and maximum safety. For
a more comprehensive picture of the condition of the in-service fluid,
FTIR is an excellent screening technique allowing monitoring of
additives, degradation products and contaminants within less than 1
minute. As an example of portable FTIR oil condition monitoring we
discuss antioxidant and antiwear additive monitoring using FTIR and
compare to the results to voltammetry (RULER).

110

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Synergy in Metalworking Fluids: AKYPO ROX
(NIO) and AKYPO (EC) Based on PO/EO
C. Broer, M. Stapels, Kao Chemicals GmbH, Emmerich am Rhein,
NRW, Germany
Metalworking fluids formulations are based on a long list of different
raw materials. A lot of combinations can be made and will lead to good
results but some product groups are working together and show even
improved properties (Synergy). The so-called carboxylic acid triangle is
a good example of an anionic synergy: Alkyl ethercarboxylic acids
(AKYPO, EC), long alkyl chain, short alkyl chain, fatty acids. In the right
combination and ratio these three product groups can be the basic for
long (sump) life emulsions. Synergy is also found in combinations like
non-ionics (Alkoxylates), Anionics (e.g. Alkyl Ethercarboxylic Acids (EC)).
Well-known combinations are based on Ethoxylated Cetyl Oleyl alcohol
types. Developed combinations are Ethoxylated Amide types,
Propoxylated and Ethoxylated types. During this presentation,
examples will be shown of the use of the Propoxylated (PO) and
Ethoxylated (EO)-based synergy.

11 11:30 am
HOCUT 4000 Series: Performance Plus
The Next Generation in Water-Miscible Metal
Removal Fluids
D. Mazur, Houghton International, Valley Forge, PA
Houghton International, the global leader in metalworking fluids and
services, has launched HOCUT 4000 Series metal removal fluids. This
innovative technology platform further extends the benefits you
already expect from Houghton with higher performance, increased
ease of maintenance, and higher cost savings. In addition the HOCUT
4000 Series conforms to all health and environmental regulations
enabling use across the globe. This presentation will focus on several
specific products designed for use in the aerospace and general
machining industries.

www.stle.org

Visit Us At STLE
Booths # 102 & 104

Wednesday, May 18
5A

11:30 am Noon
New Biobased Lubricant Packages for Saw
Guide and Chain Oils

9 9:30 am
Comparison of Different Types of Friction
Modifier Additive

D. Vargo, Functional Products Inc., Macedonia, OH

H. Spikes, J. Guegan, Imperial College London, London, United


Kingdom, M. Southby, N. Morgan, Shell Global Solutions UK,
London, United Kingdom

New saw guide oil and chain oil additive packages have been
introduced for the forestry/lumber industry. While saw guide oil
FUNCTIONAL SGP-567 is designed for both biobased and mineral oil
base stocks, performance data encourages the use of biodegradable,
environmentally-friendly vegetable oil base stocks for optimum
performance in these applications. FUNCTIONAL SGP-567 is a robust,
non-hazardous, multifunctional additive that provides antiwear, mild EP,
rust protection and enhanced lubricity. FUNCTIONAL SGP-567 is
recommended for multi-blade, gang saws and trimmers commonly
used in lumber production. FUNCTIONAL CO-545 is a biobased chain oil
additive package that provides exceptional tackiness, antiwear,
enhanced EP, rust protection and lubricity.

Session 5B

Bronze 3

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS V
ADDITIVES
Session Chair: J. Qu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge,
TN
Session Vice Chair: N. Doerr, AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener
Neustadt, Austria

8 8:30 am
Microencapsulation of Friction Modifiers
F. Zhao, S. Parab, S. Hsu, The George Washington University,
Ashburn, VA
Friction modifiers are surface-active molecules responsible for friction
reduction of interacting surfaces. In engine oil applications, they are
responsible for fuel economy improvement. In selecting the right
friction modifier to use in a formulation, potential additive-additive
interactions and the balance between friction modifiers and antiwear
additive are key technological challenges. Microencapsulation of
friction modifiers provides an opportunity for enhanced performance
and long lasting friction reduction capability. At the same time, most
friction modifiers are long chain polar molecules and are difficult to be
encapsulated. We will discuss the fundamental issues and show how
some friction modifiers can be microencapsulated. The performance of
capsulated friction modifiers will be shown.

8:30 9 am
The Effectiveness of Lubricant Additives
in Preventing Soot Induced Wear
I. Hobday, M. McElwain, J. Eastwood, Croda, Yorkshire, United
Kingdom
Soot generation in heavy duty engines, especially those fitted with
exhaust gas recirculation systems is a well-recognised phenomena
which leads to lubricant thickening and can lead to soot induced wear.
Soot generation is not limited to heavy duty applications; it is now also
becoming an issue in gasoline fuelled light duty vehicles. In an effort to
improve fuel efficiency and reduce exhaust gas emissions car
manufacturers are adopting gasoline direct injection technology
combined with turbocharging, which also results in the formation of
soot. This paper will focus on the effectiveness of organic additives in
reducing soot induced wear.

112

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Progressive reduction in the viscosity of liquid lubricants means that


lubricated contacts are operating with thinner and thinner lubricant
films and thus increasingly in the mixed and boundary lubrication
regimes. This places growing importance on the use of friction modifier
additives that reduce friction in these regimes. There are several classes
of friction modifier additive and these are believed to work in quite
different ways to reduce friction [1]. This presentation describes a
comparison of the effectiveness of the various types of friction modifier
additive in both base oil and formulated engine oil under a range of
test condition. The differences in behaviour seen are related to the
different types of film that the additives form on rubbing surfaces. The
effectiveness of combinations of the various classes of friction modifier
additive is also explored.

9:30 10 am
Tribological Performance of Model Oils
Containing Ionic Liquid Additives Influenced
by Oxidative Degradation
N. Doerr, M. Frauscher, C. Gabler, AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener
Neustadt, Austria, P. Aswath, University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, TX
Ionic liquids have attracted particular attention as lubricant
compounds both as base oils and additives. While the fundamental
performance of some ionic liquids in lubricants is available, their longterm properties are still widely unknown. In this work, model oils
containing ionic liquids as additives were analysed before and after
oxidative stress. Samples obtained by such lab-based artificial
alterations were characterised according to conventional analytical
methods and mass spectrometry to account for the progress of
oxidative degradation on the molecular level. Selected samples were
subjected to tribometrical benchmarking using an oscillating cylinderon-disc contact geometry. Friction and wear behaviour are discussed in
view of oxidative degradation.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
How Oxidative Degradation Can Influence
Tribolayer Chemistry of Model Oils Containing
Ionic Liquid Additives
N. Doerr, M. Frauscher, C. Gabler, AC2T Research GmbH, Wiener
Neustadt, Austria, P. Aswath, University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, TX
The tribochemistry of a number of ionic liquids either as neat fluids
or as additives in base oils is fundamentally known. However, the
impact of deterioration on the long-term properties remains widely
hidden. In this work, model oils containing ionic liquids as additives
were artificially altered by a lab-based method. Model oils in fresh
conditions and selected samples obtained during oxidative stress were
tribometrically assessed using an oscillating cylinder-on-disc contact
geometry. Wear scars were analysed by XPS. Tribolayer chemistry is
discussed with regard to oxidative degradation observed.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
shape, while usually an axisymmetric model that only considers the
cross section of the ring is employed, thus ignoring its axial split [4,5].
The performance of different shapes of the piston ring section are
investigated in terms of minimum film thickness, pressure distribution,
wear and friction.

11 11:30 am
Selection of Pour Point Depressants
J. Guevremont, K. Garelick, J. Bell, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond,
VA
Pour point depressants are used in most lubricant types, including
engine oils, ATFs, gear oils, tractor fluids, and hydraulic fluids. The pour
point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which it will pour when
cooled. In general, the pour point is indicative of the amount of wax in
an oil. At low temperatures, the wax tends to separate, which leads to
poor lubrication. So pour point depressants are added to allow mineral
oils to function efficiently at low temperatures, while keeping the
viscosity benefits of the wax at higher temperatures. Previous work has
shown the components needed in the structure of PPDs. This work will
look at the effectiveness of several PPDs in various base oils to develop
an understanding of not only the effect of the structure of the PPD but
also the impact of the structures in the base oils. Base oil structures are
measured by nitric oxide ionization spectrometry evaluation (NOISE)
and low temperature properties are measured by oscillatory rheometry.

11:30 am Noon
Filtration Effects on Foam Inhibitors and
Optically-Detected Oil Cleanliness

Foam inhibitors (FIs) reduce foam tendency, but can be identified as


contaminants by light-based automatic particle counters. In order to
meet stringent cleanliness goals, the effects of the FI dispersion on ISO
4406 particle counts must be minimized. It has been shown that
particle counts resulting from FIs can be reduced by filtration, but it is
unclear if or how this affects lubricant foaming. Here, we use a custombuilt filter test station that allows us to circulate, filter, and particle
count fluids. After each pass through the filter, the fluids foam
tendency and stability are measured as described in ASTM D892. Tests
are performed on several different FIs and using filter media with a
range of pore sizes. For each case, we characterize the effect of filter
passes on particle counts and foaming.

Many different reciprocating rigs are used throughout industry and


academia for studies into scuffing., particularly ring/liner scuffing.
These different rigs have varying operating parameters including
stroke length, temperature and load. Due to the fact that one specimen
remains stationary while the other reciprocates back and forth over
the same area, stroke length will change the contact frequency and
time duration between contacts. It will also affect lubricant entrainment
and film collapse. This presentation will present a theoretical discussion
on this topic with the aim of helping rig operators make more informed
decisions when designing experiments.

9:30 10 am
Using the Ultra Shear Viscometer and
Understanding the Effect of Measurement
Method on the Results

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN V


Session Chair: W. Anderson, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond,
VA
Session Vice Chair: P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute, San
Antonio, TX

P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX

8 8:30 am
A Complete 3-D Description of the Elastic
Behavior of a Piston Ring and its Influence on the
Tribological Behavior of the Piston Ring-Cylinder
Liner Interface

Piston ring-cylinder liner interface represents one of the most


significant friction source of an internal combustion engine [1], and the
analysis of its tribological behavior is a crucial aspect to be investigated
to maximize the engine efficiency. In this contribution a
complementarity formulation for the solution of EHL problems in
presence of cavitation [2,3] is employed for the analysis of the piston
ring-cylinder liner interface. In particular, the influence of both the
bending and torsional elastic behaviour of the ring is considered and
an accurate model based on a mixed analytical/numerical formulation
is presented. In fact, rarely, the ring is considered with its realistic 3-D

www.stle.org

There is a great demand to ensure that tribological benchtop tests used


for the research and development of new technologies that can
demonstrate the technological feasibility of a given approach are
representative of engine conditions, such that they can accurately be
used to screen technologies in the early stage of development. A
reciprocating tribometer was developed to include the capability of
angle adjustment to allow for the precise oil delivery to the tribological
contact to replicate the severe starved condition encountered in an
engine at top-dead-center. The tribometer was used to evaluate the
tribological behavior of commercially available ring-on-liner pairs.

P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, T. Kamps,


University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, United
Kingdom, G. Plint, Phoenix Tribology, Basingstoke, Hampshire,
United Kingdom

Bronze 2

L. Mastrandrea, M. Giacopini, E. Bertocchi, A. Strozzi, University of


Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy, D. Dini, Imperial College
London, London, United Kingdom

N. Demas, R. Erck, O. Ajayi, G. Fenske, Argonne National Laboratory,


Argonne, IL

9 9:30 am
Theoretical Analysis of Stroke Length Versus
Scuffing in Reciprocating Rigs

A. Martini, S. Lantz, University of California-Merced, Merced, CA,


J. Zakarian, Chevron, Richmond, CA

Session 5C

8:30 9 am
Adjustable-Angle Reciprocating Tribometer
for Ring-on-Liner Testing

The PCS Instruments Ultra Shear Viscometer (USV) is used to measure


viscometry of lubricants in the 106-107 reciprocal seconds. There is
some concern that, particularly when measuring viscosity modifiers,
that permanent shear may occur. The question arises as to how many
measurements can be taken before this occurs and by how much this
may affect the results. A number of lubricant containing different
viscosity modifiers were run through the USV. Initially they were run
through shear sweeps and temperature sweeps. These data points were
then repeated with fresh lubricant for each measurement. The results
will be presented and the difference in results discussed.

10 10:30 am Break

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

113

Wednesday, May 18
5C

10:30 11 am
Technical Benefits of Oil Soluble Polyalkylene
Glycols in Engine Oil Compositions
N. Khelidj-Suedmeyer, The Dow Chemical Co., Horgen, Switzerland,
N. Champagne, TOTAL, Solaize, France
Formulators of automotive engine oils are challenged with developing
lubricants that offer better fuel efficiency along with high engine
protection. Recent advancements in additive technology may enable a
new generation of lubricants specifically developed for excellent fuel
economy benefits and cleanliness properties in engines across a large
range of specific power and displacements. Novel formulations, based
on oil soluble polyalkylene glycols in combination with mineral oils
have been developed utilizing these new additive technologies.
Efficiency and cleanliness properties have been demonstrated via tests
at the lab and bench scale. This performance was validated in a fleet
trial of over 250,000 km in a case study across engines from several
OEMs. These full data-sets will be presented.

11 11:30 am
Observations of Power Cylinder Component
Wear to Advanced Spark Ignited Combustion
Technologies
C. Wileman, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX
Today, robust gasoline engines often provide extended service
lifespans beyond 400,000 km of vehicle usage. Gasoline engine
evolution to greater thermal efficiency and lower emissions levels has
required additional technologies not present on engines of a decade
ago. These technologies include direct fuel injection and the use of
superchargers/turbochargers. While the power cylinders of these
engines have proven robust to these efficiencient technologies, the
introduction of dilute combustion technologies i.e. cooled EGR alters
the composition of combustion reactants. This study observes real-time
power cylinder wear using radioactive tracers in an engine using dilute
combustion technology. This D-EGR system recirculates a dedicated
cylinders exhaust flow into the engines intake tract. Unique isotopes
labels on the engines cylinder walls within the D-EGR engine are used
to study the wear sensitivity of the power cylinder components to
dilute gasoline combustion technologies.

11:30 am Noon
A New Test Rig for Simulation of Piston Ring
Friction
M. Sderfjll, A. Almqvist, R. Larsson, Division of Machine Elements,
Lule, Sweden
A new test rig has been built for simulation of piston ring cylinder
liner friction in heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDE). The novelty of the
test rig is that it can be fitted with standard production piston rings
and cylinder liners without modification, and also that it is designed for
operation at higher speeds than most other component test rigs and
therefore the running conditions of an actual engine can be better
replicated. Since the friction force is small compared to the dynamic
forces at high speed it is important to keep the vibrations low in order
to reduce the noise in the friction force measurement. An inline six
cylinder engine generates low vibrations and is therefore used as a
base for the test rig. The piston rings are lubricated with an oil spray
from underneath, similar to what is done in an actual HDDE. The
cylinder liner temperature is controlled by means of rings clamped on
the outside of the liner.

114

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 5E

Gold

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS III


Session Chair: L. Stacke, SKF, Goteborg, Sweden

8 8:30 am
Rolling Bearing Cage Optimization Using
Simulations
L. Stacke, SKF, Goteborg, Sweden
Deep groove ball bearing cages are often designed as so-called, snap
cages. Such cages are elastically deformed during mounting. Snap
cages are generally made out of polymer material, and are not
symmetric around the centerline of the bearing. The optimization of a
snap cage design is a compromise between several conflicting
requirements. The cage has to be ductile enough to be mounted
without breaking, but must not be ejected from the bearing during
adverse running conditions. It should be light enough, not to be too
much affected by centrifugal loads, while still being sufficiently stiff to
avoid unwanted deformations. The design optimization process is
greatly facilitated by a state-of-the-art simulation program, which can
take the necessary design and operating conditions into account. The
presented work includes simulation optimization with SKF BEAST, as
well as verifying experiments.

8:30 9 am
Effect of Housing Support on Bearing Dynamics
Explicit Finite Element Modeling
L. Cao, F. Sadeghi, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
A 3D explicit finite element method (EFEM) was developed to model
the bearing support structure for both linear and nonlinear elastic
materials. Constitutive relationship for nonlinear elastic material, such
as elastomer, is developed to capture both hyperelastic and viscoelastic
behaviors. The EFEM housing support model was then coupled with an
existing dynamic bearing model (DBM) to investigate the effect of
support structure on bearing dynamics and performance. Simulations
have demonstrated that material properties and housing support
geometries are closely related to the behavior of the housing, which
has a critical impact on bearing dynamics such as bearing element
motions, reaction forces, and bearing stability. Therefore the
development of a proper bearing housing model is of significant
importance to the modeling of ball and rolling element bearings.

9 9:30 am
Dynamic Behaviors of Counter-Rotating
Cylindrical Roller Bearing with Different
Mounting Configurations
W. Gao, Institut National des Sciences Appliques de Lyon (INSA),
Lyon, France, Z. Liu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian,
China, S. Zhu, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China,
D. Nelias, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France
Counter-rotating technique is a special structure used in turbine
engine. The counter-rotating cylindrical roller bearing, as a key
component of the main shaft intershaft support, directly affects the
stability and reliability of the turbine engine. A quasi-dynamic model
which considers the inner/outer rings inverse-rotation and deformation
is presented, based on hydrodynamic and elasto-hydrodynamic
lubrication theory. And then, this model is used by calculating the
dynamic behaviors of counter-rotating cylindrical roller bearing. On this
basis, two different mounting configurations, the natural arrangement
and the inverted arrangement are analyzed and compared in different
conditions. Results show that the load distribution in the loaded zone is
more even in the inverted configuration, while the slipping of the cage
and the rollers in the unloaded zone is less serious in the natural
configuration.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
10 10:30 am Break

Session 5F

10:30 11 am
Bearing Thermal Failure Mechanism Analysis

NON-FERROUS METALS II: BIO-BASED


LUBRICANTS

Y. Wang, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China

Session Chair: G. Biresaw, USDA, Peoria, IL

Based on the dynamics analysis of angular contact ball bearing, the


contact between rolling elements and raceways by using a nonNewtonian thermal EHL calculation which consider the spin of the
rolling element. Combinding the dynamic analysis model of angular
contact ball bearing and the thermal EHL model can calculate the
actual bearing temperature and power loss, etc., more accurately. In this
paper, the effect of load and speed and other parameters on bearing
power loss and the temperature rise of the contact point are studied.

Session Vice Chair: W. Jenkins, Houghton International, Hope, AR

8 8:30 am
New Base Oils for the Aluminum Industry:
Moving Along the Vegetable Road
A. Joassard, D. Kupiec, TOTAL, Nanterre, France

11 11:30 am
Damage Analysis in High Loaded Oscillating
Bearings
E. Houara Komba, Universit de Lyon, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS,
UMR5259, Villeurbanne, France
Several industrial applications (eg., aeronautic, aerospatial, robotic)
require rolling bearings to operate under both high load and oscillating
motion. Under oscillating motion the low relative velocity between
contacting pairs doesnt allow for developing an EHD regime with oil
lubrication and the bearings are greased. On the other hand the high
loads induce high contact stresses that threats the bearing material
integrity. The combination of high contact stresses and oscillating
motion represents an extreme working condition where the bearings
fail relatively early, undergoing specific failure modes. The purpose of
this work is to point out the damage scenario of a greased ball bearing
operating under high radial load and oscillating motion. Experimental
tests are conducted on a dedicated test bench, showing the different
steps of the bearing life. SEM analyses are performed at each step of
the bearing life in order to investigate the evolution of the degradation
scenario.

11:30 am Noon
Preloaded Bearing Applications in a Helicopter
Transmission System: A Performance Evaluation
from Strength, Durability and Dynamic
Perspectives
A. Gunduz, S. Yilmaz, Z. Saribay, Turkish Aerospace Industries,
Ankara, Kazan, Turkey
Preloaded bearings are not predominantly used in aircraft power
transmission systems due to the concerns about high contact stresses
induced by preloading. This approach may be understandable for high
load carrying transmission bearings that typically have stringent stress
limits. This study explores the circumstances where using preloaded
bearings is necessary or preferable in a high-performance power
transmission system. Three shafting systems involving preloadedduplex angular contact ball bearings in different locations of a
helicopter drive line are investigated. Along with the geometric
constraints; gearing support (i.e. straddle or overhang suuport), nature
of the gear load (i.e. radial-to-axial load ratio) and load magnitude are
found to be the most critical parameters to assess whether a preloaded
bearing configuration is desirable. Ideal preload amounts are proposed
to emphasize how crucial it is to apply a correct preload level to
achieve optimal bearing performance.

www.stle.org

Palace 3

Rolling fluids are key for the production of aluminum. Very special
caracteristics are required to ensure productivity and quality of rolled
products. Highly refined petroleum base oils have almost exclusively
been used for decades. However, new bio based products open new
horizons. These new molecules will bring improved caracteristics to the
field in terms of productivity, sustainability and quality. The presentaion
will shortly review the standard manufacturing process of commercial
rolling fluids. This will lead to explaining how biomass can be used as
an alternative raw material. Finally, we will see how this new approach
could push back some frontiers of the industry.

8:30 9 am
Biobased Lubricant Additives Derived
from Limonene
G. Biresaw, G. Bantchev, R. Murray, USDA, Peoria, IL
Limonene is a natural product widely found in many plants as a
constituent of essential oils. It is commercially produced as a byproduct
of the citrus industry from processing of fruits such as oranges, lemons,
lime, tangerine, mandarins, and grapefruits. Limonene is a C10 hydrocarbon with a complex structure that includes six-membered cyclic
ring, branching, two double bonds and a chiral carbon. It is relatively
inert under mild temperature conditions and is used as such for a
variety of industrial and medical applications. However, applications
under severe conditions will require structural modifications and/or the
use of stabilizing additives. In this work we describe the chemical
modification of limonene by free radical reaction with dialkyl
phosphites of varying alkyl structures under inert atmosphere. The
results of investigations into the physical and tribological properties
of the limonene phosphonate product mixtures is discussed.

9 9:30 am
Base Oil Lubricants Derived from Yellow
and Brown Grease
D. Garbark, H. Benecke, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH
Battelle has developed processes to synthesize a unique class of
environmentally friendly ester lubricants based on epoxidized oils
such as soybean, palm, and algae oil. We have found that viscosity can
be controlled by replacement of glycerin in soybean oil with other
polyols, variations in the specific fatty acids attached to such polyols,
the number of esters positioned at the original double bond sites, and
the chain length (organic acid selection) of the esters positioned at the
original double bond sites. These base oil lubricants can be controlled
to exhibit a wide range of viscosities from very fluid (22 cSt) to
extremely viscous (5200 cSt). Other property attributes that can be
controlled are pour point, hydrolytic stability, oxidative/thermal
properties, and volatility. Recently, there has been increased interest in
waste oils such as brown grease and yellow grease. We have evaluated
these greases in various formulations.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

115

Wednesday, May 18
5F

9:30 10 am
Closing the Loop and Sustainable Cutting Oils

Session 5G

S. Kailas, D. Chakravortty, S. P S, R. S, Indian Institute of Science,


Bangalore, Karnataka, India

WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY I

The usage of materials used in various products by humans are clearly


unsustainable. In this paper we show the basic idea of closing the loop
and the use of this philosophy in making a sustainable cutting oil
emulsion. It is shown using the closing the loop philosophy several key
questions need to be asked to make a product sustainable. Using this
approach to making products the present work goes about producing
a completely benign cutting oil emulsion, most of which are highly
toxic and the improper disposal causing severe environmental damage.
It is shown that the product developed meets all the requirements that
include, cutting effectiveness, bacterial growth and corrosion rate to
that of a commonly used commercial cutting oil. The developed oil has
zero toxicity, according to the fish toxicity tests, and a far superior cell
viability percentage than the commercial cutting oil.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Lubricants from Renewable Group III Synthetic
Hydrocarbons Derived from Farnesene
P. Vettel, H. Hahn, J. Wells, Novvi LLC, Emeryville, CA
Farnesene is a novel feedstock for lubricant base oils. Farnesene is
manufactured from sugars by a simple fermentation process using
bakers yeast. It is unique among renewable lubricant feedstocks as it is
a pure hydrocarbon olefin obtained directly from the biological
conversion process, allowing it to drop into existing processes.
Farnesene undergoes oligomerization with linear alpha olefins to make
iso-paraffinic base oil classified as API Group III with significantly higher
biodegradability than other hydrocarbon base oils. Since farnesene is a
100% renewable material obtained from sugar, the base oils derived
from farnesene are also renewable. They have undergone extensive
toxicity and ecotoxicity testing and have been approved for the
Ecolabel Lubricant Substance Classification List (LuSC). This presentation
will give an overview of the chemistry of farnesene-derived base oils
and their use in lubricants for Ecolabel and VGP2013 applications.

11 am Noon
Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and
Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax
R. Harry-OKuru, NCAUR, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL, J. Xu, G. Biresaw,
USDA, Peoria, IL
Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and
fatty alcohols mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency
on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care
cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant which occurs naturally in the
Sonoran desert in the United States and parts of northwestern Mexico
as well as the northeastern Sahara desert. The plant has been
introduced into Argentina, Australia and Israel for commercial
production of Jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant akin to sperm whale oil
we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable, non-personal
care industrial lubricant. To this end we have chemically modified the
carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its
already good resistance to air oxidation as to enhance its utility as well
as its shelf-life in non-personal care applications.

116

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Palace 4/5

Session Chair: A. Greco, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL


Session Vice Chair: B. Gould, University of Delaware, Newark, DE

8:30 9 am
Lubricant Effects on White Etching Cracking
Failures in Thrust Bearing Rig Tests
T. Haque, J. Carey, S. Korres, P. Jacobs, ExxonMobil, Paulsboro, NJ,
J. Franke, W. Holweger, Schaeffler Technologies AG&Co. KG,
Herzogenaurach, Germany
White Etching Cracking (WEC) is a contact fatigue failure mode in
lubricated bearings, which is initiated in the subsurface of the metal
matrix. WEC is particularly alarming as it cannot be detected in field
applications. It can lead to fatigue failures more than an order of
magnitude shorter than predicted lifetimes. The open literature suggests
that the lubricant composition can influence the propensity for WEC
failure. We have studied WEC failure in thrust bearing rig tests using
lubricants known to promote WEC in this environment. We have
determined that the lubricant additives have the greater effect on WEC
propensity in these tests. Additionally, by selective additive removal, we
found that the additive components zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate antiwear and various alkali-metal detergent components had the greatest
influence on WEC failure propensity.

9 9:30 am
A Study of Microstructure Alterations in White
Structure Flaking Failure of Wind Turbine Bearings
Through High Pressure Torsion Processes
L. Wilches Pena, L. Wang, B. Mellor, N. Wang, University of
Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom
White Structure Flaking (WSF) is a premature wind turbine bearing
failure that occurs within 20% of their L10. The damage is characterized
by microstructural changes named white etching cracks associate with
white etching areas (WEA). WEA may be caused severe plastic
deformation (SPD) due to high strains. High Pressure Torsion (HPT), as a
SPD process, is used to study the feasibility of creating microstructural
changes that similar to WEA. Annealed AISI 52100 bearing steel samples
were processed by HPT under a variety of pressures with 1, 2 and 3
turns. Light microscopy and SEM were used to observe the microstructure
alterations. Initial results have bands and cracks in the deformed matrix
following the orientation of plastic deformation flow. An increase in the
hardness is observed similar to the features reported in the WFS damages.

9:30 10 am
A Study of Microstructure Alteration in SAE 52100
Bearing Due to Classic Rolling Contact Fatigue
and White Etching Crack
V. Smelova, L. Wang, T. Harvey, University of Southampton,
Southampton, United Kingdom, A. Schwedt, J. Mayer, WTH
Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, W. Holweger, Schaeffler
Technologies GmbH & Co. KG, Herzogenaurach, Germany
Formation of the subsurface White Etching Crack (WEC) has been
identified as a cause of detrimental failures in SAE 52100 and SAE 4320
bearing steels that appears to be different from the classic Rolling
Contact Fatigue (RCF) in a wide range of rolling contact applications.
Typically, RCF failures are due to medium to high contact pressure and
high rolling cycles, where a sequence of microstructural
transformations takes place, starting from Dark Etching Regions (DER)
then Low- and High- Angle Bands (LAB/HAB) and leading to long but
finite life of bearings. Little detailed research has been conducted in
recent years to investigate the differences between RCF and WEC. This
study, for the first time, has analysed the microstructure changes in DER,

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
HAB and LAB using a combination of SEM, ECCI, EDX and EBSD
techniques to reveal differences and relationships between RCF and
WECs. Detailed results will be presented at conference.

Session 5H

FLUID FILM BEARINGS V

10 10:30 am Break

Session Chair: A. Fatu, Institut Pprime, Angouleme, France


Session Vice Chair: F. Horvat, Duramax Marine, Hiram, OH

10:30 11 am
Investigation of the Role of Hydrogen in White
Structure Flaking (WSF) of Wind Turbine Gearbox
Bearings through Serial Sectioning Analysis

8:30 9 am
Design Consideration of Thrust Foil Bearings
Operating with Refrigerant Gas

A. Richardson, L. Wang, R. Wood, M. Evans, University of


Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom,
M. Ingram, Afton Chemical Ltd., Bracknell, United Kingdom

A. Prabhakar, F. Xu, D. Kim, University of Texas at Arlington,


Arlington, TX

White structure flaking (WSF) due to White etching crack (WEC)


formation below the contact surface is a premature failure mode in
steel bearings that occur in wind turbine gearboxes. Initiation
mechanisms and drivers of WSF are contested. Hydrogen diffusion into
the bearing during operation is shown to play an important role in WSF.
Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) coupled with serial sectioning
has been conducted on thrust roller bearings tested on an FAG-FE8 rig
under Non-hydrogen charged conditions at different test durations.
Serial sectioning has provided detailed information on WEC formation
mechanisms while the TDS analysis clearly shows a correlation between
diffusible hydrogen and WEC formations. Energy-dispersive X-ray
spectroscopy (EDX) has been used to analyse the surface chemistry and
investigate the mechanisms of hydrogen interaction with the surface
during operation. Future study will investigate the effect of oil additives
on hydrogen diffusion and WEC formations.

11 11:30 am
Premature Bearing Failures and White Etching
Cracks
K. Stadler, SKF GmbH, Schweinfurt, Germany, R. Vegter, I. Nedelcu,
SKF B.V., Nieuwegein, Netherlands
Bearings in large industrial gearboxes or drive train applications are
often subjected to a variety of operating conditions that may push
them beyond their limits.Damage may occur in bearings, resulting in a
failure mode known as white etching cracks (WEC). In this paper, the
role of white etching areas (WEA) in WEC, how WEC develops as well as
influencing factors that can lead to WEC networks will be discussed.
This will be illustrated by post-analysis and research results of failed
bearings received from the field as well as from testing. It will be shown
that several reasons can lead to WEC networks; some might be related
to premature failures, e.g. driven by mixed friction / tribochemical
influence factors and some to stress related factors. The role of WEA will
be further discussed in terms of its position in the sequence of events
that lead to premature bearing failure. The results will show that a
generalized root cause for the occurrence of WEA is counterproductive.

11:30 Noon
A Study of the Dominant Drivers of White-Etching
Crack Formation in a Three-Ring on Roller Contact
B. Gould, A. Greco, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
White-etching cracks (WECs) have been identified as the dominant
mode of premature failure for bearings within wind turbine gearboxes.
Though WECs have been observed in the field for over a decade, the
exact mechanisms which lead to this failure are still debated. Some of
the postulated drivers of WECs are sliding at the contact, load, and
contact severity. In this paper, WECs have been replicated on a three
rings on roller, benchtop test rig, which allowed for a direct investigation
into the influence that sliding magnitude, sliding direction, lubricant
film thickness, and normal load have on surface failures and WEC
generation. It was determined that the formation of WECs within test
samples can be turned on and off, and that the number of WECs within
a sample is dependent on the aforementioned drivers.

www.stle.org

Las Vegas 1

The focus of this research is on design consideration of thrust foil


bearing for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with refrigerant gas as a
working fluid operating in both subsonic and supersonic regimes. A
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to investigate
one dimensional (1D) bearing, which mimics single bearing pad. The
results from CFD analysis show large pressure drop and temperature
drop associated with inlet Mach number when constant wall
temperature boundary conditions are used. The comparison of the CFD
results with those from turbulent Reynolds equation show that there is
a substantial difference in bearing performance as the flow Reynolds
number increases and inertial effects (Mach number) become
predominant. Based on the comparative study on the 1D bearing, novel
design feature of actual thrust bearing is introduced to compensate the
inlet pressure loss due to high Mach number and static performance of
the foil thrust bearing are presented.

9 9:30 am
Two-Way Coupled Reynolds, Rayleigh-Plesset
and Energy Equations for Fully Transient
Cavitation Modeling
K. Pierson, M. Braun, T. Snyder, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
A physics-based, pseudo-gaseous cavitation model has been developed
by means of a two-way coupled, transient, variable properties Reynolds
(RE) and Rayleigh-Plesset-Scriven (RPS) equations. The RPS equation
calculates a time dependent bubble-growth based void fraction which
is used to determine the homogenous, two-phase fluids transport
properties subsequently used in the RE equation. The transient energy
equation is coupled with the RE-RPS equations to allow the
investigation of the thermal effects on cavitation development. In
effect, the isothermal and adiabatic limiting cases are presented.
Viscosity and density of the oil and gas mixture are determined based
upon both local pressure and temperature of the two-phase fluid. The
thermal effects on load carrying capacity, attitude angle and cavitation
zone behavior are presented and discussed

9:30 10 am
Effects of Variable Properties on the Gas Film
Hydrodynamics in the High-Speed Micro Gas
Thrust Bearings
Q. Chen, X. Zhang, J. Liu, Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy
Utilization Technologists and Systems of Ministry of Education,
College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing,
China
The high-speed micro gas thrust bearing close to the combustor exit
works under a high asymmetrical temperature condition due to the
extreme hot gas film between the almost adiabatic rotor end face
and the cooling stator tilt surface. The effects of variable (viscosity),
cp (specific heat) and k (thermal conductivity) on the gas film
hydrodynamic characteristics are studied using the Navier-Stokes
equations coupled with the energy equation under an asymmetrical
temperature boundary condition. The variable can increase the
velocity slip and temperature jump on the bottom boundary and
reduce them on the top boundary, while the variable cp and k have a

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

117

Wednesday, May 18
5H

little effect on the velocity slip and temperature jump. Meanwhile,


variable reduces the gas backflow in the wedge-shaped micro channels
and strengthens the gas film pressure. Additionally, the variable
enhances the vertical flow across the gas film in the whole channel.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 5I

Las Vegas 2

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY FLUIDS I


Session Chair: B. Sharma, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, IL
Session Vice Chair: P. Vettel, Novvi LLC, Emeryville, CA

10:30 11 am
Analysis of Cavitation, Dynamics, and Solid
Deformation of Simple Slider Bearings Using CFD
T. Snyder, M. Braun, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
This paper is concerned with the analysis of simple slider bearings
within the 3D CFD environment of OpenFOAM. Physical mechanisms
of cavitation, dynamic excitation, and solid/fluid interaction are
explored for these simplified geometries as precursors in the
development of a complete marine stern tube bearing model. Results
are presented in the form of pressure maps, loads, attitude angles, and
linearized dynamic coefficients. Regarding cavitation, results obtained
with the interphase transport model of Schnerr-Sauer are compared
with the Reynolds equation and JFO mass conserving cavitation theory.
Linearized dynamic coefficients are deduced from prescribed motion
of the CFD domain boundaries and an assumed linear dynamic
response of the fluid film. Solid deformation of the slider bearings is
considered through the introduction of a deforming rubber liner.
Approaches for handling the solid deformation and constitutive
behavior of the rubber liner are explored in detail.

11 11:30 am
Numerical Study on the Effect of Oil Removal
from Aero-Engine Bearing Chamber and
Improvement
Y. Lyu, J. Zhao, Z. Liu, G. Ren, Northwestern Polytechnical University,
Xian, Shaanxi, China
Effective oil removal from the scavenge is essential to improve the oil
distribution in the bearing chamber and avoid excessive heat
generation, especially under the high rotation speed. In this paper,
based on an simplified bearing chamber, two oil-return structures for
scavenge offtakes (ramp sump and eccentricity sump) are designed
and improved, the oil-gas two-phase flow model with Volume of Fluid
(VOF) is proposed, and characteristics of two-phase flow field and oilreturn efficiency from the scavenge are calculated in ANSYS-Fluent
version 14.5. The results show that it is effective to maintain the high
oil-return efficiency under the high rotation speed by improving oilreturn structures, and the oil film accumulation on the bearing
chamber wall can also be improved to a certain extent.

11:30 am Noon
Analysis of Oil-Gas Interaction in the Aero-Engine
Bearing Chamber
J. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Lyu, P. Zhu, Northwestern Polytechnical University,
Xian, Shaanxi, China
Flow field calculation of oil-gas two-phase is the basis of the heat and
mass transfer study in the aero-engine bearing chamber. In order to
analyze the oil-gas interaction in two-phase flow field, the oil/air twoway coupled numerical model is proposed in this paper, the
distributions of vortex, velocity and turbulence kinetic energy in a
simplified bearing chamber are calculated, and the comparison
between two-way and one-way coupled calculation results is carried
out. Results show that the addition of oil has a great influence on the
two-phase flow field, the mainstream difference between two-way and
one-way coupled calculation is at least 10%, and therefore the effect of
oil droplets to air flow cannot be ignored in the calculation of twophase flow. Furthermore, the flow vortex and turbulence kinetic energy
will also change with the effect of oil droplets.

118

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

9 9:30 am
Oxidation Performance of Various
Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants
T. Kuchta, RSC Bio Solutions, Mentor, OH
Oxidation is a typical weakness of some environmentally acceptable
lubricants. The lubricants ability to resist oxidation is critical to its
performance while in service. This session will review the oxidation
performance of various types of EALs within the four main ISO 6743-4
classifications of: HETG, HEES, HEPG and HEPR. This presenter will walk
the audience through an investigation of various base oil and additive
combinations and then discuss the oxidation characteristics of each as
tested by industry standardized methodologies. Attendees will walk
away with a deeper understanding of each EALs performance
characteristics and the critical factors that must be monitored and
evaluated to ensure proper performance and application suitability.

9:30 10 am
Frictional Behavior of Ester Base Stocks
M. Hof, Emery Oleochemicals GmbH, Duesseldorf, NRW, Germany
Lubricants have numerous and various tasks to fulfill. Each application
in which lubricants are applied have a different set of requirements
which need to be met. Common for all uses of lubricating oils is the
need for friction reduction which is important not only for the
equipment protection, but also for the overall behavior and workability
of the fluid. This particular property is gaining now higher priority due
the growing interest in more fuel and energy efficient lubricants.
Changes and improvements can be achieved either by additives or
by choosing the right base stock. In the talk, results of the frictional
behavior of various ester base stock will be presented. To compare
these fluids, several test methodologies have been applied and
interpreted. It will be shown how ester base stock technologies can
provide sufficient benefits towards friction reduction for finished fluids.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 am 11 am
High Yield Performance of Reusable Positively
Charged Zeolite in Skeletal Isomerization
Reaction of Oleic Acid
M. Sarker, R. Latona, H. Ngo, Agricultural Research Service,
Wyndmoor, PA
The production of branched chain fatty acid such as Isostearic acid
from natural sources including vegetable oils, animal fats or industrial
byproducts is gaining enormous interest due to their biodegradability,
low melting points and low viscosity. Linear chain unsaturated fatty
acids from natural sources can be converted to branched chain fatty
acid via a catalytic skeletal isomerization reaction. In this paper, cationic
zeolite-Lewis base catalytic isomerization reactions with the highest
performance have been explored extensively. In order to be cost
effective, a regeneration process for these catalysts is explored.
Furthermore, large scale production of Isostearic acid achieved an 82%
yield and 99% conversion by optimizing the reaction conditions
demonstrate the systems capability at the pilot scale.

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
5I

11 11:30 am
Fundamental Lubricity Protection of
Bio-Hydraulic Fluids Versus Conventional
Petroleum Hydraulic Fluids
P. Haines, BioBlend Renewable Resources, Elk Grove Village, IL
Many natural ester bio-hydraulic fluids have very high natural lubricity.
With proper additives, their lubricity often surpasses that of petroleum
fluids. Insights related to hydraulic fluid lubricity aids users in hydraulic
fluid selection, especially if they can contrast the finished hydraulic
fluid lubricity performance of conventional petroleum hydraulic fluids
to natural ester bio-hydraulic fluids. While lubricity protection is
application specific, this talk will contrast the lubricity protection of
natural ester bio-hydraulic fluids versus conventional petroleum
hydraulic fluids utilizing lubricity data from industry recognized and
sanctioned tests: Falex Wear Test (ASTM D-2670), SRV 4 Coefficient of
Friction and Wear Oscillation Module Test (ASTM D-6425). This talk will
provide a clearer picture of the superior lubricity protection offered by
natural ester bio-hydraulic fluids when contrasted to conventional
petroleum hydraulic fluids.

11:30 am Noon
Water Contamination Control in Hydraulic and
Lubrication Systems using a Membrane
Dehydrator
S. Majumdar, S. Nemser, Compact Membrane Systems, Newport, DE,
K. Benninghoff, MSC Filtration Technologies, Enfield, CT
Hydraulic and lubrication systems are some of the critical parts in a
power plants operational system. Ingression of ambient moisture over
time into such systems causes major operational and maintenance
problems. The contamination level of water in lubrication oil adversely
affects the service life of the associated components. A membrane
dehydrator to remove water from lubricating oil has been introduced
recently. The system is designed for easy installation using a kidney
loop configuration. It is a simple, reliable, compact, portable, and
lightweight system with low energy usage, requiring only 120V
connection. It avoids flooding, foaming and the constant attention
required with standard vacuum oil purification systems. The presentation
will highlight the effective uses of commercial membrane dehydrator
system in various field operations. Results from various case studies
evaluated in different industries such as nuclear power plant, wind
turbine and icecutters will be presented.

Session 5K

Las Vegas 4

WEAR II: ANALYSIS OF FRICTION AND WEAR


Session Chair: N. Paulson, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Session Vice Chair: A. Walvekar, Purdue University, West
Lafayette, IN

8 8:30 am
Interaction Study Between Raw Materials in a
Brake Pad Formulation
F. Vivier, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy
A brake pad formulation usually contains more than 15 components.
The study of each filler contribution on the final material properties is
difficult considering the co-existing interactions. This study is about
each component contribution on the material friction coefficient and
wear rate. First, a simplified formulation is set up (2-3 components for
each category as abrasives, lubricants, fillers, reinforcing fibres). Then,
a bibliographical research is done on the nature of interactions,
expected effects of each raw material. The experimental work starts
with the creation of binary systems containing only the binder and a
filler. Then at the binary system is added another constituent and step
by step the system grows up with the systematic characterization of

120

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

the material properties until the complete formulation material is


reached. The characterization tests are tribology tests (pin-on-disk), but
also mechanical tests (DMTA), thermic tests (DSC, TGA, FLA), etc.

8:30 9 am
Tribological Behaviour of Tool Steels Operating
at Elevated Temperatures
L. Pelcastre, J. Hardell, B. Prakash, Lulea University of Technology,
Lulea, Sweden
In the automotive industry, a significant amount of components are
formed using hot stamping. This process allows formation of complex
shapes whilst controlling microstructure and mechanical properties
of the end product. There are different tribological challenges
encountered within the process due to the elevated temperature. The
current studies focused on the tribological behaviour of different tool
steels heated to temperatures up to 550C sliding against ultra high
strength steel. It was observed that the type of oxides varied
depending on the tool steel and this had a direct influence on the
wear mechanisms; particularly in the occurrence of severe adhesive
wear (galling) and material transfer onto the tool steels. In general,
larger amount of material transfer and higher friction was observed
with lower temperatures. The presence of oxides on the tool steel
reduced the severity of material transfer and stabilised friction but
some tool steels were more effective than others.

9 9:30 am
Study of Accelerated Life Model for Harmonic
Drive with the Failure Form of Adhesive Wear
J. Li, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, J. Wang, Z. Wang,
Sichuang University, Chengdu, China
In this research, an adhesive wear model is established based on the
contact model under lubricating which is proposed by Johnson and
Williamson, and it appears the wear rate mainly depend on the load
taken by asperity contact. The results of mixed lubrication analysis on
wear region which considering the topography of rough surfaces and
the rheological behavior of lubricant show that the input speed and
output load have a significant influence on the distribution of contact
and lubrication between the rough surfaces while the influence of
temperature is very weak. Then a new method of accelerated life test is
proposed, which could be conducted by raising speed and output load
to maintain or increase the load taken by asperity contact. Finally, an
accelerated life model of adhesive wear is proposed which use the
asperity contact load as the accelerated stress, and it is validated by
conducting accelerated life tests under different working conditions
and statistic of life distributions.

9:30 10 am
Tribological Compatibilities of Surface-Coated
Fuel Claddings for Accident-Tolerant Fuels
with Zr-Based Structural Materials
Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Koo, Korea Atomic Energy Research
Institute, Daejeon, Korea (the Republic of)
After the Fukushima disaster, new fuel cladding materials are being
developed to enhance their corrosion resistances for decreasing
hydrogen generation at high temperature water and steam. In this
study, three kinds of surface-coated Zr-based cladding materials were
prepared by arc ion plating and direct laser methods. From the results
of the scratch test, the stylus drag coefficients showed a large dependence
on applied loading rate and surface characteristics of each surface
coating method. Also, the fretting wear rates are dramatically increased
when failure of coating layer occurred by localized area spallation, which
results in a third-body abrasion due to their high hardness values. Based
on the test results, effect of different coating layers on the scratch and
fretting wear behaviors was examined focusing on the tribological
compatibility between surface-coated fuel claddings and a current
Zirconium-based spacer grid in normal operating conditions of
pressurized water reactors.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
10 10:30 am Break

9 9:30 am
Temperature Rise at the Sliding Interface
Between a Carbon Steel and DLC Film

10:30 11 am
Friction and Wear Mechanism of Polycrystalline
Diamond Thrust Bearing Under Drilling Fluid
Condition

S. Yamamoto, Sankei Giken Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

Y. Li, W. Zhenquan, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing,


China, K. Zhang, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing,
China
Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is characterized by its high hardness and
abrasion resistance, which can be used in severe friction environment
under the fluid-lubricated conditions. This paper mainly discusses the
friction and wear mechanism of polycrystalline diamond thrust bearing
under drilling fluid condition. The roughness, profile and coefficient of
friction of PCD thrust bearing of the wear-in progresses are obtained
from the laboratory test. The surface roughness and the profile of the
thrust bearing decreases significantly. The lubrication regime of PCD
bearing is also analyzed in this paper. This mechanism will help improve
the wear performance of PCD thrust bearing and extend its service life.

Session 5L

TRIBOTESTING I
Session Chair: G. Krauss, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA
Session Vice Chair: J. Xiao, Rtec Instruments, Inc., San Jose, CA

8 8:30 am
Triboemission Imaging to Study Coating Failures
A. Ciniero, T. Reddyhoff, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom
The presentation will describe a recently developed technique, which is
able to image the emission of charges, such as electrons and ions that
occur during sliding contact. It consists of a tribometer incorporating a
system of microchannel plates, coupled to a phosphor screen. This
allows the spatial distribution of the emitted charges to be mapped as
specimens become worn. There are several ways in which this
technique can be used, including fracture and crack growth imaging, in
situ wear monitoring and the analysis of tribocharging. The focus of this
presentation will be its application to sliding components with surface
coatings as a means of detecting failure.

T. Oyamada, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan


In this work, the lubrication condition of a journal bearing in a scroll
compressor has been evaluated by applying ultrasonic sensing. An
ultrasonic probe was attached to the outer periphery of a journal
bearing supporting a crank shaft in the compressor. The probe
transmitted ultrasonic pulses toward the oil film between the shaft and
the bearing and then received reflections. Formation of the oil film can
be monitored by measuring the amplitude of the reflection, which
increases with the thickness of the oil film. The measured amplitude of
the reflection mostly changed in similar trend with the Sommerfeld
number, which has also been known to increase with the thickness of
the oil film. However, the amplitude of the reflection behaved
differently during the first 400s in the start-up process of the
compressor. Observation of the oil reservoir during this period showed
the generation of numerous bubbles in the oil.

www.stle.org

9:30 10 am
Accurate Determination of Limiting Friction
of Tribo-Pairs through Model Scale Tribotests
K. Pondicherry, F. Wolf, G. Krenn, Anton Paar GmbH, Graz, Austria

Las Vegas 5

8:30 9 am
Application of Ultrasonic Sensing to Monitoring
Lubrication Condition in a Refrigeration
Compressor

The temperature rise at the sliding interface is simulated using the real
contact area. The knowledge of the real contact area between the
sliding bodies is very important in order to accurately calculate the
temperature rise since the contact temperature is highly dependent
upon the contact area for a given constant frictional energy. In this
study, the real contact area of a carbon steel ball sliding against a DLC
film is discussed based on the Hertzian model. The temperature rise at
the sliding interface between the carbon steel and the DLC is modeled
using the estimated real contact area. The temperature rise is also
measured in a ball-on-disk test using temperature indication paint.
Good agreement is observed between the experimental data and the
results of the simulation.

Limiting friction is the value of static friction at the onset of


macroscopic relative motion between surfaces. Determination of
limiting friction is an intricate task which needs precise control and
measurement of forces and motion. The current study elucidates the
possibility of such measurements, making use of the highly sensitive
yet robust drive of the MCR Tribometer. Herein, different material pairs
of practical importance have been investigated. These include industrial
polymers such as Polyamide66, Polyoxymethylene, soft materials like
Polydimethylsiloxane, different variations of steel, and non-ferrous
materials such as aluminium-, and copper-based alloys. The effect of
elastic properties of these materials on their limiting friction behaviour
has also been studied. Furtheron, this work also demonstrates that the
choise of test strategy is paramount for accurate determination of
limiting friction, which in turn depends upon the elastic properties of
the material being tested.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Effect of Soot in the Boundary Friction Regime
K. Pondicherry, F. Wolf, G. Krenn, Anton Paar GmbH, Graz, Austria
In combustion engines, presence of soot is known to inhibit the
formation of tribofilms at the contact interface. The absence of
tribofilms has a strong influence on the performance of the system,
especially in the boundary friction regime, wherein the mating surfaces
are not totally separated by a load-bearing lubricant film. The current
work focuses on the effect of soot on the limiting friction and
performance of anti-wear lubricant additives in motor oils in the
boundary friction regime. The tribological tests were carried out on a
model scale MCR-Tribometer with a ball-on-three-pins test
configuration. Additionally, light and scanning electron microscopy
were employed to study the morphology and elemental composition
of the wear scar. Stribeck curves and the wear scar analysis showed that
soot, when present above a certain level, is detrimental both in terms of
friction and wear properties of the tribosystem.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

121

Wednesday, May 18
5L

11 11:30 am
Stick-Slip in Piezoelectric Inertia Drive Motors
Contact Life and Tribological Circuit

contamination can be detected by focusing brightness of color. Oil


color sensor is applied to oil system directly and signal is analyzed at
the same time without any oil sampling.

F. Dubois, Universit de Lyon, LaMCoS, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne,


France, C. Belly, Cedrat Technologies, Meylan, France, A. Saulot,
Y. Berthier, Universit de Lyon, LaMCoS, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne,
France

8:30 9 am
New Scenario for Lubricated Machines,
How Big Data Analytics and Industry 4.0 are
Changing the Game

In Inertia Drive Motors (IDM), motion is based on stick-slip principle.


Current analytical models are predictive enough to calculate
qualitatively their optimal performances, such as maximal step size and
speed, with relatively few input parameters. But, they do not take into
account the temporal evolution of parameters as friction factor all
along the lifetime of IDM. So, models reach their limits when precise
predictions are necessary. This investigation aims to understand wear
mechanisms to model temporal evolution of friction. Such an
understanding requires reconstitution of contact life through the
evaluation of first- and third-body flows. To do so, a new IDMrepresentative tribometer is designed to visualize the contact
dynamically and in-situ. Chemical analysis is given with SEM/EDX
spectroscopy to identify species transfer and flow activations.
Observations are compared to FEM numerical modeling. As for a
consequence, problem is addressed with macroscopic and microscopic
scale aspects.

11:30 am Noon
High Temperature Wear Evaluation of Materials:
Challenges and Industrial Case Studies
E. Georgiou, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, D. Drees, Falex Tribology
NV, Rotselaar, Belgium, M. Peeters, J. Celis, KU Leuven, Leuven,
Belgium
High temperature tribological testing often requires the development
of complex mechanical setups that should meet rigorous standards
and specific performance metrics. In this study, the development of a
state-of-the-art experimental setup to study the reciprocating sliding
behaviour of various bulk and coated materials at temperatures that
can reach up to 1000 C is presented. The aim is twofold: First some of
the main challenges relating to the mechanical design, safety issues,
sample geometry, and material selection are highlighted. Furthermore,
the advantages, limitations and design novelties of this apparatus are
analysed. Secondly, examples of existing industrial case studies are
presented to illustrate the need for using such advanced equipment. In
particular, three different industrial examples are shown from the: (a)
aerospace industry nanostructured bearings, (b) transportation
industry brake materials, and (c) energy field multi-layered solar cell
coatings.

Session 5M

Las Vegas 6/7

CONDITION MONITORING I
Session Chair: K. Rogers, Pilot Thomas Logistics, Las Vegas, NV
Session Vice Chair: C. Silva, Director, Oilcheck, Contagem, MG,
BrazilG. Livingstone, NJ

8 8:30 am
New Condition Monitoring Method of Oil and
Machine Elements by Lubricant Color Analysis

J. Alarcon, IK4-TEKNIKER, EIBAR, Gi, Spain


In the last few years we have witnessed of several changes around the
industry, the evolution of products into intelligent, connected devices
are very common and it is quite logical that the industry is the new
market for these changes. The common threads are an explosive
increase in machine-level communication system with its surroundings,
not only with their proces but also with other similar machines. Realtime data (Information Big Data) and connectivity allows production
and maintenance team to have instant information to anticipate future
problems. Sensors are more accurate, smaller and cheaper. The
influence of these changes are real and are already present in our day
to day, but it will no be easy to go ahead. Related with lubrication these
changes includes new knowledge for the maintenance staff but they
will required a solid base of fundamentals, how well we are prepared
for these changes? What changes are expected to have? What
experiences have had so far?

9 9:30 am
Retrospective Approach for Establishing
Predictive Wear Signatures for Lubricating Oils
B. Byrne, K. Redmond, TelLabs, Carlow, Ireland
Collection, evaluation and presentation of data is an essential element
of condition monitoring and lube oil analysis. This paper intends to
review current popularised means of condition assessment through
data evaluation of lubricating oil analysis. Furthermore, an attempt to
establish a predictive pattern or signature for wear and contamination
will be attempted retrospectively. A review of tendencies within asset
types and identification of indicators of abnormal conditions will be
reviewed and modelled mathematically. Additionally an attempt to
apply this model on specific assembly, asset, fleet and global levels will
be made. A synopsis of different approaches for statistically
establishing thresholds and limits for parameters will be given and a
method for identifying outliers presented. Finally, data compilation and
presentation will be discussed, including the use of trending tools and
visual representations.

9:30 10 am
Diagnosing Varnish Problems in Lube Systems
with Normal MPC Values
T. Chen, G. Livingstone, Fluitec International, Bayonne, NJ
Oil analysis plays a key role in predicting oil health and deposit
generation. The MPC test (D7843) has been established as a key test to
determine the varnish potential of in-service turbine oils. Occasionally,
this test does not provide a predictive measurement for varnish
problems resulting in unexpected operational problems in spite of an
excellent condition monitoring program. This presentation reviews case
studies in which varnish was not detected through routine oil analysis
and suggests mechanisms that may be causing this phenomenon.

10 10:30 am Break

A. Ito, IHI Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan


Suitable maintenance is important to keep good machine conditions
and to avoid serious damage. Recently, condition based maintenance is
becoming mainstream from the point of higher reliability and cost
saving. In this maintenance program strategy, correct and good
sensitivity sensing technique is key for precise judgment. In this study,
condition monitoring method by color sensing of lubricant oil is
presented. In this method, Oil degradation and abnormal

122

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
5M

10:30 11 am
Asset Condition Assessment: A Case Study
from Theory to Reality

Session 5N

Jubilee 1

SURFACE ENGINEERING V

M. Yarlott, Veolia North America, Salem, OR


Understanding an assets life cycle status is essential for asset
management because decisions about system capacity, asset repair/
replacement, and priorities can all be established with accurate asset
life cycle status ranking. Asset life cycle status is directly driven by the
asset condition and the methods used to establish the condition
assessment. This case-study will examine asset condition assessment
theory, evaluation techniques, and data collection in a computerized
maintenance management system (CMMS), including a demo of data
collection. Learning objectives include (1.) Understanding of complex
asset failure modes and how they drive condition measurement/
assessment standards, (2.) Developing a repeatable condition
assessment evaluation criteria for a complex asset, (3.) Methods for
collecting, analyzing, and updating the condition scoring.

11 11:30 am
Quantitative Measurements of Lubricant
Contaminants Using a Microsensor Array Based
on Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network
X. Zhu, L. Du, J. Zhe, The University of Akron, Akron, OH
We present a sensor array for quantitative measurements of four
important lubricant properties, namely, water, total acid number, soot
and sulfur content. The sensor array consists of four micromachined
electrochemical sensors and a back propagation artificial neural
network (BPNN). While each sensor responds to all four properties
(cross-sensitivity), the designs ensure each sensor respond to the four
properties differently. The BPNN was applied to solve the cross
sensitivity problem and pinpoint each property from the sensor arrays
response. After training, one architecture with 4, 50, 5, and 4 neurons in
the input layer, first and second hidden layer, and output layer was
selected. Testing results demonstrated that the developed network can
quantitatively determine the aforementioned four lubricant properties
with a maximum error of 18.8%, 6.0%, 6.7%, and 5.4%, respectively,
indicting the sensor array could be potentially used for online lubricant
condition monitoring.

11:30 am Noon
Development of Tribological Diagnostic
Technology by the Color of Membrane Patch
E. Kitahara, T. Honda, Y. Ozaki, University of Fukui, Fukui, Fukui,
Japan, Y. Nakamura, Ebara Corp., Ota-ku, Japan
In recent years, proactive maintenance has been proposed as one of
the machine maintenance system. Degradation of lubricating oils is
closely related to mechanical failures, thus it is necessary to establish
the condition monitoring method of lubricating oils in order to apply
the proactive maintenance to machines. Degradation causes of
lubricating oils are roughly classified into solid particles and oil
oxidation products. Therefore, we have prepared sample oils which
were degraded by solid particles or oil oxidation products or both. In
our laboratory, we have developed colorimetric patch analyzer (CPA) for
a degradation diagnosis method for lubricating oils which paid the
attention to the coloration of the membrane patch with contamination.
In this study, we investigated the relationship between the membrane
patch color and tribological properties by the block-on-ring test in
artificial degradated oil.

Session Chair: R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, PES Institute of


Technology, Bangalore, India
Session Vice Chair: G. Ramirez, Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

8 8:30 am
Development of Polymer Brushes for the
Lubrication of Silicon Nitride-Steel Contacts
S. Watson, M. Nie, L. Wang, K. Stokes, University of Southampton,
Southampton, United Kingdom
Silicon nitride is an important engineering ceramic and has been
increasingly used in tribological systems. Hybrid contacts, involving
silicon nitride and steel contacts, are relying on conventional
lubrication solutions based on protecting the metal surface. In addition,
current lubricants containing phosphorus and sulphur are facing new
regulations due to pollution and their environmental impacts.
Synthesizing polymer brushes compatible with polyalphaolefins that
can strongly attach to silicon nitride may be a new lubrication solution
for hybrid bearings. A more robust method of Atom Transfer Radical
Polymerisation, known as Activators ReGenerated by Electron Transfer,
allows significantly more control over the final polymer that is
constructed. Polymer brushes have longer carbon chains thus a higher
resistance to compressive and shear stresses compared to selfassembled monolayers. This paper presents initial results from a study
of polymer brushes as a lubrication solution.

8:30 9 am
Frictional Behavior of (PEI/GO)x Solid Lubricant
Coatings on Steel Substrates in Extreme
Environments
P. Saravanan, R. Selyanchyn, S. Fujikawa, J. Sugimura, International
Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy, Fukuoka, Japan
The unique frictional behavior of polyethylenimine/graphene oxide
layer-by-layer (LbL (PEI/GO)x) solid lubricant coatings on steel
substrates in various environments such as air, hydrogen, nitrogen and
vacuum have been investigated. Different thickness (PEI/GO)x coatings
(where x is a number of bi-layers, x = 5,10 or 15) were deposited on
440C steel substrates and subjected to a macro-tribological
comparative study. The steady-state friction coefficients were reduced
by ~ 5, 14, 10 and 29 times in ambient air, hydrogen, vacuum and
nitrogen respectively, compared to non-coated substrate. Therefore,
(PEI/GO)x=10, 15 LbL coatings were exhibited superior tribological
behavior than (PEI/GO)5. Specific friction mechanisms occurring inside
a few bilayers at the top of thicker coatings in dry environments
(hydrogen, nitrogen and vacuum) (except ambient air) is linked to the
change of graphene oxide flakes orientation on the surface with
respect to environment.

9 9:30 am
Investigation on the Atomically Smooth Surface
with Step-Terrace Structure of GaN Wafer after
Chemical Mechanical Polishing
H. Gong, Research Institute of Tsinghua University (Shenzhen),
Shenzhen, China, G. Pan, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, C. Zou,
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optomechatronics,
Shenzhen, China, Y. Zhou, L. Xu, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
After planarization by colloidal silica (SiO2) based slurry, an atomic stepterrace morphology has been observed on the surface of gallium
nitride (GaN) wafer measuring by Atomic Force Microscope, and the
corresponding roughness was low to 0.06nm (scan area 11m2). We
investigated the effects of chemical components and mechanical

124

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
factors on the material removal mechanism of GaN according to the
variation of atomic step-terrace morphology. As a result, the chemical
components in slurry could only act on the reactant of GaN, and the
morphology would not be destroyed when adopting slurry with only
reagent. In contrast, the step edge would be disrupted during polishing
by slurry with SiO2 abrasives. Furthermore, double step-terrace
structure (a-a or a-b type) on GaN surface was confirmed, and the total
widths of both the two-type double step-terrace structure were the
same. Besides, the two types can be controlled by adjusting the
abrasive concentration.

that the different compositions of friction layer and the transfer film are
formed on the worn surfaces of materials to adapt with the
temperature changes, in order to maintain the lubricating performance
under different temperatures.

9:30 10 am
The Tribological Performance and Tribofilm
Formation on Microwave PECVD Diamond-Like
Carbon Films Under Boundary Lubrication
Conditions When Lubricated by Gear Oil
Formulation

3D printing is now a leading area of research in countless technology


development fields. Among the biggest challenges in 3D printing are
the precise fabrication of living tissue and soft electronics. Although
advancements in these areas have been made in the past decade, the
size and complexity of printed structures continues to be limited by the
ability of soft material to support itself. Recent work has shown that
printing in liquid-like solids and complex fluids eliminates these
limitations; localized yielding of liquid-like solids or complex fluids
around the writing nozzle enables the printing of soft structures in both
oil-based and water-based media. However, the relationship between
the tribological and rheological problems in such printing processes is
not understood broadly. In this study, we explore the rheological and
tribological properties of microgels, micelle gels, and self-assembled
block co-polymer phases and their role in soft matter 3D printing.

8:30 9 am
Tribological Challenges in 3D Printing with
Liquid-Like Solids and Complex Fluids
C. OBryan, T. Bhattacharjee, W. Sawyer, T. Angelini, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL

H. Zhao, J. Lanigan, C. Wang, T. Liskiewicz, University of Leeds,


Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, Y. Tamura, Komatsu Ltd.,
Hiratsuka, Japan, I. Kolev, IHI Hauzer Techno Coating B.V., Venlo,
Netherlands, N. Sano, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United
Kingdom, A. Neville, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire,
United Kingdom
Literature and previous study showed that the DLC films that were
prepared using microwave excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour
deposition (MW-PECVD) technology demonstrated comparable friction
coefficient that the normal PECVD DLC when lubricated by engine oil
formulations. In this study, two MW-PECVD DLC films that were
produced at different precursor ratios and bias voltages are compared
with normal PECVD DLC film under boundary lubrication conditions.
A fully-formulated gear oil formulation with high sulphur content was
used as the lubricant. The MW-PECVD DLCs had about 7% friction
reduction comparing with the normal PECVD DLC. The surface analysis
results suggest that not only the mechanical properties of the DLC films
are important for the tribological performance; the tribochemistry
effects also play a key role for the friction and wear of the carbon films.
The sulphur species adsorption on DLC films and its influence on the
friction performance are discussed in the paper.

10 10:30 am Break

Session 5O

Jubilee 2

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY V

T. Bhattacharjee, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, N. Baldwin,


Alexander W. Dreyfoos School of the Arts, West Palm Beach, FL,
F. Zegers, J. Uruena, C. OBryan, A. Pitenis, W. Sawyer, T. Angelini,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
Soft granular microgel particles are the critical ingredient in most
personal care products like hand sanitizers and lotions, which must be
able to transition between the fluid and solid states under shear. Such
liquid-like solids show promise for emerging technologies; they have
recently been exploited in 3D printing to create complex large aspect
ratio objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular
networks out of silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells. Yielding
and fluidization in granular matter is known as the jamming transition
and has been studied extensively within the rheology and soft matter
communities. However, the underlying molecular behavior at the
interfaces of jammed particles that set the system yield stress is not
known. In this study, we explore how the connection between polymer
mesh-size and inter-particle friction coefficient sets the yield stress in
granular liquid-like solids that controls the jamming transition.

9:30 10 am
Superlubricity in Soft Matter

Session Chair: D. Burris, University of Delaware, Newark, DE


Session Vice Chair: K. Schulze, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL

A. Pitenis, J. Uruena, A. Cooper, T. Angelini, W. Sawyer, University


of Florida, Gainesville, FL

8 8:30 am
Design and Performances of Adaptive Lubricating
Composites in a Wide Temperature Range
J. Jia, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
With the fast development of advanced engines, there emerges a
urgent demand of tribo-materials with continues lubricating properties
in wide temperature range (RT-10000C), which require the tribo-materials
with a stable lubricating performance adapt to different temperature
changes. In present work, I would like to discuss the selection of the
matrix and lubricants for the adaptive high temperature lubricating
materials as well as propose the material formulation with excellent
mechanical and tribological properties at high temperature. Thereinto,
understanding the mechanism responsible for the materials with
continues lubricating properties and clarify the synergistic effect of
multi-lubricants phases and tribochemical interaction. The results show

www.stle.org

9 9:30 am
Friction and Yielding in Liquid-like Solids

Hydrogels in self-mated (i.e., twinned) Gemini sliding contact display


friction behavior incongruous with the classic Stribeck curve. This
anomalous friction behavior was ascribed to a transition from thermal
fluctuations to polymer chain relaxation lubrication dominating the
hydrogel network. Previous studies achieved very low friction coefficients
( < 0.005) when the amplitude of polymer chain fluctuations were ~
10 nm. Such superlubricious friction coefficients are traditionally only
achieved at hard, incommensurate, molecularly clean interfaces. Here
we explore the possibility of achieving similarly low values (and lower)
in soft, aqueous materials at low loads and macroscopic contact areas.
We reexamined the lowest friction coefficient reported in previous
Gemini hydrogel studies and exceeded this lower limit of friction
coefficient measurements for these interfaces by intentionally
increasing the mesh size.

10 10:30 am Break

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

125

Wednesday, May 18
5O

10:30 11 am
Time-Dependence of Hydrogel-Solid Lubrication
Investigated by Steady Shear Tribo-Rheology
A. Dunn, J. Kim, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Urbana, IL
Soft, hydrated interfaces are analogous to complex fluids due to
uncharacterized surface termination, which drives lubrication.
Oscillating tribological measurements introduce a passing frequency
that competes with material relaxation. To remove this oscillation, we
approach hydrogel lubrication using constant-slip shear between two
parallel rotating plates, denoted as tribo-rheology. Experiments
measured the instantaneous and steady-state torque response between
an aluminum ring and 7.5% mass-per-mass polyacrylamide-to-water
hydrogel in a submerged environment over 5 orders of magnitude in
sliding speed. We observe repeatable hysteresis in the torque response
at identical sliding speeds. Short-time transients ~1-30 seconds were
measured at intermediate speeds. We conclude that a complex
rheological response arises during transition regions in lubrication
between a hydrogel surface and metal countersurface, evidenced by
time-dependent torque responses measured using tribo-rheology.

11 11:30 am
Tribological Rehydration: Directly Observing
the Loss and Recovery of Interstitial Fluid
A. Moore, D. Burris, University of Delaware, Newark, DE
Cartilage achieves its unusual tribological properties through a unique
mechanism known as interstitial lubrication. Unfortunately, periods of
rest (static loading), which account for 90% of our day, cause fluid
exudation and the loss of interstitial lubrication. It was recently shown
that interstitial lubrication can be maintained and recovered via a
unique mechanism known as tribological rehydration. Tribological
rehydration is the flow of hydrodynamically pressurized bath fluid into
the articular cartilage. The path of fluid flow into and through the
porous cartilage is currently unknown. To visualize the process of
tribological rehydration a custom tribometer will be mounted over a
confocal microscope to capture the movement of florescent molecules
through the tissue. The findings will demonstrate (1) how pressurized
bath fluid moves through cartilage and (2) provide insight into whether
or not fluid films are developed.

11:30 am Noon
Slow Rise, Take it Easy: Local Mesh Size Control
of Thermal Fluctuation Lubrication
K. Schulze, J. Uruena, A. Pitenis, University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL, J. Curry, M. Sidebottom, B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem,
PA, T. Angelini, W. Sawyer, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
The mesh size of a hydrogels defines its physical properties such as
modulus, permeability and water content. It also has a significant
impact on the friction response of a Gemini self-mated hydrogel
interface. As previously shown at sliding speeds ranging from 30 mps
to 100 mmps the Gemini experience two distinct friction regimes:
Thermal Fluctuation Lubrication (Speed independent) and Polymer
Relaxation Lubrication (Speed Dependent). Here we further expand the
Thermal Fluctuation Lubrication regime by reducing the speeds below
30 mps and examine the effects of the mesh size local to the contact
on the friction response of the system. At these low speeds a third
regime of friction response for gemini hydrogels has been discovered
that is dependent on the duration the system rests in its initial contact
location and its effect on the governing competitive rates found in
these soft,permeable materials.

126

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 5P

Jubilee 3

NANOTRIBOLOGY V: NANOSCALE
LUBRICATION MECHANISMS
Session Chair: H. Khare, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
PA
Session Vice Chair: C. Wen, Petronas Group Technical Solutions,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

8 9 am
Molecular Mechanisms of Aqueous Boundary
Lubrication by Mucinous Glycoproteins and their
Engineered Mimics
S. Zauscher, Duke University, Durham, NC
This presentation will focus on lubricin, a secreted, cytoprotective
glycoprotein, encoded by the gene PRG4, that is essential to
maintaining joint function and long-term integrity of synovial joints by
providing boundary lubrication and preventing cartilage-cartilage
adhesion. Specifically we will report on our results from nanotribomechanical measurements on model surfaces, including self-assembled
monolayers, collagen and cartilage, combined with other surface
specific, physicochemical measurements that shed new light on the
mechanisms by which Prg4 provides lubrication and wear protection
in diarthrodial joints. Furthermore, we will report on our recent
tribological results with engineered Prg4 mimics. Our results suggest
that the role of effective boundary lubricants in mediating friction in
articular joints is largely one of wear protection of surface asperities,
by maintaining the surfaces in a nonadhesive mode and causing shear
dissipation in the biopolymeric boundary lubricant layer.

9 9:30 am
Confined Lubricant at a Molecular Scale Under
Transient Tribological Conditions
A. Crespo, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France
The use of thinner lubricant film leads to film failure when the contact
undergoes transient conditions. Thus, the objective is to understand the
friction response of a confined fluid taking into account the coupling
between its interfacial rheology and its molecular organization onto
the surface under time-varying experimental conditions. A SFA-molecular
tribometer, developed in LTDS, is used. It allows quasi-static and dynamic
displacements of a sphere in front of a plane where displacements and
forces are measured with capacitive sensors. Dynamic measurements,
allow rheological characterization of the confined fluid. Dodecane is
used as Newtonian base oil and stearic acid molecules to represent
friction modifiers. Results show that stearic acid molecules form a viscoelastic nanometer-thick boundary layer on the surfaces. Under shear,
the interfacial friction depends on sliding velocity. A sudden variation
of velocity is associated with a transient variation of tangential force.

9:30 10 am
Steric Effect of Thickening Agents in Interfacially
Confined Liquid Lubricants
K. Tamura, M. Ishikawa, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., Ichihara, Chiba,
Japan
Formulation of low-viscosity lubricants for efficient energy use requires
improved protection performance against wear, which is often
accelerated by viscosity redicution. Although thickening agents, or
thickeners, have been reported to inhibit fatigue damage, the underlying
mechanism has not been fully understood. Here, we measured using a
surface force apparatus the surface forces between two curved ultrasmooth mica surfaces confining paraffinic mineral oils containing
polymeric thickeners. The thickener-containing oils exhibited repulsive
force at submicron surface separation, whereas thickener-free base oils
did not. The repulsive force increased with decreasing distance between

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
5P

the surfaces, indicating a steric response to compression. Such


behaviors were not observed in the dynamic behavior of bulk lubricant
oils. This steric effect might be ascribed to concentration of polymers in
the confined lubricant. This effect might originate the wear protection
performance of thickeners.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Experimental Study of the Liquid-Mediated
Adhesion between Contacting Rough Surfaces
A. Rostami, J. Streator, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
Contacting solid surfaces may experience large interfacial stresses, both
tensile and compressive, due to the presence of intervening liquid films,
which can arise from condensation, contamination or lubrication. Such
liquid-mediated adhesion may negatively affect the performance of
small-scale devices such as nano/micro electro-mechanical systems
(NEMS/MEMS), the head-disk interface (HDI) of magnetic storage
devices. Negative capillary pressures within the liquid film induce
tensile forces between the two surfaces that drive them into intimate
contact. In this work, a liquid film is introduced between contacting
rough surfaces and the resulting adhesion is characterized by
measuring pull-off forces, friction forces and frictional torque. Tests are
performed for various liquids, solid-solid pairs, and surface finishes.
Experimental results are compared with the previously developed
models of liquid mediated adhesion with contacting rough surfaces.

11 11:30 am
Ionic Liquids Confined in Rough Contacts
R. Espinosa-Marzal, A. Sheehan, L. Jurado, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL
Understanding the behavior of ionic liquids (ILs) confined between
rough surfaces is of enormous relevance to extend studies performed
on ideally flat surfaces to real applications. In this work we have
performed an extensive investigation of the structural forces between
silica surfaces with well-defined roughness in 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by Atomic Force
Microscopy. Statistical studies of the measured layer thicknesses,
layering force, and layering frequency reveal the equilibrium structure
of the rough IL-solid interface and in confinement. Our work
demonstrates that the IL exhibits a local solid-like behaviour at rough
IL-solid interfaces and that the characteristics of the equilibrium
structure strongly depend on the topography of the real contact.

11:30 am Noon
Supramolecular Assembly and Nanotribological
Properties of Mucic Acid Mediated by Molecular
Modulators
H. Shi, Y. Liu, Y. Duan, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, Q. Zeng,
Y. Yang, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing,
China, X. Lu, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Saccharides have been proved to be the main components
contributing to the excellent lubrication behavior of many natural
systems, which is attributed to their strong hydration ability. In this
paper, we report a nanoscale study on the self-assembly structures and
nanotribological properties of mucic acid, a kind of saccharide
derivatives. Supramolecular networks of mucic acid with pyridine
modulators were characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy
(STM). Results indicated that the assembly behavior of mucic acid was
modulated by different pyridine molecules, which is associated with the
formation of hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the nanotribological
properties of assembly networks were studied by atomic force
microscopy (AFM) in aqueous solution. A reduction of friction was
observed with the introduction of mucic acid. The combination of
supramolecular assembly and nanotribology opens a promising
pathway to design the water-based lubrication system.

128

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 6A

Bronze 4

COMMERCIAL MARKETING FORUM VI


1:30 2 pm
Renewable Raw Materials for Applications
in Hydraulic Fluids
V. Aruta, Temix Oleo SrL, Milan, Italy
Temix Oleo pays particular attention to sustainable chemistry,
promoting the use of raw materials from renewable and biodegradable
sources in the lubricant market. In fact, the entire production cycle of
Temix Oleo is based on scrap raw materials such as tallow and acid oils
refining of olive oil. From these raw materials the Temix Oleo biorefinery produces more noble raw materials such as stearic acid,
palmitic acid and oleic acid. Then using products such as oleic acid,
stearic acid, etc., Temix Oleo can be built countless lubricant bases with
high biodegradability properties for applications in hydraulic fluids.

2 2:30 pm
Emery Oleochemicals A Global Producer of
Corrosion Inhibitor and Lubricant Chemistries
J. Sliner, Emery Oleochemicals, Cincinnati, OH
Emery Oleochemicals is a leading provider of high performance and
innovative natural-based additives and basestocks for corrosion
preventive, cleaner, lubricant, and metalworking fluid formulators. Our
brands include EMEROX Azelaic Acids and Diacid Corrosion Inhibitors,
DEHYLUB Esters, EMERY Dimer Acids and Pelargonic Acids, and
EMERSOL Isostearic Acids. These sustainable products find use in a
wide range of applications including cutting fluids, metalforming fluids,
rolling oils, corrosion preventives, metal cleaners, engine coolants,
hydraulic fluids, gear oils, greases, transmission fluids, engine oils and
fuels. Principal to our business strategy is our back-end integration and
access to renewable feed stocks, innovative solutions, reliably
consistent high quality products, in-depth technical know-how, and
true global support. New product developments will be highlighted.

2:30 3 pm
CINRG Systems Inc.
B. Quesnel, CINRG Systems Inc., Burlington, Ontario, Canada
CINRG Systems designs automated instrumentation for commerical oil
analysis. In this presentation Bill Quesnel, president of CINRG Systems,
will provide an overview of novel approaches to automation for
commerical oil analysis laboratories including a fully automated autodilution system for particle counting using the new dilution method
ASTM D7647 and a fully robotic system for viscosity measurement
using the method ASTM D7279.

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 4 pm
Enhancing MW Formulation with Multipurpose
Lubricant Additives, Anticorrosion and Low
Foam Emulsifiers
M. Patel, Sasol Performance Chemicals, Westlake, LA
Sasol Performance Chemicals Products are highlighted.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
4 4:30 pm
Vacuum Dehydration Oil Purification System
(VDOPS) The Most Reliable Way to Keep
Your Oil Absolutely Clean and Dry

Session 6B

Bronze 3

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS VI
TRIBOFILMS

K. Kaihlanen, Oil Filtration Systems LLC, Boerne, TX


Session Chair: R. Erck, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

Oil Filtration Systems are highlighted.

Session Vice Chair: B. Miller, Chevron Oronite Co. LLC,


Richmond, CA

4:30 5 pm
VANLUBE 407 Antioxidant Blend
B. Fuller, V. Gatto, Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC, Norwalk, CT
Celebrating its 100th year anniversary, Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC
provides a variety of unique additives to formulators across all
segments of lubrication. Antioxidants, an important aspect of our
business, are provided to customers primarily in the form of phenolic,
aminic and sulfur based chemistries. Its widely known, however, that
effective use of these antioxidant classes requires a formulation
approach balancing many cost, handling and performance attributes.
To address some of these challenges the company is introducing a new
liquid antioxidant blend, VANLUBE 407. It has exhibited exceptional
performance in the PDSC and RPVOT oxidation tests at lower treat rates
and costs compared to conventional alternatives when formulated into
grease and experimental turbine oils. It carries kosher and NSF approval
for use in HX-1 lubricants in addition to worldwide registration. This
presentation will highlight the Vanderbilt Chemicals antioxidant
product line, specifically, VANLUBE 407.

5 5:30 pm
Synfluid mPAOs: High Viscosity Base Oils
for Exceptional Lubes and Greases
K. Hope, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co., The Woodlands, TX
This presentation discusses the advantages of Synfluid mPAO in gear
oils, industrial fluids and other lubricant formulations and also unveils
recent work on greases. From a physical property basis, we will examine
how the high viscosity index, low pour point, and exceptional low
temperature viscometrics are beneficial in finished formulations. One
particularly interesting feature of the mPAOs is how they perform
under extreme conditions. Whether it is extreme pressure or extreme
cold temperatures this presentation will demonstrate the advantages
that Synfluid mPAOs bring in lubricant and grease formulations.

R. Carpick, N. Gosvami, J. Ma, J. Bares, F. Mangolini, University of


Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, A. Konicek, D. Yablon, ExxonMobil
Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ
The mechanisms governing the growth and anti-wear behavior of zinc
dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) tribofilms are not well understood. Using
atomic force microscopy (AFM) in ZDDP-containing base stock at
elevated temperatures, we measured tribofilm growth and properties
in situ in single-asperity sliding nanocontacts [1]. Surface-based
nucleation, growth, and saturation of patchy tribofilms were observed.
The exponential dependence of growth rate on either applied
compressive stress or temperature is consistent with thermally activated,
stress-assisted kinetics. A physically-based model for explaining the
graded structure of ZDDP tribofilms and their self-limiting growth is
proposed on the basis of the AFM results. Although some models rely
on the presence of iron to catalyze tribofilm growth, the films grew
regardless of the presence of iron on either the tip or substrate,
highlighting the critical role of stress and thermal activation.

2 2:30 pm
ZDDP Tribofilm Formation under Pure Sliding
Conditions
Y. Shimizu, H. Spikes, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom

5:30 6 pm
GTL Solvents Offer Fresh Solutions for the
Metalworking Industry
R. Wiersma, M. Karamagi, Shell Chemicals, Houston, TX
In the GTL (gas-to-liquids) process, natural gas is converted into high
purity liquid hydrocarbon products. Metalworking fluids based on GTL
technology can offer a number of benefits to the user compared to
traditional neat oils and oil emulsions. Benefits include lower viscosity
formulations; higher flash points; non-corrosivity, non-staining
properties; essentially odorless fluids, lower toxicity and skin irritation;
high thermal conductivity; and improved biodegradability. Specifically,
Shell GTL solvent grades GS 190, GS 215 and GS 250 may be particularly
suitable for, but not restricted to, metal cleaning, forming, working and
rolling applications. Formulators working with next-generation GTL
technology can offer enhanced properties to discerning consumers
seeking high-performance, readily biodegradable metalworking fluids.

www.stle.org

1:30 2 pm
Mechanisms of ZDDP Antiwear Tribofilm Growth
Revealed In Situ by Nanoscale Single-Asperity
Sliding Contact

Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) is used as an anti-wear additive in


engine oils and is required to show good performance under pure sliding
condition in order to protect piston rings and cylinder liner assemblies.
Many researchers have studied its efficiency and reaction mechanisms
combining wear tests and surface analysis. However the growth process
of ZDDP tribofilms in pure sliding conditions is not fully understood.
The authors have investigated the growth process using a MTM-SLIM
(Mini Traction Machine and Spacer Layer Imaging tester). Results show
that ZDDP film forming behaviour in pure sliding differs significantly
from that in rolling-sliding. The nature of pure sliding also matters since
in unidirectional sliding severe damage was observed while no such
damage was observed on the surface under reciprocating motion.

2:30 3 pm
Correlating Chemical Composition, Mechanical
Properties, and Tribological Behavior of Ionic
Liquid Tribofilms
J. Qu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN
Oil-miscible ionic liquids (ILs) are candidate lubricant anti-wear
additives and known to form protective tribofilms on contact areas.
Here we summarize the morphology, film thickness, nanostructure,
chemical composition, and mechanical properties of tribofilms formed
by ILs and their combinations with ZDDP, and correlate them with the
tribological behavior. Major observations include: (1) ILs tend to
produce smoother tribofilms than ZDDP, resulting in lower friction in
mixed lubrication; (2) A higher ratio of metal phosphates to oxides in
the tribofilm generally is associated with lower boundary friction and
wear; (3) There is no direct relation between the tribofilm thickness and
wear protection performance; and (4) While the tribofilm hardness is

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

129

Wednesday, May 18
6B

trendless, the resistance-to-plastic-deformation (P/S2) appears inversely


proportional to wear protection, which is in an opposite trend as for
bulk materials and likely attributable to the tribofilms dynamic selfhealing characteristics.

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 4 pm
Understanding Friction Reduction Mechanism
of Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils
A. Gangopadhyay, Z. Liu, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI, S. Simko,
Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI,
J. Cuthbert, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI, A. Erdemir, G. Ramirez,
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
Engine oil formulations using polyalkylene glycol (PAG) base stock have
shown substantial friction reduction in motored and dyno engine tests
over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 mineral oil formulation. Laboratory bench tests
using MiniTraction machine (MTM), and High Frequency Reciprocating
Rig (HFRR) were used for friction assessment. PAG oils with and without
an additive package were evaluated at 100C. The wear surfaces were
analyzed using a variety of surface sensitive techniques including SEM,
Auger, XPS, ToF-SIMS, and Raman spectroscopies. MTM tests showed
substantial friction reduction while HFRR tests did not. Tests with PAG
base stock in HFRR showed only iron oxide formation while MTM tests
showed presence of PAG molecules on the surface in addition to iron
oxide. Formulated PAG oils in MTM tests showed presence of PAG
molecules and additive-derived tribo-films. The presence of PAG
molecules on surface is believed to be mechanism for friction
reduction.

4 4:30 pm
Impacts of Oil Contaminants on the Performance
of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP
Y. Zhou, J. Qu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN
The impacts of common oil contaminants (gasoline and water) on the
performance of anti-wear (AW) additives have been investigated. A
newly developed oil-miscible phosphorus-containing ionic liquid (IL)
and a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) were evaluated
as the AW additives. The oil contaminants were added to the AWadditized base oil and the friction and wear changes were determined
during the tribo-testes. Linearly reciprocating ball-on-flat sliding tests
were applied by using steel balls against cast iron flats. Comprehensive
surface characterization of the worn surfaces was conducted and the
cross-sectional imaging and elemental analysis of the tribo-films were
performed. The revealed structural and compositional modification of
the tribo-film nanostructure helped the development of a mechanistic
understanding.

4:30 5 pm
Study of Gear Oil Additive Tribofilms Using
XANES
M. Costello, BASF, Tarrytown, NY
Gear oils contain a variety of phosphorous and sulfur based chemistries
that provide EP/AW protection for the bearings, friction surfaces, and
gear teeth. Depending on the type of phosphorous or sulfur species
used this can create a variety of of either sulfur rich or phosphorous
rich tribofilms on the gear teeth. In this study we used a High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) to model the tribofilms formed on
the surface of gear teeth during extreme loading conditons and
examined their chemical composition using X-Ray Absorption Near
Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The resulting XANES analysis revealed a
variety of surprising syngergies and antagonisms of the EP/AW
additives on the metal surfaces.

130

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

5 5:30 pm
Elucidation of the Action of Functional Groups
in the Coexisting Ashless Compounds on the
Tribofilm Formation and Friction Characteristic
of ZnDTP-Formulated Lubricating Oils
Y. Matsui, JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corp., Yokohama, Japan, S. Aoki,
M. Masuko, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZnDTP) has been well-known to show
supreme antiwear performances by forming thick polyphosphatebased tribofilm on the friction surface. However, it has been also
pointed out already that ZnDTP suffered interference from coexisting
dispersant. In the engine oils, since many kind of additives are used
together with ZnDTP, the effect of functional groups in the coexisting
polar compounds on the tribofilm formation of ZnDTP should be
clarified. In this study, several kinds of functionalized PMAs, dispersant,
friction modifiers were used with ZnDTP, and their effect on the
tribofilm formation of ZnDTP was discussed.

Session 6C

Bronze 2

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN VI


Session Chair: J. Qu, Materials Science and Technology Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN
Session Vice Chair: P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute, San
Antonio, TX

1:30 2 pm
Tribological Feasibility Study of Oxygen-Diffusion
Case-Hardened Titanium Diesel Piston in CJ-4
and PC-11 Engine Oils
J. Qu, A. Shaw, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN,
R. England, C. Wang, Cummins, Inc., Columbus, IN
For improving efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines, advanced
lightweight materials are being introduced along with increasing peakcylinder-pressure and decreasing engine oil viscosity. These approaches
post wear challenges to engine bearing interfaces. This study
investigated the feasibility of using titanium as a piston material from
tribological perspective because titanium is known prone to scuffing.
In piston skirt-cylinder liner sliding bench tests, Ti-6Al-4V piston
samples showed localized scuffing damage in API CJ-4 and PC-11a
diesel engine oils, but had a major scuffing failure in a PC-11b oil.
Oxygen-diffusion (OD) case-hardening was applied to the Ti-6Al-4V
piston samples at various treatment temperatures, and demonstrated
excellent wear protection particularly in the PC-11b low-viscosity oil.
In addition to higher surface hardness, the OD treatment enables antiwear tribofilm formation on the titanium surface, both contributing to
the improved tribological performance.

2 2:30 pm
Challenging the Linear Wear Rate Assumption:
An In-Situ Stylus Profilometer for a Reciprocating
Tribometer
T. Kamps, J. Walker, University of Southampton, Southampton,
Hampshire, United Kingdom, P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX, R. Wood, University of Southampton,
Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, G. Plint, Phoenix
Tribology Ltd., Kingsclere, United Kingdom
The lubricant regime of a tribosystem is often described in terms of the
ratio between the composite surface roughness and the lubricant film
thickness. Whether a friction or wear test is conducted, the surface
topography evolves during an experiment. It is challenging to measure
contacting surfaces therefore before and after measurements are
usually compared, providing two data points which can only be

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
attributed a linear fit. This may be misleading if the wear is non-linear
such as piston ring on liner scuffing, when a discrete transition between
mild and severe wear occurs. An in-situ stylus profilometer was
developed to investigate how surface topography evolution affects
scuffing reproduced in a reciprocating tribometer. Three concurrent
profiles parallel to the reciprocation direction were measured at regular
test intervals. By performing in-situ measurements the samples were
undisturbed by the measurement allowing surface roughness
correlation to friction and wear behaviour.

behaviour in terms of wear and changes in surface topography has


been investigated. The damage on the shaft and the bearing surfaces
were studied in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It has
been possible to distinguish between the embeddability characteristics
of different materials.

2:30 3 pm
Optimising Surface Texture to Reduce Friction
in Piston-Liner Contacts

L. Begin, D. Deng, F. Shi, H. Lin, General Motors, Pontiac, MI


It was observed experimentally that hysteresis phenomenon of
turbocharger sub-synchronous frequency vibration occurred. A turbocharger was ramped-up in a few seconds and then ramped-down in
about the same time. There was only little sub-synchronous frequency
vibration during the turbocharger ramp-up, but much stronger subsynchronous frequency vibration was observed during the turbocharger
ramp-down. A turbocharger rotordynamics analysis was performed and
the analytical results predicted successfully the hysteresis behavior of
the sub-synchronous frequency vibration. To the best of the authors
knowledge, it was the first time to report this hysteresis phenomenon,
either experimentally or numerically. The hysteresis behavior was
explained from the thermal and energys point of view.

T. Reddyhoff, S. Vladescu, A. Olver, Imperial College, South


Kensington, London, United Kingdom, K. Tufail, I. Pegg, Ford,
Laindon, United Kingdom
Our recent research suggests that surface texture is an effective means
of reducing both friction and wear in automotive piston-liner contacts
when operating under the mixed and boundary lubrication conditions.
This presentation describes further research to optimise texture
geometry and also investigate the underlying mechanisms through
which pockets to reduce friction. This is achieved using a reciprocating
tribometer, whose contact conditions are closely controlled and
accurately represent those found in an automotive piston-liner
conjunction. Both friction and film thickness are measured
simultaneously, while cavitation behaviour is viewed using fluorescence.
Results highlight the importance of pocket entrainment frequency and
pocket volume.

Session 6D

Gold

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS IV


Session Chair: N. Weinzapfel, Schaeffler Group USA, Macomb, MI

3 3:30 pm Break

1:30 2 pm
Residual Stress Measurement of M50 Ball
Bearings Using the Contour Method

3:30 4 pm
Scuffing of Diesel Engine Cast Iron Liner:
Role of Tribochemical Surface Film

D. Isaac, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, M. Prime, Los Alamos


National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, N. Arakere, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL

O. Ajayi, M. Lorenzo Martin, Argonne National Laboratory,


Argonne, IL
Scuffing is one of the most severe and highly undesirable failure modes
in ICE ring and liner contact interface. Numerous efforts are devoted by
various organizations and researchers to developing a better
understanding and effective prevention of scuffing in engines. This
paper presents the characterization of scuffing process in diesel engine
cast iron liner from both engine and laboratory bench top tests.
Analysis of the ring and liner surfaces showed formation of tribochemical
films from oil additives. Occurrence of scuffing was observed to be
preceded by the local removal of the tribofilm; after which local severe
plastic deformation occurred resulting in scuffing initiation. Frictional
instability was also observed to be an indication of local tribofilm
removal and consequent scuffing initiation. Better understanding of the
dynamics of formation and loss of tribofilm is expected to help
elucidate mechanisms and prevention of scuffing in ICE.

4 4:30 pm
Embedability Behaviour of Some Pb-Free Engine
Bearing Materials

Ball bearing life is influenced by the Hertzian stress fields, and the
residual stress field evolution under rolling contact fatigue (RCF).
Measurements of the depth-wise distribution of residual stresses in
post-fatigue bearings with X-rays involve the time consuming process
of etching, typically only in the circumferential direction. By contrast,
the contour method determines the 2D residual stress map over a full
cross section. The method involves the sectioning of a part using EDM,
measuring the out of plane displacements of the exposed cross section,
and using the afforded field as boundary conditions on a finite element
model of the component to back calculate the causative residual stress.
For this investigation, the residual stress in the large main shaft bearing
of a jet engine was mapped. Prior to measurement the M50 bearing
was subjected to RCF during aircraft engine operation. The unique
challenges of the particular measurements are discussed in this
presentation.

2 2:30 pm
Investigation of the Brinell Dent Resistance
of Hybrid Rolling Element Bearings with 60NiTi
Races and Si3N4 Balls

D. Gebretsadik, N. Rahman, J. Hardell, B. Prakash, Lule University


of Technology, Lule, Sweden
An important requirement on engine bearing materials is its ability to
embed dirt/abrasive particles onto the bearing surface and minimize
damage to the expensive crankshaft. This property is achieved by
applying an overlay onto the lining. In this work, a journal bearing test
rig that operates under steady loading condition has been employed to
investigate the embeddability behaviour of selected multi-layered Pbfree engine bearing materials in the presence of contaminant/abrasive
particles in engine oil. Test materials include Pb-free bearing materials
with overlay compositions of Sn, Bi, PAI containing MoS2 and graphite.
Pb-based overlay has also been studied as a reference. Embeddability

www.stle.org

4:30 5 pm
Hysteresis Phenomenon of Turbocharger
Sub-synchronous Frequency Vibration

S. Howard, C. DellaCorte, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH


60NiTi belongs to a new class of rolling element bearing materials that
offers a unique combination of properties. 60NiTi and related alloys are
in the class of intermetallics of the more well-known shape memory
alloy, 55NiTi. 60NiTi does not possess the shape memory effect of its
sister material, but does have its own unique characteristics of high
hardness combined with excellent corrosion resistance, low modulus,
and superelasticity. In bearings, the superelasticity and low modulus
allow larger applied ball-race loads without permanent dent damage.
This capability is demonstrated in the current work through a series of

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

131

Wednesday, May 18
6D

tests where 60NiTi ball bearings are statically loaded to various levels
that extend well above typical capabilities and then rotated in a test rig
to determine if damage can be detected via vibration measurements.
Post-test inspections for damage assessment are also presented.

2:30 3 pm
Spall Propagation Characteristics of Refurbished
VIM-VAR AISI M50 Bearings
J. Mason, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, OH,
H. Trivedi, UES, Dayton, OH, L. Rosado, Air Force Research
Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, OH
During times of restricted supply, refurbishing bearings offers an
avenue to maintain operational readiness. However, bearing operation
after spall initiation on refurbished bearings has never been assessed.
Spall propagation characteristics were compared between new and
refurbished VIM-VAR AISI M50 bearings. A group of new M50 bearings
with M50 rolling elements were evaluated as a baseline. Another group
of M50 bearings accumulated 11.5 billion stress cycles at maximum
Hertzian stress of 1.93 GPa and at a temperature of 127 0C before Level
II refurbishment. The refurbished bearings were evaluated and
compared to the baseline bearings. Spalls were initiated and
propagated at a maximum Hertzian stress of 2.65 GPa and 2.41 GPa,
respectively. The propagation rates of the bearings were measured
using an oil debris monitor. Post-test bearings were examined for
changes in microstructure, micro hardness, residual stress and retained
austenite as a function of depth.

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 4 pm
A New Test Rig for the Investigation of Rolling
Bearings in the Centrifugal Field
D. Hochrein, S. Tremmel, S. Wartzack, University of Erlangen,
Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany, O. Graf-Goller, Schaeffler Technologies
AG & Co. KG, Herzogenaurach, Germany
At the current stage, there are only a few data on the frictional behavior
of rolling bearings under centripetal force. This is mainly due to the so
far lack of opportunity to investigate the friction torque of a single
bearing in the centrifugal force field. The advancing development of
downsizing and CO2-reduction, for example in the area of internal
combustion engines or planetary transmissions, makes it inevitable to
optimize or revise complex bearing positions like conrod bearings and
planetary gear bearings. Current known tests do not provide a
satisfactory consideration of the effects that occur on bearings in the
centrifugal field. Therefore a test rig was developed in order to expose
bearings to a centrifugal load of up to 3000 times gravity, rotational
speeds, lubrication conditions and temperatures. The design allows
measuring the occurring friction torque to identify essential parameters
on the friction torque in the centrifugal force field.

132

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

4 4:30 pm
Tribochemical Investigation of the Micropitting
Induced by ZDDP Anti-Wear Additive and Effect
of a Potential Additive on Reducing ZDDPInduced Micropitting
S. Soltanahmadi, A. Morina, iFS, School of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, M. van Eijkb, I. Nedelcu,
SKF Engineering and Research Centre, Nieuwegein, Netherlands,
A. Neville, iFS, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of
Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
Micropitting is a surface fatigue happening in bearing and gear
application has become a more noticeable issue in the past fifteen
years specifically in the highly loaded applications i.e. wind turbine.
Anti-wear additives can enhance micropitting occurrence. In this
regards, careful and detailed investigation of the additive action on the
surface can help developing lubricant formulation with an improved
micropitting performance. The current paper investigates the detailed
tribochemical effect of ZDDP as a well-known AW additive employing
XPS and EDX on the prepared FIB sample extracted from the wear track
of the steel sample. Micropitting features were generated using the
Micropitting Rig tester and have been inspected with WLI and SEM.
Crack accompanied with the micropitts have been investigated and
traces of the additive elements have been observed inside the crack. A
nitrogen based additive has been introduced to the lubricant
formulation which is capable of reducing micropitting. The mechanism
of the action of the additive will be discussed using several chemical
and surface-sensitive techniques including XPS, EDX-TEM, and AFM.

4:30 5 pm
Microstructural Changes in Aerospace Bearing
Materials under Accelerated Rolling Contact
Fatigue Life Testing
M. Kirsch, AFRL, Wright Patterson AFB, OH, H. Trivedi, UES, Inc.,
Dayton, OH, D. James, UDRI, Dayton, OH
Operating in the extreme environment of a turbine engine, aerospace
bearing must endure high thrust loads and very high rotational speeds.
Sub-surface fatigue damage is often observed as stress zone Light
Etching Regions and White Etching Regions. Although reported in
literature in AISI 52100, a large test matrix comparison of several
advanced materials for aerospace applications has not been conducted.
In this study one thru-hardened (VIM-VAR AISI M50) and four case
hardened materials (M50NiL, M50-NiL Nitrided, Pyrowear 675 High
Temperature Temper and Low Temperature Temper) were tested with
Si3N4 balls under accelerated life conditions in a ball-on-rod rolling
contact fatigue bench tester. Microstructural changes were
characterized by Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron
Microscopy in radial and axial cross section views. White etching cracks
and WERs were observed in M50 and M50-NiL with shorter average
fatigue lives as compared to either version of Pyrowear 675.

www.stle.org

Instrumen
Instruments
nts ffor
for IImportant
mporta
p ant
Specifications
Spe
ecificattions o
off TToda
Today
oday
aand
nd Tomo
TTomor
Tomorrow.
orrow.

Visit
V
isit us at b
booth
ooth #214

K I N G R E F R I G E R AATT I O N . C O M

TTAA N N A S C O.
O. C O M

P h o n e : + 1 ( 9 89 ) 6 98 - 55 00

P hone: + 1 (9 8 9 ) 496-2309

E ma i l : s a l e s @ k i n g r e f r i ger a t i on. c om

E ma i l : ta nna s@ sa v a nt g r oup .c om

Wednesday, May 18
Session 6F

Palace 3

NON-FERROUS METALS III: TRIBOLOGY


Session Chair: K. Januszkiewicz, Houghton International,
Inverary, Ontario, Canada
Session Vice Chair: J. Cepec, Allegheny Petroleum, Wilmerding,
PA

1:30 2 pm
Determination of Boiling Behavior of Rolling
Emulsions on Hot Aluminum Slab
K. Januszkiewicz, Houghton International, Inverary, Ontario,
Canada
This paper describes a methodology for determination of Leidenfrost
Point/Temperature based on the measurement of heat flux across
the metal surface, at the interface with the emulsion. Leidenfrost
temperature information will be provided for water, as well as organic
soap-based chemistry emulsions and non-soap chemistry emulsions in
as-formulated and used conditions. The information demonstrates the
advantage of non-soap chemistry in minimizing an increase in the
Leidenfrost Point/Temperature, and hence a reduction in the chance
of direct contact between hot aluminum and liquid coolant at lower
surface temperatures. Analytical data suggest tramp oil contamination
as well as metallic soap formation to be the main aging mechanisms
for the in-use organic soap-based emulsion. The metallic soap is absent
in the non-soap technology, thus an increase in the Leidenfrost
Point/Temperature with the organic soap-based technology can be
ascribed to the destabilizing effect of metallic soaps.

2 2:30 pm
Filtration and Particle Size of an Aluminium
Cold Rolling Coolant
P. Deneuville, Constellium C-Tec, Voreppe, France
The quality of the cold rolling oils and consequently of the final strip
surface is strongly linked to the quality of the filtration. Typical filtration
systems are based on a combination of filter papers and earths. These
earths may be activated or not and they may consist of minerals (clay
) or organic materials. The efficiency of a system on heavy duty mills
is usually evaluated by the ash test. But this test does not give
indications on the amount, the size and the nature of the aluminium
fines. This paper presents some results on cold rolling coolants in use
giving indications on particle size and on the distribution with a
specific measurement method. This is coupled with ICP-OES
characterization of the elements. A study of the particle morphologies
was conducted on SEM and some typical patterns are presented.
2:30 3 pm
Stain Potential: Aluminum Cold Rolling Applications
R. Blithe, A. Noblit, S. Wheeler, Houghton International, Valley Forge, PA
It is not uncommon for aluminum cold rolling operations to experience
leakage of hydraulic fluids and secondary lubricants into the cold
rolling fluid. If these contaminants are conventional technology
products, the build-up of undesired materials in the cold rolling fluid
may eventually contribute to the development of surface stain issues
within the coils during annealing practices. This presentation will
review the various types of hydraulic fluids and secondary lubricants
typically utilized in aluminum cold rolling applications, and the stain
potential they pose when present at significant concentrations in a cold
rolling fluid.

3 3:30 pm Break

134

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

3:30 4 pm
Evaluation of Wear Response Under
Reciprocating Sliding of A390 Alloy when
Squeeze Casting Pressure and Stroke Length
Vary
T. Harish, Government Engineering College, Bartonhill,
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, V. Rajeev, College of
Engineering, Trivandrum (Cet), Thiruvananthapuram, India
Squeeze Casting (SC) improves material properties there by wear
resistance compared to gravity casting. SC used for making
reciprocating sliding pairs like piston and cylinder of A390 alloy.
Material properties and stroke length (SL) as reported can influence
wear resistance. This study explores the combined effect of variation in
SC pressure and SL on wear resistance of A390 alloy. The castings of
A390 alloys were made under pressures of 0 Mpa, 50 Mpa, 100 Mpa,
and 150 Mpa. Castings were subjected to mechanical and
microstructural evaluations. T6 heat-treated pins from the above
castings were tested for wear resistance on a inhouse designed
reciprocating tribometer for SL of 50 mm, 100 mm and 150 mm. The
results are presented with relevant graphs including the coefficient of
friction. SC pressure influences wear rate up to 100 Mpa for SL upto 100
mm and above 100mm no influence of SC pressure.

4 4:30 pm
Investigation of Galling Failure in Cutting and
Punching of Aluminum Sheets for Automotive
Applications
M. Shafiei, J. Hunter, Novelis Global Research & Technology Center,
Kennesaw, GA, D. Young, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI
The galling failure in cutting tools protected by two different
tribological coatings (i.e., TiN and DLC) and used for punching holes in
aluminum alloy sheets were investigated. The TiN coating was
characterized to have a uniform thickness of about 6 um with a thin
carbon inter-layer. After about ten thousand strokes, evidence of
aluminum galling were observed on the TiN coating, mostly on peeledoff areas where significant damage to steel substrate was observed. The
DLC coating was comprised of three layers of Cr, W and C, and it had a
uniform thickness of about 20 um. After about twenty five thousand
strokes, evidence of aluminum adhesion on coatings surfaces inside
the contact areas were observed in the form of periodic microscopic
lines parallel to the punch edge. This could be related to the
topography of the punch surface before coating. Evidence of aluminum
galling was observed near the edge of the punch, only on one side of
the punch, where the coating was peeled off.

4:30 pm 5 pm
Tribology of Aluminum Sheet Processing
for Automotive Applications
M. Shafiei, T. Oleksiak, Novelis Global Research & Technology
Center, Kennesaw, GA
The exponential growth in the use of aluminum flat rolled products in
the automotive industry necessitates developing new aluminum alloys
and manufacturing processes that often create new tribological
challenges. A deep understanding of tool piece/ work piece tribological
interactions can often help resolve manufacturing challenges, such as
sheet handling and run-ability problems, surface defects generated
during forming, aluminum galling on forming and cutting work tools,
adhesive bond durability issues and spot welding challenges. In this
study, the major tribological challenges in mass production of
aluminum flat rolled products for cars and trucks are reviewed, and
potential solutions based on material, lubricant and process
modifications are discussed.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
Session 6G

3 3:30 pm Break

Palace 4/5

3:30 4 pm
Performance Characterisation of Wind Turbine
Gear Oils

WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY II


Session Chair: K. Stadler, SKF GmbH, Schweinfurt, Germany
Session Vice Chair: H. Singh, The University of Akron, Akron, OH

K. Topolovec Miklozic, POWERTRIB Limited, Oxford, United


Kingdom

1:30 2 pm
Integrated Test and Simulation of Large-Size
Bearings for Wind Turbines

Fatigue and wear performance of wind turbine gear oils play an


important role in predicting not only durability but also efficiency of
gearboxes. It is important to understand that wind turbine gears and
bearings operate at fairly specific operating conditions, and herewith
require that each application area is addressed individually. But how
are these performances measured and assessed? This question is here
addressed with a newly developed rolling contact fatigue screening
platform, which is composed of well-defined test modules. Each of
these test screening modules is designed to screen for specific
operation condition of wind turbines. It can be shown, that with a
systematic modular screening test platform, clear performance
differentiation of wind turbine gear oils can be assed. Also, the new test
methodology platform helps understanding how different components
act together in a rubbing contact, and which underlying mechanisms
are most likely to prevail.

J. Binderszewsky, Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co. KG,


Herzogenaurach, Germany
Wind turbine main bearings are subjected to complex operating
conditions and highly dynamic loads. For the design and development
of main bearings, advanced analysis methods and powerful simulation
tools are essential. Nevertheless, experiments are necessary to verif
the bearing properties as well as the simulation models. The large-size
bearing test rig Astraios enables tests of bearings up to 3.5 meters
outside diameter in realistic conditions. The integration of test and
simulation leads to a better understanding of systems behavior and
an improved and faster development of reliable and cost-effective
bearings. The comparison of test and analysis results shows the
capacity of simulation tools for the basic design, the dynamics and
the structural analysis.

4 4:30 pm
Maximizing Wind Turbine Gear Oil Life

2 2:30 pm
Influence of Contact Conditions and Lubricant
Properties on Pitting Failures in Rolling-sliding
Contacts

J. Leather, Castrol Industrial North America, Naperville, IL

F. Manieri, P. Rycerz, A. Kadiric, Imperial College London, London,


United Kingdom
Surface initiated rolling contact fatigue, or pitting, is the main lifelimiting failure mode of modern rolling element bearings. Initiation and
propagation of surface cracks, which eventually leads to formation of
pits, is strongly influenced by asperity interactions, amount of sliding
and lubricant properties, among other factors. Furthermore, bearing
pitting failures in some applications, particularly in wind turbine
installations, appear to be associated with the existence of extensive
crack networks and presence of distinct microstructural changes in the
immediate vicinity of the crack. This study uses a triple-contact fatigue
rig to systematically study the influence of contact conditions including
slide-roll ratios, specific film thickness and load, as well as lubricant
composition, on the occurrence of pitting failures in 52100 bearing
steel samples. An attempt is made to explain the observed phenomena
by characterising crack behaviour and related microstructural changes.

2:30 3 pm
Experimental Results of Different Oil Condition
Monitoring Approaches for Wind Turbine
Gearboxes in an Oil Sensor Test Bench
D. Coronado, Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy
System Technology IWES, Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany
Oil condition monitoring of wind turbines aims at detecting degradation
processes in the oil by means of oil samples or sensor signals. In order
to contribute in the field of online oil condition monitoring, this paper
presents the first results of a testing campaign on an oil sensor test
bench. During this testing campaign several type of sensors including
particle counters, oil quality sensors and humidity sensors are tested
under several operating conditions. The effect of oil temperature, water
content and particle content are analyzed to assess the detection
capability of the sensors. During this testing campaign different oil
types in different oil aging stages are also analyzed. This assessment
takes into consideration the deviation of the sensor output signal
caused by an increased oil contamination and oil aging. Finally, a
comparison between sensor-based and sampling-based oil condition
monitoring is presented.

www.stle.org

Wind turbine O&M costs are projected to increase significantly in the


coming years with premature oil changes being a large part of that
expense. A trend in the industry is moving from time based oil changes
to condition based oil changes. The objective is to determine the
correct conditions that necessitate an oil change. We will discuss using
the correct routine and non-routine oil analysis tests along with
appropriate inspection techniques to determine the quality of your
existing oil. Many times, false positives exist in some test parameters
that may be costing you much more than you think. In addition, we will
share some creative up-tower oil maintenance ideas that can further
extend the life of your oil. Applying some rigor to the process will allow
a more accurate reflection of the true condition of your oil and your
gearbox.

4:30 5 pm
Evaluation of Gerabox Oil and Grease Analysis
Results from Wind Turbines Combining
Statistically Based Limit Values and Trend
Analysis
S. Bots, OELCHECK GmbH, Brannenburg, Bavaria, Germany
The evaluation of oil or grease analysis results is often a difficult job
where mechanical and chemical knowledge is necessary. But modern
tools and statistical methodologies can support the evaluation process
and improve the quality. But the first step is defining a proper set of
test methods that delivers sufficient information. An adequate set of oil
analysis results from the same or comparable equipment can be the
base for statistical methods like decribed in ASTM D7720. For wind
turbines both is available, a lot of data and usually a good trend line.
But a big set of data and statistical guidelines do not automatically
deliver proper limit values. The quality of the data have a significant
impact on the statistical results. Finally a smart software tool can bring
absolute and trend based alarm limits together. The paper will show
the whole process with practical examples from the field wind turbines
for the main gearbox and grease lubricated components.

5 6 pm Panel Discussion
6 6:30 pm Wind Turbine Tribology Business
Meeting

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

135

Wednesday, May 18
Session 6H

Las Vegas 1

FLUID FILM BEARINGS VI


Session Chair: J. Bouyer, Mechanical Engineering and Complex
Systems, Institute Pprime, Futuroscope Cedex, France

analysis model is conducted by finite element method to investigate


the influence of current amplitude, misalignment, current frequency,
and rotational speed on magnetic field and excitation force. Auxiliary
coils are calibrated by load cells, and then used to measure the
electromagnetic excitation force. The exciter provides a simple and
efficient exciting and controlling system, which is significant for
dynamic performance study of high-speed journal bearings.

Session Vice Chair: D. Kim, University of Texas at Arlington,


Arlington, TX

3 3:30 pm Break

1:30 2 pm
Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unbalanced
Flexible Rotor Supported by Elastic Bearings
Lubricated with Piezo-Viscous Polar Fluids

3:30 4 pm
Dynamic Coefficients Identification of
Water-Lubricated Hybrid Journal Bearings
Using Non-Contact Excitation

B. Bou-Said, INSA, Villeurbanne, France, M. Lahmar, Guelma


University, Guelma, Algeria

G. Chen, L. Wang, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian,


Shaanxi, China, X. Xiong, Xian High Voltage Apparatus Research
Institute Co., Ltd., Xian, Shaanxi, China, H. Xu, Xian Jiaotong
University, Xian, Shaanxi, China

On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of


couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced
Jeffcotts flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal
bearings is presented. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds
equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to
obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness. The
nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the
nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Eulers
scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the
obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the
presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent
viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing
system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As
expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized
by higher length molecular chains.

Experiments for dynamic coefficients identification of water-lubricated


hybrid journal bearings are carried out on a high-speed spindle test rig
with a non-contact excitation method. An identification model for
bearing dynamic coefficients is developed. Experimental results are
compared with theoretical predictions to validate the experimental
technique and the identification model. Besides, the influence of
rotational speed and supply pressure on bearing dynamic coefficients
is also investigated. This study not only invsetigates the dynamic
performance of water-lubricated hybrid journal bearings for highspeed spindles, but also provides a valuable model and experiment
technique for bearing dynamic coefficients identification.

2 2:30 pm
Elastogasdynamic Model for Air Foil Journal
Bearings: Hysteresis Prediction Including
Preloading Effects

H. Chen, N. Wang, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan

M. Mahner, A. Lehn, B. Schweizer, Technical University Darmstadt,


Darmstadt, Germany
A detailed model for predicting hysteresis effects in air foil journal
bearings is presented. Top and bump foil are modeled both using a
nonlinear beamshell theory according to Reissner. An efficient contact
algorithm including friction is applied in order to describe the contact
between bump and top foil as well as between bump foil and housing.
The compressible Reynolds equation is used for calculating the 2D
pressure distribution in the fluid film of the bearing. Preload effects are
taken into account. The fully coupled model is solved within a finite
element approach. With the nonlinear elastogasdynamic model, elastic
and dissipative properties of a preloaded three pad air foil journal
bearing are predicted. Calculated hysteresis curves are compared with
measured curves.

2:30 3 pm
Design of a Non-Contact Electromagnetic
Exciter Used for High-Speed Journal Bearings
L. Wang, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, Shaanxi,
China, X. Xiong, Xian High Voltage Apparatus Research Institute
Co., Ltd., Xian, China, H. Xu, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian,
Shaanxi, China
This study designs a non-contact electromagnetic exciter used for
dynamic performance of high-speed journal bearings. The exciter has a
simple structure and control module. The excitation force can be
linearly applied by a Proportion-Integration-Differentiation controller,
which makes the exciter conveniently apply different constant,
synchronous, and non-synchronous excitation forces. The exciter can
generate a more adjustable excitation force with a larger force
amplitude and a higher signal to noise ratio. A two-dimensional

136

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

4 4:30 pm
Parallel Computing of Multiobjective Optimization
of Air Bearing
This study provides an effective approach for solving tribological
design problems. The performance of a multi-factor air bearing is
optimized for the cases of two and three simultaneous objectives. The
multiobjective optimizations are conducted by using the group inching
fortification method and the execution time of the analyses are
minimized by using multi-threaded parallel computing. The multithreaded computing with directive-based programming model is a
powerful tool for general-purpose engineering and tribological
computing. And the main advantages of using the directive-based
programming are (1) the part of the coding to be computed in parallel
can be incrementally developed, (2) the program model is portable
across operating systems and compilers, and (3) the communication of
data between the computing threads are transparent to the users.

Authors and Presenters Invited to Attend


Speakers Breakfast
Lead authors and course presenters are invited to the
Speakers Breakfast (Monday through Thursday, May
16-19) from 7-8 am in the Platinum Room to meet with
Session and Paper Solicitation Chairs for a continental
breakfast on the days of their presentations. This is a
great time to review the session schedule and note
any last-minute changes. Speakers should plan on
attending

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
Session 6I

Las Vegas 2

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY FLUIDS II


Session Chair: S. Erhan, Elevance Renewable Sciences,
Woodridge, IL
Session Vice Chair: M. Sarker, US Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, PA

1:30 2 pm
Fast Biodegradable Always the Optimum
Property for Lubricants?
W. Bartz, Technische Akademie Esslingen, Ostfildern, BW, Germany
Definition Fast Biodegradable and Environmentally Acceptable.
Relationship between oxygen demand and availability, which governs
the relationship between biodegradability and aceeptability.

2 2:30 pm
Application and Performance Comparison of
Greases that are Certified as Environmentally
Acceptable Lubricants
D. Adams, B. Roell, T. Kuchta, A. Otto, RSC Bio Solutions, Mentor, OH
This session will compare and contrast the performance and
application characteristics of commercially available greases that are
certified as Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EAL) including:
vegetable (HETG), synthetic esters (HEES) and PAO hydrocarbon and
related type (HEPR). The performance characteristics compared include
penetration, dropping point, oil separation, water washout, four ball
weld, four ball wear, Timken and other performance tests. All greases
evaluated meet the US EPAs definitions as biodegradable, minimally
toxic, not bioaccumulative. Additionally, this presentation will highlight
some of the sub-classifications that describe Environmentally
Acceptable Lubricants.

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 5 pm Panel Discussion
5 6 pm Environmentally Friendly Fluids
Business Meeting

Session 6K

Las Vegas 4

WEAR III: EFFECT OF THIRD BODIES ON


WEAR
Session Chair: A. Ghosh, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Session Vice Chair: H. Ghaednia, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI

1:30 2 pm
High Sensitivity Inductive Pulse Sensor
for Metallic Wear Debris Detection Based on
Parallel LC Resonance Method

caused by passages of a debris particle is amplified due to sharp


impedance change near the resonant peak. Signal-to-noise ratio and
sensitivity are significantly improved. Testing showed that the new
method is capable of detecting a 20 m iron particle and 55 m copper
particle while detection limits for the non-resonance method are 50 m
and 136 m, respectively. The sensitivity has been significantly improved
in contrast to non-resonant method.

2 2:30 pm
A Multibody Meshfree Method for Third-Body
Simulation
G. Mollon, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France
The third-body concept is often used to describe the thin layer of
degraded material which separates contacting bodies during friction.
If such phenomena as friction and wear are to be fully understood, an
accurate modelling of the third body is hence crucial. In recent years,
simulation methods based on Discrete Element Modelling (based on
interacting rigid particles) have been successful in understanding
several properties of the third-body behavior. The next stage, however,
is to render each third-body particle compliant in order to be able to
deal with important phenomena such as complex constitutive laws,
plasticity, Poisson effect, surface adhesion, etc. A consistent numerical
framework for this task is presented in this communication, based on a
multibody meshfree method developped for this purpose. The method
is first presented, and it is then shown how its features might allow
future discoveries about the behavior of third-bodies, and enhance
prediction of friction and wear.

2:30 3 pm
Analysis of Scratches Generated on GaN
Substrates During Polishing
C. Zou, Research Institute of Tsinghua University (Shenzhen),
Shenzhn, Guangdong, China, G. Pan, Tsinghua University,
Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, H. Gong, Research Institute of
Tsinghua University (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, Guangdong, China,
L. Xu, Y. Zhou, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
In this work, we used chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) technology
with colloidal silica based slurry for gallium nitride (GaN) planarization,
and investigated the relationships between the surface scratches
damage of GaN after CMP with different polishing conditions such as
download pressure, rotation speed, temperature in detail. Optical
microscope and atomic force microscope were used for measuring the
surface morphology, scratch feature, scratch density, and atomic stepterrace structure. The cause of scratches formation and their protection
were also discussed in detail. Using effective oxidant makes higher
oxidation efficiency and oxidation layer thickness as well as decreases
the number of scratches, resulted in damage-free GaN surface, and the
methodology developed in this work could serve as a general approach
for making clear of the hard materials removal mechanism.

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 4 pm
Mechanisms of Chip Formation During Circular
Sawing of Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

X. Zhu, L. Du, J. Zhe, The University of Akron, Akron, OH

C. Sanchez, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, M. Moreira,


Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
H. Liang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

Detection of small metallic wear debris in the range of 20 m to 100


m is critical to identify abnormal wear conditions for prognosis of
pending machinery failures. Existing wear debris sensors cannot detect
wear debris in this range. Here we applied an inductance-capacitance
(LC) resonance method to an inductive debris sensor to increase its
sensitivity. By adding an external capacitor, a parallel LC resonance
circuit with a unique resonant frequency is formed. At an excitation
frequency near the resonant frequency, LC circuits impedance change

Supermartensitic stainless steels are known for their superior corrosion


resistance, high weldability, and improved mechanical properties over
conventional martensitic steels. However, due to its high hardness it
poses numerous challenges in machining. The cutting tools used to
machine this material are subjected to greater amounts of abrasion and
wear. This study investigates the formation and change in morphology
of chips during the circular sawing of 13%Cr supermartensitic stainless
steel using tungsten carbide cutting inserts with different coatings.

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

137

Wednesday, May 18
6K

Analysis of the chip provides information regarding the machining


process such as cutting forces on the tool, and tool wear. The resulting
chips were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the
cross sectional area and angle of the formed chip. The failure modes
and effects of microstructure are analyzed and discussed. Competing
mechanisms between brittle fracture and abrasive wear are proposed.

Session 6L

Las Vegas 5

TRIBOTESTING II
Session Chair: G. Krauss, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA
Session Vice Chair: J. Xiao, Rtec Instruments, Inc., San Jose, CA

4 4:30 pm
Impact of Third-Body on Wear Mechanisms
M. Renouf, LMGC CNRS UM, Montpellier, France
In many applications, wear remains related to an archard vision, a
creation of a volume according to contact conditions. If this point of
view still true when the consider volume, called debris, is immediatly
remove from contact, the model fails when the multiple debris stay in
the contact. Such collection of debris, called usually third-body, cannot
be take into account via the archard formalism. Using numerical
simulations, a review of contact condition is investigated to bring a
complementary approach to the classical Archard model.
The numerical strategy based on a extension of discrete element
approach is presented extension based on multiphysical and
multiscale aspects. Results on simple shear simulations and fretting like
simulation are discussed and compare to empirical models.

4:30 5 pm
Modeling of the Wear Particles Formation
in Mixed Lubricated Sliding Line Contacts
A. Akchurin, Materials Innovation Institute, Delft, Netherlands
A new model was developed for the simulation of the wear particles
formation in mixed lubricated sliding contacts. A contact model was
combined with a particle removal model. For the contact simulations, a
half-space-based contact algorithm was joined with a numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication solver through the load-sharing concept. The
particle removal criterion was based on a critical von Mises stress and a
geometrical boundary condition. FFT based algorithms for the contact
and subsurface stress calculations were employed. The wear particle
formation model allows for the determination of the shape, number
and size of the debris in different conditions, as well as the surface
roughness evolution. A set of simulations was performed for different
surfaces and the properties of the model were discussed. Evolution of
the surface roughness and its influence on the friction and wear is
addressed.

5 5:30 pm
An ElasticPlastic Investigation of Third Body
Effects on Fretting Contact in Partial Slip
A. Ghosh, F. Sadeghi, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
In this investigation, the third body effects in fretting contact is
modeled using the commercially available ABAQUS finite element (FE)
software. A two dimensional Hertzian line contact model is simulated in
the presence of third bodies at the contact interface. The third bodies
are modeled using simplified geometry like cylinders. Elasticplastic
material properties are used to model both the first bodies and third
bodies. The FE model is used to investigate fretting phenomena under
different displacement amplitudes and the influence of third body
particles on contact stress and contact slip. Fretting loops obtained
from the model show notable differences in shear stress distribution
when compared to smooth Hertzian line contacts in the absence of
third body particles. Although fretting wear rate is not directly
influenced by the presence of third bodies, plastic deformation of the
first body surfaces influences contact parameters which in turn impacts
fretting wear.

5:30 6 pm Wear-Biotribology Business


Meeting

138

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

1:30 2 pm
Tribological Modification on the Glass Fabric/
Phenolic Laminate Composite Under Water
Lubricating
F. Yan, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China
Glass fabric/phenolic laminate composite can be used as a kind of
tribo-material at dry friction or oil lubrication due to its high
mechanical and acceptable tribological properties. Unfortunately,
under water environment, the laminate composites often exhibit rough
friction coefficient and high wear loss. To modify its tribological
performance under water environment, the effects of the addition of
fillers, the surface treatment of fillers and fabrics, state of interfacial
cohesion between fiber and resin, interlaminar shear strength of the
composites, were investigated in this work. The influences of sliding
speed and applied load on the tribological properties of the laminate
were also evaluated. The results indicate that providing self-lubricating
abilities, improving interfacial cohesion between filler/fiber and resin,
and decreasing the water adsorption, are all efficient ways to promoting
the tribological performance of laminate composites under water.

2 2:30 pm
Tribological Characterization of a Hybrid
Nanoparticles Additive in a Biolubricant Under
Boundary Lubrication
J. Abere, T. Slatter, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
A hybrid nanoparticles additive made of alumina (Al2O3), silica (SiO2)
and graphite (C); was characterized (in oil) for friction reduction and
antiwear merits. The nanoparticles were mixed at 0.1 wt. %, with a
biolubricant and a fully formulated mineral oil. The fully flooded ball-onflat tests were under boundary lubrication conditions. The load was
40 N, at room temperature and 100oC respectively. It is observed that
the nanoparticles reduce friction coefficient in mineral oil at room
temperature by about 2 %; and at 100oC by about 1 %. In the biolubricant,
nanoparticles increase friction at room temperature by about 5.5 %,
and by about 6.4 % at 100oC. Based on wear scar width data, the nanoparticles reduce wear by about 12.5% when added to mineral oil at
100C. At room temperature, nanoparticles lower wear in mineral oil by
about 37.4%. And with the biolubricant, it reduces wear by about 32.4%.

2:30 3 pm
Design and Development of Novel Test Instruments
to Assess Tribological Effects of Nanofluids
G. Molina, F. Aktaruzzaman, M. Rahman, V. Soloiu, Georgia Southern
University, Statesboro, GA
The authors have designed and developed two new types of erosiontest instruments for fluid wear-effects on surfaces: a multiple jet-impact
test-rig and a parallel flow one, to investigate the many unknowns
regarding nanofluids interactions wth cooling-system materials. Nanofluids are suspensions of nano-size-powders in a fluid with enhanced
thermal transport properties. Experimental techniques were designed
and developed to explore the feasibility of assessing surface modification
effects of fluid jet-impact and of fluid parallel-flow in accelerated tests.
Work is presented on the instrument design and development, and on
the obtained material surface modifications on aluminum and copper
with conventional coolants (as 50% ethylene glycol in water, and
distilled water), and with their nanofluids (of 2%-volume of nano-alumina
mixed in such coolants). The new instruments and methodologies are
appropriate to investigate tribological effects of nanofluid interactions
with typical materials.

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
6L

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 4 pm
Some Problems in EHL Film Measurement
of Finite Line Contacts under Oscillating
X. Chen, X. Shen, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
Finite line contacts are non-Hertzian contacts, and the contact area is
very narrow, caused the b/a ratio is very large. So differ from the point
contacts, only very small partial contact area in the longitudinal
direction could be observed in the optical EHL test at same time for a
higher image resolving power. It was found the interferograms are
severe non steady in the measurement, especial in the roller ends. The
pictures are often moved on large area in axial direction with the tested
roller rotated. Above problems make some information lost. In this
paper, the problems like these in the EHL oil film thickness and shape
measurement between a roller and a flat rectangular glass in pure
rolling oscillated working conditions based on optical interferometry
were discussed and some methods were taken to overcome them.

4 4:30 pm
Experimental Modeling and Optimization of the
Tribocharging Process in a Sliding Contact
between Polymeric Materials
Y. Prawatya, T. Zeghloul, M. Neagoe, L. Dascalescu, Institut P, UPR
3346 CNRS Universit de Poitiers ENSMA, Angoulme, France,
Angoulme, France
Electric charge generated by friction (tribo-charging) are complex
systems with many factors affecting the results such as compressive
load (normal force) that occurs between the contact materials, number
of cycles, friction velocity, ambient temperature and humidity, surface
condition and nature of the materials themselves. The purpose of the
present work is to determine the optimal values of these factors, so that
to obtain maximum electrical charge, evenly distributed on the contact
surfaces. The study is conducted in accordance with Design of
Experiments methodology, use of a laboratory bench designed for
testing translational tribocharging with the following specifications:
relative velocity between the bodies in conformal contact: 12 to 50
mm/s; amplitude of the strokes: 36 to 60 mm; normal contact force: 1N
to 10 N. The distribution of charge is measured by the capacitive probe
of an electrostatic voltmeter ( 10 kV) in a room with controllable
temperature and humidity.

4:30 5 pm
A Novel Device for the Study of Transient Effects
in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts
M. Masen, T. Welham, C. Myant, P. Cann, Imperial College London,
London, United Kingdom
Most tribological contacts operate in some form of transience, be it in
motion, load or both. Experimental investigations into transient EHL
reveal behaviour not seen in steady conditions, however for practical
reasons the experimental study of transient EHD is often limited to only
one specific transient aspect. This paper focuses on the development of
an experimental setup based on a modified PCS Instruments EHD
System, in which both the load and the velocity can be dynamically
controlled, allowing the investigation of complex intermittent contacts.
Two experimental studies were executed: High speed imaging of
controlled deceleration experiments revealed a highly rate dependent
film thickness distribution that develops in the final stages of motion.
Repeated cycles of contact and separation of a grease lubricated
contact showed a capillary effect that draws lubricant into the contact
while in sliding the intermittent entrainment of relatively large lumps
of grease was observed.

5 5:30 pm Tribotesting Business Meeting

140

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session 6M

Las Vegas 6/7

CONDITION MONITORING II
Session Chair: K. Rogers, Pilot Thomas Logistics, Las Vegas, NV

2 2:30 pm
Condition-Based Lubrication
D. Martin, SKF Canada Limited, Port Moody, British Columbia,
Canada, J. Yolton, SKF USA, San Diego, CA
In the field of plant maintenance, we are all familiar with the terms of
preventive, predictive, and proactive as strategies for maintaining an
asset. It is preached that the most mature level of maintaining is
proactive maintenance. There is a benefit to condition based
lubrication vs the traditional preventative method as conditions do
change over time. Besides environmental changes in the areas of the
world that sees seasonal changes, there are also operational changes in
machinery. Such changes include the balance of the rotating assembly.
An out of balance condition demands for frequent lubrication however
when such changes occur, the rate of grease re-lubrication does not
change. This paper will discuss the method by which one Pulp Mill
utilised their existing vibration analysis software and hardware to
initiate a Condition-Based Lubrication program.

2:30 3 pm
Using Oil Analysis to Extend Warranty Period
on O&M Equipment
C. Silva, Oilcheck, Contagem, MG, Brazil
The purpose of this paper is to show how an OEM has been using the
oil analysis services to extend their equipment warranty period to
create a unique competitive advantage, add value to this process to
their customers and protect themselves from potential failure by
controlling their costs. In the sugarcane business the harvesters work so
hard in a high severity application and for a long period. This machine
works at least 22 hours a day, which represents more than 3.000 hours
per year. The regular warranty period is 1.500 hours on this way, the
warranty finishes in the middle of the crop which does not add any
value to the customer and neither allows the OEM to track the behavior
of the equipment. The main goals for the new warranty policy were:
Have a unique competitive advantage and Reduce costs during the
warranty period. Furthermore the OEM was able to gather enough
results to create a statistical study and created a wear table to drive
their project engineers to improvements

3 3:30 pm Break
3:30 4 pm
Grease Condition Sensor for Rolling Element
Bearings: Dielectric Property Measurements
of Water Contaminated Grease
N. Dittes, Lule University of Technology, Sjulsmakr, Sweden
The dielectric properties of water-contaminated grease have been
investigated in this paper to enable measurements of water in grease
with a simple sensor. Water contributes to component failures through
for example, corrosion and poor lubrication and a sensor that can
detect water contamination is crucial in order to plan maintenance and
re-greasing of machine components such as bearings and gears.
Detecting when to replace grease in expensive components can
prolong the components service life and reduce the operating costs.
Capacitance has been measured for a mixture between grease and
water in a custom test cell. The changes in dielectric properties with
varying water concentrations in different grease types have been
measured for different temperatures. Some changes in dielectric
properties are considered to be related to changes in the grease
structure, which have been investigated using nuclear magnetic
resonance (NMR) imaging.

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
6M

4 4:30 pm
A Novel Ultrasonic Sensing Technique to
Measure Viscosity In-Situ in Journal Bearings
M. Schirru, R. Mills, R. Dwyer-Joyce, The University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, United Kingdom, O. Smith, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe,
OH
A novel ultrasonic viscometer intended for non-invasive applications in
lubricated journal bearing is presented. The concept is based on the
reflection of a shear wave at a solid-liquid boundary that depends on
the viscosity of the liquid and the acoustic properties of the solid. Very
little ultrasound energy can propagate into the oil at a metal-oil
interface because the acoustic mismatch is great. The novel method
invented overcomes this limitation by placing a thin intermediate
matching layer between the metal and the lubricant. The results from
this ultrasonic viscometer are in agreement with the conventional
viscometers when Newtonian oils are tested. When complex nonNewtonian mixtures are analysed the viscosity measurement is
frequency dependent. The method was successfully implemented in a
journal bearing rig allowing the first non-invasive measurement of
circumferential lubricant viscosity in-situ. This technique presents, then,
a great commercialization potential.

4:30 5 pm
A New Approach to Elemental and Wear Debris
Analysis
A. Toms, R. Lawrence, R. Hill, GasTOPS Inc., Huntsville, AL
To increase equipment availability, decrease ownership costs, and
improve safety, it is imperative to monitor the condition of machinery.
To achieve full benefits, an early indication of potential failure is
necessary. A new, innovative diagnostic tool allows non-subjective
decisions based on the quantity, alloy type, size, and shape of debris
particles. Digital image capture in combination with an innovative
spectroscopy system is used to automatically and rapidly locate and
analyze particles. Embedded diagnostic rules trigger GO/NO-GO
maintenance decision assessment. Automated analysis requires no
special training to operate or assess results. The innovative
spectroscopy also provides an alternative to rotrode and ICP atomic
emission spectroscopy as it can be utilized for oil samples as well as
individual particles. A small, portable application allows for field, plant
or laboratory settings.

Session 6N

Jubilee 1

SURFACE ENGINEERING VI
Session Chair: R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, PES Institute of
Technology, Bangalore, India
Session Vice Chair: G. Ramirez, Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

1:30 2 pm
Development and Evaluation of Low Friction
and Low Wear TiSiCN and DLC-Based Coatings
for Automotive Valvetrain

high hardness, high toughness, excellent adhesion strength and COFs


of 0.2 and 0.06 in dry and lubricant conditions, respectively. In contrast,
the DLC coatings showed lower friction in dry sliding (0.06-0.07) but
higher friction in lubricant (0.08-0.1). The best performing TiSiCN and
DLC coatings were applied on camshafts which were evaluated in
actual engines. The friction test results from the engine tests will be
reported.

2 2:30 pm
Measurements and Simulations of Full-Field,
Sub-Grain Surface Deformation in Tantalum
C. Battaile, J. Carroll, H. Lim, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM
The properties of metallic coatings and thin films are governed by
processes that initiate on sub-microstructural length scales. In their
earliest stages, these processes depend strongly on their
microstructural environment. Therefore, the microstructure-scale details
of a materials deformation can be critical in determining its mechanical
properties. However, measuring and predicting sub-microstructural
deformations remains challenging. In this work, we use a combination
of surface characterization and finite element analysis to measure and
predict, respectively, the deformation and crystallographic reorientation
of tantalum single- and multi-crystal specimens during deformation.
We will describe the surface characterization of crystallography and
strain at the grain scale using micro-scale digital image correlation and
electron backscatter diffraction; and we will discuss the validation of
our finite element predictions of microstructure-scale plastic
deformation.

2:30 3 pm
Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Sapphire
Wafer Using Mixed Silica Nanoparticles
Y. Zhou, G. Pan, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua
University, Beijing, China, H. Gong, Research Institute of Tsinghua
University (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, China, L. Xu, State Key
Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, C. Zou,
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optomechatronics,
Shenzhen , China
Sapphire has become the most widely used substrate material for
fabricating GaN based light emitting diodes (LED) devices. With the
rapid development of photoelectric technology, the increment of
substrate planarization efficiency and the study of removal mechanism
have become increasingly significant due to the higher demand of
superior surface finish. However, owing to its high hardness and
brittleness, sapphire wafer is difficult to be polished ideally. Chemical
mechanical polishing (CMP) is the most efficient method to obtain ultra
smooth surface through the mechanical abrading and chemical
reaction. In the paper, CMP performances of sapphire using mixed silica
abrasive nanoparticles with different sizes (10 nm and 100 nm) were
studied. We found that the mixed silica nanoparticles could not only
provider higher removal rate than any single size silica particles, but
also obtain better and smoother surface. The relative removal
mechanisms of sapphire were discussed.

3 3:30 pm Break

J. Lin, R. Wei, P. Lee, C. Bitsis, Southwest Research Institute, San


Antonio, TX
To minimize the friction loss and wear of an engine is critical for
improving fuel efficiency. The valvetrain accounts up to 20% of the total
mechanical friction in gasoline engines. In this research, low friction
TiSiCN and diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been developed
by different techniques, including PEMS for TiSiCN coatings, and HiPIMS
and PIID for DLC coatings. The structure of the coatings was optimized
to achieve a combination of low COF and low wear based on the
evaluation from the block-on-ring tests. The TiSiCN coatings exhibited

142

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
6N

3:30 4 pm
A Study on Tribological Performance of Black
Oxide Coating for Bearing Applications

Session 6O

Jubilee 2

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY VI

V. Brizmer, SKF, Utrecht, Netherlands


Different aspects of tribological performance of iron oxidized (or socalled black oxidized) surfaces in rolling/sliding boundary lubricated
or mixed lubricated contacts are overviewed in the present work. It
covers the topics of anti-micropitting resistance, anti-smearing effects,
reduction in boundary friction, repelling tribochemical attacks of
aggressive lubricants or additives, running-in behaviour, and the effect
of black oxide coating on bearing life. The other beneficial effects of
black oxide, which cannot be directly regarded as tribological
phenomena, like reducing the risk of hydrogen embrittlement or
mitigating the standstill corrosion, are beyond the scope of the current
study. The results of the component laboratory experiments, full
bearing tests, and theoretical modelling, performed within the frame of
the present work, shed light upon the benefits and limitations of using
black oxide coating for bearing applications.

4 4:30 pm
Low Friction and Wear of Si Wafer and Graphite
Achieved by UNSM Technique
A. Amanov, Y. Pyun, Sun Moon University, Asan, Republic of Korea,
H. Kwon, Technovalue, Seoul, Republic of Korea
In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM)
technique was applied to Si wafer and graphite to investigate the
friction and wear behavior under dry conditions. The friction and wear
behavior was assessed by ball-on-disk micro-tribometer at room
temperature. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the
UNSM-treated specimens were characterized and the results were
compared with the untreated specimens. In the case of the Si wafer, an
amorphous surface was formed at the very top surface that was
confirmed by a Raman peak located at 480 cm-1. Moreover, the
hardness and Young`s modulus of Si wafers and graphite after UNSM
treatment were increased significantly which resulted in wear rate
enhancement.

4:30 5 pm
Insight into the Mechanisms of High DLC
Wear When Lubricated With MoDTC-containing
Lubricants in DLC/Steel Contacts
S. Kosarieh, D. Khaemba, A. Morina, A. Neville, University of Leeds,
Leeds, United Kingdom
Molybdenum Dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) is a well-known friction
modifier, which has been used for ferrous surfaces for quite long time.
However, recently the adverse effect of MoDTC in increasing wear of
DLC coatings has been reported in DLC/steel contacts. The objective of
this study is to understand the role of iron and/or iron oxide in the
decomposition of MoDTC additive to form MoDTC tribofilm and how
this process contributes to high wear in DLC coatings. Tribological tests
were carried out using a pin-on-plate tribotester lubricated in oils
containing MoDTC. The plates were HSS steel plates coated with
hydrogenated DLC (a-C:15H) coatings which were sliding against cast
iron pins (DLC/CI contacts) and silicon nitride balls (DLC/ceramic
contacts). Results show that the steel counterpart participates in the
decomposition of MoDTC by forming iron-containing molybdenum
compounds which are responsible for accelerated wear of DLC
coatings.

144

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Session Chair: P. Egberts, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,


Canada
Session Vice Chair: B. Nation, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM

1:30 2 pm
Evaluating Drilling Muds: A Novel Tribometer
Designed to Evaluate Geological Sliding Contacts
P. Egberts, N. Simin, J. Czibor, University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta, Canada, E. Sonmor, M. DeWitt, SECURE Energy Services,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, S. Park, University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta, Canada
Development of the resources in the Athabasca oil sands and
unconventional shale gas reservoirs has necessitated the use of
horizontal drilling. The friction forces that occur between the drill string
and the earth/steel casing in the drill hole currently limit the horizontal
extent to which a single drilling site can reach. To reach greater
distances, improved lubricating properties of drilling muds is desired.
However, these muds are typically evaluated in tribometers specific to
the industry, which cannot examine varying surface materials, including
core samples taken from the earth. To address this issue, we have
developed a novel tribometer that allows for the measurement of steel
on steel contacts, as well as steel on geological samples with various
lubricants. Performance of the tribometer is evaluated against those
used in industry, as well as data of the velocity depencence of friction
and measurements of steel and rock sliding surfaces will be discussed.

2 2:30 pm
Understanding Sliding Wear Behavior through
High Pressure Torsion (HPT) Testing: A Study
of the Shear Deformation Behavior of Al-Al2O3
by Finite Element Modelling
S. Descartes, J. Shockley, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France,
C. Desrayaud, cole Nationale Suprieure des mines de Sainttienne, Saint-tienne, France, R. Chromik, McGill University,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
The high pressure torsion process, wherein a sample of material is
subjected to combined compressive loading and rotational shear strain,
reproduces many of the mechanical conditions of the tribological
contact during sliding wear. In the present study, HPT experiments were
conducted on a set of cold sprayed Al-Al2O3 composites with varying
Al2O3 particle morphology. To help interpret the experimental results, a
2D unit cell finite element model was developed to study the stress and
strain fields in the matrix material surrounding Al2O3 particles during
combined compression and shear. The adaptation of the unit cell
model technique to compression and shear conditions, rather than its
more typical use for tensile conditions, required careful selection and
implementation of boundary conditions. This presentation will discuss
the development of the model as well as its results, and its implications
on the connections between high pressure torsion and the tribological
contact.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
2:30 3 pm
Influence of Sputter Deposited Solid Lubricant
Thickness on Plain Journal Bearing Life

4:30 5 pm
High Temperature Friction and Wear in Open
and Closed Tribo-Systems

B. Nation, M. Dugger, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

S. Hernandez, J. Hardell, B. Prakash, Lulea University of Technology,


Lulea, Sweden

The influence of the thickness of resin-bonded solid lubricant films on


their friction and wear behavior has been previously reported in the
literature. These films require surface roughening to facilitate physical
bonding, and must be deposited at least about 10 micrometers thick
due to the resin binder. The performance of binderless solid lubricant
films on the order of 1 micrometer thick or less is of interest in precision
electromechanical mechanisms, where the part tolerances and surface
finish are not compatible with resin-bonded films. Sputtering and
impingement methods have been used to deposit such films on a
reciprocating plain journal bearing in a specially-constructed life tester,
designed to emulate the contact in a precision mechanism. The
relationship between lubricant thickness and bearing life will be
discussed, including characterization methods for the films.

3 3:30 pm Break

More and more components in industries such as automotive, material


processing and mining are operating under harsh conditions i.e. high
temperature and high contact pressure. Tribotesting for such
applications are carried out using both open (one surface meeting a
fresh surface) or closed (same surfaces in contact) setups. In order to
enable development of new materials and processes intended for such
conditions, there is a need for better understanding pertaining to
tribological phenomena occurring under these different test setups. In
this work, friction and wear characteristics of quenched and tempered
tool steel sliding against 22MnB5 boron steel have been studied. The
experiments were conducted using a high temperature friction and
wear apparatus under dry conditions a R.T. and 400 C. The results have
shown that wear was reduced at higher temperatures as well as with
repeated sliding on the same surfaces compared to an open tribosystem.

3:30 4 pm
Numerical Investigation on Electrical Transmission
Ability of a Shearing Powder Layer Application
to Powder Lubricant

5 5:30 pm
Corrosion and Wear Behaviour of Zr-Ti-N Thin
Films

C. Zeng, M. Renouf, Universit de Montpellier, Montpellier, France,


Y. Berthier, Universit de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France

J. Menghani, K. Babapai, S.V.N.I.T, Surat, India, M. Totlani,


Consultant, Mumbai, India

Compared to liquid lubricant, powder lubricant like graphite powder


has several advantages [1], such as good electrical conductivity and
good thermal resistance. Such advantages are especially appreciated in
sliding electrical contact. So it might be interesting to study the
electrical transmission ability of a shearing powder layer under
different dynamical constraints. Followed by the idea of Renouf et al. [2],
some numerical results of the electrical properties of a shearing
powder layer with Discrete Element Method was produced under
different mechanical constraints. An interesting relation between the
average contact resistance and the inertial number I was found.
Notably, an exponential increase of sample resistance around the dense
flow limit has also been observed. Finally, the numerical results
suggested that, in order to ensure the electrical transmission ability of
the powder layer, one must keep the particle size and shear rate small,
and a sufficiently large pressure.

n present investigation single component Ti-N thin films of varying


thickness (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 ) were deposited on 316 stainless
steel using Ti (99.95%) and Zr (99%) pure metal target by cathode arc
evaporation PVD technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and
XRD were employed to analyze microstructures and phases present in
the coating. XRD results indicated presence of substoichiometric Ti2N.
The influences of lamellae thickness on the microstructure, tribological
and corrosive properties of the films were investigated. Corrosion
resistance of Ti2N films was determined using potentiodynamic tests in
most common industrial environment 11pH Na2SO4. The results
indicate that wear and corrosion properties of the films were
dependent on microstructure and lamellae thicknesses.

4 4:30 pm
High Temperature Lubrication in Hot Sheet Metal
Forming
J. Hardell, L. Pelcastre, C. Snchez Santero, C. Wang, B. Prakash,
Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden
Thermo-mechanical forming enables forming of high-strength
materials with low spring back. Hot forming of Zn-coated ultra-high
strength steel (UHSS) enables high-performance components with
cathodic corrosion protection. Tribology is important for both quality
and process economy. Problems in hot forming of Zn-coated UHSS
include abrasion of the dies and material transfer. Adding a lubricant
can control friction and adhesion. This study focussed on characterising
the friction and wear behaviour of a tool steel and Zn-coated UHSS pair
with three different high temperature lubricants. The study has been
carried out using a hot sheet metal forming tribometer. The results
have shown that a WS2 solid lubricant was ineffective in reducing
friction and wear. An h-BN lubricant did not affect friction but reduced
surface damage of the workpiece. An Mg containing lubricant on the
workpiece was found to improve the tribological performance
compared to applying it on the tool or both surfaces.

www.stle.org

Stay Connected at the Annual Meeting


and Tweet #STLE2016
If youd like to be more involved during the annual
meeting and share information with fellow attendees,
STLE encourages you to use Twitter to tweet
noteworthy sessions, photos, questions and other
valuable resources. Were also encouraging exhibitors,
sponsors and companies to use it as a way to share
useful information with attendees. Log on to Twitter
(www.twitter.com) and just tweet using the
#STLE2016 hashtag. And be sure to follow STLEs
twitter handle (@STLE_Tribology) for the latest
updates throughout the week regarding the annual
meeting

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

145

Wednesday, May 18
Session 6P

Jubilee 3

NANOTRIBOLOGY VI: NANOSCALE


LUBRICATION MECHANISMS
Session Chair: P. Egberts, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada
Session Vice Chair: Z. Ye, University of California-Merced,
Merced, CA

1:30 2 pm
Tribological Properties of Nanodiamonds in
Aqueous Suspensions: Effect of the Surface
Charge
J. Krim, Z. Liu, D. Leininger, A. Kooviland, A. Smirnov, North Carolina
State University, Raleigh, NC, O. Shendarova, International
Technology Center, Raleigh, NC, D. Brenner, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC
Uptake and nanotribological properties of positively and negatively
charged 5-15 nm diameter nanodiamonds dispersed in water have
been studied in real time by means of an in situ Quartz Crystal
Microbalance (QCM) technique[1]. Measurements were performed with
the QCM immersed in water and also in macroscopic contact with
stainless steel ball bearings. The nanodiamonds were found to impact
tribological performance at both nanometer and macroscopic scales.
The tribological effects were highly sensitive to the sign of the charge:
negatively (positively) charged particles were more weakly (strongly)
bound and reduced (increased) frictional drag at the solid-liquid
interface. For the macroscopic contacts, negatively charged
nanodiamonds appeared to be displaced from the contact, while the
positively charged ones were not. Overall, the negatively charged
nanodiamonds were more stable in an aqueous dispersion for
extended time periods.

2 2:30 pm
Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on the Orientational
Behavior of Nano LC Lubricating Film
M. Gao, L. Ma, J. Luo, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Bejing,
China
Homologous cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals (LC) have been widely used
as lubricants or lubricant additives due to their soft ordering and liquid
nature. In this work, the alignment performance of nCB (n=5, 6, 7) LCs,
which were in the regime of nanoscale lubricating film, has been
studied via in-situ ball-on-disk testing platform equipped with Raman
Spectroscopy. The results showed that both external condition as shear
velocity and internal molecular alkyl length dramatically affect the
ordering process of nCB LCs. Furthermore, we developed a simple
model, along with detailed physical analysis, to explain the observed
phenomena. Thus, this study has revealed, for the first time, the
influence of molecular alkyl chain length on the orientational behavior
of nCB LCs nano-film during lubricating. Our findings may have
implication in improving LCs lubricating properties.

146

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

2:30 3 pm
Tribochemical Synthesis of Nano-Lubricant
Films From Adsorbed Molecules at Sliding Solid
Interface: Tribo-Polymers From -pinene, Pinane,
and n-decane
X. He, A. Barthel, S. Kim, Penn State University, State College, PA
The mechanochemical reactions of adsorbed molecules at sliding
interfaces were studied for -pinene, pinane, and n-decane. During
vapor phase lubrication of a sliding interface of stainless steels,
adsorbed molecules could be activated by mechanical shear. Under the
equilibrium adsorption condition of these molecules, the friction
coefficient of sliding steel surfaces was about 0.2 and a polymeric film
was tribochemically produced. The yield of -pinene tribo-polymers was
about twice as much as pinane tribo-polymers. In contrast to these
strained bicyclic hydrocarbons, n-decane showed much weaker activity
for trio-polymerization at the same mechanical shear condition. These
results suggested that the mechanical shear at tribological interfaces
can induce the opening of the strained 4-membered ring, which leads
to polymerization of adsorbed molecules at the sliding track. The
mechanical properties and boundary lubrication efficiency of the
produced tribo-polymer films are discussed.

3 3:30 pm Break

Session 6Q

Jubilee 3

MATERIALS TRIBOLOGY/NANOTRIBOLOGY
JOINT SESSION I: MECHANICS AND
TRIBOCHEMISTRY AT THE NANOSCALE
Session Chair: P. Egberts, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada
Session Vice Chair: H. Khare, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA

3:30 4:30 pm
Ultralow Wear Fluoropolymer Composites:
Putting Together the Mechanistic Pieces
C. Junk, B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, K. Harris,
A. Pitenis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, G. Blackman,
W. Sawyer, R. Johnson, D. Kasprzak, H. Rosenfeld, DuPont Central
Research & Development, Wilmington, DE, S. Brown, The Chemours
Co., Wilmington, DE
Over the last decade, several research groups have explored an
intriguing set of materials based on Teflon* PTFE 7C (a granular molding
resin) and certain alumina nanoparticles. These materials are exceptional
because small amounts of alumina additive (often less than 5 wt.%)
improve the wear performance of the PTFE composite by over four
orders of magnitude. It is believed that the nano sized alumina
somehow shuts down the flaky wear mechanism of the PTFE, and
stabilizes the formation of a persistent transfer film. We have now
elucidated the mechanism behind the mechanochemistry which allows
generation of a robust thin transfer film and thus ultralow wear. The
focus of this talk will be on this unique chemistry, and the role it plays
during fluoropolymer sliding wear against a metal countersurface. For
the first time, the critical role of the size and shape of the aluminum
oxide filler will also be discussed.

www.stle.org

Wednesday, May 18
6Q

4:30 5 pm
Surface Identity, Modification and Evolution in
Polymer Tribology
K. Harris, A. Pitenis, J. Uruena, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL,
B. Krick, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, W. Sawyer, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL
A discussion of the importance of surface interactions and near
surface chemistry and mechanics in polymeric tribological systems.
Advancements in ultra-low wear PTFE composite research have led to
the investigation and understanding of individual sliding systems
rather than material properties. The chemical and mechanical
mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of ultra-low wear over
hundred of thousands to millions of cycles have been identified, and
depend on complex interactions at the nano, micro and macro scale.
Minor modifications to these processes affect the performance of
systems as a whole and may be used to extend the scope of usability
for these polymer composites. Sliding systems across a large range of
length and strength scales depend on the behavior of the near surface
and the suite of interactions at the interface.

5 5:30 pm
Nano-Rheology of Hydrogels Using Direct Drive
Force Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy
R. Carpick, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, P. Nalam,
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL,
N. Gosvami, M. Caporizzo, R. Composto, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA
Hydrogels are widely used soft materials in cartilage tribology, among
other applications. We present a magnetic force-based direct drive
modulation method to measure local nano-rheological properties of
polyacrylamide hydrogels across a broad frequency range (10 Hz 2
kHz) using colloid-attached AFM probes in liquid. The frequency
bandwidth was extended to lower frequencies (upto 0.1 Hz) by
acquiring slow force-displacement which show loading-direction
mechanical behavior dependenence: approach curves showed Hertzian
while retraction curves fit JKR model. Using small amplitude
modulation at faster rates, the load dependence of the storage stiffness
transitioned from Hertzian to a dynamic punch-type model, indicating
significant influence of material dissipation coupled with adhesion. The
study highlights possible transitions in the probe-material contact
mechanical behavior of soft matter especially when the applied strain
rates and the material relaxation rates become comparable.

5:30 6 pm
Effects of Structure of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphates on Tribological Properties of Tetrahedral
Amorphous Carbon Film Under Boundary
Lubrication
H. Okubo, S. Sasaki, C. Tadokoro, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo,
Japan
The effects of the structure of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) on
the tribological properties of a tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) film
under boundary lubrication were investigated. Moreover, we aimed to
provide a parameter for determining the tribological properties of the
ta-C film lubricated with ZDDP-added oils. Friction tests were performed
at diamond-like carbon (DLC)/DLC contact under lubrication with polyalpha olefin (PAO) and PAO containing six types of ZDDPs with different
alkyl groups. In the friction tests, there was hardly a correlation between
the friction coefficients and the length of the alkyl chains of ZDDPs.
Surface analysis results indicated that the tribological properties of the
ta-C film depended on the chemical composition of ZDDP tribofilms,
which depended on the abundance ratio of neutral-ZDDP and basicZDDP in ZDDP solutions. All these results suggest that the ZDDP forms
in solution can determine the tribological properties of the ta-C film.

6 6:30 pm
Measurement of the Energy Dissipation of
Copolymer in Non-Contact Regime Using
Atomic Force Microscopy
S. Shi, D. Guo, J. Luo, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department
of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Development of the non-contact operation mode of AFM (NC-AFM)
pioneers research fields in imaging material topography and
quantifying properties in nanoscale. We investigate the energy
dissipation in the attractive regime of copolymer using the amplitude
modulation dynamic mode (AM-AFM). The effects of measuring
parameters and material properties are also discussed in terms of
imaging quality and energy dissipation. Different free amplitudes and
setpoint ratios are operated when imaging the polymer blend of
polystyrene (PS) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). When the free
amplitude is 41 nm, energy dissipation power can be up to 50.3 pW per
cycle on the PS region and 40.5 pW on the LDPE region, respectively.
And there is a cross point between the energy dissipation curves
consistent with phase curves. Small free amplitude corresponds to less
energy dissipation on the same region. Analysis of energy dissipation is
benefit for high resolution imaging and mechanic study at the nanoscale.

Share your STLE 2016 Annual Meeting Presentation


with Submission of an Extended Abstract
Each year, STLEs annual meeting is known for its exceptional technical content. With more than 500 papers to choose from, a
major concern for attendees is scheduling conflicts, as they sometimes miss presentations that they would like to hear or
cannot share materials with their colleagues who are unable to attend the meeting.
In an effort to provide attendees with the opportunity of not missing a presentation, STLE encourages speakers to submit
either a 2-3 page extended abstract or provide digital PDF copies of their annual meeting presentation slides.
For more information, visit www.stle.org or email Karl Phipps, presentations@stle.org to submit materials.
*Please note: Attendees can download STLE 2016 Annual Meeting presentations online at www.stle.org during and
immediately following the meeting. Also, presentations can be accessed through the STLE Annual Meeting Mobile App.
Be sure to check both the STLE website and Mobile App for the latest updates on presentations that have been added by
speakers, as they become available.

148

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

M
Mark
ark Your
Your C
Calendars!
alendars!
Please mark your calendars
for the 2016 TFC, Nov. 13-15 in
Chicagos historic Drake Hotel.

Well again gather an international community


to share tribologys most cutting-edge research.
Come join us for three information-packed days
with tribologys top minds--youll leave with a better
understanding of how your companys products
will fit into an ever-evolving technical future.
Visit www.stle.org for program updates,
online registration, and hotel reservations.
See you in Chicago!

Cutting-edge tribology research


Networking
Industry Recognition
Leadership Opportunities
Invited Speakers
International Community
Idea Sharing

Can Stock Photo Inc. / rudi1976

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068 info@stle.org www.stle.org 847-825-5536

Overview
Please check the errata in your registration bag to verify course times. Some times
might change slightly.

THURSDAY, MAY 19
Registration (7 am 6:00 pm) Grand Salon
Speakers Breakfast (7 8 am) Platinum

Technical Sessions (1:30 5:30 pm)


8B Lubrication Fundamentals VIII: Modeling Bronze 3
8D Rolling Element Bearings VI Gold

STLE Certification Exams (8:30 am Noon) Palace 3

8E Molecular Chemistry and Lubricant Rheology Special


Session II Silver

Technical Sessions (8 am Noon)

8K Wear V: Wear Mitigation Las Vegas 4

7B Lubrication Fundamentals VII: Lubricant Properties Bronze 3

8L Tribotesting IV Las Vegas 5

7C Engine & Drivetrain VII Bronze 2

8M Condition Monitoring IV Las Vegas 6/7

7D Rolling Element Bearings V Gold

8N Surface Engineering VIII Jubilee 1

7E Molecular Chemistry and Lubricant Rheology I Silver


7H Fluid Film Bearings VII Las Vegas 1

8P Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session III:


Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale Jubilee 3

7K Wear IV Las Vegas 4

Beverage Breaks are scheduled at 10 am and 3 pm daily.

7L Tribotesting III Las Vegas 5


7M Condition Monitoring III Las Vegas 6/7
7N Surface Engineering VII Jubilee 1
7O Materials Tribology VII Jubilee 2
7P Materials Tribology/Nanotribology Joint Session II:
Mechanics and Tribochemistry at the Nanoscale Jubilee 3

www.stle.org

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

149

THURSDAY, MAY 19, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 7B
Lubrication Fundamentals VII

SESSION 7C
Engine & Drivetrain VII

SESSION 7D
Rolling Element Bearings V

Bronze 2

Bronze 3

Gold

SESSION 7E
Molecular Chemistry I
Silver

8 8:30 am

Influence of Lubricants on the Fatigue Life of


Thrust Needle Bearing under Debris Contaminated Lubrication, M. Yokomizo, p.154

Tribology Behavior of a Copper-Based


Composite for Heavily-Loaded Wet Clutch,
T. Gong, p. 155

Effect of Deposition Method on the


Tribological and Functional Performance of
CrxN Ball Coatings, K. Mutyala, p. 156

Volumetric and Rheological Properties of


Base Oils at High Pressures, M. Devlin, p. 158

8:30 9 am

Pour Point Depressant Considerations When


Blending With Re-refined Base Stock,
R. Gomes, p.154

Impact of Industrial Gear Oil Additives on


Bearing Life, S. Basu, p. 155

Influence of Internal Geometry, Metallurgy,


and Component Surface Finish on Expected
Life of Nominally-Equivalent Roller Bearings,
E. Terrell, p. 156

Characterization of Lubricant Shear Thinning


Behavior Based on Radius of Gyration
Calculation through Molecular Dynamics
Simulation, P. Liu, p. 158

9 9:30 am

Inductive Micro-Flash Desorption for a


Molecular-Level Understanding of Fuel
Lubricity, K. Urness, p. 154

Abrasion Resistant Improvement of the


Valve Seat for Automobile Engines by the
Oxidation and the Turn, K. Matsumoto, p. 155

Prediction of Rolling Bearing Friction


A Valid Method Even for Large Size Bearings,
O. Koch, p. 156

X-Ray CT Imaging of Grease Behavior in Ball


Bearing and Multi-Scale Grease Flows
Simulation, T. Noda, p. 158

New Approach to Quantitatively Measure the


Polymeric Oil Additive Associations in Solution,
S. Pirouz, p.154

Time-Dependent Elastohydrodynamic
Analysis of Cam-Roller Contacts, A. Almqvist,
p. 155

Performance of Thrust Needle Roller Bearings


Considering Surface Roughness and ElastoPlastic Deformation, X. Shen, p. 156

Entanglement and Self-Alignment of Heterocyclic Friction Modifier Molecules during


Surface Adsorption: From MD Simulation to
Experiment, J. Lu, p. 158

Break

Break

Break

9:30 10 am

10 10:30 am
10:30 11 am

Low Viscosity Fuel Efficient Lubricants: Key


Technical Issues, F. Zhao, p. 154

11 11:30 am

11:30 Noon

Minimising Wear and Friction of DiamondLike Carbon Surfaces With Polymeric Organic
Friction Modifiers, A. Viadas, p. 155

Break

Modeling the Effect of Elastohydrodynamic


Lubrication on Rolling Contact Fatigue,
N. Paulson, p. 156

Impact of Synthesis Parameters on Overbased


Calcium Alkylsalicylate Detergent Structure,
A. Piacentini, p. 158

Modern Low Viscosity Engine Applications of


Esters in Modern Low Viscosity Engine Oils,
A. Viadas, p.154

Monitoring Hydrogen Contamination in


Lubricated Contacts of Bearing Steels,
A. Ruellan, p. 156

Perfecting the Lubricant Wheel through


Macromolecular Design, J. Robinson, p. 159

Surface Energy, Viscosity, and Friction of


Selected Ester Lubricants, X. Zhang, p. 155

Visualization of Debris Entrapment in EHL


Contacts: -PIV Technique, V. Strubel, p. 158

SESSION 8E
Molecular Chemistry II

SESSION 8B
Lubrication Fundamentals VIII

SESSION 8D
Rolling Element Bearings VI

Bronze 2

Gold

1:30 2 pm

Simulating Realistic Organic Friction Modifier


Films in Boundary Lubrication: The Importance
of All-Atom Potentials, N. Morgan, p. 168

Influence of Rubbing Materials on the


Effectiveness of Lubricating Boundary Films,
K. Pagkalis, p. 170

Pressure Dependence of Wind Turbine


Gearbox Oil Viscosity, P. Shiller, p. 171

2 2:30 pm

Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics


Simulations of Organic Friction Modifiers,
J. Ewen, p. 168

Tribological Performance of PEEK for Bearing


Applications, B. Allison, p. 170

The Effect of Additives Resulting in the


Lubricant Oil Consumption Concerning Blowby in Marine Diesel Engines, C. Zhang, p. 171

2:30 3 pm

Theoretical Calculations of Local


Physico-Chemical-Mechanical Properties,
A. Miyamoto, p. 168

Double Transfer in Self-lubrication Ball


Bearings: A Link Between Third-Body
Rheology and Local Adhesion, A. Saulot, p. 170

Viscosity and Structure of Model Viscosity


Index Improvers, A. Martini, p. 171

3 3:30 pm

Break

Break

Break

3:30 4 pm

Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis


by Using High-Efficiency Computing
Technology, C. Chan, p. 168

Design Criteria for Oil Ring Lubricators to


Improve Maintainability of Rolling Bearings,
M. Mller, p 170

4 4:30 pm

Experimental Investigation of Stribeck


Curves for Lubricated Counterformal
Contacts, T. He, p. 168

Investigation of Elastohydrodynamic Film


Thickness Behavior at High Speeds Based
on Ball-on-Glass Ring Test Rig, W. Wang,
p. 170

Silver

Break

Molecular Chemistry Discussion

4:30 5 pm

150

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

SESSION 7H
Fluid Film Bearings VII
Las Vegas I

SESSION 7K
Wear IV

SESSION 7L
Tribotesting III

SESSION 7M
Condition Monitoring III

Las Vegas 4

Las Vegas 5

Las Vegas 6/7

Effect of Geometrically Imperfect Journal and


Recess Geometry on the Performance of Two
Lobe/Circular 4 Pocket Hybrid Journal
Bearing System, S. Sharma, p. 159

Exploration of Used Passenger Car Timing


Chains, R. Rieth, p. 160

The Current Applicability of Traditional


Tribology Tests to Industrial Lubricants,
G. Fish, p. 162

Save Your Equipment: Determining Which


Maintenance Actions Drive Results, R. Clark,
p. 163

8 8:30 am

Effect of Speed On Performance Analysis of


Hole-Entry Hybrid Conical Journal Bearing for
Different Semi Cone Angles, P. Khakse, p. 159

Tribological Analysis of the Swiss Lever


Escapement, J. Rolland, p. 160

Galling Testing and the Mechanism of


Galling, K. Budinski, p. 162

Real-Time Cage Temperature Measured in


a High-Speed Grease Lubricated Bearing,
D. Lang, p. 163

8:30 9 am

Computation of Misaligned Bearing Dynamic


Coefficients with Application to Plain
Bearings, A. El-Shafei, p. 159

Relationship between Electrostatic Charge &


Wear of Polymeric Materials in Translational
Tribocharging Process, M. Neagoe, p. 160

An In Situ Approach to Study Tribocorrosion


of a Supermartensitic Steel, R. Soares, p. 162

Development of Hydraulic Filter Elements


for Highly Demanding Applications,
J. Duchowski, p. 163

9 9:30 am

Investigation of Boron Carbide, DLC, and


Amorphous Carbon Coating Abrasiveness
After Sliding Against 52100 Steel, G. Krauss,
p. 162

Inline Visual Analysis of Turbine and Lube


Oils for Solids and Water Detection on a
Condinual Basis, T. Canty, p. 163

9:30 10 am

Axially Skewed Pressure Dam Bearing,


A. El-Shafei, p. 159

Break

Break

www.stle.org

Break

Break

Break

10 10:30 am

Towards a Unified Classification of Wear,


M. Varenberg, p. 160

Investigating Stick-Slip Behavior in


Tribometers and Interpreting the Results,
M. Moneer, p. 162

The Dynamic Characterisation of Machine


Element Contacts Using Ultrasonic
Reflectometry, H. Brunskill, p.163

10:30 11 am

Relating Wear Uncertainties to Material


Characteristics through Interrupted Topography Measurements, N. Garabedian, p. 160

Bench-Top Screening of Clutch Materials,


S. Shaffer, p. 162

Lubricant Maintenance Based on Condition


Monitoring, K. Berglund, p. 164

11 11:30 am

Friction and Wear Testing of Material


Specimen of Spline Couplings, S. Wang, p. 160

Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Thermal Oxidation Characteristic of Ester Oil, J. Li, p. 163

SESSION 8K
Wear V: Wear Mitigation

SESSION 8L
Tribotesting IV

SESSION 8M
Condition Monitoring IV

Las Vegas 4

Las Vegas 5

Las Vegas 6/7

A Novel Solid-Fluid Composite Coating of


MoS2-Graphene-Oil with Superior Lubricity,
J. Wang, p. 174

Return on Fluid Analysis Investment, R. Clark,


p. 175

1:30 2 pm

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Martensitic Aluminum Bronze Coating Against


Different Stainless Steels, P. Kucita, p. 171

Investigation of Impact Abrasive Wear


Behaviour of Medium Manganese Steel,
Q. Yinghuai, p. 174

Understanding and Measurements the


Nitration Products by Trend Analysis Using
Fourier Transform Infrared, Y. Gomez, p. 175

2 2:30 pm

Investigation of Cavitation Erosion-Corrosion of


Duplex Stainless Steel and Nickel Aluminium
Bronze in 3.5% NaCl Solution, J. Basumatary, p.171

Friction Characterisation of Engine Oils for


Predicting Fuel Economy, K. Topolovec
Miklozic, p. 174

Chlorine Contamination of Air Compressor


Lubricants, J. Kantar, p. 175

2:30 3 pm

Break

Break

11:30 Noon

Break
Condition Monitoring Business Meeting

3 3:30 pm
3:30 4 pm

Scuffing Performance of Mixed Synthetic


Base Fluids, M. Lorenzo Martin, p. 172

Approaching the Stress-Dielectric


Relationship in Grease, Y. Peng, p. 174

Influence of Magnesium Stearate as


Lubricant Additive on Fretting Wear Under
Oil Lubrication, T. Maruyama, p. 172

Experimental Study of the Onset of Scuffing


in Concentrated Rolling-Sliding Contacts,
B. Peng, p. 174

4 4:30 pm

The Intricacies of Wear of Elastomeric


Rolling-Sliding Contacts, A. Bennett, p. 172

Influence of Crystal Size & Crystal Orientation on


the Friction Behavior of ZnO Films, X. Lu, p. 174

4:30 5 pm

Load Distribution and Wear-Life Analysis


of Aero Involute Spline Coupling, R. Yuan,
p. 172

Correlation between Test Rig Friction


Coefficient Measurements and Urban Buses
Fleet Fuel Efficientcy using Commercial Low
Viscosity Engine Oils, L. Ramrez, p. 175

5 5:30 pm

Tribological Approaches to Developing Smart


Materials for Tidal Turbines Using Erosion
Maps, R. Rafee Ahamed, p. 175

5:30 6 pm

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

THURSDAY >>
151

THURSDAY, MAY 19, 2016 Technical Sessions Time Grid


TIME

SESSION 7N
Surface Engineering VII

SESSION 7O
Materials Tribology VII

Jubilee 1

Jubilee 2

SESSION 7P
Materials Tribology/Nanotribology II
Jubilee 3

8 8:30 am

The Influence of Surface Texturing on Friction in Lubricated


Parallel Sliding Surfaces, D. Bijani, p. 164

Influence of Surface Topography on the Tribological Behaviour


of Self-lubricating Iron Based Composites, J. de Mello, p. 165

Friction Mechanism of Diamond-Like Carbon, P. Antonov,


p. 166

8:30 9 am

Enhanced Tribological Performance of Metallic Materials


Through Laser Surface Processing, P. Menezes, p. 164

Surface Texturing for Friction Control Under Dry Sliding


Contact, O. Rashwan, p. 165

Interfacial Shear Strength of Graphene Oxide Films, T. Filleter


p. 166

9 9:30 am

Extraordinary Wear Performance of Nanocomposite Coatings


in Fully Formulated Oils, G. Ramirez, p. 164

Studies of Impact and Rolling Wear Properties for Hot-Rolled


Medium Manganese Steel, Q. Yinghuai, p. 165

Studies of the Dynamic Tribological Properties of Graphene


on Rough Surfaces, J. Batteas, p. 167

9:30 10 am

Investigation of the Contact Performance of Machined Surface


Morphology, P. Li, p. 164

Tribological Properties of Zr-2.5Nb Alloy After Thermal


Oxidation under Bovine Serum Lubrication, Y. Luo, p. 166

Enhanced Thermo-oxidative Stability in Hydrogenated


Amorphous Carbon Solid Lubricant Coatings by Doping
with Silicon and Oxygen, J. McClimon, p. 167

10 10:30 am

Break

Break

Break

10:30 11 am

Stress Field Variations in RCF of a Steel Subjected to Graded


Surface Hardening, M. Zhang, p. 164

Raman Microspectrometry Study of Pure Sliding Sphere Plane


Interfaces Lubricated by Graphite Nanoparticles in Dispersion
in Lubricant Bases, A. Molza, p. 166

Tribochemistry of Carbon Films in Oxygen and Humid


Environments, S. Kim, p. 167

11 11:30 am

Confining of Liquids under Induced Motion, J. Leong, p. 165

Introducing Wet Friction Materials Friction Coefficient


Mapping in Automotive Applications, R. Farahati, p. 166

Correcting for Finite-Size Effects in MD Simulations of


Asperity Contact, J. Harrison, p. 167

Air-Jet Erosive Wear Behaviour of Inconel 718- Silicon Carbide


Composite Coatings, R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, p. 165

Practical Implications of Tribological Rehydration in the Joint,


D. Burris, p. 166

Atomic-Scale Structural Probing of Tribochemistry-Induced


Superlubric Interfaces in Amorphous Carbon Films, X. Chen,
p. 167

11:30 Noon

SESSION 8N
Surface Engineering VIII

SESSION 8P
Materials Tribology/Nanotribology III

Jubilee 1
1:30 2 pm

Plasticity Evolution in a Coated Sphere Compressed by a Rigid


Flat, Z. Chen, p. 176

Friction and Wear of Austenite Steel: Plasticity and Crack


Formation, S. Brinckmann, p. 177

2 2:30 pm

Corrosive Wear Behaviour of Plasma Sprayed Inconel 718 and


Titania Coatings on Low Carbon Steel in Marine Environment,
R. Chinnakurli Suryanarayana, p. 176

Friction without Dissipation, R. Hu, p. 177

2:30 3 pm

Studies on Transfer Layer Formation Using Finite Element


Modeling, A. Siddaiah, p. 176

Measurement of the Friction and Elastic Modulus of Single


Nanoparticles Using Atomic Force Microscopy, D. Guo, p. 177

3 3:30 pm

Break

Break

Break

3:30 4 pm

Tribological Properties of the Coating Formed on ZrTiAlV


Alloys by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, M. Ma, p. 176

Experimental and Theoretical Approach of Friction


Properties of Lamellar Compounds, J. Mansot, p. 177

4 4:30 pm

Surface Engineering Business Meeting

Nano Friction of the Atomic Step-and-Terrace Structure on


Sapphire, R. Wang, p. 177

4:30 5 pm

152

Relationship between Nanomechanical Properties and


Macro-Tribological Properties of Tribo-Films Originated
from Friction Modifier, C. Hashimoto, p. 177

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

www.stle.org

Visit Us At STLE Booth # 319

HIGH-PERFORMANCE
WATER-MISCIBLE ADDITIVE PACKAGES
Rhein Chemie Additives offers a comprehensive range of single and multi-component additives for
water-based metalworking fluids. We have now expanded our Additin Water-Miscible (WM) product
portfolio with several new additive packages designed for water-soluble and emulsifiable metalworking
fluids.
Additin Water-Miscible packages extend our metalworking product range for synthetic and semisynthetic applications while meeting and exceeding the demands of the global metalworking industry:
Synthetic

Additin RC 5550A, Additin RC 5560A, Additin RC 5570A

Semi-synthetic

Additin RC 5611A, Additin RC 5650A, Additin RC 5661A,


Additin RC 5666A

Simplifies the process of formulating with paraffinic/naphtenic base stocks


Ultra-low foaming
Multi-metal corrosion protection
Bio stable
Improved tribological characteristics
Solutions for removal and forming fluid formulations.
Solutions for the plastic, rubber, lubricant and paint industries.
Whatever requirements move your world:
We will move them with you. www.rheinchemie-additives.com
= registered trademark of LANXESS Deutschland GmbH, Germany. Registered in many countries of the world.

Thursday May 19
Session 7B

Bronze 2

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS VII


LUBRICANT PROPERTIES
Session Chair: J. Guevremont, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond,
VA
Session Vice Chair: B. Sharma, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, IL

8 8:30 am
Influence of Lubricants on the Fatigue Life
of Thrust Needle Bearing under Debris
Contaminated Lubrication
M. Yokomizo, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., Ichihara-Shi, Chiba, Japan
Lower viscosity automatic transmission fluids are effective for
improving fuel saving performance in automobiles. However, this oil
formulation would reduce oil film thickness and shorten a fatigue lif
in bearing system. In this study, two things were investigated. The first
one is the relation between the oil film thickness and the fatigue life
of bearing under the debris contaminated lubrication. Next, the effect
of oil additive on fatigue life under debris contaminated lubrication
was investigated. As a result, with the increase of oil film thickness,
the number of indentations increased, but a longer fatigue life was
obtained. It is indicated that a thicker oil film reduces a severity of
contact around the indentations. In addition, at the tests of oil additives,
more concentrated tribofilm from the oil additive which shown longer
fatigue life was observed.This suggests that the formation of tribofilm
minimizes the shearing force applied between the solid contact parts.

8:30 9 am
Pour Point Depressant Considerations
When Blending With Re-refined Base Stock
R. Gomes, B. Zweitzig, Evonik Oil Additives USA, Inc., Horsham, PA
Re-refining oil is an energy-efficient and environmentally beneficial
method of utilizing used oil. Re-refiners claim the environmental
benefits are achieved by conservation of a reusable resource,
generation of less air pollution, and reduction of toxic emissions.
Processing techniques for re-refining oil have advanced in the last
decades, providing superior quality base oils that can be used to
formulate modern fluids. In the past, the low temperature performance
of re-refined base oils was a concern. In this study, we examined the
low temperature performance of current North and South American
and European re-refined base oils in comparison to virgin mineral oils
of equal group stock classification. Low temperature data will be
presented addressing whether re-refined base stocks have a particular
wax interaction appetite as a component and in fully formulated fluids,
with and without pour point depressants, in fresh and aged oil. Data on
oils from 6 re-refiners will be shared.

9 9:30 am
Inductive Micro-Flash Desorption for a
Molecular-Level Understanding of Fuel Lubricity
K. Urness, T. Bruno, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Boulder, CO
Liquid fuels aboard high-performance aircraft currently fulfill the
role of both the propellant and the heat sink for regenerative cooling.
A proposed method to improve aircraft operability and increase
efficiency is to eliminate the entire lubricant system and require that
the fuel serve not only as the propellant and coolant, but also as the
lubricant. To enable this transition, it is necessary to identify the
important characteristics of fuel lubricity in order to design fuel blends
that can optimize this function. At NIST we are developing a solventfree extraction technique called Inductive Micro-Flash Desorption to
characterize the molecular species in complex mixtures that are

154

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

involved in boundary lubrication. The technique takes a sample


immersed in a fluid that contains surface-active species and rapidly
thermally desorbs the interacting species with an induction heating
device; the desorbed species are then detected by suitable analytic
techniques such as GC/MS.

9:30 10 am
New Approach to Quantitatively Measure the
Polymeric Oil Additive Associations in Solution
S. Pirouz, S. Jiang, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA, J. Duhamel,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
The primary purpose of engine oil is to provide lubrication needed
between the moving parts of the engine. However, the viscosity of the
engine oil changes precipitously with changing the temperature. This
causes a technical challenge in regions where extreme temperature
changes are expected. The solution for this problem is to add Viscosity
Modifiers to engine oils such as ethylene-propylene copolymers. At low
temperatures, long ethylene sequences crystallize in solution which
shrinks the overall dimension of the polymer coil and consequently
reduces the viscosity. While reduced viscosity is desired, the crystallized
macromolecule becomes less soluble in oil which could lead to it
uncontrolled polymeric aggregation and eventually precipitation.
Unlike traditional methods this presentation will introduce a new
procedure to quantitatively determine the intermolecular interaction
between polymer chains in solution. This procedure could be extended
and apply to any type of oil additives.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Low Viscosity Fuel Efficient Lubricants:
Key Technical Issues
F. Zhao, S. Hsu, The George Washington University, Ashburn, VA
The 2012 CAF standard sets the fuel economy for cars and light trucks
from 27.5 mpg to 54.5 mpg by 2025. There are many technological
options to reach that level. One of them is the use of ultralow viscosity
lubricants, which reduce hydrodynamic friction but may introduce
higher contact frequencies of engine components in the hot zone
of the engine. Low viscosity base oils also introduce volatility and
oxidative volatility concerns. We have examined the issues of friction
modification, lubricant film thickness, and various ways to control wear
processes. A selected set of bench test equipments and test procedures
has been developed to examine the technical challenges and gain
insight into the chemistries involved.

11 11:30 am
Modern Low Viscosity Engine Applications
of Esters in Modern Low Viscosity Engine Oils
A. Viadas, M. Curran, Croda, Cowick Hall, Snaith, Goole, United
Kingdom
The continued drive towards increased fuel economy and reduction in
CO2 emissions has forced OEMs and lubricant formulators to look to
new engine lubricant technology. Low viscosity is a key property of fuel
economy focussed engine oils; hence the introduction of the new low
viscosity grades 0W-16, 0W-12 and 0W-8. It is not fully clear if the needs
of these new viscosity grades can be met with current Gp II, Gp III, Gp IV
or GTL technology. This paper will outline some of the key performance
characteristics of esters in general and the advantages of using low
viscosity esters to formulate 0W-16, 0W-12 and 0W-8 engine oils. The
performance of esters will be compared with other commercially
available low viscosity basestocks. The paper will include formulation
studies of 0W-16, 0W-12 and 0W-8 oils and demonstrate the frictional
performance of these oils.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
11:30 am Noon
Surface Energy, Viscosity, and Friction
of Selected Ester Lubricants
X. Zhang, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, Y. Zhao, K. Ma,
Chongqing Branch, Lubricant Co. Ltd. SINOPEC, Chongqing, China,
Q. Wang, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Nine synthrtic esters are studied as lubricants through the
measurements of viscosity and surface tension, as well as the tests for
friction. An RTEC multifunctional pin-on-disk tribometer is used for the
friction study, and a Kinexus pro+ rheometer is used for the viscosity
and surface tension studies. The friction test results are summarized in
the form of Stribeck curves and data correlated with the rheological
properties and surface tensions of the lubricants. The effects of the
chemical structures of these lubricants on their tribological
performances are explored through the result correlation.

Session 7C

Bronze 3

ENGINE & DRIVETRAIN VII


Session Chair: J. Qu, Materials Science and Technology Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN
Session Vice Chair: W. Anderson, Afton Chemical Corp.,
Richmond, VA

8 8:30 am
Tribology Behavior of a Copper-Based
Composite for Heavily-Loaded Wet Clutch
T. Gong, P. Yao, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
Copper-based composite manufactured by powder metallurgy has
been widely applied to heavily-loaded wet clutches because of its
excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological properties. In the
current work, tribology behavior of a copper-based wet clutch facing
composite sliding against alloy steel was investigated in a ring-on-ring
braking simulator under oil lubrication. The results demonstrate that
the mean friction coefficient and wear rate revealed an obvious
upward trend with increasing speed and load during braking
operations, due to the friction and wear mechanism changing under
different operating conditions, especially the heavily-loaded condition.
Meanwhile, examinations and analyses of temperature fields, friction
surfaces and subsurfaces were performed to discuss the friction and
wear mechanism.

8:30 9 am
Impact of Industrial Gear Oil Additives on
Bearing Life
S. Basu, J. Vinci, S. Gotheridge, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
Industrial gear oil specifications have evolved to accommodate higher
loading and extended periods of operation. Historically, organic
compounds of sulfur and phosphorus have protected gear surfaces,
but this necessarily reactive chemistry has more recently been
implicated in bearing failures. Our contention is that not all gear oil
additive chemistry should be dismissed as hostile to bearing life.
Utilizing the FAG FE8 cylindrical bearing test ( DIN 51819-3) and FZG
scuffing test (ASTM D-5182: A/8.3/90), our investigations revealed that
optimally designed additive formulations are capable of extending
bearing life without compromising the anti-wear protection requisite
for gears.

www.stle.org

9 9:30 am
Abrasion Resistant Improvement of the
Valve Seat for Automobile Engines by the
Oxidation and the Turn
K. Matsumoto, Honda R&D, Haga-gun, Tochigi, Japan, A. Sasaki,
MAINTEK Consultant, Yoshihama-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Japan
Valve seats for engine are manufactured by powder metallurgy. As a
method for improving the wear resistance, the surface is oxidized prior
to use, was performed to form an oxide film. Moreover, by reducing the
valve rotation, the valve and the seat become uniformly contact, and
we were able to discover the further improvement of the wear
resistance. These technology seems to be effective for natural gas
engine in harsh wear resistance.

9:30 10 am
Time-Dependent Elastohydrodynamic Analysis
of Cam-Roller Contacts
A. Almqvist, M. Shirzadegan, R. Larsson, Lule University of
Technology, Lule, Sweden
There is great interest in studying the behavior of machine
components under real-world conditions because such investigations
can provide important insights into the effects of parameters such as
the lubricant film formation and the friction associated with shearing of
the lubricant film. This paper presents the results from on numerical
simulations of the elastohydrodynamically lubricated contact between
the cam and the roller follower. In particular, the fully deterministic
multiphysics model was developed to systematically analyze effects
associated with the contact geometry of a system where the cam is
wider than the roller follower. The influence of lubricant rheology and
operating conditions in terms of varying loads, velocities was also
studied. The numerical solution procedure is based on finite elements
and a Newton-Raphson method was applied to solve the fully coupled
problem, comprising the Reynolds equation and the set of equations
describing the elastic deformation.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Minimising Wear and Friction of Diamond-Like
Carbon Surfaces With Polymeric Organic Friction
Modifiers
A. Viadas, M. Fazakerley, J. Eastwood, Croda, Yorkshire, United
Kingdom
Reducing emissions and improving fuel economy continue to be a
focus within the automotive industry. In order achieve legislated targets
OEMs and lubricant formulators have adopted many solutions and
continue to invest heavily in the development of evermore efficient
engineering and lubrication solutions. One example of lubricant
development is the use of lower viscosity engine oils but reducing
viscosity can lead to increased friction and wear and has led some
OEMs to use non-conventional coatings for some specific engine
components, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. DLC coatings
are typically applied to provide a more durable surface, especially
where a high degree of boundary lubrication is experienced. We will
discuss the friction and wear performance of PFMs in tribological
contacts, which include one or more DLC coated surfaces and contrast
their performance against conventional organic friction modifiers, like
GMO and inorganic friction modifiers, specifically MoDTC.

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

155

Thursday May 19
Session 7D

Gold

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS V


Session Chair: E. Terrell, Sentient Science Corp., Buffalo, NY

8 8:30 am
Effect of Deposition Method on the Tribological
and Functional Performance of CrxN Ball Coatings
K. Mutyala, H. Singh, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, R. Evans,
Timken Technology Center, Canton, OH, G. Doll, The University of
Akron, Akron, OH
In this study, the tribological and functional performance of CrxN
coatings on AISI 52100 balls was evaluated. A closed-field unbalanced
magnetron sputtering system (CFUMS) and an ion beam assisted
e-beam deposition (IBAD) system were used to apply the coatings.
Tribological performances of coated specimens were evaluated under
boundary layer lubrication in rolling (3 ball/rod) and sliding contact
tribometers, and the functional performance was examined in thrust
bearing tests. Whereas the friction coefficients were found to be similar
for both coatings against 52100 steel, the L50 fatigue life of M50 rods
paired with IBAD-coated balls was 4 times greater than that obtained
with the 52100 balls. Significantly, the L50 fatigue life of the M50 rods
paired with the IBAD-coated balls is comparable to L50 of M50 rods
when paired with high-quality ceramic (Si3N4) balls. Finally, bearings
with IBAD-coated balls were observed to operate with lower torque
than those with CFUMS-coated balls.

8:30 9 am
Influence of Internal Geometry, Metallurgy,
and Component Surface Finish on Expected
Life of Nominally-Equivalent Roller Bearings
E. Terrell, Sentient Science, Buffalo, NY
Although the same bearing model from different suppliers may have
the same external form factor and load rating, there are often differences
in internal geometry, material quality, and surface treatment from one
bearing supplier to another that will cause the performance and
expected life to vary in the field. This talk presents a study that analyzed
bearings having identical model designations and external dimensions,
but provided by different suppliers. Reverse engineering of the bearings
showed differences in metal quality, internal geometry, and surface
roughness between the two suppliers. Subsequent multiphysics
modeling of the bearings enabled the resultant difference in the
expected life to be quantified, with the modeling results comparing
well to experimental observations.

9 9:30 am
Prediction of Rolling Bearing Friction
A Valid Method Even for Large Size Bearings
O. Koch, C. Bohnert, T. Lsche, Schaeffler Technology AG & Co. KG,
Schweinfurt, Germany
In the last couple of years, the well-known bearing manufacturers have
developed advanced friction models for more precise prediction of
rolling bearing friction. So it is possible to calculate the friction torque
of individual bearings, the dissipated bearing power for entire gearboxes,
as well as the resulting CO2 emissions. The validation of these methods
were mainly done with small bearings (e.g., bore diameter from 15 to
160mm). The open question is can we extrapolate this calculation
method even to bigger bearings? Now Schaeffler has developed a new
powerful test rig ASTRAIOS for large size bearings. So bearings up to a
mass of 15t and an outside diameter of 3.5m can be tested. With this
test rig, it is possible to validate even the friction calculation also for this
kind of bearings for the very first time. This paper will show the results
of the validation over the whole range of bearing size and give an
example for the benefit of this calculation method.

156

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

9:30 10 am
Performance of Thrust Needle Roller Bearings
Considering Surface Roughness and
Elasto-Plastic Deformation
X. Shen, Z. Wang, X. Chen, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
Thrust needle roller bearings, boasting various advantages such as
high-load carrying capacity, high rigidity and compactness, are used in
a diversity of application. It also has been suggested that they cannot
be used under high speed conditions because of the relative sliding
between the rollers and the raceways. The sliding roller-race contact
can generate heat and result the occurrence of surface originated
flaking. So far, the influences of working conditions and structure
parameters on the friction torque of needle roller bearings have been
investigated. The slip friction between roller and raceway is main
component of the friction torque. And the slip friction directly depends
on the lubricated conditions. Thus in this study, the mixed lubricated
model of thrust needle roller bearings is firstly established. Then the
effect of the roughness parameters, working conditions and structure
parameters on the lubricated and wear performance is analyzed.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Modeling the Effect of Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication on Rolling Contact Fatigue
N. Paulson, F. Sadeghi, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Using a fully coupled finite element solution of the elastohydrodynamic
lubrication problem, the current work models the effect of
elastohydrodynamic lubrication on the initiation and propagation of
rolling contact fatigue cracks. To develop this model an efficient finite
element model was developed that calculates the EHL pressure as well
as the deformation and stresses in the contact. Because the EHL model
calculates the surface deflection using a finite element approximation,
material anisotropy caused by material degradation can be modeled in
the subsurface of the contact. This EHL model is coupled with a Voronoi
tesselation damage mechanics model including Voronoi tessellation
which has previously been developed to simulate the microstructural
randomness in rolling contact fatigue. By combining these two models
the effect of material softening due to rolling contact fatigue modifies
the calculated EHL pressure profiles which further modifies the fatigue
crack propagation.

11 11:30 am
Monitoring Hydrogen Contamination in
Lubricated Contacts of Bearing Steels
A. Ruellan, A. Kadiric, Imperial College London, London, United
Kingdom
Presence of hydrogen in bearing steels is known to promote the onset
of unpredictable rolling contact fatigue related failures. In order to
better predict the risk of these failures and design countermeasures,
there is a need to better identify hydrogen sources in lubricated
contacts. Bearing steel itself inevitably contains a certain amount of
hydrogen, but evidence suggests hydrogen can also be generated
through the tribological decomposition of lubricant compounds,
subsequently promoting atomic hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen
contamination remains very difficult to monitor due to very low
concentrations, its versatility and diffusivity. In this paper, hydrogen
monitoring techniques are applied on various tribometers simulating
rolling/sliding lubricated contacts. Focus of the study is on comparative
measurements to assess the influence of various parameters such as
steel and lubricant composition, water contamination, temperature and
frictional energy on the evolution of hydrogen.

www.stle.org

Performance Fluids
for the metalworking industry

H
Learn how our products, technical
expertise and a genuine dedication,
can help your business.
Americas
: +1-281-719-7780
Europe
: +44-1946-694-108
Asia Pacific : +65-6297-3363
HPP_Technical_Service@huntsman.com

www.huntsman.com/metalworking
Visit Us At STLE Booth # 112

Thursday May 19
7D

11:30 am Noon
Visualization of Debris Entrapment in EHL
Contacts using -PIV Technique
V. Strubel, Institut National des Sciences Appliques Lyon (INSA
Lyon), Villeurbanne, France, S. Simoens, Laboratoire de Mcanique
des Fluides et dAcoustique, Villeurbanne, France, N. Fillot, F. Ville,
P. Vergne, Institut National des Sciences Appliques Lyon (INSA
Lyon), Villeurbanne, France, A. Mondelin, Y. Maheo, SKF Aerospace,
Chteauneuf-sur-Isre, France
Generally lubricants used in mechanisms, such as turbofan engines, are
contaminated. Indeed a lubricating fluid can carry all sort of debris (in
terms of size, nature and quantities) within lubricated contacts of
rolling bearings for example. As avoiding such phenomena seems
impossible, particle entrapment must be fully understood and widely
investigated. A novel approach with a device combining a tribometer
and a -Particle Image Velocimetry (-PIV) visualization system was
developed. It allows the direct observation of the lubricant in the
vicinity of the contact. Considering a glass-steel contact, it gives the
possibility to get in-situ measurements on the dynamics of suspended
fluorescent particles, which act as debris. In this study, particle
trajectories are analyzed in order to observe how particles might
bypass or be entrapped inside the contact.

Session 7E

Silver

MOLECULAR CHEMISTRY & LUBRICANT


RHEOLOGY I INVITED PAPERS
Session Chair: M. Jungk, Dow Corning GmbH, Wiesbaden,
Germany

8 8:30 am
Volumetric and Rheological Properties of
Base Oils at High Pressures
M. Devlin, Afton Chemical Corp., Richmond, VA, J. Dickman,
J. Hassler, E. Kiran, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA
In order to improve the energy efficiency of machines, lubricants are
being formulated with lower viscosity base oils. One concern with lower
viscosity fluids is that they may not adequately protect surfaces that are
in contact. In these contacts, lubricants are exposed to high pressure
and the behavior of lubricants under high pressure conditions is often
overlooked when discussing the use of low viscosity base oils. This
paper describes the high pressure volumetric and rheological properties
of base oils commonly used in lubricants. Isothermal compressibilities,
isobaric thermal expansivities, thermal pressure coefficients and
internal pressures were determined from density changes of base oils
at high temperature. The impact of these high pressure properties on
film formation properties of base oils will be discussed.

thinning phenomenon with the change of radius of gyration of the


lubricant molecules because one of the major mechanisms of shear
thinning is molecule alignment with the flow field. With this approach,
the critical shear rate for the onsite of shear thinning can be obtained,
and the variation of the molecular radius of gyration as a function of
shear rate can be directly related to the Carreau-type shear thinning
equation.

9 9:30 am
X-Ray CT Imaging of Grease Behavior in Ball
Bearing and Multi-Scale Grease Flows Simulation
T. Noda, K. Shibasaki, NSK Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan, Q. Wang,
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
When considering bearing life extending, it is important to grasp the
details of grease behavior in a bearing. In many cases, some kinds of
difficulties commonly arise when attempting to observe grease
behavior directly from the bearing exterior without removing seals and
shields while conducting conventional experiments. In this work,
utilizing X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging system, one of the
non-destructive way, grease distribution in a ball bearing was able to
be well captured and grease internal flows, especially grease transition
from churning to channeling state were visually observed. Additionally
numerical simulation of grease flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics as
macroscopic grease flows and Elastohydrodynamic simulation as
microscopic film thickness variation in the contact area were
respectively performed. Establishing integrated multi-scale grease flows
simulation is the final object of this work.

9:30 10 am
Entanglement and Self-Alignment of Heterocyclic
Friction Modifier Molecules during Surface
Adsorption: From MD Simulation to Experiment
J. Lu, X. He, M. Desanker, P. Liu, M. Delferro, T. Marks, Y. Chung, Q.
Wang, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Newly synthesized heterocyclic molecules have demonstrated a
promising potential for boundary lubrication friction reduction as a
friction modifiers (FMs) for future motor oils. Molecular dynamic (MD)
simulations are conducted for in-depth understanding of the surfacescience insights of these FMs. The entanglement and self-alignment of
the novel heterocyclic FM molecules are simulated as essentially critical
steps for a surface adsorption. Analytical experiments are designed and
conducted to comprehend the surface adsorption in a boundary
lubrication process, which is affected by a variety of environmental
parameters, such as time, temperature, humidity, and exhaust gases.
Coupling experimental results with the MD simulations clarifies a
crucial molecular process that the novel heterocyclic FMs experience in
boundary lubrication improvement. This new understanding of the
tribo-interface at the molecular level shed some light on the design of
better FMs.

10 10:30 am Break
8:30 9 am
Characterization of Lubricant Shear Thinning
Behavior Based on Radius of Gyration
Calculation through Molecular Dynamics
Simulation
P. Liu, J. Lu, Center for Surface Engineering and Tribology,
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, N. Ren, F. Lockwood,
Valvoline, Lexington, KY, Q. Wang, Center for Surface Engineering
and Tribology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
The shear thinning behavior of a lubricant significantly affects
lubrication film generation at a high-shear working condition.
Molecular dynamics simulation of viscosity, while having the advantage
of reaching an ultra-high shear rate, often fails to capture the entire
shear-thinning curve due to low signal to noise ratio at lower shear
rates. This paper proposes an approach that correlates the shear-

158

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

10:30 11 am
Impact of Synthesis Parameters on Overbased
Calcium Alkylsalicylate Detergent Structure
A. Piacentini, F. Dassenoy, B. Vacher, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Lyon,
France, P. Lecante, CEMES, Toulouse, France, A. Chazeau, P. Tequi,
Chevron Oronite, Gonfreville-lOrcher, France
One of the most important additives for lubricant oils is the overbased
detergent, which displays the additional property of neutralizing acids
generated by combustion. Overbased calcium alkylsalicylate is colloid
of CaCO3 chemically stabilized in oil by the organic calcium salt acting
as a surfactant. These colloids are synthetized in situ through the
reaction of solid Ca(OH)2 with gaseous CO2 and a throughout
characterization of the reaction product from the raw materials to the
finished product is fundamental. The present study focus on impact of

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
CO2 amount used on the composition, structure and morphology of
the final product using techniques such as Transmission Electron
Microscopy (TEM), Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS and
WAXS), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as complementary chemical
analysis.

8:30 9 am
Effect of Speed On Performance Analysis of
Hole-Entry Hybrid Conical Journal Bearing for
Different Semi Cone Angles
P. Khakse, V. Phalle, S. Mantha, VJTI, Mumbai, Maharastra, India

11 11:30 am
Perfecting the Lubricant Wheel through
Macromolecular Design
J. Robinson, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Benton City, WA
Star-shaped poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (star-PAMA) are state-of-the-art
lubricant viscosity modifiers utilized in various automobile fluids and
oils. The relationship between macromolecular composition and/or
structure towards viscometric properties of the bulk lubricant is poorly
understood. Elevated viscosity indices are typically accredited to a
suspected globular-to-coil conformational change of the polymer.
We have conducted a series of structure-property relationship
studies to evaluate this assertion and provide further insight into the
macromolecular features that influence lubricant performance. StarPAMAs were prepared via a core-first strategy affording star polymers
with a unique number of arms (i.e., 3, 4, and 6) and comparable arm
lengths. The viscosity, calculated viscosity indices, friction, and wear
were determined at a constant concentration to evaluate which
features of the macromolecular design affected lubricant performance.

Session 7H

Las Vegas 1

FLUID FILM BEARINGS VII


Session Chair: A. Cristea, Tecnitas, Levallois-Perret, France
Session Vice Chair: M. Fillon, Chasseneuil du Poitiers, France

8 8:30 am
Effect of Geometrically Imperfect Journal
and Recess Geometry on the Performance of
Two Lobe/ Circular 4 Pocket Hybrid Journal
Bearing System
S. Sharma, D. Jain, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,
Roorkee -247667, Haridwar, Uttrakhand, India
The present work is aimed to study the performance of a two-lobe
geometrically imperfect hybrid journal bearing system having different
geometric shapes of recess. The finite element method has been used
to numerically compute the performance characteristic parameters of a
two lobe 4 pocket bearing system which include minimum fluid film
thickness and fluid film stiffness coefficient. In the present work four
different geometric shape of recess, i.e. circular, elliptical, square and
triangular, and a geometrically imperfect journal, i.e. barrel shape
journal have been analyzed. The comparative performance of all
bearings has been made on the basis of the same bearing operating
and geometric parameters for the same ratio of bearing to pocket area.
The numerically simulated results indicate that an elliptical recessed
shaped two lobe bearing provides the largest value of direct fluid film
stiffness coefficient in vertical direction vis a vis other bearings studied
in the present study.

www.stle.org

Todays competitive industrial world demanded the precise and exact


bearing technology, which would benefit the society and end users.
Conical hydrostatic/hybrid journal bearing have been receiving wide
importance among researchers. Hence, the present paper aims to study
analytically,the performance characteristics of a non-recessed holeentry hybrid conical journal bearing compensated with capillary
restrictor over the range of journal speed. A conical journal bearing
configuration, consisting of 2 rows with 12 holes in each row uniformly
distributed at an angle of = 30o, is considered for the analysis under
the influence of journal speed. The modified Reynolds equation
governing the laminar flow of isoviscous incompressible fluid in the
clearance space of conical journal and bearing is solved by using Finite
Element Method.The analytically simulated results for direct fluid
stiffness and damping coefficients indicate the good performance
characteristics useful for bearing designers.

9 9:30 am
Computation of Misaligned Bearing Dynamic
Coefficients with Application to Plain Bearings
A. El-Shafei, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, T. Saqr, RITEC, Cairo,
Egypt, H. Bayoumi, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Motivated by the potential of introducing angular bearing-to-rotor
misalignment in fluid-film bearings to delay the onset of oil instabilities
previously investigated by researchers at Cairo University, new
misaligned bearing designs are proposed in which angular
misalignment, or more generally non-uniform axial clearance, is
intentionally integrated in the design. A bearing code has been
developed where the steady-state Reynolds equation is numerically
solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM) with the presence of
misalignment. The principal output of the code is 16 stiffness and 16
damping coefficients necessary to predict the dynamic behavior of a
misaligned bearing. The concept is applied to plain bearings and the
effect of misalignment on dynamic coefficients is demonstrated as well
as the bearings dynamic behavior.

9:30 10 am
Axially Skewed Pressure Dam Bearing
A. El-Shafei, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, T. Saqr, RITEC, Cairo,
Egypt, H. Bayoumi, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
The favorable effect of angular misalignment in delaying the onset of
oil instability in fluid-film bearings has led to novel stable bearing
designs. This paper proposes a new class of pressure dam bearing
designs where the dam is axially skewed (linearly or parabolically). The
mathematical model of film thickness for various designs is presented.
Stability plots are used to compare the dynamic behavior of the new
designs as opposed to conventional pressure dam bearings.

10 10:30 am Break

71st Annual Meeting & Exhibition Program Guide

159

Thursday May 19
Sesssion 7K

Las Vegas 4

WEAR IV

electrostatic voltmeter using a 2-D mapping technique. A thermal


check is made after the rubbing process. Tests are made with 5 mmthick samples of different polymers. Wear is evaluated by 3D
measurements of the profile engraved on the sample surface.

Session Chair: K. Wahl, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington,


DC

10 10:30 am Break

Session Vice Chair: A. Rostami, Georgia Institute of Technology,


Atlanta, GA

10:30 11 am
Towards a Unified Classification of Wear

8 8:30 am
Exploration of Used Passenger Car Timing
Chains

M. Varenberg, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

R. Rieth, Infineum, Linden, NJ


Timing chain wear is a growing concern in modern gasoline engines
that employ direct fuel injection technology known to produce small
amounts of soot. In order to restrict the elongation of this vital part and
thereby minimize disruption to valve timing, robust oils are needed to
deploy protective coatings on hardware regions most susceptible to
surface distress. Moreover, these oils must be capable of combating the
ill effects of aging by-products known to promote degradation of
exposed surfaces. To further the understanding of how the timing chain
from a 2.0L Ford EcoBoost engine wears over time, results from surface
analyses will be presented. Characterization of surface defects will be
offered along with evidence of residual tribofilm thought to preserve
the chain during early stages of engine operation.

8:30 9 am
Tribological Analysis of the Swiss Lever
Escapement
J. Rolland, A. Saulot, Y. Berthier, Universit de Lyon, LaMCoS,
INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5259, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France
95% of existing mechanical watch movements use the Swiss lever
escapement [1]. The contact, still unknown, between the anchor and
the escape wheel combines impact and sliding, and occurs roughly
500,000 times within only 24 hours. It can be considered as a
mechanical feat, a result of the third body behaviour [2] which plays a
decisive role on the operations success and, ultimately, on the precision
of a mechanical watch. For a better understanding of the contact, an
analysis based on high-speed camera observations coupled with
components observations at various stages of wear is proposed. The
influence of the power reserve on the dynamics of the escapement and
the difference of speed profiles between the input and the output
palette-stone was shown. The reconstruction of the contact life through
the evaluation of first and third body flows [4] by electron microscopy
observations is proposed. Sites and accommodation modes [3] related
to the Swiss Lever escapement will also be determined.

9 9:30 am
Relationship between Electrostatic Charge and
Wear of Polymeric Materials in Translational
Tribocharging Process
M. Neagoe, T. Zeghloul, Y. Prawatya, D. Souchet, L. Dascalescu,
Institut P, UPR 3346 CNRS Universit de Poitiers ENSMA,
Angoulme, France
Electrostatic techniques have already been used to detect wear of
metallic materials. Studies on the electrostatic charge of insulating
materials have been made, but not many pointed out the relation that
might exist between this charge and the wear. A recent investigation
revealed that the wear can affect the charge of polymeric materials. The
aim of this paper is to study correlation between the surface wear and
the tribocharging process in the case of a conformal contact between
two polymers. The experiments are performed with a translation
tribometer capable to measure normal force, tangential force, and
relative displacement between two polymer plates. The electrostatic
charge generated by friction is measured with a non-contact

160

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

Since the beginning of the systematic study of wear, many classification


schemes have been devised. However, though covering the whole field
in sum, they stay only loosely connected to each other and do not build
a complete general picture. To this end, here we try to combine and
integrate existing approaches into a general simple scheme unifying
known wear types into a consistent system. The suggested scheme is
based on three classifying criterions answering the questions why,
how and where and defining a 3-D space filled with the known wear
types. The system can be used in teaching to introduce students to
such complex phenomena as wear and also in engineering practice to
guide wear mitigation initiatives.

11 11:30 am
Relating Wear Uncertainties to Material
Characteristics through Interrupted Topography
Measurements
N. Garabedian, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, H. Khare,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, D. Burris, University of
Delaware, Newark, DE
Tribological coatings are typically insufficiently thick to produce
measurable mass losses before failure. As a result, coating wear volumes
are typically assessed using profilometry. Most measurements use a
single post-test scan, which can introduce uncertainties from surface
extrapolation and the inability to isolate transient wear from steadystate wear. Interrupted measurements can solve both problems, while
providing insights into the evolution of wear and its influence on
friction. However, perfect reposition is impossible and these
repositioning errors cause wear rate measurement errors. This paper
quantifies the wear volume error as a function of repositioning error
using controlled wear surfaces. We quantify the statistics of these errors
to establish recommended error bars for wear rate reporting of such
measurements. The results are applied to interrupted measurements of
various low wear coatings to illustrate the potential sensitivity of such
measurements to wear events.

11:30 am Noon
Friction and Wear Testing of Material Specimen
of Spline Couplings
S. Wang, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, China,
X. Xue, B. Li, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, China
In order to reduce wear and design of high-performance spline
couplings, the frictional coefficient, wear coefficient and wear depth of
18 groups specimen are tested using the type of MMW-1 multifunctional friction and wear tester. At the same time, the effect of the
materials, loads, hardness, rotation speed and heat treatment on the
frictional coefficient, on the wear coefficient and the wear depth are
investigated. It showed that the frictional coefficient of the third group
is maximum, the wear and wear coefficient of the first group is
minimum, material of 18CrNi4A was the smallest. And it also obtained
that it should take 18CrNi4A as the material of the spline couplings,
apply small loads as far as possible within the working condition, as
well as have carburization treatment for them to minimum wear. It
provides a good basic for the future work which will make an effort to
propose a fatigue life prediction methodology and predict the wear of
spline couplings with backlash.

www.stle.org

Re
Reliable
Quality
Above-and-Beyond
Above-and-Beyond Service
Ab
Innovative Logistics
Inn
Logistics
25 Years of Experience
Solutions-Driven Commitment
Sol

SYNTHETIC BASE STOCKS PERFORMANCE CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FINISHED FLUIDS

Visit Us At STLE
Booths # 312/314

Thursday May 19
Session 7L

Las Vegas 5

TRIBOTESTING III
Session Chair: J. Xiao, Rtec Instruments, Inc., San Jose, CA
Session Vice Chair: G. Krauss, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont,
CA

8 8:30 am
The Current Applicability of Traditional Tribology
Tests to Industrial Lubricants
G. Fish, The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH
In many old industrial lubricant specifications, general tests for rust and
oxidation, as well as traditional basic tribological tests, were defined as
part of the testing and approval requirements. Some of these
specifications have been upgraded, but in most cases old tests, such as
the Timken OK load test or 4-ball wear and extreme pressure (EP) tests,
have been retained. One of the principle areas of upgrade is that newer
specifications have recognized that as well as gears, industrial
gearboxes also contain bearings and seals. A lack of good lubrication of
these bearings, as well as that of the gears will lead to gearbox failure.
Older specifications, such as USS 224, still have a focus on passing basic
traditional tribology tests, rather than how they might lubricate actual
bearings and gears.This presentation will discuss issues with the
Timken OK and 4-ball wear and EP tests in modern industrial lubricant
specifications and their potential negative effects on fluid formulations.

8:30 9 am
Galling Testing and the Mechanism of Galling
K. Budinski, S. Budinski, Bud Labs, Rochester, NY
Galling is a special form of surface damage in sliding contacts since
seizure and system failure can occur in one rubbing cycle. This form of
wear is common in stainless steel sliding systems but galling tendency
can be a limiting factor in many tribosystems. This paper describes the
ASTM tests used to assess galling tendency and presents results on
tests conducted to quantify the role of hardness, elastic moduli, alloying
and surface texture in galling tendency. It was determined that
hardness of metals plays a significant role in galling tendency, but the
mechanism of galling is localized solid-state welding in the rubbing
contact and therefore galling tendency depends mostly on the
weldability of the rubbing members.

9 9:30 am
An In Situ Approach to Study Tribocorrosion
of a Supermartensitic Steel
R. Soares, V. Lins, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte, Minas gerais, Brazil, H. Liang, Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX
Tribocorrosion plays an important role in applications such as in
offshore industry and biomedical engineering. One of the scientific
gaps in tribocorrosion study is that standard methods are scarce.
The objective of this work is to develop a novel in situ methodology
to characterize surfaces under triboelectrochemical conditions.
A potentiodynamic anodic polarization is employed to rubbing in order
to analyze the synergistic interactions of corrosion and wear. A new
triboelectrochemical setup was developed in order to study effects of
mechanical abrasion on corrosion. The setup contains third-body
abrasive wear through a tribometer, and an electrochemical
monitoring. A supermartensitic steel was used in this study. The wear
scars produced indicated that three-body abrasion was the dominant
wear mechanism. During tribocorrosion, more pits were initiated, so
called tribo-pits, than those without rubbing.

162

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

9:30 10 am
Investigation of Boron Carbide, DLC, and
Amorphous Carbon Coating Abrasiveness
After Sliding Against 52100 Steel
G. Krauss, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA, M. Siniawski,
Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA, G. Doll, The
University of Akron, Akron, OH, C. Melendez, Loyola Marymount
University, Los Angeles, CA
During dry cyclical sliding, both counter surfaces can experience wear.
For 52100 steel balls sliding on hard coatings, both the balls and the
coatings experience wear. The steel balls experience wear as a result of
the abrasive nature of the hard coating. The coating abrasiveness has
been shown to decay with the number of cycles and can be described
with a power law dependence. This research seeks to understand how
the abrasiveness of three different coatings changes with increasing
wear cycles and how the ball wear is impacted by these changes.
Three types of coatings are investigated: (1) nanocrystaline WC/a-C:H,
(2) a DLC over-coated nanocrystaline WC/a-C:H, and (3) boron carbide.
As the coating abrasiveness declines, a very low coating abrasiveness is
achieved. The ability of these coatings to continue in a low abrasiveness
state while operating against a fresh steel ball is explored. The possibility
of modifying coatings to control the initial abrasiveness is also explored.

10 10:30 am Break
10:30 11 am
Investigating Stick-Slip Behavior in Tribometers
and Interpreting the Results
M. Moneer, P. Lee, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX
Stick-slip behavior of various materials were investigated in several
different tribometers. Each tribometer yielded a different friction trace
and the traces also changed with different materials. This presentation
will discuss the interpretation of these results and why the results
changed in the different rigs. Additional information that could be seen
in the data will also be discussed and presented. This presentation will
be of interest to anybody who has to interpret results from tribometers
as it covers more than just stick-slip behavior.

11 11:30 am
Bench-Top Screening of Clutch Materials
S. Shaffer, Bruker Nano Surfaces, Campbell, CA, S. Papanicolaou,
Bruker Nanosurfaces, San Jose, CA
To decrease development time, bench-top screening tests are often
used to rank materials prior to selection for evaluation in standardized
full-scale component test rigs or in-service vehicle testing. The paper
will present results from a small scale bench-top screening test of 4
different clutch materials, tested in commercial automatic transmission
fluid (ATF). The aim was to identify test conditions which rank materials
in the same manner they are ranked when full-scale clutches are tested
using the SAE #2 friction test machine, or per the JASO M348-2012 test
standard. Identical values for sliding speeds, contact pressures and test
temperatures based on the full-scale test were used in the bench-top
test. Preliminary data show good correlation with the full-scale
standard test ranking using a series of step-slip tests at velocities
ranging from 0.007 m/s to 1.65 m/s, contact pressures from 0.75 MPa to
3 MPa, and temperatures up to 120 C.

www.stle.org

Technical Sessions
11:30 am Noon
Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Thermal
Oxidation Characteristic of Ester Oil

9 9:30 am
Development of Hydraulic Filter Elements
for Highly Demanding Applications

J. Li, B. Cheng, D. Jia, X. Qian, Wuhan Research Institute of Materials


Protection, Wuhan, Hebei, China

J. Duchowski, T. Lang, E. Koch, C. Brocker, HYDAC FluidCareCenter,


Sulzbach, Saar, Germany

DXR laser microscopic Raman spectrometer and Linkam FTIR600


temperature control platform were combined to study the variation law
of Raman feature peak of ester base oil (such as TMPTO, TDTM and
DEHA) and TMPTO added amine antioxidant under continuous heating
and isothermal oxidation conditions. Changing characteristics of ester
oil molecular structure and the mechanism of amine antioxidant during
the thermal oxidation process were studied. The results show that some
Rama peak position and Rama intensity of ester oil have changed with
the increase of heating temperature. Under the isothermal condition,
the Rama intensity of TDTM and DEHA base oil have no obvious
changes, and the Rama intensity of =C-H, C=C and -CH2- of TMPTO
decreases with the increase of oxidation time. Amine antioxidant can
alleviate the attenuation of Rama intensity of TMPTO and obviously
decreases the rate constant of thermal oxidation reaction of C=C.

Highly demanding hydraulic applications require careful consideration


when fitted with filter elements designed for optimal system
protection. The demanding operating conditions may not be limited
just to the contaminant load and may include such considerations as
the fluid type, flow profile and especially the working temperature.
A good example of such an application is the exhaust gas recirculation
cooler circuit on modern tractors. In addition to the relatively high
initial contaminant load associated with the flushing of the built in
contaminant from the cooler, the application involves a fluid highly
aggressive towards typical filter media and corrosive to the end caps.
Moreover, the operating temperature is also extremely high remaining
at nearly constant 95C with excursions reaching up to 120C. These
considerations required the development of specialized construction
materials including even the endcap adhesive capable of tolerating
these severe operating conditions.

Session 7M

Las Vegas 6/7

9:30 10 am
Inline Visual Analysis of Turbine and Lube Oils
for Solids and Water Detection on a Condinual
Basis

CONDITION MONITORING III


Session Chair: K. Rogers, Pilot Thomas Logistics, Las Vegas, NV

T. Canty, P. OBrien, JM Canty Inc., Lockport, NY

8 8:30 am
Save Your Equipment: Determining Which
Maintenance Actions Drive Results
R. Clark, B. Debshaw, POLARIS Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN
Leveraging groundbreaking findings from oil analysis users, there are
new insights on how companies are more effectively using information
to understand the actions, habits and results achieved by oil analysis
users. This extensive survey measured equipment reliability, downtime,
drain intervals, maintenance actions, use of management reports,
sampling methods and the integration of mobile devices. The
responses were analyzed to correlate what