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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Important Instructions to examiners:


1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in the
model answer scheme.
2) The model answer and the answer written by candidate may vary but the examiner may try
to assess the understanding level of the candidate.
3) The language errors such as grammatical, spelling errors should not be given more
Importance (Not applicable for subject English and Communication Skills.
4) While assessing figures, examiner may give credit for principal components indicated in the
figure. The figures drawn by candidate and model answer may vary. The examiner may give credit
for any
equivalent figure drawn.
5) Credits may be given step wise for numerical problems. In some cases, the assumed constant
values may vary and there may be some difference in the candidates answers and model answer.
6) In case of some questions credit may be given by judgement on part of examiner of relevant
answer based on candidates understanding.
7) For programming language papers, credit may be given to any other program based on
equivalent concept.

Q.NO. 1 A) i)

( Any four, one mark each )

Following are the advantages of reheat cycle:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

It reduces fuel consumption and hence reduction in fuel handling.


It reduces the power required in boiler, turbine and feed heating equipments.
Wetness of steam is reduced hence reduction in exhaust blade erosion.
Less costly materials can be used
Condenser size is reduced
Size of low pressure turbine is reduced.

Q.NO. 1 A) ii) ( Two marks for definition, two for explanation )


When unstable heavy nucleus is bombarded with high; energy neutrons, it splits into two fragments
more or less of equal mass. This process is known as Nuclear fission.
Nuclear energy can be converted into thermal energy either by radioactive decay, fission or
fusion. During fission process energy can be released by breaking up heavy nuclei into nuclei of
intermediate atomic number. At present only fission process is used for producing large amounts of
thermal energy carried out in nuclear fission reactor.
Fission of isotope of 92U235 can be easily done. If a neutron is bombarded at high or moderate speed
against uranium nucleus, probability is that nucleus will split and release large amount of energy that
binds nucleus together.

Page 1 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Each fissioned nucleus releases two or three neutrons which can again hit uranium nucleus and
accelerates splitting process even if some neutrons ar
aree fully absorbed. Such a continuous process is
called chain reaction.
Q.NO. 1 A) iii) (Two marks for figure and two for labelling )
Layout of Steam Power Plant:

Q.NO. 1 A) iv) ( Any four, one mark each )


Sources of Waste heat recovery:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

From industries in the form of process steam and water


Heat from exhaust gases
Ditry gases from cement, iron, paper, glass and ceramic industries
Heat from flue gases
Heat from drain water
Waste heat from aluminum, food processing and chemical industries

Q.NO. 1 B) i) (Three marks for figure and three for explanation )


Magneto Hydro Dynamics power plant (MHD): The principle of MHD is based on Faradays
law of electromagnetic induction which states that a changing magnetic field induces an electric
field inn any conductor located in it. The various components of MHD Generator are shown in
figure. The hot ionized gas passes between the poles of an electromagnet and induces a potential
difference between a pair of electrodes which are at right angles to magnetic
magn
field and a current
starts following in the resistive load connected between electrodes. The ionized gas has high
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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

temperature and pressure and after passing through MHD generator it is passed through a
generator where energy is added to it.

Q.NO. 1 B) ii) ( Two marks for definition and four for derivation )

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


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(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Q.NO. 2 a) ( Any four, one mark each and two marks for figure and two for explanation)
Advantages of Regenerative feed Heating:
1. The heating process in the boiler tends to become reversible.
2. The small size condenser is required.
3. Heat rate is reduced.
4. The thermal efficiency is improved because the average temperature of heat addition to the
cycle is increased
5. The blade height is less due to the reduced amount of steam passed through the low pressure
stages.
6. Improvement in turbine drainage

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

7. Reduces erosion
8. Thermal stresses are minimized.

Direct contact regenerative heat cycle : The steam bled from the different points of turbine is
mixed directly with the feed water to increase the temperature of feed water and the steam
mixed with feed water is extracted with the help of pump as shown in figure and supplied to
the boiler. The main disadvantage of this system is the pump has to work with hot feed,.
Therefore, this system is rarely used in practice.

Q.NO. 2 b) ( Any four, one mark each and two marks for figure and two for explanation)
Sr.

Subcritical Boilers

Supercritical Boilers

No
01

02

It consists of preheater,

It has only preheator and

economizer and evaporator

superheator

Heat transfer rate are less

Heat transfer rate are considerably


large

03

Low thermal efficiency

High thermal efficiency

04

Problems of corrosion and

Problems of corrosion and erosion

erosion

are minimized

Difficult to adapt for load

Simple and flexibility make

fluctuation

adaptable to load fluctuation

Difficult in operation

Ease in operation

05

06

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Loeffler boiler
To reduce the problem of salt deposition in Loeffler boiler, most of the steam is generated outside
from the feed water using part of the superheated steam coming out from the boiler as shown in
figure. .The pressure feed pump draws water through the economiser and delivers it into the
evaporator drum.

About 65 % of the steam coming out of superheater is passed through the

evaporator drum in order to evaporate the feed water coming from economiser.

The steam

circulating pump draws the saturated steam from the evaporator drum and is passed through the
radiant superheater and then to convective superheater. This boiler can carry
arry higher salt concentration
than any other type and is more compact than indirectly heated boilers having natural circulation.

Page 6 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Q.NO. 2 c) ( Four marks for figure and four for explanation)


CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium ) type nuclear reactor: In these reactors low cost natural
uranium 0.7% U235 is used as fuel and heavy water as moderator.
The coolant heavy water is passed through the fuel pressure tubes and heat exchanger. The heavy
water is circulated in the primary circuit in the same way as with a PWR and the steam is raised in the
secondary circuit transferring the heat in the heat exchanger to the ordinary water.
The control of the reactor is achieved by varying the moderator le
level
vel in the reactor and therefore
control rods are not required.

Q.NO. 3 a)(
)( Two marks for listing , three for explanation and three for figure )
Following are the different pulverized coal handling systems:
i) Unit system
ii) Bin or central system.

Page 7 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Central or Bin pulverised coal handling system


system:: In this system, coal is crushed before it is supplied
to the raw coal burner from where it is fed under gravity to drier preheated hot air is used for drying
the coal. The dried coal is sent to pulverize mil
mill. Itt is sent to a cyclone separator where the
transporting air is separated and the required size coal is transported to pulverized bin with the help of
conveyor. The
he feeder receives the primary air from a fan and the mixture of pulverized coal and air is
supplied to the burners
Advantages over unit system
1. As the reserve of pulverized coal is there it can supply continuously.
2. It grinds the coal at steady rate
3. Less size pulverizing mill is required
4. Less man power required
5. Less power consumption per to
ton of coal crushed
6. Greater flexibility of operation
7. No ware and tear of fan since it handles only air

Central system

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Q.NO. 3 b) ( Two marks for def. , three marks each for sketch and explanation)
Scrubber Technology:
The main objectionable emission from burning of cal in boilers is SO2 which is highly injurious to
human animal and agricultural life. Therefore Flue Gas desulphurisation (FGD) is the basic necessity
of power plant design and construction. The equipment used for removing SO2 is known as scrubber.
Sulphur in coal cannot be destroyed; it can only be converted to one form or other. This technology
is known as scrubber technology.
Basic closed loop scrubber system: In this system, flue gas after removing fly ash enters the bottom
of the absorber and exits at the top. Water slurry of an alkali reagent, such as lime stone is sprayed
down against the gas through a series of nozzles. This slurry falls to bottom, absorbing SO2 as it
travels down. It drains out the bottom of the tower into a reaction tank to complete the conversion
convers
to
calcium sulphate (CaSO4) popularly known as gypsum .Lime stone slurry is supplied from a storage
and grinding facility . Waste slurry is periodicall
periodically
y blown down from each absorber, concentrated in
thickeners and then pumped to a pond. Water is re
recovered
covered and recycled back into the system at
several locations. The scrubbing system includes reagent preparation
preparation, water treatment and waste
disposal.

Page 9 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Q.NO. 3 c) ( Two marks for listing , three for explanation and three for figure )
Different types off pulverized coal burners
1. Long flame or U flame or streamlined burners
2. Short flame or turbulent burners
3. Tangential burners
4. Cyclone burners

Cyclone burners:: Cyclone burners overcome the problem of fly ash and high cost of
pulverization of coal. It is a ho
horizontal
rizontal cylinder of water cooled construction 2 to 3 meters in
diameter and 2.5 m in length. The horizontal axis of the burner is slightly deflected towards
the boiler. It is externally arranged to the boiler furnace and equipped with a single scroll
type
pe inlet at one end and a gas discharge throat into the boiler at the other end. The crushed
coal is blown into a cylindrical cyclone furnace. Air and coal admitted tangentially to the
cylinder at outer end creates strong and highly turbulent vortex. Extremely
Extr
high heat
liberation and the use of preheated air cause high temperatures in the cyclone.

Page 10 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Q. 4 a) 02 marks for sketch, 02 marks for materials

Material used:
a) Fuel Rod 92U235
b) Moderator Be or D2O
c) Control Rod Boron or Cadmium
d) Coolant Heavy water, H2, Liquid Sodium
e) Pressure vessel Steel
Q. 4 b) Fast Breeder Reactor :

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

In fast breeder reactor the core containing U235 is surrounded by blanket of fertile material
U238 .Here no moderator is used. The fast moving neutrons liberated due to fission of U235 are
absorbed by U238 which gets converted in to fissionable material Pu239 which is capable of
sustaining chain reaction. This reactor uses two liquid metal coolant circuits of sodium
compound. In secondary circuit, steam is generated. Fast breeder reactors are better than
conventional reactor in respect of safety and thermal efficiency. In india, the fast breeder
reactor becomes inescapable in view of the massive reserves of thorium and the finite limits
of its uranium resources.. (02 marks for sketch, 02 marks for explanation)

Q. 4 C) Advantages of gas turbine ( Any four, 01 mark for each)


1) It is smaller in size and weight as compared to equivalent other conventional power plants.
2) The initial cost and operating cost of the plant is lower than an equivalent steam power
plant. A thermal plant of 250 MW capacity cost about 250 crores rupees. A gas turbine of
same capacity requires 70 crores rupees.
3) The plant requires less quantity of water, compared to other plants.
4) There are no standby losses in gas plant. In steam plant these losses occur because boiler is
always kept in operation.
5) The plants can be started and stopped quickly
6) The maintenance cost in low.
7) As rotary power in generated at comparatively low temperature, lubrication is easy.
8) Plant does not require heavy foundation and building.
Q. 4 D) Site Selection criteria for gas turbine.(02 M for site selection,02 M for list of places)
1) Availability of cheap land :- The site should be near to gas source. If cheap land is
available at for distance, it can be choosed as gas may be pumped up to the site

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

2) Availability of Water :- Drinking water is navin requirement water for plant operation
required is less compared to other plants. Corporation water is sufficient.
3) Distance from load centre :- It should be near to load centre to minimize transmission
losses.
4) Accessibility to site : - It should be connected by rail and road.
List of Gas turbines in India.
1. 70 MW plant at Namrup, Assam.
2. 240 MW plant at Uran, Maharashtra.
3. 125 MW Plant by Bengal Electricity Board.
4. 500 MW Plant at Dabhol, Maharashtra.
Q. 4 e) Sources of waste heat. ( four marks for appropriate answer)
Waste heat is the heat which is not used and exhausted out as a waste product. Waste heat is
generally available from the industry in the form of process steam and water which are
discharged at higher temperature. The heat which is also discharged at higher temperature.
The heat which is also discharged is in the form of either sensible or latent heat.
The waste heat is generally classified as low grade and high grade waste heat. The
heat carried away at higher temperature above 3000C by gases is high grade source and below
3000C by gases is low grade source.

Diff heat sources at different temperature is shown in fig.

Page 13 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

In industrial wastes are attractive for conversion into useful thermal, mechanical or electrical
power due to large volumes of heat involved at individual locati
locations
ons and temperature at which
it is available. Other thermal discharges available from utilities are shown in fig.
Presently USA consumes 30 % of world energy. The utilization of energy that is discharged
from U.S. industrial
ndustrial plants to air and river can be important waste energy source by
appropriate technology.Fig. shows different industrial thermal discharges at rejection
temperatures.

Q. 5 a) Calculation of reserved capacity : 02 Marks


Calculation of cost of generation : 06 marks ( appropriate marks for intermediate steps)

Page 14 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


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Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Page 15 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


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Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Page 16 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


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(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160


Q. 5 b )

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

022 Marks to calculate a & 03 marks each to calculate b & c.

Q. 5 c) List of electrical equipments used in power station. ( 02 M for list, 03 M each for sketch
& working )
a) Generators.
b) Exciters.
c) Transformers.
d) Reactors.
e) Circuit breakers
f) Switch board
g) Control board equipments.
Power Transformers ::- They are used to convert a.c. current of one voltage to other
o
desired voltage. They are either single phase or three phase.
The counections most widely used in 3 phase transformers are
1) Delta-star
2) Star delta
3) Delta-delta
4) Star-star-which
which are normally not used.
The size of transformers depends on the size of generator units. Generally one transformer is
used for one generator In such case the KVA capacity of 3 phase transformer must then
th be
same as that of generator to which it is connected.
Fig. shows power transformer

Page 17 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

The tank of transformer is made of steel . The core and windings assembly is placed in tank.
Core serves as the magnetic circuit for flux set up by windings. Windings are made of copper
wires, Oil, which is special grade mineral oil serves as heat transfer medium as well as
insulator. Radiators increase the surface for cooling. Conservator insures that tank is always
filled with oil. Breather pipe permits in and out of air as oil level varies at different
temperature.
Advantages of three phase transformer over set of single phase
a) Cost is less
b) Weight is less
c) Occupies less space
d) More impact.
Buchlor relay protects the transformer in the event of internal faults or flashovers which causes arcing
that gives rise to gaseous products of decomposition of insulating material.
Q.NO. 6 A)i) (Three marks for each )
In the most cases, heat from waste hot stream is recovered either in sensible heat or latent heat form.
In this case, the heat recovered from waste hot stream is used for heating the air which can be used
either for combustion or for winter air conditioning.
a) Sensible heat recovery : The gas-air heaters which are commonly used are of counter flow type.
The temperature variations of the fluids are shown in figure.

Th

Thi

Tco

Tho
Tci

The transfer of heat depends upon ( Tho-Tci ) and ( Thi-Tco) values as Tho > Tci and Thi > Tco are
the necessary conditions for the heat transfer.
Q= mg cpg ( Thi-Tco) = U A ( T ) m

Page 18 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

b) Latent heat recovery : This is the common & versatile method ofwaste heat recovery when used
for power generation. Because, waste heat boilers can be found virtually in any size and in the
pressure range of 2 to 50 bars. The advantages of recovering the heat from latent form are
1. the form of recovery is attractive when latent heat of working fluid is high.
2. Reasonably low temp. difference can be maintained even when % heat recovery is high.
3.The heat transfer co-efficient of vapourising sides are very high.

Q.NO. 6 A) ii) (Any three , two marks for each )


Uses of waste heat recovery:
i)

Agriculture: Control of temperature for increasing agricultural yield is very recent.


Spray injection and soil heating can be used to lengthen the growing season and
prevent frost production in certain regions.

ii)

Green houses: green house can be constructed adjacent to nuclear plants in cold
countries to use the waste heat. The use of waste heat for green houses climates use
fuel without afftecting the efficiency of the power plant

iii)

Animal shelters: The growth rate of some animnals is strongly influenced on the
environmental temperature . Proper control of temperature using waste heat can
decrease feed consumption and increases productivity.

This is particularly more

effective for small animals like poultry and swine.


iv)

Use of waste heat for aqua cultural purposes:

The fish species are intensively

cultivated in controlled environments. In a pond with supplemented feeding , the yield


increased compared with a pond with phosphorous fertilizer. Most impressive is
running water with intensive feeding as used in Japan which gives increased yield.
Dissolved O2 and nutritional adequacy are some of the factors in addition to
temperature for their growth rate.

Page 19 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

Q.NO. 6 B)i) ( Two for definition, two for figure and two for explanation )
Conventional power generation: A Plenty of energy is needed to sustain the industrial and
agricultural growth. The existing sources of energy such as coal, oil , uranium etc are not adequate to
meet the ever increasing demands. The power generated
nerated by these conventional energy sources is the
conventional power generation. Examples of conventional power generation are Thermal, Hydraulic,
nuclear, gas turbine & diesel electric power plants. All these sources are non renewable( except
hydraulic)) & create pollution as they use fuel to produce energy.
Tidal power plant:

Figure shows single basin tidal power plant in which the sea and tidal basin are separated by a dam
and the flow between them is through the sluice ways located along the da
dam.
m. The rise and full of
tidal water levels provide the potential head. These plants generally use reversible turbines.

Page 20 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


(Autonomous)

(ISO/IEC - 27001 - 2005 Certified)

Subject Code: 12160

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

When the incoming tide sea level and tidal basin level are equal the turbine conduit is closed. When
the sea level rises and about half way to high tide the turbine valve are opened and the sea water flow
into the basin through the turbine runner generating power.
Q.NO. 6 B) ii)

( Three marks for figure and Three for explanation )

Geothermal power plants : The available geothermal energy is classified into following categories.
1. Dry steam systems
2. Flash steam or Wet steam systems
3. Hot dry rock systems
4. Magnetic chamber systems

5.
Dry steam systems: Figure shows Dry steam open system of geothermal energy power plant.
The liquid particles and suspended solids are eliminated by using centrifugal separators. The
condensate coming out of the condenser is fed back to the hot field with the help of pump.
New wells are required when the therm
thermal energy diminishes.
Flash steam open type system : The water at high temperature coming out from hot well is
flashed in flash chamber to produce the steam and the steam produced is passed through the
turbine. The condensate steam with brine separated iin
n the flash chamber is again pumped
back to the geothermal field.

Page 21 of 22

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


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Subject Code: 12160


Q.NO. 6 B) iii))

WINTER 13 EXAMINATION
Model Answer

( Three marks for figure and Three for explanation )

Electrostatic precipitator
The electrostatic precipitators are extensively used in removal of fly ash

from boiler

emissions. The use of this collector is growing rapidly because of the new strict air quality
codes. An electrostatic precipitator can be designed to operate at any desired efficiencies &
must be upgraded especially where there is large amount of unburnt carbon in fly ash (about
15%) because the presence of large quantities of carbon in the gas can adversely affect the
collection efficiency of a precipitator.
The working
king principle of electrostatic precipitator is illustrated in Fig.

The dust laden gas is passed between oppositely charged conductors and it becomes ionized as the
voltage applied between the conductors is sufficiently large (30000 to 60000 volts dependent
depen
on
electrode spacing). As the dust laden gas is passed through these highly charged electrodes, both
negative and positive ions are formed, the latter being as high as 80%. The ionized gas is further
passed through the collecting unit which consists of a set of vertical metal plates. Alternate plates are
positively charged and earthed. As the alternate plates are grounded, high intensity electrostatic field
exists between the plates. When the charged dust particles are passed between the plates, the
th
electrostatic field exerts a force on positively charged dust particles and drives them towards the
grounded plates. The deposited dust particles are removed from the plates by giving the shaking
motion to the plates with the help of cams driven by exte
external
rnal means. The dust removed from the
plates with the help of shaking motion is collected in the dust hoppers. Care should be taken that the
dust collected in the hopper should not be entrained in the clean gas.

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