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One of

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CONTENTS
This years edition is divided into 13 chapters, covering a vast spectrum of topics
from the exploration of our universe to the latest sporting achievements. In between,
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that you could try for yourself at home and another chapter
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Stunning photographs: Our picture team has
been travelling the world to snap the most
visually striking record holders. Every edition of
GWR features more than 1,000 photos many
unique to us and seen for therst time.

EDITORS LETTER
GWR DAY
FOREWORD: DR BUZZ ALDRIN
INTERVIEW: CHRIS HADFIELD

4
8
10
12

SPACE

14

FACTOGRAPHIC: THE MOON


EXTRASOLAR PLANETS
PLUTO
SPACEWALKS
VOYAGER
BLACK HOLES

16
18
20
22
24
26

EARTH
FACTOGRAPHIC: EARTH
WILD WEATHER
CLOUDS
BIZARRE GEOLOGY
REEFS
RAINFORESTS
KILLER PLANTS

ANIMALS
FACTOGRAPHIC: ANIMALS
ANTS
OCTOPUSES
BIG CATS
CROCODILES
OWLS

2 Contents

28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42

44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Gallery:
This photo-led feature
offers a change of pace
and gives you the chance
to explore record-breaking
inpictureform.

MONKEYS
SPIDERS
DINOSAURS
CATS & DOGS
FANTASTIC BEASTS

HUMANS

Dateline:
Running through the
book, at the foot of
thepage, youll nd
achronological history
ofthe universe in
200records!

58
60
62
64
66

68

FACTOGRAPHIC: BODY PARTS 70


BODY MODIFIERS
72
MEDICAL MIRACLES
74
OLDEST...
76
FAMILY VALUES
78
BODY EXTREMES
80

RECORDOLOGY

82

FACTOGRAPHIC: PICTURE THIS! 84


FOOD
86
GARDEN GIANTS
88
CHOCOLATE
90
COLLECTIONS
92
MASS PARTICIPATION
94
COSPLAY
96
BIG STUFF
98
SMALLTOWN BIG STUFF
100
BALL SKILLS
102

Fun and informative:


Ourrecords are a unique
mix of quirky facts and
extraordinary stats that you
wont nd anywhere else.

JOURNEYS

104

FACTOGRAPHIC: EVEREST
EXPLORATION 15001970
EXPLORATION 19711995
EXPLORATION 19962005
EXPLORATION 20062009
EXPLORATION 20102015

106
108
110
112
114
116

DO TRY
THIS AT HOME

118

IN YOUR KITCHEN
IN YOUR BACKYARD
IN YOUR BEDROOM
IN YOUR GYM

DONT TRY
THIS AT HOME
VEHICLES
FIRE
WATER
PERFORMERS

120
122
124
126

128
130
132
134
136

Annotated images:
Weve added notes to some of the
more complex imagery in the book,
so that you can grasp the details
ofwhat youre seeing.

TOYS & GAMES


FACTOGRAPHIC: LEGO-OLOGY
TOYS & BOARD GAMES
CHESS
CHAIN REACTIONS
ACTION FIGURES & DOLLS
PUZZLES
CONSTRUCTION TOYS
VIDEOGAMES

ENGINEERING &
ARCHITECTURE
FACTOGRAPHIC:
ENGINEERING
DOMES
WALLS
MAZES
WATER PARKS
EPIC ENGINEERING

ARTS & MEDIA


FACTOGRAPHIC:
MOVIE MONEY
ART SALES
SHAKESPEARE

138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154

156

158
160
162
164
166
168

170
172
174
176

FAST FACTS
The GWR book was the result of a question: Which is the fastest game bird in
Europe? (The answer: the red-breasted merganser and the eider) The rst
edition went on sale in 1955 Its the worlds biggest-selling annual book

Factographics:
Each chapter kicks off with a special new feature
that explores a topic visually. Facts and gures are
given context with the help of spectacular
photography and helpful infographics.

Fast Facts:
Bite-sized info that relates to
thepages youre on at the time.

Tape measure: Wherever you see this


icon, youre looking at arecord holder
shown at its actual size or scaled up.

100%

MUSIC
MOVIES
DISNEY
TV
VIDEO

SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY
FACTOGRAPHIC:
SCI-FI VS SCIENCE
3D PRINTING
CONSUMER TECH
ROBOTS
SMALL STUFF
LASERS
CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE

SPORTS
FACTOGRAPHIC:
SPORTS BIG HITTERS
AMERICAN FOOTBALL /
BASEBALL
BASKETBALL / ICE HOCKEY
BOXING / MARTIAL ARTS
CRICKET / GOLF
EXTREME SPORTS /
STREET SPORTS

178
182
184
186
188

190

192
194
196
198
200
202
204

206
208
210
212
214
216
218

Do Try
This At Home:
Dont just read
about records,
break them! This
interactive chapter
offers up dozens
of record ideas you
can try from the
comfort of your
bedroom, kitchen,
garden or gym. Go
on, have ago!

AUTO SPORTS / CYCLING


RUGBY / TENNIS
CLUB SOCCER /
INTERNATIONAL SOCCER
TRACK / FIELD
SWIMMING / WATER SPORTS
SPORTS ROUND-UP
ATHLETICS: TRACK / ULTRA
ATHLETICS / CYCLING
DIVING / ICE SKATING
SWIMMING
WEIGHTLIFTING / SPORTS
MARATHONS / WATERSKIING

220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240

X GAMES
125THANNIVERSARY
OF BASKETBALL
INDEX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS,
PICTURE CREDITS &
COUNTRY CODES
CONTRIBUTORS
STOP PRESS

242
244
246

250
252
254

guinnessworldrecords.com 3

EDITORS LETTER
C

ompiling the worlds best-selling annual book is made all the more challenging by having to
decide what to leave out. Once again, over the past year weve seen about 1,000 people a week
make claimsand although only a small percentage of these applicants make it through to becoming
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This year, the decision of
what to include was made
a little easier by focusing
on one particular aspect of
record-breaking. In Guinness
World Records 2017, youll
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on space exploration and
astronaut pioneers.
The news has lately been
awash with remarkable
stories about space and
physics, so it seemed an
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people who really know
about pushing the limits
of whats possible. Ive had
the pleasure of interviewing
astronauts before, but
nothing could compare to
meeting with Moon pioneer
and Mars enthusiast

Buzz Aldrin. Im honoured


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of record-breaking for
pushing the boundaries
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BLINDFOLDED SPORTS STARS

DATELINE

On 5Nov 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona, Thunder Law (USA,


left) of the Harlem Globetrotters celebrated GWR Day by
achieving the longest basketball shot blindfolded: 69ft
6in (21.18m). At the same event, Big Easy Lofton (USA)
performed the farthest basketball hook shot blindfolded:
50ft 3.5in (15.32m). Both records were later broken by,
respectively, Cody Jones and Garrett Hilbert of Dude
Perfect (USA) see p.7.
On 5Feb 2016, Indianapolis Colts punter and part-time
comedian Pat McAfee (below), with Nate Boyer (both USA)
holding the ball, scored the farthest American football
eld goal blindfolded: 40 yd (36.5m). This record was
coordinated by NFL Network on the Friday before Super
Bowl 50. GWRs Alex Angert presented Pat with his
certicate on camera, declaring him Ofcially Amazing!

13,700 MYA
4 Editors Letter

Largest explosion ever


The Big Bang occurs. It is the source of all matter and energy in the universe, and of time itself.
Onesecond after this event, the temperature is around 1032 kelvin the highest temperature ever.

FAST FACTS
The rst ever record listed in The Guinness Book of Records (1955) was the
remotest known bodies: extra-galactic nebulae 1billion light years away
The current record is now 13 times farther away, at 13.4 billion light years

EXPLORING SPACE

1. GWR Editor-in-Chief
Craig Glenday poses
for seles with Moon
pioneer BuzzAldrin

Space travel is a relatively new venture for us homo sapiens it was only in 1961
that Yuri Gagarin became the rst human in space and records are being
broken all the time. Indeed, setting ambitious, almost-impossible targets is an
inherent part of being a space pioneer, so any hopeful record holder would do
well to hear what these iconic gures have to say. Throughout this years book,
youll nd words of wisdom from some superlative astronauts, among them Buzz
Aldrin, Chris Hadeld and Al Worden (all pictured right). We were also honoured
to hear from NASA Administrator and former astronaut Charlie Bolden:

At NASA, weve been leading the world in historic


rsts, from the rst nation to successfully land on
the Red Planet, to the rst humans to land and
walk on the Moon, to the rst reusable spacecraft,
nearly 16 years of continuous habitation aboard
the International Space Station, and recordshattering science missions with incredible space
observatories that peer into other galaxies and
spacecraft that travel to the farthest reaches of the Solar System. Now
were on a human journey to Mars and astronauts continue to break their
own records for time spent in space, and were developing cutting-edge
new technologies as we learn to live and work in orbit and travel farther,
not just to visit but to stay.

2. ...and Chris Hadeld


3. GWR science
consultant David
Hawksett presents
twocerticates to
Apollo15s AlWorden.

Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator

Justin Bieber

JUMPING AND DUNKING


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Galaxy GN-z11 has formed. It will be discovered in Mar 2016 by astronomers using the NASA/ESA
Hubble Space Telescope. Its redshift which is used to measure the distance to galaxies is 11.09.

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13,300 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 5

DATELINE

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WHATS NEW?
New chapters this year
include Do Try This at
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chapter were calling
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focuses on the classic GWR
pastimes of, among other
things, eating, collecting,
growing giant vegetables
and building big things. And
theres a special history of
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takes a chronological look
at the story of humanitys
need to explore the planet
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deepest point to our nearest
Solar System neighbours.
Another new feature is
Dateline, which runs along
the foot of most pages.
This is effectively a history

Largest game of catch (baseball/softball)

DATELINE

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13,000 MYA
6 Editors Letter

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of the universe condensed
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some choices, but we hope
this feature will stimulate
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record holders.

Oldest planet
An extrasolar planet in the globular cluster M4 forms some 5,600 light years from Earth. It is
more than twice as old as the Solar System, and its discovery will be announced in Jul2003.

FAST FACTS
The USA is the third largest country by size (after Russia and Canada)
andpopulation (more than 323,000,000, behind China and India)
Alaskais the largest state, purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7.2m

Guinness World Records LIVE!


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Sports fans will notice
a new approach to the
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this year. Weve decided to
focus exclusively on all the
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achievements from a range
of events, presented as
a series of single-page

features. If its classic


sporting superlatives
youre after, just turn
to the back for Sports
Reference, which lists
absolute records across
many different sports.

The last new feature to


mention is Factographics.
A spread at the start of
each chapter explores one
aspect of record-breaking
in more detail, using
photography and graphics
to tell the story behind the
records. Among the topics
covered are the Moon
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Shakespeare expert Stuart
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cyberneticist Rohan Mehra.
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thousands of claimants who
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agree that it all makes for
the most fascinating read

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DUDE PERFECT
On 3031Mar 2016, Dude Perfect had 10basketball records
lmed for their YouTube channel, with GWRs Michael
Empric adjudicating. These included the longest basketball
shot blindfolded (71ft; 21.64m), by Cody Jones; farthest
basketball hook shot blindfolded (55ft; 16.7m), by Garrett
Hilbert; longest trampoline basketball shot performing
a forward ip (72ft; 21.9m), by Tyler Toney; and farthest
basketball bounce shot (91ft 2in; 27.7m), by Cory Cotton.

Longest career as a TV judge


(court room)

Greatest impact on Earth


A planet the size of Mars collides with the young Earth. Some of the debris from this cataclysm
goes into orbit around Earth and collects together under its own gravity to form the Moon.

4,500 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 7

DATELINE

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GWR DAY
You could say that every day is Guinness World Records Day, with records
being attempted and achieved by someone, somewhere, at any moment.
#PF[QWFDGTKIJV1WTFGFKECVGF)94&C[VJQWIJYCUTUVUVCIGFKPVQ
mark our 50th anniversary and is an international celebration of records and
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VJGVJQWUCPFUQHRGQRNGYJQEJQQUGVJKUFC[VQOCMGVJGKTCVVGORVUCPFVJGNCVGUV)94&C[UCY
OQTGVJCPRCTVKEKRCPVUVCMGRCTVKPLWUVQPGTGEQTFCVVGORVCNQPGHQTVJGmost people sport
stacking in multiple venues. Featured here are some of the
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Most pine boards


broken in one minute
(female)
GWR Day in Australia was featured
live on the Today show, and Summerly
Denny (AUS) rose to the occasion,
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2CTMKP5[FPG[5WOOGTN[CVVGORVGF
the record in order to raise awareness
of cancer research; her father Glenn
%QZQPYJQJCRRGPUVQJQNFVJGTGEQTF
for the most pine boards broken in one
minute (male) had recently undergone
treatment for stage-four cancer.

Farthest basketball
hook shot blindfolded
In one of seven records broken by the Harlem Globetrotters
(USA) on GWR Day 2015 (see Ball Skills), Big Easy Lofton
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the longest underhand basketball shotHVKP
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Most people sport stacking
in multiple venues
The 10th annual World
Sport Stacking Association
STACK UP! proved, once
again, to be the most
attended Guinness World
Records Day attempt. A
total of 618,394 stackers
representing 2,691
schools and organizations

LONGEST HUMAN TUNNEL


SKATEBOARDED BY A DOG
Otto the skateboarding dog has perfected the art of
whizzing through an arch of human legs, tilting and
weaving to avoid mishaps. No surprise, then, that
the English bulldog wowed fans in Lima, Peru, by
skimming through a tunnel of 30people for GWR
Day. Ottos proud owners, Luciana Viale and Robert
Rickards, were inspired to choose a bulldog after
watching videos of former record star Tillman, another
skateboarding bulldog. Otto is also a talented surfer.

8 GWR Day

from 31 countries took


part in the record, which
challenges as many people
as possible to participate
in sport stacking. This
relatively new sport requires
people to stack and destack specially designed
plastic cups. Attendance
numbers varied, from the
USAs 547,777 participants
to the Philippines 35, but
everyone was a winner!
Fastest 100 m running
on all fours
GWR Day clearly motivated
Kenichi Ito (JPN) to regain
a record that he had held
until 2013. After studying
the locomotion of patas
monkeys, Ito worked out
how best to run 100 m
on all fours in the fastest
possible way, clocking a
new time of 15.71 sec in
Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.
Fastest tennis ball caught
Anthony Kelly (AUS)
a martial artist and
Australias most decorated
Guinness World Records
title holder demonstrated
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the Today show for GWR
Day. At the Olympic Park
in Sydney, Anthony caught
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a machine at a distance
of 6 m (19 ft 8 in). It was
travelling at a scorching
119.86 mph (192.9 km/h)
a painful but impressive
feat that brought his record
total to 41.

FAST FACTS
YouTube rap star Dan Bull wrote an inspirational GWR song to encourage
everyone attempting records on the day Sport stacking is the most popular
GWR Day activity: to date, more than 3.7million people have taken part

MASS PARTICIPATION
GWR Day is the day to gather friends, family, colleagues
or classmates to try for a listing in our book. Here are
some of the group effort records that were set for
GWRDay in the past (some have since been broken):
PEOPLE RECORD

COUNTRY/YEAR

 Most people sport stacking


OWNVKXGPWG

USA, 2015

 Largest line dance multi venue

China, 2014

 Most children reading with an adult UAE, 2008


 Largest computer class
multi venue

India, 2006

1,554 Largest wheelbarrow race

#WUVTCNKC

 Largest game of leapfrog

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882 Largest sports lesson

0+TGNCPF7-

 Largest gathering of people


wearing bobble hats

0+TGNCPF7-

 Most people flapping


simultaneously

USA, 2012

 Largest gathering of ABBA

DCPFU impersonators

Fastest time to type a text


message (SMS) on a mobile
phone while performing
head spins
He may have several
breakdance records to
his name, but it was by
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Mordstein (DEU) secured
his latest world record.
While maintaining a head
spin, Mordstein typed out
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German proverb Ein
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ein Korn (Even a blind hen
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doing so in just 56.65 sec
in Freising, Germany.

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U KNOW
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) also holds

Australia, 2011

Largest lipstick sculpture


On 10 Nov 2015, Agn
Kionait (LTU) revealed her
glamorous Lipstick Tower,
built from 18,399 lipsticks.
Agn was sponsored by
wtc more (HKG) to make
a Christmas sculpture for

Alastair (rig
for the
orld record
absolute w
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rk
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tightest pa
rking
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his Fiat 50
ere 7.5cm
m
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space that
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ider than th
(2.95in) w
rnational
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In
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, UK,
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n
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8
on

Largest gathering of people dressed as penguins


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7- ICVJGTGF
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HTQOVJGJQURKEGKPKVKCVGFVJGGXGPVVQRWDNKEK\GCPFTCKUGHWPFUHQTVJGKTEJCTKV[YJKEJ
RTQXKFGUENKPKECNCPFTGUKFGPVKCNECTGHQT[QWPIRCVKGPVUCPFUWRRQTVHQTVJGKTHCOKNKGU

their shopping mall, and


she spent two months
developing the 3.03-m-tall
(9-ft 11-in) tower.
Most lit candles
held in the mouth
In honour of GWR Day 2015,
Dinesh Shivnath Upadhyaya
(IND) beat his own personal
EHVWE\VWXQJEXUQLQJ
candles into his mouth.
He continued the mouth
theme with the most
toothpicks
rotated in
the mouth

simultaneously (49),
the most matchsticks
extinguished with the
tongue in one minute
(30), and the most grapes
stuffed in the mouth (88).
Most pull-ups in 24 hours
Marine Corps veteran Guy
Valentino (USA) completed
5,862 pull-ups in New York,
USA, live on television in

honour of both Guinness


World Records Day and
Veterans Day (11 Nov).
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surpassed the previous
record of 5,801 pull-ups with
a nail-biting 12 min to go.
Most hula-hoops spun
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whirled into the record
books by keeping 181 hulahoops spinning in Perth,
Australia. She held the
record for 10 days before it
was reclaimed by previous
holder Marawa Ibrahim
(AUS), with 200 hoops!

Tightest parallel park in reverse


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KPCPFYCUVJGTUVRWTRQUGDWKNVOQVQTTCEKPIEKTEWKV.

guinnessworldrecords.com 9

FOREWORD: DR BUZZ ALDRIN


The children born between the years 2000
and 2010 will be the ones making the rst
landings on Mars. And its those kids that
we would like to ensure are enthusiastic
about the future Dr Buzz Aldrin,
lunarexplorer and space pioneer
This edition of Guinness
World Records takes as
its inspiration two major
themes of record-breaking:
the conquest of space and
pioneering adventures. And
there is no one alive on
(DUWKWRGD\PRUHTXDOLHG
to introduce these concepts
than Dr Buzz Aldrin. A
space scientist, astronaut
and educator, Buzz
occupies the space where
these two worlds collide.
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a space pioneer, holding
records for, among other
things, taking the TUV
UGNGKPQRGPURCEG and, of
course, for his central role
in the TUVOCPPGFNCPFKPI
QPVJG/QQP.
During a trip to London to
launch his book Welcome
to Mars: Making a Home
on the Red Planet (2015)
Dr Aldrin met with GWR
to receive his world record
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interview with Editor-inChief Craig Glenday, Buzz
talked about his superlative
achievements and his
determination for humanity
to reach our planetary
neighbour.

DR RENDEZVOUS
Colonel Buzz Aldrin born
Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr was
known to his NASA colleagues as
DrRendezvous. He was the rst
of the NASA astronauts to have a
doctorate in Buzzs case, in orbital
dynamics and his pioneering
research and techniques on docking
spacecraft in orbit are still employed
today. A keen scuba diver, he also
championed underwater training
techniques to simulate the zerogravity environment encountered
during spacewalks.
Upon his return from the Moon,
Buzz was awarded the Presidential
Medal of Freedom and, in 2011,
the Congressional Gold Medal. He
continues to advocate space travel,
and inspires a new generation of
astronauts with his best-selling
books and his commitment
toeducation.

10 Foreword

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Apollo 11 saw Buzz (Lunar Module Pilot) and Neil Armstrong

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the Moon in the Eagle at 20:18 UTC on 20 Jul 1969. While
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DGECOGVJGTUVJWOCPUVQUGVHQQVQPVJG/QQPUUWTHCEG
0GKNCV76%QP,WNHQNNQYGFD[$W\\CV

FAST FACTS
Buzz got his name from his sister, who mis-pronounced brother as buzzer
He changed his name legally to Buzz in 1988 His mothers maiden name was
Marion Moon MTV named their Video Music Award statue Buzzy after him

and computers. You need


the arts involved, so a
number of us are calling
[for] S.T.E.A.M. education:
Science, Technology,
Engineering, Arts,
Mathematics. We want to
keep up with things, just like
Guinness World Records
wants to keep up with the
latest records that are
being set.

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not knowing whether it would turn out at all! The lighting was
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transportation system
between the Earth and
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been working on was
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tourism. But NASA wasnt
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shifted my attention to
a unique transportation
system between Earth
and Mars. Mars is our
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be around long enough
to see it all happening!
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2040. This is two decades
from the celebratory date of
20 Jul 2019 50 years from
reaching the Moon.

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other day that people
think we could get there
in 30 days, maybe even
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quite a bit in the future.
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between the years 2000
and 2010 will be the ones
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on Mars. And its those kids
that we would like to ensure
are enthusiastic about the
future.
You dont want an
education programme
just for geeks you
know, people who
only know math

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And go down backwards,
so that you can watch
as you go down and
not miss a step!
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of humans, it was a
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for people to be out of their


element and to land [on the
Moon]. But looking around,
nothing could have been
more desolate than what
we saw: the black sky, the
sunlit terrain. Very clear.
No atmosphere. No life.
And up here, what we were
looking at hadnt changed
in thousands of years.
There isnt any place like
that on the Earth. So, it is
a desolate place we were
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achievement [to reach it].

And when youre out there


on the surface and look up,
you say, Oh yeah! Thats
the Earth up there!
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that everyone else living,
or dead is on the Earth
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there at the Moon... thats
a contrast. Thats a record!
For more on the Moon
landings, see pp.1617.

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You are the future. You are


going to achieve super things
that are out of this world and
that no one else has done before,
and go to places that no one has
ever gone. Earth isnt the only
world for us any more.
guinnessworldrecords.com 11

INTERVIEW: CHRIS HADFIELD


If you get into Guinness World Records, it means that youve
done something thats right on the edge of the human
experience. Something that has pushed back the level of what
weve achievedin the past. As an astronaut, Ive been lucky
enough todo several things that t intothat category
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we would do well to choose
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of the International Space
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the very best of what it
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incredible resum has given
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with Chris about the need to
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Craig: How important is
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and I ran from here to that
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COMMANDER
CHRIS AUSTIN
HADFIELD
Chris Hadeld was rst
inspired to become an
astronaut as a nine-yearold child after watching
the Moon landings on TV.
With the Moon as his goal, he
embarked on learning to y rst
gliders, then ghter jets and later
earnedadegree in engineering and
amastersin aviation systems.
In 1992, he joined the Canadian Space
Agencys astronaut programme, and nally
became the rst Canadian to walk in space.
Healso learned Russian, reckoning that being
able to speak the language of a superpower
able to send humans into space would serve
him well, which it did when he visited the Mir
space station and ew on Space Shuttle and
Soyuz missions. In Mar2013, he took command
of theInternational Space Station (ISS).
Since returning to Earth, Chris has written
three books: An Astronauts Guide to Life on
Earth (2013), You Are Here: Around the World
in92 Minutes (2015), and the childrens book
TheDarkest Dark (2016).

12 Interview

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The International Space Station, which Chris commanded
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FAST FACTS
Chris Hadelds YouTube video of Space Oddity had amassed nearly
31.7million viewsas of 4 May 2016 Chris is afraid of heights! During his rst
spacewalk, Chris was temporarily blinded by contamination in his spacesuit

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a fundamental response
within each of us that is
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your life than you ever had
for no greater purpose
than the competition; its
just primordial to who we
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Guinness World RecordsLW
helps measure the best of
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you to do something that
otherwise you never would
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is a wonderful thing to have
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read through Guinness
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I want to climb Mount
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the highest six peaks in
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invent a valve that will
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Chris: I think the most
important thing is to give
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LPSRVVLEOH%XWJLYH

guinnessworldrecords.com 13

SPACE

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DATELINE

am
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3,825 MYA
14 Space

Oldest volcanic rocks on Earth


A lava ow on the surface of the still-cooling Earth solidies into a slab of igneous rock.
Its age will be conrmed in 2002 by researchers in Quebec, Canada.

CONTENTS
SPACE FACTOGRAPHIC

16

EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

18

PLUTO

20

SPACEWALKS

22

VOYAGER

24

BLACK HOLES

26

Smallest planet?

First photosynthesis
Tiny, single-celled organisms distant ancestors of present-day cyanobacteria develop
theability to process nutrients using the light of the Sun as an energy source.

3,700 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 15

DATELINE

Discovered in 1930, Pluto was known for generations as the Solar


Systems smallest planet. This all changed in 2006, when the
International Astronomical Union (IAU) revoked its planet status,
changing it from the ninth planet and the last entry in numerous
classroom rhymes and mnemonics to trans-Neptunian object
134340 Pluto. Recently, however, the campaign to return Plutos
planet status has been gaining ground, boosted by pictures such
as this composite showing the relative scale of Pluto (right) and
KVUOQQP%JCTQPVCMGPD[0#5#UNew Horizons spacecraft in
&T#NCP5VGTP2TKPEKRCN+PXGUVKICVQTQPVJGNew Horizons
mission gives his thoughts on the debate on p.21.

Solid inner core


The heart of the Moon consists
of a hard core with a radius of
240 km (150 mi), containing a
high density of iron. It represents
about 20% of the Moon; the cores
of other planets in the Solar
System can account for up to
50% of their size.

Partial melt
Separating the mantle from
the innermost core is a partly
molten layer of rocks and
metals with a radius of roughly
480 km (300 mi).

Mantle
Between the Moons crust and
inner core is a rigid zone known
as the lithosphere, or upper
mantle. It is approximately
620 km (385 mi) deep.

Fluid outer core


Thought to be composed mainly
of liquid iron. The outer core has a
radius of around 330 km (205 mi).

The Moon is slightly more than a quarter the size of Earth in terms of diameter,
and its elemental composition is very similar to that of our own planet. In fact,
YGTGENQUGN[TGNCVGFCEEQTFKPIVQVJGIKCPVKORCEVJ[RQVJGUKUCTQWPFDKNNKQP
years ago a Mars-sized planet called Theia crashed into Earth, violently ejecting
large amounts of debris into space. During the next million years or so, those rocky
bits and pieces eventually coalesced to form the Moon. The Moon was thought
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astronomer Galileo Galilei
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GWR presents a whistle-stop tour of our nearest


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JWOCPKV[VQTGCEJKV

THE MOON

FACTOGRAPHIC

The footprints left by the


Apollo astronauts are all
still there. There is no lunar
atmosphere, which means
that there is no wind or
YGCVJGTVQGTQFGVJGO

Crust
On average, the Moons crust
is 3443 km (2127 mi) thick,
although it is as thin as 1 km
(0.6 mi) in certain impact
basins, and as thick as 60 km
(37 mi) in the highlands on
the far side. The surface of
the Moon is called its regolith,
and there are two main types:
the bright ancient highlands,
dominated by breccia, formed
by asteroids and meteorites
pulverising and melting the
surface, and the darker maria
(seas) that formed as basaltic
ODYDRRGHGWKHORZODQGV

DID YOU KNOW?

VOSTOK 1 (USSR,
now Russia)
Length: 30.8 m
(101ft)
Carried Yuri
Gagarin (USSR) on
the rst manned
spaceight on
12Apr 1961.

SATURN V (USA)
Length: 110.6 m
(363 ft)
About 18 m (60ft)
taller than the
Statue of Liberty
and some 15 times
heavier than a blue
whale. Active from
1967 to 1973.

SPACE SHUTTLE (USA)


Length: 56 m (184 ft)
The rst reusable spacecraft
made its maiden ight on 12Apr
1981, weighing 2,000 tonnes
(2,204US tons) at launch. Fuel
alone was around 25times
heavier than the shuttle itself.

6JGTUVOGPQPVJG/QQPYGTGECTTKGF
KPVQURCEGQPC5CVWTP8TQEMGVUVKNNVJG
NCTIGUVTQEMGVlaunched to date. On the
launchpad, fully loaded with propellant
crucial to escape the pull of Earths
gravity the rocket weighed some
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other record-worthy spacecraft.

The maximum distance between Earth and


the Moon is around 406,700km (252,711mi).
To understand the vast distance, consider this:
the combined diameter of Mercury, Venus,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus and
Pluto is 387,941km (241,055mi). This means
you could t all eight of our Solar System
neighbours between Earth and the Moon!

The Apollo
nce too
t life insura
couldnt ge
they signed
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.
ly
nt
re
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ies could
their famil
photos that
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ta
were date-s
nd on
ie
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a
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s
the familie
y.
launch da
16Jul1969

KNOW?
DID YOU
ts
11 astronau

A single Google search for


#RQNNQOKUUKQPWUGUCU
much computing power as
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The Apollo Guidance


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circuitry was even
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start/stop/defrost
electronics used in
modern toasters, having
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and operating at
/*\

DID YO

The Moon is
moving away from
Earth at a rate of
4 cm (1.5 in)
per year. This is
roughly the length
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grow in the same
amount of time.

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powerful than the computers that were
used to put a man on the Moon.

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smaller than the distance
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greater than that of the Moon

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EO

EXTRASOLAR PLANETS
Largest
extrasolar
planet
Discovered in 2005, planet
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Smallest extrasolar planet


Kepler-37b orbits the star
Kepler-37 at around 210 light
years from Earth in the
constellation Lyra. Its
discovery by NASAs Kepler
spacecraft was made public

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anet OGLE

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Most planets orbiting


another star

on 20 Feb 2013. Kepler-37b


is only about 1,200 mi
(1,930 km) across, smaller
than the planet Mercury.
The smallest extrasolar
planet directly imaged by
telescope is the gas giant
51 Eridani b. It is about the
same diameter as Jupiter
(86,880 mi; 139,820 km)
but twice its mass. It orbits
the star 51 Eridani in the
constellation Eridanus and
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13 Aug 2015, by the Gemini
Planet Imager at Stanford
University, USA, which began
searching for extrasolar
planets in Nov 2014.

Youngest extrasolar planet


Infrared observations of
the young star CoKu Tau 4
by NASAs Spitzer Space
Telescope reveal a gap in
the circumstellar disc of
dust and gas that is likely
to be a newly formed planet.
The star, along with its
possible planet, is located
around 420 light years from
Earth in the constellation
Taurus, and is no more than
1 million years old.
Nearest extrasolar planet
On 7 Aug 2000, a team led
by Dr William Cochran of
the University of Texas
McDonald Observatory
(both USA) revealed
evidence of a new world
in our own backyard,
just 10.45 light years from

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the Sun. The gas giant,


estimated to be 1.6 times
the mass of Jupiter,
orbits the star Epsilon
Eridani. The exoplanet
lies some 478 million km
(297 million mi) from its
central star, which is about
the same distance as our
Sun to the Asteroid Belt.

TRIVIA
If we awarded a record
for pinkest planet, it
would surely go to the
newly formed GJ504b
in the constellation of
Virgo, which glows a
magenta or cherry red
(artists impression
below).

MOST DISTANT EXTRASOLAR PLANET

DATELINE

Near the centre of the Milky Way, at a distance of 21,500 3,300 light years
away from Earth, the planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb orbits a red dwarf star.
The low energy of its star, coupled with the size of its orbit (corresponding
to between that of Mars and Jupiter around the Sun), means that the
planets surface temperature is just -220C (-364F). This makes
OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb the coldest extrasolar planet.
The OGLE part of its name derives from the Optical Gravitational
Lensing Experiment. This uses ground-based telescopes to scan
the central Milky Way for signs of a microlensing event. In this
phenomenon, light coming from a distant star is seen to dip if
another star and its planet crosses in front of it. This is owing
tothe gravity of the nearer star and its planet.

3,600 MYA
18 Space

Oldest mountain range


The Barberton Greenstone Belt (also known as the Makhonjwa Mountains) begins to form in
present-day South Africa. It is here, in 1875, that the rst gold in the country will be discovered.

FAST FACTS
As of Feb 2016, there have been 2,085 conrmed discoveries of extrasolar
planets According to the National Academy of Sciences, there could be
asmany as 11billion habitable, Earth-like planets in the Milky Way alone

First map of an
extrasolar planet
+P0#5#USpitzer Space
TelescopeQDUGTXGFVJGUVCT
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Closest extrasolar planet


to its parent star

to be subject to winds of up
to 9,000 mph (14,500 km/h).

&KUEQXGTGFD[0#5#UKeplerURCEGETCHVKP-GRNGTD
QTDKVUKVUJQUVUVCT-GRNGTCVCFKUVCPEGQHCUVTQPQOKECN
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QHCTQWPF%
( OCMKPIKVVJGhottest extrasolar
planet+VOC[DGVJGTQEM[EQTGTGOCKPUQHCICUIKCPV

'CTVJNKMGGZVTCUQNCTRNCPGV
More than 2,000 extrasolar
planets in 1,300-plus
systems have been spotted
to date. Of these, Kepler-22b
LVWKHUVWSRWHQWLDOO\(DUWK
like example. Found in 2011,
it is about 2.4 times the size

of Earth and orbits its


Sun-like star in about
290 days. The luminosity
of this star and Kepler-22bs
orbital distance suggest
that it may occupy its
stars habitable zone. If the
planet has an Earth-like
greenhouse effect, its
surface temperature could
be about 22C (72F).

DID YOU
KNOW?
In 2015,
the Inte
rn

Astrono
ational
mical U
nion (IA
contest,
U) ran a
open to
the pub
14stars
lic, to giv
and 31e
e
x
tr
asolar p
new nam
lanets
es. So PS
became
R
B
12
5
Lich and
7+12
its plane
Draugr,
ts are no
Polterge
w
ist and P
charact
hobetor
ers from
fantasy
andfolk
lore.

FIRST

Extrasolar planet
discovered orbiting
COCKPUGSWGPEGUVCT
Astronomers from the
University of Geneva (CHE)
announced the discovery of
51 Pegasi b on 6 Oct 1995.
It orbits 51 Pegasi, a G5V
main-sequence star one
that is in the process of
fusing hydrogen into helium
at its core, like our Sun.
The title of windiest
extrasolar planet also goes
to 51 Pegasi b, along with
the gas giants HD 179949 b
and HD 209458 b, which
orbit other stars. All appear

(KTUVEQPTOGFFKUEQXGT[
of an extrasolar planet
+PCUVTQPQOGTUCPPQWPEGFVJGRTGUGPEGQHVYQ
RNCPGVUQTDKVKPICRWNUCTPCOGF254$ 
CDQXG 
NKIJV[GCTUHTQO'CTVJ#RWNUCTKUCTCRKFN[URKPPKPI
PGWVTQPUVCTVJGEQNNCRUGFEQTGQHCPGZRNQFGFIKCPV
UVCTCPFGOKVUKPVGPUGTCFKCVKQP254$ U
RNCPGVUYGTGFGUKIPCVGFUWRGT'CTVJUOQTG
OCUUKXGVJCP'CTVJDWVOWEJNGUUOCUUKXG
VJCPQWTICUIKCPVUUQVJKUCNUQOCTMGF
VJGTUVUWRGT'CTVJGZVTCUQNCTRNCPGV
discovered254$ DC
VJKTFRNCPGVNCVGTEQPTOGFKP
CPFPQYPCOGF&TCWIT
KUVJGlightest extrasolar
planet+VUOCUUKUCDQWV
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Oldest oil
The remnants of dead organisms lying on the seabed begin millions of years of
transformation, crushed by the intense pressure from sediment deposits to form oil.

3,200 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 19

DATELINE

Planet hunter space mission


The Convection Rotation
CPF2NCPGVCT[6TCPUKVU
(COROT ) spacecraft was
launched on 27 Dec 2006
into a polar orbit 827 km
(513 mi) above Earth. It
ZDVWKHUVWFUDIWGHVLJQHG
VSHFLFDOO\WRQGSODQHWV
around other stars and
operated until Nov 2012,
when it suffered an
irreparable computer failure.

PLUTO
Plutonian geology
The New Horizons\E\UHYHDOHGVWXQQLQJVXUIDFH
details that helped scientists better understand the
composition of the planet

Shortest time from the


discovery of a planet to its
exploration by spacecraft
Pluto was discovered
by US astronomer Clyde
Tombaugh on 18 Feb 1930.
It took just over 85 years
31,193 days, to be precise
for it to be explored by
spacecraft (see below).
Planet with the most
chaotically rotating moons
3OXWRKDVYHNQRZQPRRQV
Charon was discovered
by American astronomer
James Christy at the US
Naval Observatory in
Flagstaff, Arizona. Its
discovery was announced
on 7 Jul 1978. Nix and Hydra
were discovered in 2005,
and two others in 2011 and
2012, provisionally named
S/2011 P 1 and S/2012 P 1.
These last four are
chaotically rotating
moons. This means they
tumble instead of rotating
neatly along one axis.
Saturns moon Hyperion
is the only other known
chaotically rotating moon
in the Solar System.

Most
distant
human
remains
#TQWPFI
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the cremated remains
QH%N[FG6QODCWIJ

 CTGDGKPI
ECTTKGFQPDQCTFVJGNew
HorizonsURCEGETCHVKPC
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UGPVKPVQURCEG

Plutos largest moon


is Charon, with a mean
diameter of 1,212 km
(753 mi) more than half
Plutos diameter. Pluto is
around eight times more
massive than Charon; the
two bodies orbit each other

around a common centre


of gravity between them.
New Horizons came within
28,800 km (17,895 mi) of
Charon on 14 Jul 2015.
The longest canyon on
Charon, as imaged by New
Horizons, stretches at least

Rock core
A core of dense rock
accounts for an
estimated 70% of
Plutos diameter

Nitrogen ice surface


An estimated 98% of the
surface is nitrogen ice,
with traces of methane
and carbon monoxide

Mantle of water ice


A sub-surface ocean
of water ice that
could be 100180 km
(62112 mi) thick

Pluto at a glance
Discovery              
Mass          Z22MI
Volume        ZMO3
Equatorial radius     MO
Number of moons            5
Temperature     VQo%

Atmospheric pressure
at the surface            2C
Density          IEO3
Surface gravity       OU2
Axial tilt               o

TGVTQITCFGTQVCVKQP

1,600 km (990 mi) across


the surface of the moon
and may extend farther,
to its dark side.

NEW HORIZONS
On 14Jul 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft made the rst yby of Pluto.
Itlaunched from Cape Canaveral in Florida, USA, in Jan2006, and, because
of its mass of less than 0.5tonnes (0.55UStons), achieved the fastest Earth
departure speed for a planetary mission: 58,338km/h (36,250mph). New
Horizons passed the orbit of the Moon in just 9hr and reached Neptunes
orbit in 8.6years. It made observations of Jupiter during its
yby in Feb2007. The crafts suite of seven instruments
includes the Venetia Burney Student
Dust Counter, built by students
at the University of Colorado.
It is the rst mission to the outer
Solar System led by a scientist rather
than a NASA centre, and is now en route
to the Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) 2014MU69
an icy, rocky object which
it willencounter on
1Jan2019.

Tallest mountain on Pluto


In 2015, a 5.25-km-tall
(3.2-mi) mountain
was discovered by the
New Horizons team.
It was named Matthew
Alexander Henson, after
WKHUVW$IULFDQ$PHULFDQ
Arctic explorer.

DID YO

DATELINE

U KNOW
Pluto is
part of th
?
e Kuiper
a far-dis
Belt,
tant reg
ion of ic
that is a
y
bodies
relic fro
m the fo
of our S
rmation
olar Syst
em. Scie
believe th
ntists
at New H
of KBO 2
orizons
014MU
yby
6
9
, almost
miles be
a billion
yond Plu
to, will re
vital data
veal
about th
e evoluti
of the So
on
lar Syste
m.

2,400 MYA
20 Space

Longest ice age


The most severe ice age begins, and will last around 70million years. During this period,
the entire Earth will be covered in ice, possibly to a depth of 1km (0.6mi).

FAST FACTS
Pluto is 4.8billionkm (3billionmi) from Earth A major feature is a vast,
roughly heart-shaped area dubbed the Tombaugh Regio Pluto has a nitrogen
atmosphere with layers of constant haze hovering above its surface

direction of Pluto. Part of


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from Pluto and detected by
the REX radar experiment
on board the spacecraft.
The technique, known
as bistatic radar, can
reveal surface properties
of planetary bodies.
During this successful
experiment, New Horizons
was 33 astronomical units
from Earth, or 33 times the
distance of Earth to the Sun.

Largest cryovolcano
on Pluto by diameter
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TRIVIA
On 4Jul 2015, the
New Horizons team
lost contact with the
spacecraft it had
switched to the backup
computer because of
a problem. The team
had to work round the
clock to restore main
computer function in
time for the 14Jul yby.

Coldest
glaciers in the
Solar System
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and the lack of impact


craters indicates its surface
is less than 10 million years
old. Sputnik Planum is now
believed to occupy a giant
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with volatile ices.

Largest classical
crater on Pluto
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Most distant bistatic


radar experiment
Just after New Horizons
closest approach to Pluto,
a radar signal from NASAs
Deep Space Network on
Earth was sent in the

Dr Alan Stern
The Principal Investigator on NASAs New Horizons mission to
Pluto and the Kuiper Belt, Dr Alan Stern (fourth from right) shares
his thoughts on Plutos changing status as a planetary body.
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Oldest macroscopic organism


Grypania cf. spiralis, an ancestor of algae, is present in Michigan, USA. Meanwhile, other organisms, later called
the Gabonionta or Francevillian biota, are ourishing in Gabon, Africa. Both are visible to the naked eye.

2,100 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 21

DATELINE

Largest crater on Pluto


Sputnik Planum, mostly
in Plutos northern
hemisphere, measures
around 1,050 x 800 km
(650 x 495 mi). It is the site
of active nitrogen glaciation,

SPACEWALKS
Longest total time
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Sunita Williams (USA)
has spent 50 hr 40 min on
seven separate spacewalks
from the International
5RCEG5VCVKQP (ISS).

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TGGPVGTVJGETCHV

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CURCEGYCNM
On 19 Apr 2013, Russias
Pavel Vinogradov (b. 31 Aug
1953) performed a
spacewalk from the ISS
aged 59 years 231 days.

FIRST
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On 20 Jul 1966, Michael
Collins (USA) spacewalked
from )GOKPK to the
unmanned GATV-8 booster
with a tether and Hand-Held
Maneuvering Unit. The craft
were 3 m (9 ft 10 in) apart.
The day before, Collins
LSSHGKLVFDPHUD
around to take the UVW
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the )GOKPK capsule.
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gripped astronaut
Buzz Aldrin (USA)
during the Gemini 12
mission, which
took place later that
year. On 13 Nov, he
paused during a 2-hr
spacewalk to take
theUVWVHOHLQ
RSHQVSDFH.

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On 22 Aug 1997, Russias
Anatoly Solovyev and
Pavel Vinogradov carried
out a spacewalk inside
the depressurized Spektr
module of the Mir space
station, whose hull had been
breached after striking an
unmanned Progress supply
vehicle. Their spacewalk, to
inspect and initiate repairs,
lasted 3 hr 16 min.

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CHRIS HADFIELD, SPACEWALKER

DATELINE

Canadas Chris Hadeld is the man who charmed the world with his memorable
take on DavidBowies Space Oddity, lmed during his last mission on the ISS and
immortalized as the rst music video lmed inspace. But GWR caught up with him
inNov2015 tond out about another record-breaking feat.
During a 7-hr spacewalk on 22 Apr 2001, Chrisand Scott Parazynski (USA) attached
Canadarm2 (the longest robotic arm in space) to the ISS. It was his rst spacewalk, and
it got off to a bad start: his visors chemical anti-fogging solution got in his eyes, causing
him to lose his vision, rst in one eye, then the other.
And then I was blind, in my spacesuit, outside on a spacewalk! Years of extensive
preparation helped him to keep a calm head, even when he was hanging on to the ISS for
dear life. OK, I cant see, he told himself. But I can still feel. I can hear. I can talk. Ican
breathe. How am Igoing to solve this problem? Luckily, his tears welled up and helped
todilute the contaminant within half an hour.

2,000 MYA
22 Space

Largest impact crater on Earth


An asteroid or comet collides with Earth, creating a depression with an estimated diameter of 300km (186mi).
Now known as the Vredefort crater, it is located near present-day Johannesburg in South Africa.

FAST FACTS
To date, more than 200 astronauts have performed a spacewalk
Spacesuits are white to reect the heat of direct sunlight in space,
whichmay exceed 275F (135C) It takes about 45min to don a spacesuit

DID YO

U KNOW
Spacewa
?
lks can la
st up to
dependin
8hr,
g on the
carried
tasks be
out alt
ing
hough th
spacew
e longest
alk (see
below) w
longer. F
as a little
or the
rst few h
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uts brea
ours,
the pure
remove
oxygen,
nitrogen
to
fr
o
m their
Otherwis
bodies.
e they m
ight dev
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elop
bles, wh
ich can
pain in th
cause
e joints
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(GD6JGYCNMYCUUEJGFWNGFKPQTFGTVQVGUV
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O
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MOST
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between 1988 and 1998,
Anatoly Solovyev (RUS)
made 16 spacewalks.

5RCEGYCNMUFWTKPI
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Robert Curbeam (USA)
performed four spacewalks
during the STS-116 mission
by the Space Shuttle
Discovery on 922 Dec 2006.
5RCEGYCNMUHTQO
QPGURCEGETCHV
As of 3 Feb 2016, a total
of 193 spacewalks had
been staged outside the
ISS. They were undertaken
by 121 different astronauts
and cosmonauts and lasted
for 1,192 hr overall.

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FCVGVJCVVJTGGRGQRNGJCXGYCNMGFKPURCEGCVVJGUCOGVKOG

.QPIGUVURCEGYCNM

Largest marine animal structure


Dead and living stony corals begin to coalesce into what will become the Great Barrier Reef. Located off the
coast of present-day Queensland in Australia, it will eventually measure 80,000sqmi (207,200km2).

600 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 23

DATELINE

#OGTKECPCUVTQPCWVU,KO8QUUCPF5WUCP*GNOUURGPVJT
OKPKPURCEGQP/CT6JGKTLQDYCUVQOCMGTQQO
on the ISS HQTVJG+VCNKCPECTIQOQFWNGLeonardo6JGOQFWNG
YJKEJECTTKGFUWRRNKGUCPFGSWKROGPVHQTVJGUVCVKQPYCU
VTCPURQTVGFD[VJG5RCEG5JWVVNGDiscovery

VOYAGER
First and farthest
Launched in 1977, 8Q[CIGT
and8Q[CIGT were sent to
study the giant outer planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune. En route to Jupiter,
8Q[CIGT captured the UVW
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0RRQLQDVLQJOHIUDPHIURP
VSDFH. It has now travelled
into interstellar space,
making it the UVWSUREHWR
OHDYHRXU6RODU6\VWHP, on
around 25 Aug 2012. As
of 24 Mar 2016, 8Q[CIGT
was 20,078,268,831 km
(12,476,057,841 mi) away
from Earth and still sending
data to Mission Control
in the USA the ORQJHVW
FRPPXQLFDWLRQVGLVWDQFH.
With their radioisotope
thermoelectric generators,
the probes are the PRVW
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LQWHUSODQHWDU\VSDFHFUDIW.

DATELINE

Planetary bodies not to scale

Jupiter: 8Q[CIGT performed


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1979. After its closest
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565 MYA
24 Space

VOYAGER MISSIONS

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8Q[CIGT (launched 20 Aug 1977)

Io: On 8Q[CIGTs OKUUKQP


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t by
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ngs
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Oldest animal trails


Marine creatures, possibly resembling sea anemones, leave tracks on rocks
in the Ediacaran Period. These are later found off Newfoundland, Canada.

FAST FACTS

High-gain antenna:
Fortransmitting science and
engineering data to Earth
viatwo channels.

Voyager 1 and 2 carry a Golden Record a phonograph of sounds and images


from Earth to tell aliens who and where we are Both Voyagers are powered
bylong-lasting plutonium batteries, which should operate until the 2020s

VOYAGER2

Magnetometer boom: Takes


direct measurements of magnetic
elds in space. Voyager 2 is
equipped with two low-eld and
two high-eld magnetometers.
Radioisotope thermoelectric
generator: The central power
source for the mission module
there are three in all.
Low-energy chargedparticle detector: For sensing
the speed and number of
particles in the solar wind and
at the outer planets.

Infra-red spectrometer:
Amulti-function device that acts as
athermometer, a detector of elements
and compounds, and a radiometer for
measuring the amount of sunlight
reected by a body.

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Oldest vertebrate
The prehistoric jawless sh Haikouichthys swims in Earths Early Cambrian
oceans. This makes the 2.5-cm (1-in) sea creatures our oldest ancestors.

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530 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 25

DATELINE

Optical calibration target:


Flat, xed rectangle against
which instruments (such
as cameras) on the movable
scan platform can calibrate.

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Imaging
cameras:
Voyager 2 has
narrow-angle
and wide-angle
cameras.

BLACK HOLES
?
U KNOW
DID YO
terstellar
hole in In

The black
more
ally much
was origin
factored
It
.
te
ra
lly accu
h affects
scientica
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h
w
,
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light
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c
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lt
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What is a black hole?


Black holes are the remnants of stars that ended
their lives as supernovae. They are characterized
by a region of space in which gravity is so strong
that not even light can escape. Pictured right
is a ground-breaking rendering of a black hole,
painstakingly created by the makers of the movie
Interstellar (USA, 2014) in collaboration with the
US theoretical physicist Kip Thorne.

Densest objects
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A stellar black hole (i.e.,
a black hole created from
the gravitational collapse
of a massive star) can be
around 20 times the mass
of our Sun. At its centre
is the singularity, where
the mass of the dead star
from which the black hole
originated is compressed
to a single point of zero
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It is this singularity that
generates the powerful
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hole. Many thousands of
them are thought to exist in
our galaxy alone. Scientists
believe that supermassive
black holes reside in the
centres of most, if not all,
galaxies and weigh more
than a million Suns.

Heaviest
black hole
In 2009,
astronomers using
NASAs Swift gammaray space telescope
measured the mass of the
supermassive black hole
at the centre of the quasar
S5 0014+81. (Quasars are
star-like extra-galactic
objects that are the most
luminous objects in the
universe.) The result
around 40 billion solar
masses means that
this black hole is some
10,000 times larger than
the supermassive black
hole at the heart of our
Milky Way galaxy.

First
rogue black
hole discovered
Markarian 177 is
a dwarf galaxy some
90 million light years away.
Studies using Hawaiis Keck
Observatory in Jun 2013
strongly suggest that the
bright object SDSS1133,
associated with the galaxy,
is a supermassive black
hole that has been ejected
from the galaxys centre.

Closest black hole to Earth

DATELINE

A0620-00 is a binary system containing a low-mass star and a stellar black hole. The
system is located approximately 3,000 light years away from Earth, in the constellation
Monoceros. The black hole in this star system has a mass at least 3.2 times that of the Sun
CPFEQWNFDGCUOWEJCUVKOGUJGCXKGT1PEGGXGT[JTKVKUQTDKVGFD[C-V[RGUVCT
QPGVJCVKPUVGNNCTVGTOUJCUCTGNCVKXGN[EQQNVGORGTCVWTG6JGCTVKUVUKORTGUUKQPCDQXG
UJQYUVJGEQORCPKQPUVCTECWIJVKPVJGDNCEMJQNGUITCXKVCVKQPCNRWNN

380 MYA
26 Space

MOST SCIENTIFICALLY ACCURATE


BLACK HOLE IN A MOVIE
Gargantua (above) is the ctional black hole in the
movieInterstellar (released 5Nov 2014). It was rendered
using code called Double Negative Gravitational
Renderer (DNGR), which was developed by visual
effects company Double Negative in collaboration
withrenowned physicist Kip Thorne (USA, below).
It works by solving equations for bundles of light
propagating around the curved space-time of a spinning
black hole. The result is an accurate reproduction of the
gravitational lensing effects
an observer would see if they
were there. While the initial
black hole they produced
was more realistic, director
Christopher Nolan requested
a few changes to make it
more comprehensible to
movie audiences a decision
that Thorne agreed with.

Shortest distance between


two black holes
In Mar 2009, a team of
astronomers reported
that the quasar SDSS
J153636.22+044127.0
appears to contain a binary
black hole at its centre.
Revealed by spectral
analysis of their light, the
two black holes weigh the
equivalent of 50 million and
20 million Suns, but are
only one-third of a light year
apart. This is less than 10%
of the distance between
our Sun and the nearest
star, Alpha Centauri.

Farthest object ever visible


to the naked eye
Gamma-ray bursts are the
birth cries of black holes,
created as supermassive
stars exhaust their fuel and
collapse to a singularity. On
19 Mar 2008, NASAs Swift
satellite detected a gammaray burst from a galaxy
7.5 billion light years away.
Some 3040 sec after
the detection by Swift, the
optical counterpart of the
gamma burst was picked up
by telescopes on Earth. The
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referred to by astronomers

First known example of a live birth


A mother and embryo placoderm (prehistoric armoured sh) perish, producing a well-preserved fossil in which the embryo is
attached to its mother via an umbilical cord. Some 25 cm (9.8in) long, the species will be named Materpiscis attenboroughi.

FAST FACTS
Black holes distort space and time: the closer you get to one, the more time slows
down Prof John Wheeler (USA) coined the term black hole in 1967 The term
forthe way matter is shredded by the gravity of a black hole is spaghettication

At the heart of the spiral galaxy NGC 1365 is a black


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black hole is spinning at around 84% of the speed of light.

as GRB 080319B was


visible to the naked eye for
approximately 30 sec. In
technical terms, it had an
apparent magnitude of 5.8,
making it about as bright as
the planet Uranus appears
from Earth.
Apparent magnitude is a
scale used in astronomy to
describe the brightness of
objects as seen from Earth.
Confusingly, the numbers
in the magnitude scale run
backwards: the brighter the
light from an astronomical
object appears, the lower
its apparent magnitude
number will be.

Later the same year,


on 16 Sep, NASAs Fermi
Gamma-ray Space Telescope
detected the most powerful
gamma-ray burst ever,
from 12.2 billion light years
away in the direction of the
Carina constellation. The
event recorded by Fermi
was as powerful as around
9,000 normal supernovae.
The blast threw out material
at speeds of 99.9999% of
the speed of light.
Brightest quasar in the sky
Quasar 3C 273 is some
2.5 billion light years away
in the constellation of Virgo.

Despite its distance, it has


an apparent magnitude of
12.9 bright enough for it
to be seen with relatively
modest telescopes. The
extreme luminosity of
this quasar is believed to
be caused by the heating
of a huge accretion disc
(revolving disc of material)
surrounding a supermassive
black hole. If 3C 273 was
just 30 light years away,
it would shine as brightly
as the Sun in our sky.
Most powerful X-ray flare
from a black hole in the
Milky Way
On 14 Sep 2013,
astronomers using NASAs
Chandra X-ray Observatory
detected an increase in
X-ray radiation of a factor of
400 from the supermassive
black hole Sagittarius A*,
located at the centre of
the Milky Way galaxy. The
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powerful than the previous
holder, which occurred in
the same region in 2012.
It lasted for a couple of
hours, which is consistent
with one theory about its
origins. Scientists have
speculated that an asteroid
was torn apart by the
gravitational force of the
black hole, and that its

Nearest supermassive black hole


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telescope. The different colours represent X-rays of different
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the centre of the galaxy emitting X-rays. Sagittarius A* is
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debris was then heated


as it spiralled into the event
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Most massive overcontact binary


VFTS 352 is a binary star system in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud,
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Acoustic waves generated
by a supermassive black
hole in the centre of
the Perseus cluster of
galaxies, 250 million light
years away, have given
rise to a phenomenally
deep note. The sound,
which propagates through
the extremely thin gas
surrounding the black
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below middle C.
We cant hear this noise
because sound waves
cannot travel through the
vacuum of space and so
the black holes rumblings
are contained within the
gas cloud. Also, the note
produced is more than a

Largest galactic collision


A group of around 300 galaxies slams into a larger group of approximately 1,000 galaxies, resulting
in Abell 754 a turbulent giant galactic cluster with a diameter of approximately 1million light years.

million billion times lower


than the deepest note a
human ear can detect.
These acoustic waves
were discovered by
an international team
of astronomers led by
Prof Andrew Fabian
(UK) using observations
recorded by the Chandra
X-ray Observatory.

DID YO

U KNOW
An even
?
t horizo
n is the
astrono
term
mers use
to descri
outer pe
be the
rimeter
of a black
Beyond
hole.
this bou
n
dary, no
not eve
thing
n light
can esca
black ho
pe the
les pull
and will
in. Itis p
erhaps th be sucked
e ultima
point o
te
f no retu
rn.

300 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 27

DATELINE

Fastest spinning
supermassive black hole

TM

DATELINE

EARTH

240 MYA
28 Earth

Oldest known dinosaur


The small, meat-eating Nyasasaurus parringtoni thrives in Tanzania; analysis
offossils in 2012 reveals that it is the oldest dinosaur by 1015 million years.

CONTENTS
EARTH FACTOGRAPHIC

30

WILD WEATHER

32

CLOUDS

34

BIZARRE GEOLOGY

36

REEFS

38

RAINFORESTS

40

KILLER PLANTS

42

Longest-burning methane crater

Longest dinosaur
At 3952m (128170ft) in length, Seismosaurus halli a diplodocid
sauropoddinosaur is the lengthiest vertebrate to ever roam the Earth.

154 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 29

DATELINE

The Darvaza Crater, also known as the Door to Hell, is located


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WORLD OF GOLD

Our home planet carries us through space at more than


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EARTH

FACTOGRAPHIC

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9 Trace elements

WHERE FOUND

ELEMENT

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FALLING THROUGH
THE EARTH

WHAT MAKES THE EARTH?

1.2%

1.4%















AMOUNT

It took billions of years for Earth to change from a


whirling mass of gas and dust to a habitable planet,
creating the unique mix of elements listed below.

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BOWLING BALL EARTH

WATER, WATER, EVERYWHERE


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DID YOU

KNOW?
H M survey
ship Challe
nger rst
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and named
deepest pa
the
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below), wit
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peak wou
s
ld sit2km
(1 .2mi)
below the
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RAINING CHAMPION

WILD WEATHER

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When cold, dense air from high altitudes flows downhill under the force of gravity, it
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trains. Because these winds are driven by the local geography, they are known for their
consistency of direction. The term derives from the Greek word katabasis (descending).

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Trentepohlia annulata

OLDEST
DESCRIPTION
OF VOLCANIC
LIGHTNING

DATELINE

In volcanic eruptions that


include a large ash plume,
an electrical charge builds
up in the air above the
volcano and discharges as
lightning. The rst known
description of volcanic
lightning was written by
Roman statesman Pliny the
Younger, who witnessed
the 79 CE eruption of Mount
Vesuvius. He narrowly
escaped with his life, and
his famous uncle, Pliny
the Elder, died trying to
evacuate nearby towns.

153 MYA
32 Earth

Oldest ying bird


Archaeopteryx lithographica ourishes in what is now southern Germany; with feathers
and wings but also claws and teeth, it is a key link between dinosaurs and birds.

First
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shaped ice crystals align,
reflecting sunlight.

FAST FACTS
On 3Mar 1876, it rained raw meat near Rankin in Kentucky, USA Tropical
cyclones that form in the Atlantic or eastern Pacic are called hurricanes,
while those that form in the western Pacic are called typhoons

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DID YO

This ice-g U KNOW?


lazed ca
chilling
r shows
afterma
the
th of an
in this
ice storm
instance
, after a
offreezi
fall
ng rain
Switzerl
in Verso
and, in 2
ix,
012. To q
an ice st
ualify as
orm, the
rain mu
least a 0
st leave
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at
ick (6.35
coating
-mm)
of ice on
exposed
surfaces.

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On 29 Aug 2005,
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First known hominid


Orrorin tugenensis walks on two legs and is about the size of an adult female chimp. Scientists in the Kenya
Palaeontology Expedition announce their discovery of its 6-million-year-old fossilized remains in Dec 2000.

6 MYA

guinnessworldrecords.com 33

DATELINE

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a devastating ice storm hit
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travel impossible and cut off
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of Qubec. The bill was an
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CLOUDS
GALLERY

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CPFTKXGTU5QOGENQWFUTKFGCUJKIJCUCLGVRNCPGQVJGTUETGGRCNQPIVJGITQWPF
KPCOKUV6JG[CTGPCOGFCEEQTFKPIVQVJGKTUJCRGCPFVJGKTJGKIJVKPVJGUM[

3
1

DATELINE

HIGHEST CLOUDS
1EEWTTKPICVCNVKVWFGUQHCTQWPFOK

MO PQEVKNWEGPVENQWFU
VQRKP
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5.9 MYA
34 Earth

LOWEST CLOUDS
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NC[GTVJG5WPQT/QQPOC[UJKPGVJTQWIJ

CLOUDS WITH THE


GREATESTVERTICAL RANGE
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Largest sea to dry up


Geologic processes block the channel between the Atlantic Ocean and
the Mediterranean Sea, transforming the latter into a dry salt basin.

HIGHEST OCCURRENCE
OFDIAMOND DUST
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6
DID YO

U KNOW
British a
?
mateur
mete
Luke Ho
ward (177 orologist
known a
2
1
8
64) is
s the na
mer of cl
He knew
oud
that clou
dwatchin s.
the key
to weath
g was
e
r
fo
recastin
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d the th
g, and
re
e major
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cloud
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n
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r sprea
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heap)
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s (curl
ofhair)
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5
6

SLOWEST CLOUDS
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MOST RECENTLY CLASSIFIED


CLOUD FORMATION
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LONGEST-LASTING
MOUSTACHE CLOUD
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Heaviest ying bird ever


Argentavis magnicens, a massive condor-like bird weighing 72kg (158lb) heavier
than a fully grown adult man rules the skies over Miocene South America.

5 MYA

guinnessworldrecords.com 35

DATELINE

LARGEST SOLITON CLOUDS


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OCKPVCKPVJGKTUJCRGYJKNGOQXKPICV
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QPVJGNGCFKPIGFIGQHVJGENQWF

BIZARRE GEOLOGY
Largest geological feature
discovered from space
Located in the part of the
Sahara Desert that lies
within Mauritania, the
Richat Structure is a circular,
multi-ringed sedimentary
basin with a diameter of
around 50 km (31 mi). Once
thought to be an impact
crater, it is now believed to
be the eroded remains of an
uplifted sedimentary dome.
This distinctive bulls-eye
feature was discovered
from orbit by US astronauts
Jim McDivitt and Ed White
on the Gemini 4 mission
in Jun 1965.
Newest ocean
In 2005, a rift some 56 km
(35 mi) long opened up in
the Afar Depression (the
lowest point in Africa,
also known as the Danakil
Depression) in Ethiopia. In
Nov 2009, scientists stated
that their analysis showed
the rift to be the start of the
formation of a new ocean.

The tectonic processes


occurring under Afar are the
same as those on the ocean
RRUDWULGJHVZKHUHQHZ
crust forms and the existing
crust is pushed apart.
Largest stone forest
The Grand Tsingy in
western Madagascar is a
600-km2 (230-sq-mi) stone
forest of sharp limestone
pinnacles dating from the
Jurassic period (201.3
145 million years ago).
Over time, this limestone
has been eroded by rain,
forming a landscape in
which limestone peaks
reach 90 m (295 ft) in height.
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The Racetrack Playa a dry
lake bed in Death Valley on
the US Nevada-California
border is home to sailing
stones. The rocks here
appear to have moved on
their own, leaving trails
across the surface up to
880 m (2,887 ft) long. Two

Largest cannonball concretions


Cannonball concretions are roughly spherical boulders formed by the natural cementation of
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HVKP CETQUUCPFCTGHQWPFKP
Rock City, Kansas, USA, as well as in central Wyoming and north-east Utah, USA, where they are
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EOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ 
scientists discovered the
cause in Dec 2013 when
checking on equipment
put in place to research
this phenomenon. All it
takes is the heating up
of a thin sheet of ground

ice and a light breeze.


As the ice begins to break
up, the rocks sometimes
get caught up and moved
in a process known as
ice shove.

DID YOU
KNOW?
Wave Ro
ck (see b
e

compose
low) is
d of gran
ite datin
2.7 billio
g back
n years.
It was fo
a result
rmed as
of the gra
nite bein
by acidic
g eroded
Most natural arches
that once conditions in th
e soil
covered
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it
, rather
water ero
than by
sion. Th
e feature
Arches National
to the Yil
belongs
garn Cra
Park in Utah, USA, has
ton, part
the orig
of
inal Aust
2,067 natural arches with
ralian
landma
ss
.
spans of 3 ft (90 cm) or

more; the largest exceed


300 ft (97 m).

Largest
flared slope
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O
HV VCNN
with an exposed area of
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USHV 
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north face of Hyden
Rock in Western
Australia.

LONGEST NATURAL ARCH

DATELINE

Xian Ren Qiao (Fairy Bridge) is located north-west of


Fengshan in Guangxi Province, China. A subclass of
archknown as a natural bridge, Xian Ren Qiao was
formed by the Buliu River carving through terrain
composed of limestone. An expedition by the Natural
Arch and Bridge Society in Oct 2010 measured its
spanatapproximately 400 ft (120m).

3.6 MYA
36 Earth

Oldest hominid footprints


Two or three hominids stride upright on the ashy plains of present-day Laetoli in northern Tanzania, leaving the earliest
known human-like footprints. The track consists of some 70 prints in two parallel trails about 30m (100ft) long.

FAST FACTS
Pumice is the only rock that oats in water Sand makes up only about
30%of the Sahara Desert Scientists have identied about 4,000 minerals
Youcould t about 4million Empire State Buildings into the Grand Canyon

Highest natural arch


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expedition from National Geographic measured the height
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Waterfall with the


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Discovered in 1952, the
Cave of the Three Bridges
in Tannourine, Lebanon,
contains a waterfall that
plunges 255 m (836 ft) past
three natural stone bridges.
It cuts through 160-millionyear-old Jurassic limestone.

Longest cave system


Mammoth Cave in
Mammoth Cave National
Park, Kentucky, USA, is
a network of limestone
chambers of which around
400 mi (640 km) have
been explored so far.
Created by the weathering
action of the Green River

and its tributaries, the


cave has taken some
25 million years to form.
It is home to around 200
indigenous species, mostly
invertebrates.
Deepest cave
On 10 Aug 2013, Ukrainian
caver Gennady Samokhin
extended the explored depth
of the Krubera Cave in the
Arabika Massif, Georgia,
by 6 m (19 ft 8 in). Krubera,
the only known cave with
a depth greater than 2 km
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depth of 2,197 m (7,208 ft).

Largest slot canyon

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believe that it formed after an explosion of methane hitherto
trapped in the permafrost. Seven such craters have now
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Slot canyons evolve when hairline cracks in rock gradually


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flash floods. The US state of Utah is particularly rich in these
formations, owing to its dry conditions and the presence of soft
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KUCRRTQZKOCVGN[O
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First recognizable human


The tool-using Homo habilis evolves from a hominid such as Australopithecus afarensis, although it has
smaller teeth and a larger brain than its ancestors. It lives in what is today eastern and southern Africa.

2.5 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 37

DATELINE

Largest concentration of
OGVJCPGGZRNQUKQPETCVGTU

REEFS
Oldest coral reef
The Chazy Reef Formation
is a fossilized coral reef that
extends from Tennessee,
USA, to Newfoundland,
Canada. It originally formed
around 450 million years
ago in what was then the
Iapetus Ocean. Its most
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in Vermont at Isle La Motte,
a rocky lake island that was
once a substantial colony
of stromatoporoid coral.

the coast of Florida, USA,


revealed a new type of coral
ecosystem. Unlike all the
deep-water reefs previously
studied, Pulley Ridge has
photosynthesizing algae.
This is impressive, because
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at a depth of 80 m (262 ft)
receives only 1% of the light
that reaches the surface.
Deep-water corals are
found everywhere from
Norway to Nova Scotia,

Deepest photosynthetic
coral reef
In 1999, research at a
deep-water reef called
Pulley Ridge, located off

LONGEST REEF

DATELINE

The Great Barrier Reef, located


offthe coast of Queensland in
north-eastern Australia, measures
some 1,260mi (2,027km) from end to end.
Thats about the same as the distance from Miami to
New York City or from Madrid to Rome.
The Great Barrier Reef is, in fact, a reef system
comprising some 2,900 separate colonies of living coral
that covers an area of 80,000sqmi (207,200km).
The reef is a diverse but fragile ecosystem, maintained
bya delicate balance between the more than5,000
species that call it home. Seemingly minorhuman
interference can have
dramatic effects. It is
suspected, for example,
that overshing
certainpredators
creates plagues
of coral-eating
starsh that kill
off whole reefs.

1.65 MYA
38 Earth

but their hard-to-reach


locations mean that little
is known about their
ecosystems and life-cycles.

LARGEST...
Reef system ever
A system of glass sponge
reefs, 7,000 km (4,350 mi)
from end to end, thrived in
the Tethys Ocean during
the Late Jurassic (157145
million years ago).
It was more than
three times the
length of the Great
Barrier Reef. Such
reefs were thought
to be extinct, but
living examples were
discovered in the 1980s.

Largest raised coral atoll


A raised coral atoll is an island that forms as a normal, mostly
submerged coral atoll, but is then lifted far above sea level
by tectonic forces. The largest of these is Lifou Island in the
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USOK CPFKUJQOGVQCTQWPFRGQRNG
The largest system of
glass sponge reefs today is
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coast, covering around
700 km2 (270 sq mi) of
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Charlotte Sound.
It is home to
sponges

that are as tall as 21 m


(69 ft) thats more than
four storeys high and in
excess of 9,000 years old.
Barrier reef system in
VJGPQTVJGTPJGOKURJGTG
Barrier reefs are separated
from the mainland or island

Oldest stone tools


In Africa, oval- and pear-shaped tools are made by chipping akes from stone to create sharp or rounded edges.
The oldest surviving samples of these Acheulean tools are later found in the West Turkana region of Kenya.

FAST FACTS
Technically, the word reef describes any underwater obstruction
Coralsare marine invertebrates (phylum Cnidaria) related to jellysh
andanemones Coral reefs are home to around 25% of all sh species

Largest atoll archipelago


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USOK QHVJCVKUNCPF

Largest coral die-off


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FKG$NGCEJKPIKUCRJGPQOGPQPKPYJKEJFCOCIGFTGGHUUJGF
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EQTCNKVUGNH
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UEKGPVKUVUDGNKGXGVJCVCVJKTFUWEJGXGPVKUEWTTGPVN[VCMKPIRNCEG
shore by a deep, and often
wide, lagoon. Although
large barrier reefs are
FRPPRQLQWKH3DFLFWKH
Caribbean is home to only
a few. No reef system in
the northern hemisphere
is more extensive than the
Belize Barrier Reef, which
stretches from the coast of
southern Mexico to northern
Guatemala. It is second
in size only to the Great
Barrier Reef, the largest
reef system in the southern
hemisphere and the overall
longest reef (see left).

Double barrier reef


Only six double barrier reefs
reefs formed as inner
and outer layers exist in
the world today. Of these,
the largest is the Danajon
Bank, which is 272 km2
(105 sq mi) in size. It lies
between the islands of
Cebu and Bohol in the
Philippines.
Atoll reef
An atoll reef is
an often more
or less circular
coral reef that

encloses a shallow lagoon.


The largest is Kwajalein
Atoll, one of the Marshall
Islands, which twists and
turns for 176 mi (283 km)
to enclose a lagoon of
1,100 sq mi (2,850 km)
the largest body of water
enclosed by an atoll. The
lagoon is so large that
observers cannot see the
islands on one side from
the other.

Although Kwajalein is
the largest atoll, very little
of it is above sea level. The
largest atoll by land area is
Kiritimati, part of the Line
Islands chain in the central
3DFLF7KLVLVDSDUWLDOO\
raised atoll (see left) whose
islands cover an area of
235 sq mi (609 km2) around
a small lagoon.
Fringing reef
This type of reef occurs
close to the shore with no
intervening lagoon. The
largest is Ningaloo Reef in
Western Australia, which
is approximately 300 km
(180 mi) long and some
100 m (330 ft) from the
shore at its closest point.

Marine reserve
The Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands Marine
National Monument
covers 356,879 km
(137,791 sq mi) of the
3DFLF7KHUHHIVLQWKLV
protected region about
the size of Germany are
home to more than 7,000
species, a quarter of which
are found nowhere else.

DID YO

U KNOW
The Gre
at Carrie
?
r Reef is
only ree
nt the
f with a
warship
Kwajale
in A
in it.
the wreck toll (see left) is
home to
of the G
erman b
Prinz Eu
attleship
gen, wh
ich sank
US Navy
while th
was usin
e
g
it in nucl
tests du
ear
ring 194
6. It was
radioact
too
ive to m
ove and
is now a
popular
dive site
.

.CTIGUVCTVKEKCNTGGH

Oldest musical instrument


In a campsite located in modern-day Ljubljana, Slovenia, a Neanderthal takes a segment of
femur from a cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and pierces it with four holes to create a bone ute.

43,000 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 39

DATELINE

+PVJG750CX[FGEKFGFVJCVVJGHV
O CKTETCHV
ECTTKGT755Oriskany, which had been rusting away in a navy
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TGGH1P/C[CHVGTVYQ[GCTUQHYQTMVQTGOQXGVQZKE
insulation materials, the Oriskany was sent to the bottom of the
)WNHQH/GZKEQD[ND
MI QHECTGHWNN[RNCEGFGZRNQUKXGU

DGNQY 6JGOriskany has since attracted an abundance of


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NGHV EQOOQPN[
MPQYPCUVJG)TGCV%CTTKGT4GGH

RAINFORESTS
295,000 km2
(113,900 sq mi)
of the west
coasts of the
USA and Canada.
These forests
are only
around
a few
thousand years old, having
formed after the last Ice Age.
Largest coastal
OCPITQXGHQTGUV
The Sundarbans stretches
for almost 6,000 sq mi
(15,540 km) across eastern
India and Bangladesh, and
acts as a natural barrier
against tsunamis and
cyclones that often blow
in from the Bay of Bengal.
The mangrove trees in this
forest sometimes exceed
70 ft (21 m) in height, above
islands of layered sand
and grey clay. They have
saltwater-tolerant roots.

(KTUVWUGQHCECPQR[TCHVKPTCKPHQTGUVTGUGCTEJ
+P1EVDKQNQIKUV(TCPEKU*CNN
(4# NGFVJGTUVGZRGFKVKQPVQVJGECPQR[QHVJGTCKPHQTGUVKP
5PCMG%TGGM)W[CPC*KUVGCOWUGFCECPQR[TCHVFGUKIPGFD[RKQPGGTKPI(TGPEJDCNNQQPKUV&CP[
%NG[GV/CTTGNYJKEJYCUFTQRRGFQPVQVJGVQRQHVJGTCKPHQTGUVECPQR[D[CPCGTQUVCV
CNKIJVGT
VJCPCKTETCHVUWEJCUCPCKTUJKR 6JGTCHVKVUGNHYCUCO2
USHV JGZCIQPVJCVWUGFCKT
KPHNCVGFDGCOUCPFRQN[XKP[NEJNQTKFGPGVVKPI9GKIJKPILWUVMI
ND KVYCUFGUKIPGFVQTGUV
QPVJGTCKPHQTGUVECPQR[YKVJQWVFCOCIKPIPGYITQYVJ6JKUTUVGZRGFKVKQPYJKEJCNUQEQWPVGFCU
GNFVTKCNUCNNQYGFUEKGPVKUVUVQUCORNGVTGGUCPFRNCPVUCPFRTGUGTXGVJGOHQTNCVGTUVWF[
1NFGUVVGTTGUVTKCNDKQOG
Most of Earths tropical
rainforests have been
established for at least
a million years, although
some are much older. They

?
U KNOW
bes
DID YOnf
ri
sc
de
t
ores

DATELINE

ai
The term r
nse tree
ith both a de
any area w
140cm
an
th
e
or
m
d
canopy an
ll. In
fa
in
ra
al
nu
(55in) of an
tropical
n
w
no
the well-k
rate
pe
addition to
m
te
there are
rainforests,
es such
ac
pl
in
s
st
rainfore
orway
est USA, N
as north-w
d.
and Irelan

survived the last Ice Age,


which ended around 10,000
years ago, because unlike
the majority of the planet,
the equatorial forests did
not freeze over.
The oldest rainforest
of them all is the Daintree
Rainforest, located on
the north-east coast of
Queensland in Australia.
It covers around 1,200 km2
(463 sq mi) and is part
of the Wet Tropics of
Queensland, which was
made a World Heritage
Site in 1988 by the United
Nations Educational,
6FLHQWLFDQG&XOWXUDO
Organization (UNESCO).

30,000 BCE
40 Earth

This area represents the


largest single contiguous
block of rainforest in
Australia and is estimated
to be 180 million years old.
.CTIGUVVGORGTCVGTCKPHQTGUV
Temperate rainforests,
which exist outside the
Earths tropics, generally
form where relatively warm
ocean temperatures impact
inland climates. They have
a much greater seasonal
variation than tropical
rainforests. The largest
expanse of this biome
RQ(DUWKLVWKH3DFLF
Temperate Rainforests,
which cover around

Largest tropical
HQTGUVTGUGTXG
The Tumucumaque
National Park is located
in the rainforest of the
northern Amazonian
state of Amap in
Brazil. Measuring some
38,875 km (15,010 sq mi)

Largest natural
RJCTOCE[
#TQWPFQHCNNYGUVGTP
pharmaceutical products
come from ingredients in
VTQRKECNTCKPHQTGUVUQYKPI
VQVJGKTTKEJDKQFKXGTUKV[
Indigenous tribes have
utilized plants for medicinal
purposes for millennia,
DWVVJGYGUVGTPYQTNFQPN[
began to rediscover them
in the second half of the
VJEGPVWT[
in area, the reserve contains
many endangered species
of plant and animal. The
creation of the park was
announced on 22 Aug
2002 by Brazilian president
Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
.CTIGUVTKXGTDCUKP
The greatest river basin
is that drained by the
Amazon, covering

Biome with the


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The precise number of animal and plant species
VJCVGZKUVKPVJGYQTNFUVTQRKECNTCKPHQTGUVUKUWPMPQYP
Current estimates of biodiversity suggest that
UQOGVJKPIKPVJGTCPIGQHQHCNN'CTVJUNKXKPI
URGEKGUCTGEQPEGPVTCVGFKPVJKUJCDKVCVYJKEJVQFC[
EQXGTUCTQWPFQHVJGRNCPGVUUWTHCEG

Oldest paintings
A group of Stone Age humans paint portraits of animals and imaginary
beasts on the walls of a cave in what is now southern France.

FAST FACTS
Around 70% of plants identied as potential anti-cancer treatments are native
to rainforests If it were a country, the Amazonian rainforest would be the ninth
largest More than 20% of Earths oxygen is made in the Amazon rainforest

YDQLOODIDPLO\WKLVRZHU
grows in the rainforests of
Queensland, Australia, and is
a saprophyte (i.e., it feeds on
decaying organic material).
It is not free-standing, but is
supported by other trees.

6CNNGUVVTQRKECNTCKPHQTGUVVTGGU
Above the canopy of rainforests is the emergent layer,
EQORTKUKPICUOCNNPWODGTQHXGT[NCTIGVTGGU6JGVCNNGUVKU
VJGMCRQMVTGG
Ceiba pentandra YJKEJITQYUVQO
HV 
CVCTCVGQHCTQWPFO
HV RGT[GCT+VECPDGHQWPFOCKPN[
KPUQWVJGTP/GZKEQVJGUQWVJGTP#OC\QPCPF9GUV#HTKEC
around 7,045,000 km
(2,720,000 sq mi). It has
countless tributaries,
including the Madeira,
which at 3,380 km
(2,100 mi) is the longest
river tributary.
Perhaps unsurprisingly,
the Amazon is the widest
river. :KLOHQRWLQRRG
its main stretches reach
widths of up to 11 km (7 mi)
at their broadest.

The Amazon also has


the JUHDWHVWULYHURZ, with
an average discharge rate
of about 200,000 m/sec
(7,100,000 cu ft/sec)
thats 80% of an Olympic
swimming pool into
the Atlantic Ocean.
6CNNGUVQTEJKF
A height of 15 m (49 ft) has
been recorded for the orchid
)CNGQNCHQNKCVC. Part of the

(CUVGUVFGENKPKPIDKQOG
Tropical rainforests are
shrinking more quickly
than any other biome.
A 2002 study using
satellites revealed that
around 5.8 million ha
(14.3 million acres) of
rainforest per year were
lost from 1990 to 1997.
Between 2000 and 2005,
Central America lost 1.3% of
its tropical rainforests each
year; around two-thirds of
its rainforests have become
pasture since 1950.

.CTIGUVVTGGEQXGTNQUU
D[CTGC
Tree-cover loss refers to
the removal of trees, which
may be within natural
forests or tree plantations,
and can result from factors
such as mechanical
KDUYHVWLQJUHGLVHDVHRU
storm damage. According
to data from the University
of Maryland and Google
published by Global Forest
Watch, over the years
200114 Russia suffered
the greatest tree-cover
loss largely boreal forests
with 40.94 million of its
761 million hectares lost.
In terms of the global
impact of deforestation,
however, it is Brazil and
Indonesia (with some of
Earths most extensive

tropical forests) that have


historically come under
scrutiny for their rates of
deforestation. Brazil lost
38 million of its 519 million
hectares of tree cover,
ranking second globally
after Russia in absolute
tree-cover loss (mostly
tropical forest) in 200114.
More worryingly, and despite
a drop in 2013, Indonesias
tree-cover loss rose by more
than 30% in 201314 the
largest deforestation by
annual increase rate
while that of Brazil rose
by only 16% during the
same time period. The two
countries showed a less
marked three-year average
trend 0.46% and 1.01%
respectively for the years
2012 to 2014.

LARGEST
TROPICALRAINFOREST
The Amazon rainforest spans nine South
American countries and covers some
5.56.2millionkm2 (2.12.3million sqmi). This
is necessarily an estimate, not only because
the rainforest does not have distinct edges,
but also because it merges with similar biomes
across its indistinct boundaries. It is part of the
Amazon biome covering 6.76.9millionkm2
(2.52.6 million sq mi) and includes the whole
of the Amazon River Basin. Approximately
two-thirds of the rainforest is in Brazil.

Highest concentration
QHWPEQPVCEVGFVTKDGU

Largest waterfall ever


The ice dam holding Glacial Lake Missoula collapses, sending billions of
tons of water over cliffs in what is now eastern Washington state, USA.

13,000 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 41

DATELINE

According to the human rights organization Survival


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VTKDGUKPVJGYQTNFVQFC[/QTGVJCPJCNHQHVJGUGCTGDGNKGXGF
VQNKXGYKVJKPVJG$TC\KN2GTWTGIKQPQHVJG#OC\QPKCP
TCKPHQTGUV/CP[QHVJGUGVTKDGUCEVKXGN[EJQQUGVQJCXGPQ
EQPVCEVYKVJVJGQWVUKFGYQTNFUQOGVKOGUD[GZJKDKVKPI
JQUVKNKV[VQQWVUKFGTUKPENWFKPIPGKIJDQWTKPIVTKDGU

KILLER PLANTS

Most fluorescent
carnivorous
plant
In a 2013 study, the peristome
(the slippery ring of tissue at
the opening to the pitcher) of
the Khasi Hills pitcher plant
(Nepenthes khasiana) of India
was found to emit fluorescent
light of a wavelength of
PCPQOGVTGU

KGDNWGNKIJV 

First plant species


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LQWKHWD[RQRPLFIDPLO\
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%5$ KDGSRVWHGDSKRWR
RQ)DFHERRNRIDVXQGHZ
SODQWWKDWKHKDGVHHQZKLOH
H[SORULQJDMXQJOHLQ0LQDV
*HUDLVVRXWKHDVWHUQ%UD]LO
,Q-XOWKHVXQGHZZDV
LGHQWLHGE\H[SHUWVDVD
KLWKHUWRXQNQRZQVSHFLHV
7KHlargest species of
sundew is &GT[VJTQI[PG, a
FOLPELQJVSHFLHVHQGHPLF
WR:HVWHUQ$XVWUDOLD
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VFUDPEOLQJVWHPWKDWFDQ
JURZWRP IWLQ ORQJ
2IFRVPRSROLWDQGLVWULEXWLRQ
VXQGHZVDUHFDUQLYRURXV
IDPRXVIRUFDSWXULQJDQG

Most dangerous tree


A member of the spurge family, the manchineel (Hippomane mancinella) grows in the USAs
Florida Everglades and on the Caribbean coast. The sap that its trunk exudes is so acidic
and poisonous that the merest contact with human skin causes a breakout of blisters; if it
touches the eyes, it can cause blindness. Even standing under the tree in the rain is enough
to cause blistering if the skin is wetted by raindrops containing any sap.

digesting insects and


RWKHUVPDOOLQYHUWHEUDWHV
7KHSODQWVWUDSWKHLUSUH\
XSRQJOLVWHQLQJGURSVRI
GHZOLNHPXFXVDWWKH
WLSVRIPXFXVVHFUHWLQJ
WHQWDFOHVRQWKHLUOHDYHV

and southern Oregon, USA.


%UXVKUHVUHJXODUO\VZHHS
through this area, and the
FREUDOLO\KDVHYROYHGWKH
DELOLW\WRUHJURZLWVOHDYHV
DQGSLWFKHUVIURPLWVURRW
DIWHUVXFKDFRQDJUDWLRQ

/QUVTGRTQQH
ECTPKXQTQWURNCPV
7KHFREUDOLO\ &CTNKPIVQPKC
ECNKHQTPKEC LVQRWDWUXH
OLO\EXWDVSHFLHVRI
SLWFKHUSODQW,WLV
QDWLYHWRWKHVRXWKHUQ
HQGRIWKH&DVFDGH
Mountains range in
QRUWKHUQ&DOLIRUQLD

Largest prey of any


carnivorous plant
Both 0GRGPVJGUTCLCJ and
0TCHHNGUKCPCKDYHEHHQ
NQRZQWRHDWODUJHIURJV
ELUGVDQGHYHQUDWV7KHVH
VSHFLHVDUHFRPPRQO\
IRXQGLQWKHUDLQIRUHVWVRI
$VLDLQSDUWLFXODU%RUQHR
,QGRQHVLDDQG0DOD\VLD

FASTEST ENTRAPMENT
BYACARNIVOROUS PLANT

DATELINE

Carnivorous plants trap their prey in movements


considered to be among the fastest in the plant kingdom.
On land, the clamshell-like leaves of the Venus ytrap
(Dionaea muscipula, left) shut in one tenth of a second
(100 milliseconds) from the moment they are stimulated,
typically by insect
prey moving into the
trap. Underwater, the
hinged trapdoor of the
bladderwort (Utricularia
vulgaris, right) captures its
victim in 1/15,000th of a
second. The bladderwort
has no roots; its eshy
underwater leaf branches
are lled with air
and keep the plant
buoyant, enabling
it to oat.

9500 BCE
42 Earth

Earliest cultivated food crops


Neolithic farmers in south-west Asia begin sowing domesticated plants for human
consumption, including pulses, cereal and ax.

Most selective
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0GRGPVJGUCNDQOCTIKPCVC
DWWUDFWVDQGIHHGV
H[FOXVLYHO\RQWKHIRUDJLQJ
WHUPLWH*QURKVCNKVGTOGU
DKEQNQT*URZLQJLQWKH
UDLQIRUHVWVRI0DOD\VLDDQG
Indonesia, 0CNDQOCTIKPCVC
LVDOVRWKHRQO\SODQWWR
RIIHULWVRZQWLVVXHWR
VHFXUHDPHDO7KHSODQW
JURZVDULQJRIHGLEOH
ZKLWHKDLUV WULFKRPHV 
ZKLFKDWWUDFWWKHWHUPLWHV
7KHVHLQVHFWVIUHTXHQWO\
VOLSGRZQWKHWKURDWRI
WKHSODQWDQGDUHWKHQ

TRIVIA
Tomato leaves and
stems contain a poison
called tomatine,
considered a natural
pesticide. Apple seeds
contain tiny doses of
amygdalin a cyanide
and sugar compound.

FAST FACTS
Only 5% of the Venus ytraps diet consists of ies The poisonous plant
wolfsbane was once thought to ward off werewolves, hence its name The rst
major study of carnivorous plants was produced by CharlesDarwin in 1875

Most poisonous
common plant
Ricin the poison of the castor
oil plant (Ricinus communis)
KUVKOGUOQTGVQZKEVJCP
cyanide and 12,000 times more
toxic than rattlesnake venom.
According to 6JG/GTEM+PFGZ
#P'PE[ENQRGFKCQH%JGOKECNU
&TWIUCPF$KQNQIKECNU
(1997 edition), a dose of
OKETQITCOU
Q\ 
is enough to kill a person
YGKIJKPIMI
ND 
GLJHVWHG8QZLWWLQJO\
KRZHYHUVXUYLYLQJWHUPLWHV
HQFRXUDJHPRUHRIWKHLU
IHOORZSUH\WRYLVLWWKHSODQW
E\UHWXUQLQJWRWKHLUFRORQ\
ZLWKWKHKDLUV
Smallest family of
carnivorous plants
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&HSKDORWDFHDHFRQWDLQV

Most dangerous stinger


6JGPGYJKVGUVKPIKPIJCKTUQH0GY<GCNCPFUVTGG
nettle, aka ongaonga (7TVKECHGTQZ), inject toxins into
the skin that are potent enough to kill dogs and horses.
The hairs contain many skin irritants, notably histamine,
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), acetylcholine and
HQTOKECEKF1PCVNGCUVQPGQEECUKQPKPVJG
RNCPVKUMPQYPVQJCXGMKNNGFCOCPLWUVXGJQWTU
CHVGTUMKPEQPVCEV

MXVWDVLQJOHVSHFLHVWKH
$XVWUDOLDQSLWFKHUSODQW
%GRJCNQVWUHQNNKEWNCTKU 
ZKLFKLVDOVRNQRZQDV
WKH$OEDQ\SLWFKHUSODQW
$VPDOOVSHFLHVZLWKGHHS
UHGGLVKSXUSOHSLWFKHUVLW
VWDQGVRQO\FP LQ 
WDOODQGLVQDWLYHWRVRXWK
ZHVWHUQFRDVWDOGLVWULFWV
LQ:HVWHUQ$XVWUDOLD

Most poisonous fungus


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IDWDOSRLVRQLQJVFDXVHG
E\IXQJL7KH
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LVIRXQG
ZRUOGZLGHLQFOXGLQJ
1RUWK$PHULFD
and the UK.

Largest freshwater
blue-green algal bloom
,QDNP
PL VWUHWFKRI
$XVWUDOLDV%DUZRQ'DUOLQJ
5LYHUZDVFRQWDPLQDWHG
E\DWR[LFEOXHJUHHQ
DOJDOEORRP6XFKHYHQWV
DUHRIWHQFDXVHGE\
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IHHGVDSRSXODWLRQ
H[SORVLRQLQFRORQLHVRI
EOXHJUHHQDOJDH DOVR
NQRZQDVF\DQREDFWHULD 
7KHVHEDFWHULDSURGXFH
F\DQRWR[LQVVRPHRIWKH
PRVWSRLVRQRXVVXEVWDQFHV
NQRZQWRVFLHQFH7KH
%DUZRQ'DUOLQJ5LYHUEORRP
ZKLFKZDVGRPLQDWHGE\
#PCDCGPCEKTEKPCNKU, caused
WKHGHDWKVRIGRPHVWLFDWHG
OLYHVWRFNWKDWGUDQNWKH
FRQWDPLQDWHGZDWHUDQG
OHGWRDVWDWHRIHPHUJHQF\
EHLQJGHFODUHG
7KHUVWDQLPDO
poisoning caused by a
freshwater blue-green
algae occurred in Lake
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WKFHQWXU\'RJVVKHHS
SLJVKRUVHVDQGFDWWOHDOO
GLHGDIWHUGULQNLQJZDWHU
IURPWKHODNHWKHVXUIDFH
RIZKLFKKDGEHHQFRYHUHG
ZLWKDVFXPRI0QFWNCTKC
URWOKIGPC.

Largest genus of pitcher plants

Oldest walled town


With some 2,000 people already calling it home, Jericho in the Middle East is one of the earliest
settlements to construct a stone boundary. It is today the oldest continually inhabited city.

7800 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 43

DATELINE

The genus NepenthesEQPVCKPUUQOGURGEKGUQHVTQRKECNRKVEJGT


plants, plus hybrids and cultivars. The largest meat-eating plant is
the giant montane pitcher plant
0TCLCJ, right), native to the state
QH5CDCJQP$QTPGQ6JGNCTIGUVURGEKOGPYCUEO
HVKP 
VCNN
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XKUKVVQ/GUKNCWQPVJGGCUVTKFIGQH/QWPV-KPCDCNWQP$QTPGQ

ANIMALS

W? y
U KNsO
ril
prima
n
o
DID YoO
g
do dra
season

DATELINE

om
ng
Male K ing the mati
With
ur
ugust.
A
d
clash d
n
a
y
eir
a
th
M
g
n
betwee
s bearin ir hind
lar tail
the
n
o
muscu
d
legs,
stan
ir fore
t, they
ith the
weigh
is
w
le
m
p
e
e of th
d grap
legs an tling until on
d
te
s
u
s
a
wre
o exh
d or to
injure
tinue.
n
o
c
to

7000 BCE
44 Animals

Oldest playable instrument


A seven-holed ute is carved from the leg bone of a crane in the village of Jiahu, near the Yellow River in China.
In 9,000 years time, when it is unearthed by archaeologists, the wind instrument will still produce a tune!

CONTENTS
ANIMALS FACTOGRAPHIC

46

ANTS

48

OCTOPUSES

50

BIG CATS

52

CROCODILES

54

OWLS

56

MONKEYS

58

SPIDERS

60

DINOSAURS

62

CATS & DOGS

64

FANTASTIC BEASTS

66

Largest lizard

First pottery kilns


Progressing from baking clay in the Sun, the Hassuna culture of northern Mesopotamia
(modern-day Iraq) revolutionizes pottery by developing kilns that can reach 1,000C (1,830F).

6000 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 45

DATELINE

5JQTVNKUVGFCUCPCNKUVKPVJGRTGUVKIKQWU9KNFNKHG
2JQVQITCRJGTQHVJG;GCTEQORGVKVKQPVJKUOKFDCVVNGUJQVYCU
UPCRRGFD[4WUUKCPRJQVQITCRJGT#PFTG[)WFMQXKP+PFQPGUKC
)GVVKPIVJKUENQUGVQ-QOQFQFTCIQPU
Varanus komodoensis)
KUPQOGCPHGCVPQVNGCUVDGECWUGVJGONQPI
HVKP 
TGRVKNGUCTGMPQYPHQTDGKPICIITGUUKXG
+VYCUQPEGVJQWIJVVJCVVQZKEDCEVGTKCKPKVUUCNKXCCNQPI
YKVJKVUUJCTRVGGVJYGTGVJKUNK\CTFURTKOCT[YGCRQPU+P
JQYGXGTUEKGPVKUVUEQPTOGFVJCVCUYGNNCUDKVKPIKVU
RTG[VJGURGEKGUGORNQ[UXGPQOUGETGVKPIINCPFUKPKVUNQYGT
LCYOCMKPI-QOQFQUVJGlargest venomous land animal

6JGCFWNVOCNG#HTKECPGNGRJCPV
Loxodonta
africana V[RKECNN[UVCPFUO
HV
KPHVKP CVVJGUJQWNFGT+VYGKIJU
VQPPGU
ND CPCXGTCIG
YGKIJVGSWKXCNGPVVQHWNN[ITQYPCFWNVOGP
6JGVCNNGUVURGEKOGPMPQYPCDWNNUJQVQP
#RTOGCUWTGFCPWPRTGEGFGPVGF
O
HVKP HTQOUJQWNFGTVQHQTGHQQV

LARGEST
TERRESTRIALMAMMAL

ph
se, a dig
T he ele
Its a no
foot.
le tool.
entar y
m
le
versati
pp
be used
and a su
r
d
o
n
r,
a
h
te
a
wa
phon up
h to pull
It can si
g enoug
ve
s stron
It
l.
a
se
n
d nsiti
to sig
trees an
le
y
o
r
h
r
e
w
b
a
down
to pluck
enough
ranch.
b
a
m
o
fr

?
U KNOW
DID YanOts trunk is a highglyer,

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Giraffa
camelopardalis V[RKECNN[
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HV 
in height. The tallest recorded
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HV )GQTIGC/CUCKDWNN

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than three times the height
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TALLEST MAMMAL

The animal kingdom is remarkably diverse. Members range in complexity


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YCVGTHNGCUCPFWNVTCKPVGNNKIGPVFQNRJKPUCPFVJKUKULWUVVJGUGCNKHG
In size, the range is also extreme, from single-celled organisms to the
mighty blue whale, the largest animal ever. Illustrated here is a selection
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just how immense these animals are.

ANIMALS

FACTOGRAPHIC

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Diomedea
exulans) of the southern oceans
was studied by members of the
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LARGEST
WING-SPAN
FORALIVING BIRD

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Mirounga leonina $WNNUCXGTCIGO

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largest carnivoreUQOGXGVKOGUJGCXKGTVJCPVJGCXGTCIGCFWNV
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Ursus maritimus VJGlargest land carnivore. While
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LARGEST
PINNIPED

=
x10,000 x10,000 x8,000

x10,000 x10,000 x10,000 x10,000

x10,000 x10,000 x10,000

LARGEST FELINE CARNIVORE


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LARGEST LIVING BIRD


/CNGGZCORNGUQHVJG0QTVJ#HTKECPQUVTKEJ
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camelus camelus CTCVKVG
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/GNNKUWICJGNGPCG), the smallest bird.

ANTS
ANATOMY
OF AN ANT
100%

Spiracle: Ants do not have


lungs. Oxygen enters the
body through openings
called spiracles and is piped
directly to tissue.

Antennae: Sensory organs used


to smell, touch and feel. They can
also be used for communication.

Head
Mouth

Largest ant
Fulvus driver ant (Dorylus
fulvus) queens (above)
can measure as much as
5 cm (2 in) long once fully
mature. The smallest driver
ant workers, by contrast,
are only 2.5 mm (0.1 in)
long. The large, wingless
queens travel with their
workers in migratory groups
that periodically split up
to form new colonies.
Largest average size
HQTCPCPVURGEKGU
7KHUHLVXVXDOO\VLJQLFDQW
variation in size between
the different castes of ants
in a colony. A species with

NOW?
DID YOUidK
t put together

Justin O Schm
e
index as a sid
his sting pain
ct
arching inse
se
re
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hi
w
t
projec
stung a lot
ng
tti
ge
nd
defences (a
es the
s). He describ
in the proces
g like
in
be
as
t
llet an
al
sting of a bu
ming charco
a
er
ov
g
in
walk
sty nail
ru
ch
in
3a
with
in your heel.

Gaster: Abdominal
structure housing
vital organs. Its
telescoping segments
allow the gaster
to expand for
example, if the ant
has fattened up to
survive the winter.

a queen that is much larger


than normal may not have
unusually large workers,
and vice versa.
Going on the mean body
size (the average obtained
from the measurements of
workers, soldiers, drones
and queens), the largest
species is Dinoponera
gigantea. Native
to the Amazon
rainforest in Brazil

Leg

Thorax: Amuscular
midsection to
which the six
jointed legs
connect, along with
wings in the ying
(mating) phase.

Claws

and Peru as well as in


coastal Guyana, it averages
3.3 cm (1.3 in) long.
.CTIGUVCPVURGEKGUGXGT
We know from fossils found
in Messel, Germany, that
queens of Titanomyrma
giganteum, which lived in
Europe around 50 million
years ago, were 6 cm
(2.4 in) long and had a
wing-span of 15 cm (5.9 in).

Eye: The ants


compound eyes
comprise numerous
tiny lenses.

Mandibles: Mouthparts used for


cutting, digging and ghting, as
well as passing food to the mouth;
controlled by powerful muscles
in the head.

(GYGUVEJTQOQUQOGU
KPCPKPUGEV
Male ants are haploid
(they have only one
chromosome from each of
their species chromosome
pairs), while female ants
are diploid (possessing
both parts of the pair). The
Australian jack jumper ant
(Myrmecia pilosula) has
only a single pair, meaning
that males of the species
have just one chromosome.
The most chromosomes
recorded in an ant is 94
SDLUV 7KLVJXUHZDV
recorded from two different
species the dinosaur or
dawn ant (Nothomyrmecia
macrops) of Australia and
Platythyrea tricuspidata, a
species found in Indonesia.

that are routinely inundated


by the tide. Its nests are
constructed with purposebuilt air pockets for the safe
storage of eggs, and its
workers have developed the
ability to swim underwater
for prolonged periods an
adaptation seen in no other
species of ant.
(CUVGUVUGNHRQYGTGF
RTGFCVQT[UVTKMG
Odontomachus bauri aka
the trap-jaw ant of South
America can close its
mandibles at a speed of
up to 64 m/s (209 ft/s).
In addition to using its
mandibles to bite prey, the
ant also utilizes them to
escape danger, striking
them against the ground to
LQJLWVHOIFP LQ LQWR
the air and horizontally as far
as 39.6 cm (1 ft 3.5 in). This
is the equivalent of a human
jumping 13.4 m (44 ft)
straight up.

TRIVIA
A number of birds
indulge in anting,
which involves crushing
ants and rubbing them
all over their plumage.
Pictured is a hairy
woodpecker (Picoides
villosus) in a typical
anting posture. The
formic acid released
from the ants helps to
keep parasites away.

/QUVCSWCVKECPV
Polyrhachis sokolova, native
to Queensland in Australia,
Papua New Guinea and the
island of New Caledonia,
lives in mangrove forests

Smallest ant
/QUVRCKPHWNKPUGEVUVKPI

DATELINE

+PGPVQOQNQIKUV,WUVKP15EJOKFV
75# RWDNKUJGFVJG
TUVXGTUKQPQHVJG5EJOKFV5VKPI2CKP+PFGZ6JGKPFGZTCPMU
VJGDWNNGVCPV
Paraponera clavata PCVKXGVQ0KECTCIWCCPF
UQWVJYCTFUVJTQWIJ%GPVTCN#OGTKECVQ2CTCIWC[CUVJG
KPUGEVYKVJVJGOQUVRCKPHWNUVKPITGIKUVGTKPICOCZKOWO
UEQTGQH QP5EJOKFVUHQWTRQKPVUECNG

5000 BCE
48 Animals

Carebara bruni, a species of


ant native to Sri Lanka, contains
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longest worker ant
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Oldest surgical procedure


A 50-year-old man in Ensisheim, France, undergoes trepanation the process of removing bone from
the top of the skull; the discovery of his body 7,000 years later provides the oldest evidence of surgery.

5,700%

100%

DID YOU

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6JGGNQPICVGFDQFKGUQH#WUVTCNKCPIKCPVDWNNFQICPVU

Myrmecia brevinoda CURGEKGUQH#WUVTCNKCPDWNNCPV


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KP NQPI$WNNCPVU
NCEMCFXCPEGFUQEKCNUVTWEVWTGUUQGCEJYQTMGTJCU
GXQNXGFVQDGUVTQPIGPQWIJVQHQTCIGCNQPG

Largest ant genus


The genus Pheidole held
1,002 species when the
last major survey was
carried out in 2014, and
new species are being
discovered all the time.
The smallest ant
genus is Nothomyrmecia,
which only contains one
species, the dinosaur or
dawn ant (0OCETQRU,
see opposite page), which
inhabits western and
southern Australia. Some
entomologists regard it as
a living fossil on account
of its primitive form.

KNOW?
Ant colon
ies contain
several
different
types or
castes
ant, typica
of
lly worke
r, queen
drone an
,
d soldier
. Workers
the most co

mmon se
rve a smal
population
l
of fertile fe
males
(queens) an
dfertilem
ales
(drones),w
hile soldie
rs
defendth
e
nest.

LONGEST
COLUMN OF ANTS
Most ant colonies live in xed
nests on a site chosen by the
queen, leaving only to mate
or forage for food. There are
some exceptions, however,
such as the army ants (Eciton,
pictured) of Central and South
America, and the driver ants
(Dorylus) of Africa. These
two genera are nomadic,
with entire colonies leaving
their nests in search of new
foraging grounds. Acolony
on the move forms into
a column that can be
as much as 1m (3ft
3in) wide and 100m
(328ft) long. Army
ant workers break up
the column to form
themselves into a
living nest for their
queen every night.

/QUVFCPIGTQWUCPV
Myrmecia pyriformis, CURGEKGUQHDWNNCPVHQWPFKPEQCUVCN
TGIKQPUQH#WUVTCNKCJCURQYGTHWNLCYUCPFCUVKPIVJCV
FKURGPUGUCXGPQOUGXGTCNVKOGUOQTGRQVGPVVJCPE[CPKFG
QTCTUGPKE$WNNFQICPVUJCXGECWUGFCVNGCUVVJTGGJWOCP
HCVCNKVKGUUKPEG

6JG+PFKCPLWORKPICPV

Harpegnathos saltator KU


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ECPNGCREO
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JQTK\QPVCNN[
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EO
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OWUENGUKPKVUOKFFNGCPF
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Rarest male ants


It was initially thought
that Mycocepurus smithii
was one of the ant species
that reproduced asexually,
with all the ants in the
colony being clones of
the queen. Although this
hypothesis has been proven
wrong, no male specimens

of /UOKVJKKhave ever
been found. It has been
speculated that they may
be microscopically small,
or that they only live for
a very short period.
*KIJGUVVJGTOQVQNGTCPEG
HQTCPCPV
The Saharan silver ant
(Cataglyphis bombycina;
see fastest ant, right) does
not begin foraging until
the outside temperature
has reached 46C (115F),
and it can stay out in the
scorching heat until its body
temperature reaches 53C
(127F). This adaptation
allows it to avoid less
heat-tolerant predators.

1.8 km/h

Fastest ant
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ORJ 6JKUKUVKOGUKVUDQF[NGPIVJ
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fastest manQPN[EQXGTUUKZDQF[NGPIVJURGTUGEQPF
6JKUGZVTCQTFKPCT[VWTPQHURGGFOKPKOK\GUKVUGZRQUWTG
VQVJG5WPCPFCNUQEQPVTKDWVGUVQKVUDQF[UEQQNKPID[
EQPXGEVKQP
UGGNGHV 

First written language


Pottery from the neolithic Yangshao culture of Shaanxi Province,
China, is inscribed with characters thought to represent numerals.

4000 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 49

DATELINE

(CTVJGUV
LWORD[CPCPV

.CTIGUVEQNQP[QHCPVU
The Argentine ant
(Linepithema humile) was
only introduced to Europe
DERXW\HDUVDJREXWKDV
spread rapidly, establishing
a colony that stretches
6,000 km (3,700 mi) from
northern Italy to the
Atlantic coast of Spain.

OCTOPUSES
First octopus
Dating back some
296 million years, a
fossilized octopod dubbed
Pohlsepia mazonensis was
unearthed in Illinois, USA.
Formally described in 2000,
it has been said to resemble
a globular splat; however,
with eight distinct arms,
two eyes and what may be
an ink sac, it possesses
all the features associated
with modern octopuses.
Largest octopus genus
There are more than
100 species within
the rather
uninspiringly
named Octopus
genus (opinions
vary among
biologists about
the exact number).
Thats more than a
third of all octopuses.
At the other end of
the scale, there are three
holders of the title of
smallest octopus family.
The see-through glass
octopus (Vitreledonella
richardi), the sevenarm octopus (Haliphron
atlanticus) and the
football octopus (Ocythoe
tuberculata) named for
the shape of its mantle
are all the sole members
of their respective families.

ANATOMY OF
AN OCTOPUS
Eye
Mantle: What looks like the
head is, in fact, the octopuss
equivalent of our abdomen,
containing all its major organs.

Funnel: Water can


be pumped through
the siphon as a means
ofpropulsion.

Arm: Despite often being called


tentacles, an octopuss appendages
are really arms/legs. Mosthave eight,
but there are exceptions (seemost arms
onan octopus and rst hexapus).

Suckers

The seven-arm octopus


also holds an exclusive
record for largest mantle.
On one specimen, this body
section measured 0.69 m
(2 ft 3 in) long, beating even
that of the largest octopus
(opposite) with an average
0.6-m (1-ft 11-in) mantle.

Greatest
octopus mimic

DATELINE

Several species of octopus


have been observed in the
wild mimicking other animals
by changing their colour and
body shape, or even adapting
their behaviour. However,
none has mastered the art of
impersonation better than the
mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus
mimicus, left), native to the
+PFQ2CEKECPFVJG4GF5GC
Studies reveal that this
shape-shifter can imitate
at least 16 other marine
creatures, including
HNCVUJ
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UGCUPCMGU
VQRTKIJV 
brittle stars, sea anemones,
ETCDUCPFLGNN[UJ

3500 BCE
50 Animals

Skin: Pigment-containing
cells called chromatophores
just under the skin enable the
octopus to change colour to
reect its mood or to blend
into its surroundings.

Most sociable octopus


While most octopuses lead
quite solitary lives, the
XQFODVVLHGODUJHU3DFLF
striped octopus, found off
Nicaragua, can form groups
of 30 to 40 individuals. Also
going against normal octorelations, they often share

Beak: The mouth


is located below
the mantle
where
all the
arms meet.
Made of chitin,
like a crabs
exoskeleton, the
beak is the only
hard part of this
creatures body. It is
used to both latch on
toand crush prey.

a den with a partner for


several days while mating.
This unusually gregarious
cephalopod is also the most
fecund octopus. Whereas
most octopus species
reproduce once, females of
this species can mate and
gestate many times

throughout their lives, laying


and hatching multiple egg
broods continuously.
Longest brooding period
All female octopuses
are known for being very
protective when it comes to
their eggs, but no octopus

TRIVIA
As part of a 2008 study
into animal dexterity,
octopuses were given
jam jars and Rubiks
Cubes to see if they
favoured a certain arm.
Results showed that
octopuses use six of
their eight limbs equally
to manipulate objects;
the other two are
reserved for locomotion.

First timekeeping device


The time stick a primitive type of sundial is developed by the ancient Mesopotamians. It tells
thetime by casting a shadow that changes length and position as the Sun moves overhead.

FAST FACTS
Octopi is not correct; the plural is octopuses or
octopodes Octopus wrestling was a popular sport in
the USA in the 1960s Octopuses have three hearts

Most arms on an octopus


As the name suggests, the
majority of octopuses have
eight limbs, but there are
exceptions. One far-fromordinary common octopus
(Octopus vulgaris), found off
Japan, boasted 96 arms. Its
now preserved for posterity
at the Marineland aquarium
in Shima, Japan.

Most bioluminescent octopus

Deepest
octopus

While many squid species have evolved to emit light to attract prey and mates in the gloomy
QEGCPFGRVJUStauroteuthis syrtensis, aka the glowing sucker octopus (above), is one of very
HGYQEVQRWUGUVQFKURNC[VJGVTCKV#FCRVGFUWEMGTUQPVJGCTms have been observed glowing
blue-green, primarily at 470 nanometres a wavelength that travels well through water.

The dumbo octopus


(Grimpoteuthis) has
been sighted at
O
HV 
below the surface,
YJGTGKVKUCDNGVQ
withstand pressures
QHCVOQURJGTGU
thats the equivalent
QHMI
ND 
weighing down on a
PIGTPCKN#NVJQWIJ
typically measuring
EO
KP 
KPNGPIVJQPGLWODQ
FWODQYCUO

HVKP

Most venomous mollusc


A 2009 study found that all octopuses are venomous
to some degree, but the blue-ringed octopuses
(Hapalochlaena), found off Australia and south-east Asia,
pack enough neurotoxin to paralyse or kill 10 adult humans!

There are also accounts


of octopuses with fewer
arms. The UVWKH[DSXV
documented was a lesser
octopus (Eledone cirrhosa),
caught in 2008 near Wales,
UK. It was christened Henry

after King Henry VIII, who is


famed for having six wives.
Other six-legged octopuses
have been spotted, but they
are widely accepted to be
genetic mutants rather
than a distinct species.

LARGEST OCTOPUS
The giant Pacic octopus (Enteroctopus doeini)
hasanaverage arm-span of 16ft (5m). In
termsof individual specimens, however,
the largest on record boasted an
arm-span of 31ft 5in (9.6m)
longer than an anaconda
and weighed in at 600lb
(272kg). The giant Pacic
octopus has a diet of
crustaceans and
small sh, but will
occasionally take on
bigger meals such
assharks (below).

First use of the wheel


The ancient Mesopotamians begin using wheeled carts as a means of
transport; previously, humans had rolled along heavy objects on logs.

c.3500 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 51

DATELINE

nor any other animal, for


that matter can lay claim
to being more committed
to brooding than the deepsea species Graneledone
DQTGQRCEKEC.
In May 2007, one mother
was sighted on a rocky
wall at a depth of 1,400 m
(4,600 ft) guarding eggs
laid just a few weeks earlier.
6XEVHTXHQWYLVLWVFRQUPHG
her ongoing vigil, which
continued to Sep 2011
a staggering 53 months
(nearly four-and-a-half
years). A month later she
was gone, and the 160 or so
egg cases had all hatched.

BIG CATS
The largest-ever lion
subspecies was the
American lion (Panthera leo
atrox), which once inhabited
North America but became
extinct c. 11,000 years ago.
Some 25% larger than the
largest modern-day African
lions, it had a head-andbody length of 1.62.5 m
(5 ft 3 in8 ft 2 in), stood
1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) at the
shoulder and weighed
up to 350 kg (773 lb).

Highest-living predators on land


Hidden cameras have photographed the rare and seldomseen snow leopard (Panthera uncia, pictured) at altitudes of
HV
O &WTKPIVJGGCTN[UCRWOC
Puma
concolor) was observed at the same altitude in
VJG5QWVJ#OGTKECP#PFGUOQWPVCKPU

Largest wild cat


Male Siberian, or Amur,
tigers (Panthera tigris
altaica) normally have a
length of 2.73.3 m (8 ft
10 in10 ft 10 in) from nose

tip to tail tip, a shoulder


height of 11.07 m (3 ft
3 in3 ft 6 in), and may
weigh up to 306 kg (674 lb).
The largest species
of sabre-toothed cat or
machairodont, all of which
are now extinct,

was Smilodon populator,


which lived in South
America from around
1 million to 10,000 years
ago. It stood 1.56 m (5 ft
1 in) at the shoulder, while
the biggest males may have
exceeded 500 kg (1,100 lb).

Highest bite force


KPCDKIECVKP
proportion to size
The bite of a jaguar
(Panthera onca) is
proportionately stronger
than that of any other
big cat. A 100-kg (220-lb)
jaguar can bite with a force
of 503.57 kg (1,100 lb 3 oz)
at the canine teeth, and
705.79 kg (1,556 lb) at the
carnassial notch on its
fourth upper premolar and
UVWORZHUPRODUWHHWK
/QUVRTQNKE
man-killing leopard
The Leopard of Panar was
deemed responsible for

Smallest
leopard
6JGCFWNVOCNG#TCDKCP
leopard (Panthera pardus
nimr YGKIJUCRRTQZKOCVGN[
MI
ND CPFVJGHGOCNG
MI
ND HCTNKIJVGT
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UWDURGEKGU6JKUETKVKECNN[
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TGEGPVN[DGGPTGEQIPK\GF

killing more than 400 people


during the early 20th century
in Kumaon, northern India.
,WZDVQDOO\GLVSDWFKHG
by renowned Anglo-Indian
hunter Jim Corbett in 1910.

FIRST WHITE LIGERS


In Dec 2013, at Myrtle Beach Safari in South Carolina,
USA, a white Bengal tigress called Saraswati (pictured)
gave birth tothe rst conrmed white ligers. The father
was a white African lion.
Myrtle Beach is also home to the
largest living cat, Hercules (inset). An
adult male liger, he is 10ft 11in (3.33m)
long, stands 4ft 1in (1.25m) at the
shoulder and weighs 922lb (418.2kg).

DID YO

DATELINE

U KN
A liger
is a cross OW?
male lio
between
n and a
a
tigress.
and ma
A lioness
le tiger
cross re
atigon
sults in
. Other
hybrid cr
within th
osses
e feline
fa
mily incl
ajagule
ude
p (a ma
le jagua
leopard
ress mix)
a
n
d
a
lijagulep
(a mix b
etween
a male
lionand
female
jagulep).

3300 BCE
52 Animals

Oldest tattoos
tzi the Iceman dies from an arrow wound during the Bronze Age. When his well-preserved body
isdiscovered in 1991 in the Alps between Austria and Italy it is found to be covered with 61 tattoos.

FAST FACTS
Snow leopards can cover seven times their body length in one leap
Notwo tigers have the same pattern of stripes The roar of a lion can
beheard 5mi (8km) away Cheetahs dont roar; instead, they purr

First hybrid of big


CPFUOCNNECVU
Near the end of the
19th century, matings
between pumas (Puma
concolor) and leopards
(Panthera pardus) in
captivity at German animal
collector Carl Hagenbecks
private zoo, the Tierpark
in Hamburg, resulted in
the birth and survival
into adulthood of several
puma-leopard hybrids.

Lowest-frequency big-cat roar


The roar of the lion (Panthera leo PCVKXGVQ#HTKECCPF
#UKCJCUCNQYGTHTGSWGPE[VJCPVJCVQHCP[QVJGTDKI
ECV#NKQPUTQCTKUFGNKXGTGFKPDQWVUNCUVKPIWRVQUGE
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HTGSWGPE[QH*\(TQOO
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KVYQWNFTGEQTFF$QPCUQWPFNGXGNOGVGT

The least dangerous


big cat to humans is the
snow leopard (2WPEKC). To
GDWHRQO\WZRFRQUPHG
attacks have been recorded.
Most social big cat
Most big cats are solitary
creatures, but the lion
(P. leo) is famously
social, living in groups
of individuals known as
prides. Most prides consist
RIYHWRVL[OLRQHVVHV
their cubs and one or two

lions, but there is evidence


of prides with as many as
30 individuals.
(KTUVEQPTOGFUKIJVKPI
of a white lion
Long familiar in traditional
South African folklore, the
ZKLWHOLRQZDVUVWVLJKWHG
in 1938, when one specimen
was seen by Joyce Little in
Timbavati (now a private
game reserve) on the
western edge of South
Africas Kruger National Park.

DID Y

OU KNO
Cats hav
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e three e
yelids. A
the top a
sw
nd botto
m lids, th ell as
third lid
ere is a
, known
as the n
membra
ictitatin
ne. It ori
g
ginates
corner o
at the
f the eye
n
e
ar the
nose an
d moves
across th
eye from
e
side to si
de. In a
healthy
cat, it is
tucked
away at
the side
oftheey
e.

First three-species big cat


hybrid in captivity
The UKs London Zoo
displayed a female
lijagupard in 1908. Her
mother had been a jagupard
(a hybrid of a male jaguar
and leopardess) born at
Chicago Zoo in Illinois,
USA, and her father a
lion. She resembled
a slim, long-limbed
lioness but was
dappled with large
brown rosettes.

Largest small cat

#DNCEMNGQRCTF
Panthera pardus PCOGF+XQT[D5GR
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*GKUQYPGFD[&QPPC/CTVKPCPF9QTMKPI9KNFNKHG

DQVJ75# CPFNKXGUKP(TC\KGT2CTM%CNKHQTPKC75#

Longest-burning re
A coal seam in New South Wales, Australia, is struck by lightning
and catches re. It is still burning, some 5,000 years later.

3000 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 53

DATELINE

Oldest living leopard in captivity

+VOC[DGVJGHQWTVJNCTIGUVECVURGEKGUQPN[
VJGNKQPVKIGTCPFLCIWCTCTGDKIIGTDWV
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ECV5RGEKOGPUV[RKECNN[ITQYVQO
HV 
KPNGPIVJYJKNGCPCFWNVOCNGOC[YGKIJMI

NDQ\ 6JGRWOCKUCNUQVJGmammal with the


most common names+VURNWUVKVNGUKPENWFGEQWICT
OQWPVCKPNKQPECVCOQWPVCPFRCKPVGT

CROCODILES
Largest
crocodile
KPECRVKXKV[

This saltwater crocodile


(Crocodylus porosus 
known to his keepers as
%CUUKWUYCUECRVWTGF
KPCHVGTIQKPIQPC
DQCVUOCUJKPIURTGGPGCT
&CTYKP#WUVTCNKC%CUUKWU
YCUHQWPFVQDGCP
KORTGUUKXGHV
O 
NQPIYJGPOGCUWTGF
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Marineland Melanesia
YKNFNKHG\QQQP)TGGP
+UNCPF3WGGPUNCPF

Largest crocodile
KPECRVKXKV[
GXGT
Although Cassius (above)
is the largest crocodile in
captivity today, the largest
ever was a 6.17-m (20-ft
3-in) saltwater crocodile
captured in Bunawan,
Philippines, on 3 Sep 2011.
This crocodile was named
Lolong and housed at

Bunawan Eco-Park. Lolong


did not adapt well to life in
captivity, however, and died
on 10 Feb 2013.
The oldest crocodilian
in captivity (living) is Muja,
an American alligator
(#NNKICVQTOKUUKUUKRRKGPUKU).
It is not known how old he
was on arrival (fully grown)
at Belgrade Zoo, but the

Largest crocodile ever


Sarcosuchus imperator, a monster crocodile that walked
the Earth some 110 million years ago, weighed 8 tonnes

ND CPFYCUO
HV NQPI4GCEJKPI
VJKUKOOGPUGUK\GTGSWKTGFOQTGVJCP[GCTUQHITQYVJ

78 years 219 days he has


lived there to 18 Apr 2016
are enough to secure him
this record. Muja survived
the aerial bombing of the
zoo during World War II.
The oldest crocodilian
in captivity (ever) was
Hakuna, an African
slender-snouted crocodile
(/GEKUVQRUECVCRJTCEVWU) at
Blijdorp Zoo in Rotterdam,
Netherlands. He and his
mate, Matata, were acquired
in 1929 a gift from singer
and dancer Josephine
Baker. While Matata died in
2014, Hakuna lived there for
a total of 85 years until his
death on 19 Feb 2015.
Largest crocodile genus
The genus %TQEQF[NWU, the
true crocodiles, contains

Most human fatalities in a crocodile attack?

DATELINE

+PJKUDQQMWildlife Sketches Near and FarVJG%CPCFKCPPCVWTCNKUV$TWEG5VCPNG[9TKIJV


TGEQWPVGFCFGCFN[UCNVYCVGTETQEQFKNGGPEQWPVGTQP4COTGG+UNCPFKP$WTOCFWTKPI9QTNF9CT++
1P(GDCUVJGUVQT[IQGU#NNKGFVTQQRU
DGNQY HQTEGF,CRCPGUGRTKUQPGTUQHYCTVQ
ETQUUOK
MO QHOCPITQXGUYCORUYJGTGVJG[HGNNRTG[VQC. porosus#HVGTCPKIJVQHHTGP\KGF
HGGFKPID[VJGETQEQFKNGUQPN[OGPGOGTIGFCNKXG0GYTGUGCTEJD[VJG0CVKQPCN)GQITCRJKE
%JCPPGNJQYGXGTJCUECUVFQWDVQPVJGUVQT[QTCVNGCUVQPVJGGZVGPVQHVJGFGCVJU

2600 BCE

12 individual species and


is represented on every
continent other than Europe
and Antarctica.

crocodile (%PKNQVKEWU), but


genetic analysis carried
out in 2011 proved that it
is only distantly related.

Rarest crocodilian
According to a 2002 study,
there are fewer than 200
Chinese alligators living in
the wild. Native to the lower
Yangtze River in China, this
species has struggled with
habitat destruction and
hunting by local farmers.

Largest crocodilian eggs


The false gharial (see
below) lays eggs that
are around 10 x 7 cm
(3.94 x 2.76 in). Thats
about the same diameter
as a baseball.
The smallest crocodilian
eggs, by contrast, are laid
by the Chinese alligator
(#UKPGPUKU). These are as
little as 5.23 cm (2 in) long
and 3.27 cm (1.3 in) wide
smaller than a hens egg.
Unsurprisingly, Chinese

0GYGUVETQEQFKNGURGEKGU
The desert or sacred
crocodile (C. suchus) of
West Africa looks almost
identical to the Nile

5OCNNGUVETQEQFKNKCPHCOKN[
6JGHCOKN[)CXKCNKFCGEQPVCKPUQPN[VYQURGEKGU
the gharial (Gavialis gangeticusDGNQY CPFVJGHCNUG
gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii 6JGHQTOGTKUPCVKXG
VQ$CPINCFGUJ+PFKCCPF2CMKUVCPYJKNGVJGNCVVGTNKXGU
KPUQWVJGCUV#UKC7PVKNTGEGPVN[VJGHCNUGIJCTKCNYCU
VJQWIJVVQDGCV[RGQHETQEQFKNGJGPEGVJGPCOG

First autograph
A Sumerian scribe named Adu uses a reed to etch his cuneiform signature into
a clay tablet in what is now Tell Abu Salbikh, Iraq.

FAST FACTS
The roar of an American alligator, the loudest crocodilian, can
reach92dB The word crocodile comes from the Greek for
pebbleworm Crocodiles can swim faster than they can run

Fastest crocodile
6JGHTGUJYCVGTETQEQFKNG
Crocodylus johnstoni QHPQTVJGTP
#WUVTCNKCECPTWPCVURGGFUQHMOJ
ORJ 5ECT[CU
VJKUUQWPFUVJGHTGUJKG
CUKVKUEQOOQPN[MPQYP IGPGTCNN[
WUGUKVUURGGFVQTWPCYC[HTQORGQRNGPQVVQYCTFUVJGO

TRIVIA
Crocodiles have a
powerful biting force
(see below), but their
jaws can be kept shut
with a regular rubber
band: the muscles that
open the mouth are
much weaker than
those that clamp itshut.

alligators also produce


the smallest crocodilian
hatchlings, with an average
length of 20 cm (7.9 in), and
are, as adults, the smallest
alligators with an average
length of just 1.5 m (4 ft
11 in) for males.
Most restricted distribution
for a crocodile
While some crocodiles are
spread over vast areas (the
saltwater crocodile ranges
from southern India to

on approach to Bandundu
Airport in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo.
When emergency services
reached the crash site, they
found a lone survivor who
explained that the crash
had been caused by a
crocodile. A passenger had
smuggled one on board in
a sports bag, and when it
broke loose the panicked
passengers caused
a stampede that
unbalanced the
aircraft. The crocodile
was subsequently hacked
to death with a machete.

western Australia), others


have adapted to life in a
very restricted habitat.
The most extreme example
of this is the Cuban
crocodile (%TJQODKHGT),
which lives only in Cubas
Zapata Swamp, an area of
4,354 km2 (1,681 sq mi).
(KTUVRNCPGETCUJ
ECWUGFD[CETQEQFKNG
On 25 Aug 2010, a small
passenger plane crashed

DID YO

The 5.5-m U KNOW?


(18-ft) B
become
rutus ha
someth
s
ing of a
with tou
celebrity
rists on
Australi
Adelaid
e River,
as
where h
lured in
e can be
to view
b
y
an offeri
of buffa
ng
lo meat.
The salt
crocodil
water
e is missi
n
g
o
ne front
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wing a sh
ark
attack.

LARGEST CROCODILIAN

Tallest pyramid
Construction begins on the iconic Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. It will take 20 years to complete the
146.7-m-tall (481-ft 3.5-in) structure, later classied as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

2560 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 55

DATELINE

Adult male estuarine or saltwater crocodiles (such as Brutus, right) can grow to
at least 7m (23ft) long and often weigh more than 1 tonne (2,205lb). People have
claimed to have seen 10-m (32-ft 10-in) individuals in the wild, but no conclusive
evidence of such giants exists.
The saltwater species also
holdsthe record for strongest
biteforce for a crocodile. Any
animal (or person!) unlucky
enough to get caught, such as
the doomed boar, inset left, can
be subjected to a bite force of
11,216N (2,521lbf) equivalent
tobeing crushed under the
weightof amid-sized car.

OWLS
Largest owl ever
The Cuban giant owl
Ornimegalonyx is known
from fossils of four closely
related species native
to Cuba and dating from
approximately 10,000 years
ago. Standing 1.1 m (3 ft
7 in) tall, and probably
weighing well in excess
of 9 kg (19 lb 13 oz),
Ornimegalonyx is believed
WRKDYHEHHQLJKWOHVV
RUDOPRVWLJKWOHVV

Newest
species
of owl
The Seram masked owl
(Tyto almae) was formally
described and named
KP+VYCUTUV
made known to science
back in 1987, however,
when a specimen was
photographed (but not
collected) in the wild by
a visiting expedition. It
is native to, and named
after, the Indonesian
island of Seram.

?
KNOWed
DID YOhiU
liz
ghly specia

Owls have
w them
rs that allo
ight feathe
without
ey
pr
on their
ve
to descend
ntists belie
ie
Sc
d.
un
making a so
s of these
et
cr
se
e
th
ing
that unlock
e way for
uld pave th
t
feathers co
and almos
ft
ter aircra
.
much quie
es
in
turb
silent wind

Earliest known owl species


Berruornis orbisantiqui
dates back to the mid/late
Palaeocene epoch, some
6057 million years ago. Its
fossils have been found in
deposits at Reims in northeastern France. This

ancestor was about the


same size as todays largest
eagle owls, which are the
largest owls of any kind
alive (see right).

Largest owl clutch


In general, the snowy
owl (Nyctea scandiaca,
pictured below) lays
the largest clutch, with
many 11-egg clutches
known. However, a
single northern hawk
owl (Surnia ulula) in Finland
has been recorded as laying
a clutch of 13 eggs.
Largest owl genus
The genus Otus, containing
most of the scops
owls, is found
worldwide, with 46
distinct species
recognized.
Some authorities
consider a few
subspecies to be
separate species
in their own
right, raising
this total to
as many as 51.

Most
northerly owl

DATELINE

The snowy owl is native


to the Arctic regions of
Eurasia and North America.
It heads north in search of
food and is one of very few
birds to spend much of the
year in the high Arctic zone.
Snowy owls have even been
recorded on Canadas Ellesmere
Island, at 82N, in the bitter-cold
FCTMPGUUQHOKFYKPVGT

c.2281 BCE
56 Animals

TRIVIA
Owls have 14 neck
vertebrae (humans have
seven) and their spinal
cord and blood vessels
run via wide channels
in the spine. As a result,
their heads can turn
270, so they can track
prey without moving
their bodies.

Of those species whose


populations have been
VFLHQWLFDOO\HVWLPDWHG
the most abundant owl
is the little owl (Athene
noctua). Native to much of
temperate Europe, northern
Africa and Asia eastwards
to the Korean peninsula, it
is thought to number some
5,000,00015,000,000
individuals worldwide.
The owl species with
the greatest distribution
range is the common barn

TRIVIA
Like other birds, owls
cannot chew their food.
They swallow small prey
whole, or tear larger
animals to pieces before
eating. Indigestible
parts, such as teeth,
bones and feathers, are
stored in the gizzard
for up to 10hours and
regurgitated in pellet
form (below). The
pellet partly blocks the
owls digestive system,
however, and they
must expel it before
consuming fresh prey.

Longest reigning pharaoh


Phiops II, aka Pepi II or Neferkare, becomes ruler of Egypt at the age of six and will remain in power
for allegedly 94 years. This also potentially makes his the longest ever reign of any monarch.

FAST FACTS
Owls eyes are tube-shaped and cannot move A group of owls is called
a parliament A barn owl can eat 1,000 mice per year Unusually for
birds,female owls are bigger than males and often have brighter plumage

LARGEST OWL
The European race of the eagle owl (Bubo bubo)
has an average body length of 6671cm (2 ft
2in2ft 4in) and a weight of 1.64kg (3lb 8oz
8lb13oz). It also has the greatest wing-span for
an owl: at more than 1.5m (4ft 11in), this is about
thesame as the arm-span of a 14-year-old child.
Eagle owls will eat almost anything that moves,
frombeetles to roe deer fawns. The major part of their
diet consists of mammals (such as rats, mice, foxes and
hares), but birds of all kinds are also taken, including
crows, ducks, grouse, seabirds and even other owls.

100%

owl (Tyto alba). It has a


near-global distribution,
estimated by the
International Union for
Conservation of Nature
to cover 63,300,000 km2
(24,440,000 sq mi), and
is absent only from
Antarctica.
This bird also has the
most subspecies for
an owl. It is generally
split into at least
27 subspecies.
Smallest owl family
There are two
taxonomic families of
owl alive today (plus
several prehistoric
ones): Strigidae and
Tytonidae. The smallest
is Tytonidae the barn
owls and bay owls
with 19 species.

100%

Smallest owl

Oldest cypress tree


A specimen of Cupressus sempervirens takes root in the city of Abarkuh in Iran;
later named Sarv-e-Abarkuh, it will continue to ourish into the 21st century.

2000

BCE

guinnessworldrecords.com 57

DATELINE

The elf owl (Micrathene whitneyi, right) of


south-western USA and Mexico averages
EO
KP NQPICPFYGKIJUNGUU
VJCPI
Q\ +VV[RKECNN[PGUVUKPC
hole made by another bird, or in cavities
in trees. Sometimes, a woodpecker and
GNHQYNOC[GXGPPGUVKPVJGUCOGDWUJ
1PN[OCTIKPCNN[NCTIGTKUVJGNGCUV
pygmy owl (Glaucidium minutissimum),
YGKIJKPICTQWPFI
Q\ CPF
YKVJCVQVCNNGPIVJQHEO
KP 

MONKEYS
NOW? d
DID YOeUinK
hordes, an

Mandrills liv
e in the
minant mal
the most do
the most
ve
ha
lly
typica
ity
horde will
The intens
louration.
ured
lo
striking co
co
ly
ht
keys brig
of the mon
is linked
ndquarters
face and hi
osterone
st
te
of
nt
to the amou
g its
lin
al
gn
si
produced,
and
dominance
power.

54
kg

Largest baboon
Adult male chacma
baboons (Papio ursinus)
can grow to a length of
115 cm (3 ft 9 in) not
including a tail of up to
84 cm (2 ft 9 in) and
can weigh as much
as 40 kg (88 lb).
Although native to
South Africa, these
baboons are found
all over southern
Africa. An isolated
troop has even been
discovered living in
the Namib Desert,
Namibia, where there
is no surface water
for eight months every
year. This makes
the chacma baboon
the most droughtresistant monkey.

DATELINE

Smallest
1NF9QTNFOQPMG[
At the opposite end
of the scale from the
mandrill (left) are two
closely related species
of talapoin: the Angolan
or southern talapoin
(Miopithecus talapoin) and
the Gabon or northern
talapoin (/QIQWGPUKU).
These talapoins have a
total length of no more than
45 cm (1 ft 5 in), and weigh
c. 800 g (1 lb 12 oz). They
typically live in swamps and
mangrove forests, and are
excellent swimmers.

Noisiest land animal


6JGHGCTUQOGUETGCOUQHVJGJQYNGTOQPMG[
IGPWU
Alouatta) of Central and South America have been described
CUCETQUUDGVYGGPVJGDCTMQHCFQICPFVJGDTC[QHC
FQPMG[KPETGCUGFCVJQWUCPFHQNF6JGOCNGUJCXGCP
GPNCTIGFDQP[UVTWEVWTGCVVJGVQRQHVJGYKPFRKRGVJCV
GPCDNGUVJGUQWPFVQTGXGTDGTCVG1PEGKPHWNNXQKEGVJG[
ECPDGJGCTFENGCTN[WRVQOK
MO CYC[

*GCXKGUVPKIJVOQPMG[
As their name suggests,
South Americas night
monkeys, or douroucoulis,
are the worlds only
nocturnal monkeys. Of
the 11 species currently
recognized, the heaviest is
Azaras night monkey (Aotus
azarae), which weighs
about 1.25 kg (2 lb 12 oz),
with males being slightly
heavier than females.
/QUVJGTDKXQTQWUOQPMG[
The gelada (Theropithecus
IGNCFC) is a large, baboonlike monkey native to

.CTIGUVOQPMG[

SMALLEST MONKEY

The male mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) of equatorial West Africa


JCUCJGCFCPFDQF[NGPIVJQHEO
HVHVKP /CNGU
CXGTCIGMI
ND DWVECPYGKIJMI
ND 6JGOCPFTKNNU
FKUVKPEVKXGDNWGTWORTGFHCEGCPF[GNNQYDGCTFOCMGKVQPGQH
VJGOQUVEQNQWTHWNOCOOCNU
The largest New World monkeyOGCPYJKNGKUVJGJKIJN[
GPFCPIGTGFYQQNN[URKFGTOQPMG[
Brachyteles arachnoides)
CMCOWTKSWKQH$TC\KNYKVJCJGCFCPFDQF[NGPIVJQH
EO
HVKPHV CPFYGKIJKPIWRVQMI
ND 

Adult pygmy marmosets


(Cebuella pygmaea, juveniles
pictured), found in the upper
Amazon, grow to an average
weight of 119g (4.20oz) about the
same as a mid-sized orange. Despite
their size typically 136mm (5.3in)
long excluding tail, which is usually
longer thanthe body pygmymarmosets
can leap 5m (16ft5in) into the air!

1900 BCE
58 Animals

First alphabet
Egyptian masons carve an inscription into a limestone block
using the earliest known form of phonetic writing system.

Ethiopia. Despite its


fearsome appearance
and huge canine teeth,
this species is exclusively
vegetarian, with grass
making up 90% of its diet
(the rest is seeds and
roots). The geladas diet is
an adaptation to its habitat
in the verdant highlands of
northern Ethiopia, where
plant life is abundant
enough to support herds
of up to 700 individuals.
Encroaching human
activity and drought have
drastically reduced the
gelada population over

FAST FACTS
The word monkey is thought to derive from mannikin, the Dutch for little
man A group of monkeys is a troop Therst mammal in space was a
monkey called Albert II in 1949 2016 was the Chinese Year of the Monkey

KNOW YOUR PRIMATES


Whats the difference between apes, monkeys and prosimians?

Fastest primate
6JGRCVCUOQPMG[
Erythrocebus patas QHYGUVGTPCPFGCUVGTP
#HTKECECPTGCEJURGGFUQHMOJ
ORJ 9KVJVJGKT
NQPIUNGPFGTNKODUVJGUGSWCFTWRGFCN
CNNHQWTU 1NF9QTNF
OQPMG[UCTGUQOGVKOGUTGHGTTGFVQCURTKOCVGEJGGVCJU

TRIVIA
Spider monkeys(Ateles)
use their muscular,
tactile, prehensile
(grasping)tailasa
fth hand.Pictured
here is onesuchmonkey
extending its reach by
grasping on to a branch
withits tail.

the last few decades, but


it is still thought to be the
most abundant monkey,
with a population of around
200,000 individuals.
/QUVPQTVJGTN[DCDQQP
The sacred or hamadryas
baboon (2CRKQJCOCFT[CU)
is native to the Horn of
Africa and the most southwesterly portion of the
Arabian Peninsula. The
most southerly baboon,
and also the most southerly
non-human primate, is the
chacma baboon (P. ursinus,
see opposite page), which

MONKEY

PROSIMIAN

Apes are tailless, and


typically larger and
more intelligent than
other primates. This
superfamily comprises
the great apes (bonobos,
chimpanzees, gorillas
and orang-utans) and
lesser apes (gibbons).

Monkeys usually have


tails, and many of the
approximately 260 known
species are arboreal (live in
trees). Monkeys are divided
into two main groups:
Old World (Africa and
Asia) and New World
(Americas).

Prosimians are a group of


more primitive primates
that includes lemurs,
lorises, bushbabies,
pottos and tarsiers. They
are mostly nocturnal
and arboreal, hunting
for insects and small
mammalsin the trees.

has a range that extends


as far south as the Cape of
Good Hope in South Africa.
/QUVUQWVJGTN[OCTOQUGV
Marmosets are a group of
New World monkeys that,
along with tamarins, make
up the family Callitrichidae.
Almost all marmosets and
tamarins live in the Amazon
rainforest. The notable
exception is the blacktailed marmoset (Mico
melanurus), which has a
range that extends from
the south-central Amazon
in Brazil to the edges of the

Chaco plains in Paraguay.


It is thought that the blacktailed marmosets range is
a result of deforestation in
the Amazon, which forced
it to adapt to new habitats.
0GYGUVOQPMG[
The most recent species
of monkey to have been
VFLHQWLFDOO\UHFRJQL]HGLV
the white-cheeked macaque
(/CECECNGWEQIGP[U).
Native to the tropical
forests of southeastern Tibet, it was
RFLDOO\GHVFULEHG
in Mar 2015 and
is distinguished
from other local
macaques
by the white
whiskers on
its cheeks, the
shape of the
males genitals
and a ruff of fur
around its neck.

/QUVPQTVJGTN[RTKOCVG

Longest nose on a primate

Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) live near Nagano


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CUKFGVJG[CTGVJGPQTVJGTPOQUVRQRWNCVKQPQHRTKOCVGU
#NUQMPQYPCUUPQYOQPMG[UVJG[UWTXKXGVJGo%
o( 
YKPVGTUD[YCTOKPIVJGOUGNXGUKPJQVXQNECPKEURTKPIU

6JGRTQDQUEKUOQPMG[
Nasalis larvatus), found only on the
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KP 
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KUKPFCPIGTQTGZEKVGF+VCNUQCEVUCUCTGUQPCVQTYJGPVJG
OQPMG[OCMGUKVUEJCTCEVGTKUVKEJQPMKPIYCTPKPIUQWPF

Oldest love song


A love song is etched into a stone tablet in the ancient city of Ugarit (modern-day Ras Shamra in
Syria); lost until the 1950s, its rst performance to modern audiences comes on 6Mar 1974.

1800 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 59

DATELINE

55 km/h

APE

SPIDERS
Earliest fossil spiders
Found in coal deposits in
North America and Europe,
the remains of the suborder
of primitive spiders known
as Mesothelae date from
the Carboniferous period,
359299 million years
ago. They probably used
their silk for covering their
eggs or as a groundsheet,
since web-weaving is
considered to have evolved
much later.
Mesothelae, of which
there is only one living
family, also possess the
most spinnerets for a
spider: four pairs. Originally
evolving from limbs, these
organs produce the silk that
spiders use for creating
webs and linings.

Largest spider eyes


The ogre-faced (aka gladiator or net-casting) spider, of the genus
DeinopisJCUDWNIKPIG[GUOGCUWTKPIWRVQOO
KP 
across. The eyes do not produce very good images but are
excellent at gathering light for night vision helpful, as this sticklike, tropical arachnid is a nocturnal ambush hunter. It catches
prey in a net-like web that it holds
suspended from its four front
legs; any prey touching
the trap is instantly
enveloped.

NOW?
el
DID YOthUbiK
rd-eaters fe

DATELINE

When golia
e a hissing
, they mak
threatened
ther the
ge
to
g
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sound by ru
is called
is
Th
.
their legs
e up to
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and is au
stridulation
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hi
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ay
aw
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4.5m (15ft
are
inful, they
are very pa
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ou
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ng
da
not typically
tohumans.

1500 BCE
60 Animals

Largest fossil spider


A preserved female
specimen of Mongolarachne
jurassica has a body
DSSUR[LPDWHO\PP
(1 in) long, with front legs
DURXQGPP LQ 
long. It lived in what is
now northern China some
PLOOLRQ\HDUV
ago, during the
Mid-Jurassic era.

Most venomous spider


The venom of the Sydney funnel-web (Atrax robustus), which
lives in and around the city of Sydney, Australia, is fatal to
JWOCPUCVCEQPEGPVTCVKQPQHLWUVOIRGTMIQHDQF[
weight. The spider owes its lethal poison to a quirk of evolution:
although it preys on insects, its venom acts in a way that is
especially deadly to humans. At least 14 people have died as
CTGUWNVQH5[FPG[HWPPGNYGDDKVGUUQOGKPCUNKVVNGCUOKP
Earliest orb-weaver spider
Modern orb-weaver or
orb-web spiders spin large,
strong, complex webs. The
earliest known species,
Cretaraneus vilaltae, was
described in 1990 from an
exoskeleton discovered in
Spain. It lived 140 million
years ago in the Early
Cretaceous period.
The oldest cobweb also
dates from the Cretaceous
period. In 2009, brothers

and amateur fossil hunters


Jamie and Jonathan
Hiscocks found a web
preserved in amber on a
beach in East Sussex, UK.
First herbivorous spider
Bagheera kiplingi was
IRUPDOO\FODVVLHGLQ
from a male specimen.
It took another 110 years
WRLGHQWLI\WKHUVWIHPDOH
specimen because of the
species extreme sexual

LARGEST SPIDER
First discovered in 1804, this heavyweight ambush
hunter is nativeto the coastal rainforests of
Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana. The
record leg-span for a male goliath bird-eating
spider (Theraphosa blondi ) is 28cm
(11in). The specimen was collected by
members of the Pablo San Martin
Expedition at Rio Cavro, Venezuela,
in Apr1965, and was large enough
to cover a dinner plate.
A two-year-old spider of
the same species, bred by
Robert Bustard and
reared by Brian Burnett
of Alyth in Perthshire,
UK, also had a
leg-span of 28cm
in Feb1998.

100%

First all-weather clock


A timekeeping device called a clepsydra is rst used in Ancient Egypt. It works by allowing water to drain from a
container atasteady rate. It is not accurate by modern standards, but unlike a sundial it works on overcast days.

FAST FACTS
If attacked, tarantulas ick small barbed hairs, which can cause temporary
blindness in humans Antarctica is the only continent with no spiders
Gram for gram, spider silk is around ve times stronger than steel

TRIVIA
The goliath bird-eating
spider has no need of a
web. Instead, it sneaks
up and pounces on prey
such as birds, frogs or
mice injecting venom
via fangs that can
exceed 2.5cm (1in) long.

Most widespread widow spider


In the genus Latrodectus, the brown widow (L. geometricus),
believed to be native to South Africa, has been inadvertently
distributed by humans almost worldwide. Introduced
populations have been recorded in 14 countries, from the USA
to the Far East and Australia. There is evidence that it has
begun to displace the more venomous native black widow
(.JGURGTWU) in certain areas of southern California, USA.
dimorphism (differences
between male and female).
This jumping spider, or
salticid, lives in Mexico,
Guatemala and Costa Rica,
and feeds on protein- and
fat-rich nubs called Beltian
bodies, found at the tips
of acacia leaves.
The spider is named after
the black panther Bagheera,
who features in Rudyard
Kiplings The Jungle Book,
and the author himself.

Rarest spider
Counts of the Kauai cave
wolf spider (Adelocosa
anops) have never exceeded
30 specimens. It lives in
total darkness in caves on
the island of Kauai, Hawaii,
USA, and has no eyes.
Noisiest spider
The male European
buzzing spider, Anyphaena
accentuata, vibrates his
abdomen against a leaf

Largest spider venom glands


The glands of South Americas 2JQPGWVTKCPKITKXGPVGT
GCEJOGCUWTGWRVQOO
KP NQPICPFOO

KP KPFKCOGVGTCPFEQPVCKPCUOWEJCUOI

Q\ QHXGPQO6JGXGPQOECPECWUGRCTCN[UKU
and asphyxiation in humans and the contents of one
URKFGTUINCPFUCTGGPQWIJVQMKNNOKEG

to make a buzzing sound


and attract a female
though she can only detect
it from the vibrations.
The male of the American
species Lycosa gulosa taps
his palps and abdomen on
dry leaves to produce an
equally audible purr.
Least venomous spider
Uniquely among modernday spiders, the cribellate
or hackled orb-weavers lack
venom glands. Instead, they
wrap their prey in silk and
douse them with digestive
enzymes to liquefy them.
Smallest spider webs
The webs of the so-called
midget spiders can be
less than 10 mm (0.39 in)
across. Among their 44 tiny
species is Patu marplesi,
which has a body length of
0.3 mm (0.011 in), making
it the smallest spider.

Strongest spider webs


&KUEQXGTGFKP/CFCICUECT&CTYKPUDCTMURKFGT
Caerostris
darwini ) weaves the strongest known spider silk, with a
VGPUKNGUVTGPIVJQHWRVQ/,O (megajoules per cubic
metre) making it twice as tough as any previously described
silk. C. darwini also spins the largest websWRVQO

USHV YJKEJECPUVTGVEJ
between two river banks.

Highest living spider

First documented war


The Egyptians defeat the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh. Pharaoh Ramses II has the campaign
written up in a series of propaganda bulletins that are distributed throughout his kingdom.

1274 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 61

DATELINE

The Himalayan jumping spider


('WQRJT[UQOPKUWRGTUVGU), or highest
QHCNNYCUTUVFKUEQXGTGFKP
CVO
HV QP/QWPV
Everest in Nepal. It was
living under stones
HTQ\GPVQVJGITQWPF
First described in
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to feed on tiny
insects blown by
the wind from
lower altitudes.

DINOSAURS

(KTUVUEKGPVKE
description
QHCFKPQUCWT
Megalosaurus bucklandii
(great fossil lizard) was
described in 1824. Workmen
uncovered remains of
WKLVELSHGDOHVKHDWHU
some time before 1818 in
a quarry near Woodstock
in Oxfordshire, UK.
(KTUVUVGIQUCWT
Huayangosaurus taibaii lived
during the Middle Jurassic
period 165 million years
ago in the
area of
Huayang
(Sichuan)
in China. It was
formally described
and named in 1982.
The dinosaur with
the longest spikes was
Loricatosaurus, a genus of
herbivorous stegosaur that
lived 160164 million years
ago in what is now England.
As fossils, these spikes, set
on the tail, are 1 m (3 ft 3 in)
long but may have been
covered by a horny sheath,

osa

Din

ot
rs n

LARGEST PLESIOSAUR

which might have doubled


their length. They were
probably used as weapons
and perhaps also utilized
to attract mates.
&KPQUCWTYKVJ
VJGOQUVVGGVJ
7KHGXFNELOOHG
hadrosaurs were
herbivores with toothless
beaks. In the side of
their jaws, however,
they had as many as 960
VHOIVKDUSHQLQJFKHHNWHHWK
for chewing tough plants.
.QPIGUVFKPQUCWT
A diplodocid excavated
in New Mexico, USA, in
1980 was estimated to be

LARGEST
5OCNNGUVFKPQUCWTURGEKGU
The feathered Microraptor
zhaoianus measured 39 cm
(1 ft 3.3 in), of which 24 cm
(9.4 in) was the tail. A fossil
of the diminutive species
discovered at Chaoyang in
Liaoning Province, China,
in 1999 is estimated to be
110120 million
years old.

1UVTKEJFKPQUCWT
The largest species
of ostrich dinosaur or
ornithomimosaur (named
DIWHUWKHLUVXSHUFLDO
outward similarity to an
ostrich) was Deinocheirus
OKTKEWU. It lived 6971
million years ago during

the Late Cretaceous period


in what is today Mongolia.
It is currently known from
three specimens, the largest
of which measures 11 m
(36 ft) in length and weighs
6.36 tonnes (14,020 lb).

DID YOU
KNOW?
The neck
of Omei

tianfuen
saurus
sis (see b
elow) co
17 elong
mprised
ated bon
es and m
four tim
easu
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ly
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ale!

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LONGEST DINOSAUR TAIL


The sauropod Diplodocus lived during the
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O
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CEQWPVGTDCNCPEGVQKVUNGPIVJ[PGEM

DATELINE

3952 m (128170 ft) long


based on comparisons of
individual bones. Named
Seismosaurus halli HDUWK
shaking lizard), it was
QDOO\UHFRQVWUXFWHGDWWKH
Wyoming Dinosaur Center,
USA, in 1999 and found to
be 41 m (134 ft) in length.

The carnivorous marine reptile Liopleurodon


grew to 25m (82 ft) in length. It had a short
neck, a 3-m-long (10-ft) head and four powerful
ippers. It lived in the Mid to Late Jurassic period,
some 150165million years ago, but was not
technically a dinosaur; it belonged to an order
of reptiles called Sauropterygia. Plesiosaurs
were divided into two distinct suborders: the
short-necked Pliosauroidea, which included
Liopleurodon, and the long-necked Plesiosauroidea.

1271 BCE
62 Animals

LONGEST DINOSAUR TAIL


RELATIVE TO BODY SIZE
Leaellynasaura amicagraphicaYCUO
HV
KP NQPIDWVKVUO
HVKP VCKNYCU
VJTGGVKOGUVJGNGPIVJQHKVUJGCFPGEMCPF
DQF[+VNKXGFOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ

WIDEST DINOSAUR
&KUVKPIWKUJGFD[VJGNCTIGENWDCVVJGGPFQH
KVUVCKNAnkylosaurusYCUWRVQO
HV 
YKFG6JGGPVKTGDCEMYCUEQXGTGFYKVJDQP[
RNCVGUUVWFUCPFURKMGUCUYCUVJGJGCF
KPENWFKPIVJGG[GNKFU

DINOSAUR WITH THE LONGEST


NECK RELATIVE TO BODY SIZE
Omeisaurus tianfuensisJCFCPGEMUQOG
O
HV NQPIDWVQPN[CO
HV
KP DQF[+VNKXGFKPVJG,WTCUUKEGTC
UQOGOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ

First peace treaty


After three years of war, Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II and Hattusili III, king of the Hittites, agree to a peace treaty.
Copies of the treaty are made on silver tablets in both Akkadian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics.

FAST FACTS
Dinosaurs roamed the Earth for 165 million years (humans have been here
for about 2 million years) British scientist Richard Owen coined the word
dinosaur (terrible lizard) in 1841 Most dinosaur species were vegetarian

*KIJGUVRGTEGPVCIG
QHKPVCEVFKPQUCWTTGOCKPU

(GCVJGTYKPIGFTCRVQT
Formally described and
named in Oct 2015,
Dakotaraptor steini was
56 m (16 ft 4 in19 ft
8 in) long. The existence
of feathers on this
dinosaurs wings
(i.e., forelimbs)
ZDVFRQUPHG
by the presence
of a row of bumps along
a ridge on the lower edge
of the forearm bone called
the ulna. Known as ulnar
papillae, or quill knobs,
these bumps are also
SUHVHQWLQPRGHUQGD\
birds, as bases for the
reinforced attachment of
the wing feathers (remiges).
(QWTYKPIGFFKPQUCWT
The only recorded specimen
of Changyuraptor yangi
was discovered in Chinas
Liaoning Province and
formally described and
named in 2014. A fully
grown adult, the specimen
measured some
1.2 m (3 ft
11 in) long and is
estimated to have
weighed 4 kg (8 lb 13 oz)
when alive making it
approximately the same

HEAVIEST CERATOPSIAN
6JGOCUUKXGVJTGGJQTPGFJGTDKXQTG
Triceratops horridusYGKIJGFVQPPGU

ND +VNKXGFOKNNKQP[GCTU
CIQFWTKPIVJG.CVG%TGVCEGQWURGTKQF
KPYJCVKUPQY0QTVJ#OGTKEC

size as a turkey. Belonging


to the microraptor group of
GLQRVDXUVLWLVFDOOHGDIRXU
winged dinosaur because
its forelimbs and hind

#UQH0QXVJGOQUVGZVGPUKXGEQNNGEVKQPQH
FKPQUCWTGIIUPWODGTGFKPFKXKFWCNUCORNGU
+VKUJGNFCVVJG*G[WCP/WUGWOKP)WCPIFQPI
2TQXKPEG%JKPC#NNQHVJGGIIUEQOGHTQOVJG.CVG
%TGVCEGQWUGTC
EOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ CPF
KPENWFGGIIUHTQOQXKTCRVQTKFCPFFWEMDKNNGFFKPQUCWTU

OLPEVERUHORQJWUXHLJKW
feathers, and it may have
EHHQDEOHWR\,WOLYHGLQ
the Early Cretaceous period
some 125 million years ago.

.CTIGUVHQUUKNK\GFGZETGOGPV
HTQOCECTPKXQTG
%WTTGPVN[TGUKFKPIKPVJG4Q[CN5CUMCVEJGYCP/WUGWO
KP4GIKPC5CUMCVEJGYCP%CPCFCVJGNCTIGUVEQRTQNKVG

HQUUKNK\GFHCGEGU HTQOCECTPKXQTGTGEQTFGFVQFCVGKUVJCVQH
a Tyrannosaurus rex&KUEQXGTGFKPVJGRTGJKUVQTKEQTFWTG
OGCUWTGUEO
HVKP CETQUUCPF
YGKIJUOQTGVJCPMI
NDQ\ 
#PCN[UKUQHVJGFTQRRKPIURTQXKFGU
KPUKIJVUKPVQFKPQUCWTUFKGVGCVKPIJCDKVU

HQTGZCORNGYJGVJGTVJG[IWNRGFQTEJGYGFVJGKT
HQQF CPFJQYNQPIHQQFTGOCKPGFKPVJGKTIWV

HEAVIEST DINOSAUR
/QUVUEKGPVKUVUCITGGVJCVVJGJGCXKGUV
FKPQUCWTYCURTQDCDN[Argentinosaurus
CVKVCPQUCWTKFHTQO#TIGPVKPC$CUGFQP
KVUXCUVXGTVGDTCGKVKUGUVKOCVGFVQJCXG
YGKIJGFUQOGVQPPGU
ND 

LARGEST CARNIVOROUS
DINOSAUR
Spinosaurus TQCOGFVJGRTGUGPVFC[
5CJCTCCTQWPFOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ
+VOGCUWTGFUQOGO
HV NQPICPF
YGKIJGFVQPPGU
ND 

Largest ziggurat
A terraced temple, known today as the Ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil, is built for King Untas of the
Elamites in what is now Iran. It is roughly 100 m (328ft) long on each side and 50m (164ft) tall.

1250 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 63

DATELINE

The arms of Deinocheirus


OKTKEWU measured 2.4 m
(7 ft 10 in) long the
longest arms for a bipedal
dinosaur. Each hand had
WKUHHODUJHFODZHGQJHUV

+PVJGUWOOGTQHVJGHQUUKNK\GFTGOCKPUQHC
OKNNKQP[GCTQNFFWEMDKNNGFFKPQUCWTYGTGFKUEQXGTGFKP
PQTVJGTP/QPVCPC75#&WDDGF.GQPCTFQVJGONQPI

HV BrachylophosaurusYCUVJGHQWTVJFKPQUCWTGXGT
HQWPFVQDGENCUUKGFCUCOWOO[5QOGQHKVUDQF[
YCUEQXGTGFKPHQUUKNK\GFUQHVVKUUWGKPENWFKPIUMKPOWUENGU
UECNGUCPFHQQVRCFUCPFKVUNCUVOGCNYCURTGUGTXGFKPKVU
UVQOCEJ6JGETGCVWTGYCUVJTGGQTHQWT[GCTUQNFYJGPKVFKGF

.CTIGUVEQNNGEVKQP
QHFKPQUCWTGIIU

CATS & DOGS


Smallest cat ever
Tinker Toy, a male blue
point Himalayan-Persian,
measured only 7 cm
(2.75 in) tall and 19 cm
(7.5 in) long when fully
grown (aged 2.5 years).
The unusually tiny feline
was owned by Katrina and
Scott Forbes of Taylorville
in Illinois, USA.
Shortest living cat (height)
A nine-year-old female
Munchkin cat named
Lilieput measured 5.25 in
FP IURPWKHRRU
to the shoulders on 19 Jul
2013. She is owned by
Christel Young (USA) of
Napa in California.
Fastest cat breed
The Egyptian Mau has
been called a feline
greyhound for its ability to
reach speeds of 48 km/h
(29.8 mph). It is also superb
at leaping, thanks to its
powerful, muscular hind
legs. Despite its name, it is of
European-American origin.
Longest jump by a cat
Alley, a rescue cat owned
by Samantha Martin (USA),

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trained
.
aleash

PDGHD\LQJOHDSRIIW
(1.82 m) in Austin, Texas,
USA, on 27 Oct 2013.
Greatest mouser
7RZVHU E$SU D
female tortoiseshell owned
by Glenturret Distillery Ltd
in Perth and Kinross, UK,
caught an estimated 28,899
mice. She averaged three
mice per day until her death
on 20 Mar 1987.
Wealthiest cat
When Ben Rea (UK) died in
May 1988, he left his entire
7-m ($12.5-m) fortune to
Blackie, the last surviving of
the 15 cats with whom
he had shared his
mansion.

Tallest domestic cat (ever)


5CXCPPCJ+UNCPFU6TQWDNGCMC6TQWDNGYCUEO
HV
KP VCNNYJGPOGCUWTGFCVVJG5KNXGT%CVU%CV5JQYKP
4GPQ0GXCFC75#QP1EV*GYCUQYPGFD[&GDD[
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75# CPFFKGFQP#WI6TQWDNGYCUCP
(5CXCPPCJECVCDTGGFRTQFWEGFHTQOCFQOGUVKE#HTKECP
UGTXCN
Leptailurus serval ETQUU6JGUGECVUCTGQHEKCNN[
TGEQIPK\GFCUFQOGUVKEDWVQYGVJGKTGZQVKENQQMUUVTQPI
OCTMKPIUCPFNQPINGIUCPFDQF[VQVJGKTYKNFHQTGDGCTU

Most tricks
by a cat
in one minute

DATELINE

Didga (AUS) and her owner


Robert Dollwet (USA)
RGTHQTOGFVTKEMUKP6YGGF
*GCFU#WUVTCNKCQP5GR
2KEVWTGFHTQOVJGVQR
UJGKUUGGPIKXKPICJKIJXG
TQNNKPIQXGTUMCVGDQCTFKPI
CPFLWORKPIQPVQ4QDGTVU
JCPFU&KFICYJQYCU
CFQRVGFHTQOCECVUJGNVGTECP
GXGPVCMGQPVJGEJCNNGPIG
QHCTGCNUMCVGDQCTFKPIRCTM

850 BCE
64 Animals

LONGEST CAT (LIVING)


Ludo, owned by Kelsey Gill (UK), measured 118.33cm (3ft 10.6in) long on 6Oct
2015 in Wakeeld, UK. Ludo is one of the oldest American breeds: a Maine Coon,
named after the US state. There is a myth impossible in reality, but encouraged by its
typical brown tabby colouring and abundant fur that it resulted from matings between
semi-wild cats and raccoons. The Maine Coons robust health and companionable, lively
personality has ensured its popularity as a family pet for well over a century.

Oldest bridge
A slab-stone single-arch bridge is built over the River Meles in Smyrna (Izmir in modern-day
Turkey). It will continue to be used into the 21st century.

FAST FACTS
Palaeolithic humans in east Asia domesticated dogs about 15,000years ago by
breeding aggression out of wolves Cats were domesticated atleast 9,000years
ago, probably by being given food in return for helping to control rodents

person from the Kaarster


See lake in Germany on
11 Jun 2013.
Fastest time to climb
UVCKTUQPJKPFNGIU
Walking on his back paws,
Chinese poodle Arsenal
scaled 20 steps in just
7.47 sec on the set of
CCTVs Guinness World
Records Special in Beijing,
&KLQDRQ-DQ
Arsenals owner, Xu Ligang
(CHN), had to tell the eager
pooch to slow down during
the attempt, fearing that he
might lose his balance.

Tallest female dog


.K\\[C)TGCV&CPGUVQQFEO
HVKP VCNNKP(QTV/[GTU(NQTKFC75#QP0QX5JG
YCUOGCUWTGFCIGFUGXGP[GCTUDWVQYPGT)TGI5CORNGUC[UUJGYCUVJKUVCNND[VJGCIGQHVJTGG
*GECNNUJGTCUJQYUVQRRGTCFFKPIVJCVUJGCNYC[UCVVTCEVUCVVGPVKQPYJGPVJG[TGQWVCPFCDQWV
German rescue organization
DLRG. With his handler
Hans-Joachim Brckmann
(DEU), he took 1 min
VHFWRUHWULHYHD

Wealthiest dog
In 1931, Ella Wendel of New
York City, USA, bequeathed
$15 m (10.5 m) to her
standard poodle, Toby. After
her death, Toby was looked
after by three servants.

Tallest dog ever


Zeus (USA), a Great Dane,
measured 111.8 cm (3 ft
8 in) on 4 Oct 2011. He lived
in Otsego, Michigan, with
Denise Doorlag and family.
Fastest time for a dog
VQTGVTKGXGCRGTUQPHTQO
water over a 25-m distance
Jack the Black vom Mhlrad
is a Newfoundland
working for the

Most tricks
by a dog
in one minute

Longest tail on a dog


-GQPCP+TKUJYQNHJQWPFQYPGFD[+NUG.QQFVU
$'. 
TGXGCNGFVJGHWNNGZVGPVQHJKUEO
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First Olympic Games


The Olympic Games are held for the rst time in July, when Koroibos, a cook from Elis in
southern Greece, wins the foot race. They are inaugurated to honour the god Zeus.

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776 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 65

DATELINE

Smallest dog ever


A dwarf Yorkshire terrier
owned by Arthur Marples
(UK) was 7.11 cm (2.8 in)
tall and 9.5 cm (3.7 in) long.
A female Chihuahua
called Milly, owned by
Vanesa Semler (USA),
PHDVXUHGFP LQ 
tall on 21 Feb 2013, and is
the smallest dog (living).
Heaven Sent Brandy, a
female Chihuahua belonging
to Paulette Keller (USA), is
the smallest dog by length:
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to tail tip on 31 Jan 2005.

First litter of
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Seven healthy puppies
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two beagle-cocker spaniel
crosses), conceived by
KPXKVTQ fertilization (IVF),
were born to a surrogate
female in summer 2015.

FANTASTIC BEASTS
hybrid from a male ass and
female zebra. This animal
when old had hardly any
stripes; but I was assured
by the superintendent, that
when young it had shoulderstripes, and faint stripes on
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this case more especially as
an instance of the stripes
being much plainer during
youth than in old age. This
hybrids father was a fertile
male donkra (a rare hybrid,
resulting from a male
donkey mating
with a female
zebra).

.CTIGUVDTGGFQHECVVNG
Chianina cattle were
brought to the Chiana Valley
in Italy from the Middle East
in pre-Roman times. Four
types of the breed exist,
the largest of which is the
Valdichiana Chianina, found
on the plains and low hills
of Arezzo and Siena. Bulls
average 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)
at the shoulder and weigh
1,300 kg (2,866 lb), but some
Chianina oxen have reached
1.9 m (6 ft 2.8 in).
6CNNGUVEQYGXGT
Blosom, owned by Patricia
Meads-Hanson (USA),
measured 1.9 m (6 ft 2.8 in)
from the hoof to the
withers (the ridge between
the shoulder blades) in
Orangeville, Illinois, USA,
on 24 May 2014.
Largest hamster species
The European or common
hamster (%TKEGVWUETKEGVWU)
has a head-and-body length
of up to 34 cm (1 ft 1.4 in),
plus a tail length of up to
6 cm (2.3 in), yielding a
total length of around
40 cm (1 ft 3.7 in).

NOW?
DID YObrUeedKhas a highly

DATELINE

Rasputins
: black
appearance
distinctive
hite
w
d
an
er
ld
totheshou
ular
This partic
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ta
e
th
ri
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16
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sII,
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be
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510 BCE
66 Animals

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DQCVUVTKMGUCPFUJKPIFGDTKUUGGOQUVOCPCVGGUFKGDGHQTGVJG[TGCEJVJGCIGQH

Although widely distributed


in the wild across Eurasia,
the species is critically
endangered in certain
European countries.
It can live for eight
years in captivity.

Rarest domestic
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In his book The Variation
QH#PKOCNUCPF2NCPVU
7PFGT&QOGUVKECVKQP (1868),

naturalist Charles Darwin


(UK) described a unique
three-species specimen.
He wrote: Many years
ago I saw in the Zoological
Gardens [of London] a
curious triple hybrid, from
a bay mare, by a

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A male mountain pygmy
possum ($WTTCO[URCTXWU)
was found in the kitchen
of a ski-lodge in eastern
Victorias Australian
Alps in Aug 1966. It
became the pet of
mammalogist

LARGEST HORN SPAN


ON A GOAT (LIVING)
Rasputin is an eight-year-old Walliser black-necked
goat (Capra hircus). The distance between the tips of
his horns measured 1.35m (4ft 5.1in) in Lienz, Tyrol,
Austria, on 5Jun 2015.
Largest horn span on a steer (living): 9ft9.25in
(2.97 m), for Lazy Js Bluegrass (USA), aTexaslonghorn
(Bos taurus) living in Greenleaf, Kansas, USA, as of
4 Oct 2014. Thats greater than the height of Sultan
Ksen (TUR), the tallest living man.
Longest horns on a steer: 10ft 4.75in (3.16m), for
a Texas longhorn steer named Gibraltar, bred and
owned by Dickinson Cattle of Texas, USA.
Longest horns on a bull: 4ft 6in (1.37m), with a
circumference of 2ft 6in (0.76m), for a bull named
Gopal, on 21Aug 2002. The bull is owned by Bhagwan
Mahavir Pashu Raksha Kendra Anchorwala Ahinsa
Dham animal protection centre in Gujarat, India.
Longest horn on a sheep: 1.91m (6ft 3.1in), for a
Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii). The species is
indigenous only to the Pamir Mountains bordering
Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and China.

First permanent theatre


The outdoor Theatre of Dionysus is built in Athens, Greece. With an estimated capacity of 17,000 people,
the theatre is in the round, with stone rows built up a slope overlooking the stage.

FAST FACTS
Goats and sheep have rectangular pupils Only about 15% of young rabbits reach
one year old Many male and female parrots look almost identical A cama
is across between a one-humped camel (aka dromedary) and a llama

Dr John Seebeck (AUS).


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specimen of its species.
Until then, the mountain
pygmy possum had been
known to science only from
fossil remains dating back
20,000 years and was
thought long-extinct.

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Amazon parrots from
Mexico, South America
and the Caribbean islands
are popular pets. Almost
30 species are currently
recognized. The smallest
of these is the blackbilled amazon (#OC\QPC
CIKNKU), which is just
25 cm (9.8 in) long and
native to mountainous
rainforests in the centre
of the island of Jamaica.
Once a common species,
its numbers have fallen
owing to deforestation,
specimen collection for
the pet trade and poaching
for food. It is categorized
as vulnerable by the
International Union for
Conservation of Nature
(IUCN).

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As accepted by the IUCN,
the last Mascarene parrot
(/CUECTKPWUOCUECTKP)
was a pet owned by King
Maximilian I Joseph of
Bavaria. He kept it in
his royal gardens and
menagerie at Munich in

Germany, where it lived until


at least 1834, by which time
it was very old. This species
was native to Runion, one
of the Mascarene Islands
in the Indian Ocean, but
the last account of wild
specimens there dates
from the 1770s.

3.9 km/h

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Largest empire (by percentage)


The Achaemenid (aka Persian) Empire accounts for around 49.4million of the worlds 112.4million people
or 44%. It includes parts of Central Asia, the Mediterranean, North Africa, Thrace and Macedonia.

490 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 67

DATELINE

(CUVGUVOQPJKPFNGIUD[CJQTUG

DATELINE

HUMANS

480 BCE
68 Humans

Largest naval battle


In September, the Battle of Salamis takes place off the coast of Greece, near the port of Piraeus. An estimated 200,000 men
are divided between 800 vessels in the defeated Persian eet and 370 in the victorious eet of the Athenians and their allies.

CONTENTS
HUMANS
FACTOGRAPHIC

70

BODY MODIFIERS

72

MEDICAL MIRACLES

74

OLDEST...

76

FAMILY VALUES

78

BODY EXTREMES

80

100%

Largest gape

First history book


The History of the Peloponnesian War, by Greek politician Thucydides, is the earliest work to try to recount and understand
pastevents. Its eight books detail the political and military developments of the 431404 war between Sparta and Athens.

400 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 69

DATELINE

No one likes to be called a big mouth but in the case of Bernd


Schmidt (DEU), its actually a record-breaking compliment! The
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$GTPFUUQPJCFCUMGFJKOVQUWDOKVCPCVVGORVCHVGTUGGKPIVJKU
TGEQTFNKUVGFKPVJGGFKVKQPQHGuinness World Records.

930%

100%

1,603 sheets of A4

Named after its shape, the stapes or stirrup


bone is one of three auditory ossicles (tiny
bones) in the middle ear. The others are the
malleus (hammer) and incus (anvil). These
transmit sound vibrations, and their absence
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The stapes measures some
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forms the smallest joint,
with the incus bone,
and is controlled by the
bodys smallest muscle,
the stapedius, less than
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SMALLEST BONE

32 sheets of A4 paper

Skin

The skin has three layers:


the outer, waterproof
epidermis; the dermis with
hair follicles, blood vessels
and sweat glands; and the
subcutis or fat layer.

Lungs

Skin, which protects all other organs and


body systems, and regulates temperature and
moisture, is itself an organ. An average adult
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LARGEST ORGAN

The aorta wall is very elastic,


allowing it to pulsate in
rhythm with the heartbeat
and helping to propel blood
around the body.

The aorta distributes oxygenated blood around


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diameter where it leaves the heart, at the left
ventricle as wide as the orange circle on the right.
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before feeding vital organs, via the arterial network,
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LARGEST ARTERY

The heart, about the size of


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blood around a 150,000-km
(93,200-mi) system of blood
vessels long enough to
wrap round the world more
than three times.

The vena cava, which returns


blood to the heart from the
rest of the body, is the
largest vein, with a diameter
of 1.22 cm (0.470.78 in).

The complex, multi-functional, yet extraordinarily neat machine that is the


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this page, your brain is receiving oxygen to help you concentrate, your
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OQXGOGPVUTGSWKTGFHQTTGCFKPI0QYQPFGTUGXGTCNQHVJGDQF[UJKFFGP
EQORQPGPVUCTGTGEQTFDTGCMGTUUJQYPJGTGCVCEVWCNUK\G

BODY PARTS

FACTOGRAPHIC

AO
RT

100%

The
heart is made
of involuntary muscle,
so it works all by itself
all the time. Beating
100,000 times a day, it
clocks up 3 billion beats
over an average
lifetime.

Besides the aorta, the


pulmonary artery is the
other main artery, carrying
de-oxygenated blood only
to the lungs.

100%

The femur supports the bodys whole


weight in all activities, from standing to
extreme sport. The American College of
Sports Medicine states that, in a healthy
adult female, it can support more than
30 times the body weight!

LONGEST BONE

Excluding a variable number of


sesamoids (small rounded bones), the
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some bones fuse together). The thigh
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The longest recorded bone was
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that belonged to a German giant named
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The femur is also the strongest bone, and
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of steel of comparable size would weigh four
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100%

100%

100%

Sesamoid bones are bones that act like


pulleys in the complex arrangements of
tendons around some joints. Most are only a
few millimetres wide and shaped like eggs
or sesame seeds (the name sesamoid
comes from sesamum, the Latin for
sesame seed). The bodys largest
is the patella or kneecap, which
protects the ends of the femur
and tibia (shin bone) where
they meet at the knee joint.
The average human kneecap is
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LARGEST SESAMOIDBONE

The liver is divided into four parts, or lobes, of


differing size and shape. The livers functions
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from the blood, and storing nutrients, vitamins
and blood sugar. At any one time, it contains
about 13% of your blood (0.57 litres or 1 pint
in a fully grown adult).

As well as being the largest internal


organ (see below right), the liver
is also the bodys largest gland.
Glands secrete substances such
as hormones and release them into
the bloodstream; in the case of the
liver, it secretes bile, which helps
us digest fats.

100%

LARGEST
INTERNAL ORGAN

The inside of our larger bones


have a spongy appearance. Its
between the microscopically
thin walls of this honeycomb-like
material that marrow is found.

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NDQ\NDQ\ VJGGSWKXCNGPVQHHQWT(+(#
approved soccer balls. Located behind the lower ribs,
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the only organ that can regenerate itself, so one person
can donate a portion of their liver, which will then grow
back to normal size. Whats more, the donated part will
ITQYVQVJGTKIJVUK\GKPVJGTGEKRKGPV

Three pairs of extraocular


muscles in the orbit (eye
socket) anchor each eye,
moving it up and down and
side to side, and rotating it.

MOST ACTIVE MUSCLE

The eye muscles have been estimated to move more


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Their seven coordinated movements allow the
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also ensure that the eyes receptors are not
overloaded, so good vision is maintained.

Blood vessels and nerves run


through our bones. Red and
white blood cells are formed
inside bone, then carried around
the body via the bloodstream.

i
s
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BODY MODIFIERS
/QUVHNGUJVWPPGNU
HCEG 
As of 27 Nov 2014, Joel
Miggler (DEU) had acquired
IDFLDOHVKWXQQHOV
.CTIGUVHNGUJVWPPGN
GCT
Kalawelo Kaiwi (USA)
had a 10.5-cm (4.13-in)
HVKWXQQHOLQKLVHDUOREH
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clinic in Hawaii, USA,
on 14 Apr 2014.
Largest lip plate
Ataye Eligidagnes
(ETH) lip plate
spanned 19.5 cm
(7.7 in) in width and
59.5 cm (23.4 in)
in circumference, as
YHULHGLQ2FW
The previous maximum
width of these clay
plates was 15 cm (6 in).
Most facial piercings
Axel Rosales (ARG)
had 280 piercings
on his face, as of
17 Feb 2012.
On the same day,
Francesco Vacca
(USA) revealed the
most piercings in
the tongue: 16.

KNOW?en,
DID YOU
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DGNN[DWVVQPCPFEJGUV9KVJ
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DQF[CUQH(GDUJG
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female (living)

Most surgical-needle
piercings in one session
On 14 Dec 2014, Russ Foxx
applied 4,550 needles to
Matthew Menczyk (both
CAN) in 8 hr 12 min at
Wicked Tattoo & Piercing
in Maple Ridge, British
Columbia, Canada.
Most pierced senior citizen
Prince Albert, aka John
Lynch (UK, b. 9 Nov 1930),
had a grand total of
241 piercings including
151 in his head and neck
as counted in London, UK,
on 17 Oct 2008.

consisting of dark spots


on a yellow background.
Longest tattoo session

OWNVKRNGRGQRNG
Alle Tattoo, aka
Alessandro Bonacorsi (ITA),
completed a session of
50 hr 8 min in Palermo, Italy,
on 1012 Oct 2014.
With Riccardo Rivieccio
(ITA), Alle Tattoo also
achieved the most tattoos
in 12 hours by a team of

artists: 836 tattoos by


12 artists, on 26 Oct 2013.
And on 10 Oct 2015, Alle
Tattoo arranged the most
people to form a tattooed
sentence: 77. They spelt out
Step by step together for
a world of peace happiness
family passion art love
tattoo and music.
Most tattoos of
Squares: Matt Gone (USA)
had 848 squares tattooed

Most tattooed
UGPKQTEKVK\GP
OCNG
Tom Leppard (UK) has
99.9% of his body covered
in a leopard-skin design,

MOST TATTOOED
SENIORCITIZEN (FEMALE)

DATELINE

Charlotte Guttenbergs (USA) tattoos cover


91.5% of her body, as revealed in Melbourne,
Florida, USA, on 3Jun 2015. She told GWR that
her gallery began with a tattoo of a buttery,
a birthday present to herself in 2006. Since
then, and about 1,000 tattooing hours later,
Charlottes body art has burgeoned into oral
and animal imagery, symbols from Shintoism
and an emperor dragon winding around her
leg. While her inspiration is Japanese culture,
she has added a few details of her own, such
as delicate Victorian mittens. She plans
tocontinue with a full head tattoo, a
secret garden below her hair.

341 BCE
72 Humans

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VJGmost piercings in a lifetime (female)'NCKPGKU
EQPUVCPVN[CFFKPICPFTGRNCEKPILGYGNNGT[OQUVN[KPJGTHCEG

First use of a crossbow


The use of a crossbow is documented for the rst time at the Battle of Ma-Ling in Linyi, China.
It is probably a single-shot weapon held with a pistol-style grip.

FAST FACTS
Stone Age people probably inked themselves with natural dyes From the 1770s,
circuses became centres of tattooing in Europe and the USA Early tattooed
attractions, such as Englishman John Rutherford, started touring in the 1820s

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over his body, including 201


on his head, as counted on
Lo Show dei Record in Italy
on 7 Jul 2014.
A cartoon character:
Lee Weir (NZ) had been
tattooed with 41 portraits
of Homer Simpson, as of
5 Jun 2014.
Bones: Rico, aka Rick
Genest (CAN), has 139
human bones tattooed on
his body, reproducing part
RIKLVVNHOHWRQDVYHULHGLQ
Milan, Italy, on 27 Apr 2011.
Insects: As of the same
date, Rico also had
176 insect tattoos on his
upper body and head.

DID YOU
KNOW?
Lucky b
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ta
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ttooing
dyssey w
hen trav
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Most pierced
OCP

Largest group of life-size statues


A group of 6,0008,000 life-size clay soldiers and other gures later known as the Terracotta Army
are created for Emperor Qin Shi Huangdis tomb near Xian in China. They will be discovered in 1974.

221 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 73

DATELINE

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MEDICAL MIRACLES

Most extensive skull implant using 3D printing


First skull and scalp transplant
Following treatment for leiomyosarcoma (a rare form of cancer),
James Boysen (USA) was left without the top of his skull. A 15-hr
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Youngest organ donor
On 1 Dec 2015, Hope Lee
(UK) donated her kidneys
and liver cells just 74 min
after her birth.
Most transplanted organ
In 2013 the most recent
year for which statistics
are available the kidney
was the most widely
transplanted organ.
According to the Global
Observatory on Donation
and Transplantation, 79,325
kidney transfer operations

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n
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200 BCE
74 Humans

were performed that year,


out of a total of 118,127
transplants about 67%
of all such operations.
According to the same
source, in 2013 Norway
was the country
with the most
transplanted
organs per
million
population.

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More than 95 organs


were transplanted per
million citizens.
As of the same year,
Spain was the country with

the most organ donations


from deceased people, with
35.3 organs donated per
million of the population.

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FIRST
Bionic bone implant
In Jul 2006, scientists
at University College
London, UK, announced
that early clinical trials at
Mount Vernon Hospital in
Middlesex, UK, had been
completed for a method
of attaching a titanium rod
directly to human bone.
While rods and pins have
long been used in brokenbone repair, this was the
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protruded through the skin.
The aim is to enable direct
attachment of prosthetic
limbs to residual bone,
rather than strapping
them to the limb
as a whole.
Bionic brain prosthesis
The hippocampus is the part
of the brain that forms and
stores long-term memories.
Professor Theodore Berger
(USA) has developed a
working hippocampal
prosthesis. In 2011 in
collaboration with Sam
Deadwyler and Robert
Hampson at Wake Forest
Baptist Medical Center in
North Carolina, USA it was
successfully tested with

First battery
An unknown inventor in what is now Baghdad, Iraq, discovers that by placing a copper cylinder and
aniron rod in a ceramic pot lled with acid, it is possible to generate around 1.5 volts of electricity.

FAST FACTS
In 2013, Austrian scientists began growing pea-sized brains from cells to help with
research into brain disease Surgeons transplanted a robotic heart into a sheep
in2015 Articial toes dating from 900600 BCE have been found in Luxor, Egypt

DID YOU

KNOW?
Frank th
e artici
al huma
is curre
n
ntly hou
sed at th
Smithso
e
nianNa
tional A
Space M
ir and
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gton,
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erses
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seum-g
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a laser-sc
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copyof
ProfBert
olt
Meyers
own face
.
was successfully tested on
primates. The breakthrough
opens up the possibility of
repairing brains damaged
by diseases such as
Alzheimers.

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live rats. The prosthesis
uses electrodes to record
both from the input and
output nerve bundles of
a damaged hippocampus.
The input was analysed by
an external processor array

and appropriate responses


were then generated
to stimulate an output
pattern. This mimicked
the way in which a healthy
hippocampus functions.
In 2013, the prosthesis

Most organs transplanted


in a single operation
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Child to survive
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In Oct 2015, 16-monthold Jaxon Taylor (AUS)
suffered the fracture of his
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ligaments as a result of a car
accident. This meant that his
head was separated from
his neck, a trauma known as
internal decapitation. This
is fatal in 68% of cases, with
survivors usually suffering

paralysis.
Fortunately,
Jaxons spinal cord
did not snap. Surgeon
Dr Geoffrey Askin and his
team at the Lady Cilento
Childrens Hospital in
Brisbane, Australia, were
able to repair Jaxons injury
with complete success.

FIRST PROSTHETIC HAND


CONTROLLED BY THE BRAIN
In Sep 2015, the USAs Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) developed the rst prosthetic
hand that could be controlled directly by the brain.
Itcould also transmit tactile sensations (i.e., a sense
oftouch) allowing users to pick up delicate objects
without damaging them. The hand was implanted in a
28-year-old man who had been paralysed for 10years
as a result of a spinal-cord injury. The prosthetic
limbwas developed by DARPA in collaboration with
scientists from the Applied Physics Laboratory at
Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, USA.

Oldest analogue computer


A Greek inventor builds a complex mechanical computer, known today as the Antikythera
Mechanism. The computer is lost in a shipwreck and not rediscovered until 1901.

100%

100 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 75

DATELINE

Most bionic body parts


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Bionic eye to overcome


macular degeneration
In Jul 2015, Ray Flynn
(UK) became the
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bionic eye implanted
to recover the sight
he had partially
lost from macular
degeneration.
The operation
took place at the
Manchester Royal
Eye Hospital, UK.
Macular degeneration
is the most common
cause of sight loss in
the developed world.

OLDEST

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Person (ever)
Jeanne Louise Calment
(FRA) lived for 122 years
164 days. Born on 21 Feb
1875, Jeanne died at a
nursing home in Arles,
France, on 4 Aug 1997.

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In 1990, she survived hip


surgery aged 114 years
11 months, making her the
oldest surgery patient.
The oldest man ever
was Jiroemon Kimura (JPN,
b. 19 Apr 1897), who died on
12 Jun 2013 aged 116 years
54 days.
Person to climb Everest
Yuichiro Miura (JPN,
b. 12 Oct 1932) reached
the peak of Everest
on 23 May 2013 at
80 years 223 days.
This also made him

the oldest person to climb


a mountain over 8,000 m.
Tamae Watanabe (JPN,
b. 21 Nov 1938) became
the oldest woman to climb
Everest when she summitted
for the second time on
19 May 2012, at the age of
73 years 180 days.

Woman to row across


any ocean solo
Diana Hoff (UK, b. 1 May
1944) was 55 years
135 days old at the start of
her crossing of the Atlantic
east to west solo, in Star
#VNCPVKE++, between 13 Sep
1999 and 5 Jan 2000.

Abseiler
Aged 101 years 55 days,
Doris Cicely Long MBE (UK,
b. 18 May 1914) abseiled
down the Spinnaker Tower
in Portsmouth, UK, on
12 Jul 2015.

English Channel swimmer


Otto Thaning (ZAF, b.
13 Mar 1941) crossed
from Shakespeare Beach

OLDEST LIVING PEOPLE

DATELINE

As of 11Mar 2016, the oldest living man was Israel


Kristal (ISR, left), who was aged 112years
178days, as veried by the Gerontology
Research Group and Jewish Records
Indexing. Mr Kristal was born on 15Sep
1903 in the village of Maleniec,
near arnw in Russia (now
Poland). Since 1950 he has
livedin Haifa, Israel.
Susannah Mushatt Jones
(USA, b.6Jul 1899, right) was
116years 303days old as of
4May 2016. Ms Jones lives in
Brooklyn, New York City, where
she received her certicate just
before her 116th birthday, which
she celebrated with two parties.
She is the oldest living person.

75 BCE
76 Humans

Oldest synagogue
The Wadi Qelt Synagogue is erected as part of the Hasmonean Winter Palace complex on the road
between Jericho and Jerusalem in the Middle East. It will be toppled by an earthquake in 31 BCE.

in Dover, UK, to Wissant


Bay near Calais in France in
12 hr 52 min, aged 73 years
177 days, on 6 Sep 2014.
The oldest English
Channel swimmer (female)
is Sue Oldham (AUS,
b. 24 Nov 1945), who made
the crossing in 17 hr 11 min,
aged 64 years 257 days, on
8 Aug 2010.
Person to fly in zero gravity
At 86 years 90 days old,
Ugo Sansonetti (ITA,
b. 10 Jan 1919) took
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FAST FACTS
The study of ageing and the elderly is known as gerontology, from the Greek
geron (old man) and logos (explanation) Of the 50 people aged 110 or more,
23were born in Japan The odds of you reaching 120 years old are 1 in 10 billion

Silver
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On 4 Feb 1971, Alan
Shepard (USA, b. 18 Nov
1923) was 47 years 78 days
old when he walked on the
Moon during the Apollo 14
lunar mission.
Person to release
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Aged 97 years 74 days,
Dame Vera Lynn (UK,
b. Vera Welch, 20 Mar

1917) launched compilation


album National Treasure
The Ultimate Collection
(Decca) on 2 Jun 2014.
Australian artist Herbert
Henry Smoky Dawson
MBE (19 Mar 191313 Feb
2008) is the oldest person
to release an album of
new material. He was
92 years 156 days old when
Homestead of My Dreams
came out on 22 Aug 2005.
Winner of an EGOT
Known as the Grand Slam
of Show Business, EGOT

OLDEST SUPERCENTENARIANS
A supercentenarian is anyone who is aged 110years
ormore. As of 4May 2016, there were 49 women in the
50oldest living supercentenarians and only one man.
1

Name

Born

Age

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is an acronym for the feat


of winning an Emmy, a
Grammy, an Oscar and a
Tony. Only 12 individuals
have earned an EGOT, the
oldest being British actor/
director John Gielgud
(14 Apr 190421 May
2000), who achieved his in
1991 at the age of 87 years
133 days. He won: a Tony

in 1961 (Best Director of a


Drama: Big Fish, Little Fish);
a Grammy in 1979 (Best
Spoken Word, Documentary
or Drama Recording: Ages
of Man); an Oscar in 1982
(Best Actor in a Supporting
Role: Arthur DQGQDOO\DQ
Emmy in 1991 (Outstanding
Lead Actor in a Miniseries
or Special: Summers Lease).

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Researc
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Astronauts
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Longest-lasting empire
After thwarting Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, Octavian dissembles the Roman
Republic and appoints himself Emperor Augustus. The new Roman Empire will endure for 503 years.

27 BCE

guinnessworldrecords.com 77

DATELINE

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in Fort Lauderdale, Florida,
USA, on 10 Apr 2005.

FAMILY VALUES
Consolata, into the world
on 22 Aug 1907. Over the
next 27 years, she would
be joined by eight brothers
and sisters. By 20 Jun 2014,
with Consolata aged 106,
the nine siblings total age
was 837 years 6 days.

Highest age of 12 living siblings


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HIGHEST AGE OF

DATELINE

A parent and child


Sarah Knauss (USA, 1880
1999) was once the oldest
living woman. On 30 Dec
1999, the 119-year-old and
her 96-year-old daughter
Kathryn Knauss Sullivan
(USA, 19032005) had
a total motherdaughter age
of 215!

40 CE
78 Humans

The highest combined


age for a living parent
and child, meanwhile, is
210 years 48 days, set by
Jamaican mother and son
Violet Brown (b. 10 Mar
1900) and Harland
Fairweather (b. 15 Apr
1920) on 21 Apr 2015.
Violet is also believed to
be the last living subject
of Queen Victoria.
Nine living siblings
Francesco Melis and his
wife Eleonora Mameli
(both ITA) welcomed
WKHLUUVWFKLOG

Three generations
to run a marathon
At the Tokyo Marathon on
22 Feb 2015, a Japanese
grandfather, daughter and
grandson, with a combined
age of 173 years 163 days,
raced their way into the
record books. Shigetsugu
Anan and Yasuko Nakatake
both crossed the line in 6 hr
42 min 28 sec, while the
youngest member of their
group, Suguru Nakatake,
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MOST
Living generations
On the birth of her
great-great-great-great
grandson in 1989, Augusta
Bunge (USA) became
the matriarch of a sevengeneration family.
Quadruplets born to
the same mother
Valentina
Vassilyev, who

Oldest couple to marry

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lived in Shuya, Russia, in the
18th century, gave birth to
four sets of quads. She also
bore seven sets of triplets
and 16 pairs of twins. Her
overall total of 69 children
easily makes her the most
SUROLFPRWKHU.

Centenarian siblings
The Clarke family (IRL) lays
FODLPWRYHFHQWHQDULDQV
Joseph, Charles, Patrick,
James and Margaret. The
UHFRUGZDVFRQUPHGRQ
Margarets 100th birthday
on 30 May 2014.

MOST SIBLINGS WITH


THE SAME BIRTH WEIGHT
Oliver, Keanu and Phoenix, three of the four sons of
Megan and Luke Bell from Queensland, Australia, all
weighed precisely 7lb 8oz (3.4kg) when they were born
between 2007 and 2013. Incredibly, the Bells rst son,
Hayden, was born only one ounce heavier, weighing
inat 7lb 9oz (3.43kg) in 2006.

Longest Roman aqueduct


Roman engineers complete a 275-m-long (902-ft) aqueduct known today as the Pont du Gard to supply
the settlement of Nemausus (present-day Nmes in France) with clean drinking water.

FAST FACTS
The British royal family celebrates each new baby with a 41-gun salute
Among OECD countries, Turkey has the largest average household:
4.11people vs the average 2.63 In the USA, the average marrying age is 28

Most family members


to complete a marathon

Most siblings to play in an


international rugby union match

6JGOCLQTKV[QHWUEJGGTQPNQXGFQPGUHTQOVJGUKFGNKPGU
CVCOCTCVJQPDWVPQVVJG*WIJGUHCOKN[
+4. 1P1EV
CVVJG&WDNKP/CTCVJQPTGNCVKXGU
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YCU*KNNCT[*WIJGUYJQTCPCVKOGQHJTOKPUGE

Siblings to marry siblings


from another family
Between 1977 and 1996,
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Nath and Taramoni Roy
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Trarpoda Karmaker and
Khana Rani Roy (all BGD).

$TQVJGTU#TEJKG,CEM(TCPM)GQTIGCPF/CZ5MQE
CNN580 
RNC[GFHQTVJGKTEQWPVT[KPC'WTQRGCP0CVKQPU%WRICOGCICKPUV
$WNICTKCCV2CTM5KUMCKP.LWDNLCPC5NQXGPKCQP#RT

star. She joined her great


uncle Lionel Barrymore, who
boasts two stars, along with
great aunt Ethel, grandfather
John, grandmother Dolores

Costello, great-grandfather
Maurice Costello and her
father John D Barrymore,
who each have one. Thats
eight gold stars for the
family altogether.

Most siblings to compete


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Family members on the


Hollywood Walk of Fame
In 2004, continuing a long
lineage of acting talent, E.T.
child star Drew Barrymore
(USA) became the
seventh member
of her family to
be honoured
with a gold

DID Y

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to live w
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.
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Oldest adoptee

Most leap-year generations


in one family
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$GVJCP[
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First documented volcanic eruption


Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying of the town of Pompeii, Italy. The Roman politician and writer Pliny the Younger
writes two letters to his friend, the historian Tacitus, detailing the events and their aftermath in great detail.

79 CE

guinnessworldrecords.com 79

DATELINE

%NC[VQP
75#TKIJV QP,WP+PFQKPIUQ/WTKGNCNUQ
DGECOGVJGoldest adoptive parentCIGF[GCTUFC[U
$QVJYQOGPYGTGFGNKIJVGFD[VJGNQPIEQOKPICHTOCVKQP
YKVJ/CT[EQOOGPVKPI+HGGNXGT[JCRR[5JGJCUDGGP/QO
HQTCNQPIVKOGCPFPQYKVUQHEKCN

BODY EXTREMES
Tallest man ever
When last measured,
on 27 Jun 1940, Robert
Pershing Wadlow (USA)
was 272 cm (8 ft 11.1 in)
tall. His shoe size was
37AA, or UK size 36
equivalent to 47 cm
(18.5 in) long and his
hands measured 32.3 cm
(12.7 in) from the wrist
to the tip of his middle
QJHU7KHVHDUHWKH
largest feet ever
and the largest
hands ever,
respectively.

Largest afro
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5V.QWKU/KUUQWTK75#QP,WPYJGPJGYCU[GCTUQNF
The largest afro (female)DGNQPIUVQ#GXKP&WICU
75# +VOGCUWTGFEO
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QH.Q5JQYFGK4GEQTFKP4QOG+VCN[QP/CT

LONGEST

TALLEST
Man and person: Currently, the tallest living human
is Sultan Ksen (TUR), who measured 251cm (8ft 2.8in)
on8Feb 2011. For the tallest man ever, see above.
Woman: Siddiqa Parveen (IND) measured at least
222.2cm (7ft 3.4in) tall in Dec2012. Owing to Siddiqas ill
health and her inability to stand upright, its impossible
to ascertain her exact stature; however, DrDebashish
Saha, who performed the measurements, estimated
herstanding height to be atleast 233.6cm (7ft 8in).

Beard ever:
When he died in 1927,
Hans N Langseths (NOR)
beard measured 5.33 m
IWLQ ORQJ7KH
record-breaking facial
hair was presented to the
Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, DC, USA,
in 1967.

Beard on a living person:


Sarwan Singh (CAN) had
a beard measuring 2.495 m
(8 ft 2.5 in) long as of
8 Sep 2011. Sarwan leads
the congregation of the
Guru Nanak Sikh temple,
located in Surrey, British
Columbia, Canada.
Fingernails on a pair
of hands ever (male):
7KHQDLOVRI0HOYLQ%RRWKH
(USA) had a combined

length of 9.85 m (32 ft


3.8 in) when measured
RQ0D\
Fingernails on a pair
of hands ever (female): Lee
Redmond (USA) started to
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She carefully manicured
them to reach an overall
length of 8.65 m (28 ft 4.5 in),
DVFRQUPHGRQWKHVHWRI
.Q5JQYFGK4GEQTFLQ0DGULG
Spain, on 23 Feb 2008.

AND SHORTEST

DATELINE

Woman: Jyoti Amge (IND, far left) measured 62.8cm


(24.7in) tall on 16Dec 2011.
Man: Since GWR 2016, we have said a farewell to Chandra
Bahadur Dangi (NPL, 19392015). At 54.6cm (21.5in) tall, he
remains the shortest man ever. Chandra, who was mobile,
was shorter than the shortest non-mobile living man, though
the opposite is usually true. After his death, GWR re-opened
separate categories for the record. The shortest living man
(mobile) is once more Khagendra Thapa Magar (NPL, centre
left), who stood 67.08cm (26.4in) tall on 14Oct 2010. The
shortest living man (non-mobile) is Junrey Balawing (PHL,
near left), who was 59.93cm (23.6in) tall on 12Jun 2011.

112 CE
80 Humans

First shopping mall


Located in Rome, Italy, Trajans Forum includes a covered market area with 150shops and
ofces setoversixgallery levels. It is designed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus.

FAST FACTS
Hair retains a short-term record of the substances in the bloodstream which
is why it is so useful as forensic evidence Of all the mammals, only primates
have ngernails The human tongue print is unique just like a ngerprint

Youngest female
with a full beard
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HCEKCNJCKTCVVJGCIGQH5JGKUCPCXKF
DQF[EQPFGPEGCPF
CPVKDWNN[KPICEVKXKUV
The longest beard
on a woman is that
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the set of .Q5JQY
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+EQWNFDGRTQWFQHDGKPIOG+VOCFGOG
HGGNNKMG+JCFCEJCPEGKPUQEKGV[

Hair (male): In 1949,


Indian monk Swami
Pandarasannadhi was
reported to have hair 26 ft
P LQOHQJWK7KLV
may have been caused by a
scalp condition called plica
neuropathica, which makes

the hair so matted that it


cannot be untangled.
Hair (female)7KHKDLU
of Xie Qiuping (CHN)
measured 5.627 m (18 ft
LQ RQ0D\
She began growing her
lengthy locks in 1973.

Moustache: When
measured for Italys .Q5JQY
FGK4GEQTFLQ5RPHRQ0DU
2010, the moustache of
Ram Singh Chauhan (IND)
was 14 ft (4.29 m) long.
Nose on a living person:
7KHQRVHRI0HKPHW
]\UHN 785 PHDVXUHG
8.8 cm (3.46 in) long from
the bridge to the tip when
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Tongue: Nick Stoeberl
(USA) had a tongue 10.1 cm
(3.97 in) long, from its tip to
the middle of the closed top
lip, as of 27 Nov 2012.
Tongue (female): Chanel
7DSSHUV 86$ WRQJXH
measured 9.75 cm (3.8 in)
long on 29 Sep 2010.

DID YOU
KNOW?
There are
107liga
33jo

ments,
ints, 26b
ones an
d 19mu
in a foot.
scles
T
aken tog
52bone
ether, th
s in a pa
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t represe
25% of a
nt
ll the bo
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n
e
s in an
mans sk
eleton. T
in the
he bone
ngers an
s
d toes are
calledp
halange
s.

HEAVIEST

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The longest ear hairKUQPN[OCTIKPCNN[UJQTVGT#PVJQP[8KEVQT

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JGECPQPN[TQVCVGJKUNGHVHQQVo

First use of gas warfare


Persian forces attacking the Roman garrison of Dura-Europos in eastern Syria dig tunnels to try to
gain access. They ignite bitumen and sulphur crystals to ll the tunnels with noxious fumes.

254 CE

guinnessworldrecords.com 81

DATELINE

Longest eyebrow hair

Man ever: Jon Brower


0LQQRFK 86$ 
weighed over 1,400 lb
(635 kg; 100 st) when
DVVHVVHGLQ0DU
Woman ever: Rosalie
Bradford (USA, 19432006)
was reported to have a peak
weight of 1,200 lb (544 kg;
85 st) in Jan 1987.
Living woman: As of
0D\3DXOLQH
Potter (USA) weighed
643 lb (291.6 kg; 46 st).

RECORDOLOGY

?
KNOEW
U
sh
li
O
g
n
Y
DID e creation of . The

DATELINE

rd
is th
Handfo any
Wally
m
Martin
r
y
b
to
s
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e
tr
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g
illus
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ldo in
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F
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in
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in Ger
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in
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a
a
w
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Hugoi
ly
o in Ita
ld
a
b
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330 CE

Oldest travel guide


An anonymous traveller writes the Itinerarium Burdigalense, a guide for pilgrims going from
France to Jerusalem. It gives recommendations for hostels, inns and stables along the route.

CONTENTS
RECORDOLOGY
FACTOGRAPHIC

84

FOOD

86

GARDEN GIANTS

88

CHOCOLATE

90

COLLECTIONS

92

MASS PARTICIPATION

94

COSPLAY

96

BIG STUFF

98

SMALLTOWN BIG STUFF

100

BALL SKILLS

102

Largest gathering of
RGQRNGFTGUUGFCU9CNN[

Longest pole-sitting overall


St Simeon the Stylite, a Christian mystic and hermit, dies atop the 15-m (50-ft) pillar on which he had sat
for the previous 39 years. He came down just once, so that the pole could be slightly increased in height.

459 CE

guinnessworldrecords.com 83

DATELINE

Wheres Wally? If you were at the Street Performance World


Championship at Merrion Square West in Dublin, Ireland, on
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HTQOVJGUCNGQH9CNN[QWVVUQPVJGFC[YGTGUWDUGSWGPVN[
FQPCVGFVQ#HTKEC#YCTGCP+TKUJEJCTKV[YQTMKPIKP/CNCYK

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ND *GJCWNGFVJGCKTETCHVCVVJG
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VJG)NQDGOCUVGT+++YGKIJGFCNOQUVGZCEVN[VJGUCOGCUVJG
largest blue whaleGXGTOGCUWTGF
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QP/CT 

HEAVIEST AIRCRAFT PULLED

kK
m
It too
ne 8.8 cle-bound
s
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re
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ords a
er r e c le d
A mo
h
t
o
pu l
ters
minis est house lb) and
i
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9
heav
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16sec
n
Y
i
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DI evin Fast 1 (28ft 10in).

Every year, the Guinness World Records Picture Editors criss-cross the
planet in search of the most striking record-holder images. To celebrate
the work of our global team of photographers, we present here 10 of our
favourite images snapped for the last few editions of the book. These
iconic record holders are not only inspiring, fascinating ambassadors for
GWR, they also symbolize the diversity and scope of record-breaking

PICTURE THIS!

FACTOGRAPHIC

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mightiest and meekest dogs for
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TALLEST AND
SHORTEST DOGS

Bog snorkelling
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MOST BIG MACS EATEN

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The fastest time to complete the World Bog Snorkelling


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FASTEST COMPLETION OF THE


BOGSNORKELLING TRIATHLON
(FEMALE)

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FARTHEST EYEBALL
PROTRUSION

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FASTEST 30M ON A
SCOOTER BY A DOG

LARGEST WALKING ROBOT

$KIHQQVKUO
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MOST PIERCED WOMAN AND


MOSTPIERCEDSENIOR CITIZEN

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LARGEST MONSTER TRUCK

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LARGEST COLLECTION
OF STAR WARS
MEMORABILIA

FOOD
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Carolina Reaper chillies in


60 sec in New York, USA,
on 26 Apr 2015. Thats
some feat: the Carolina
Reaper is the hottest chilli.
Grown by the PuckerButt
Pepper Company (USA), it
averages 1,569,300 units
on the Scoville heat scale.
/QUVGZRGPUKXGUCPFYKEJ
The Quintessential Grilled
Cheese was selling
for $214 (132.64) at
Serendipity 3 in New York,
USA, as of 29 Oct 2014.

Fastest time to eat


CKPEJRK\\C
Kelvin Medina (PHL) ate a
pizza in 23.62 sec in Taguig,
Philippines, on 12 Apr 2015.

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%CTQNKPC4GCRGTEJKNNKGU
GCVGPKPQPGOKPWVG
Russel Todd (USA)
scoffed 70 g (2.5 oz) of

/QUVUCWUCIGURTQFWEGF
KPQPGOKPWVG
Liam OHagan of OHagans
Sausages (both UK) made
44 sausages in 60 sec at a
charity event in Chichester,
UK, on 2 Nov 2015.

MOST ICE-CREAM SCOOPS BALANCED ON A CONE

DATELINE

Dimitri Panciera (ITA) carefully balanced 121 scoops of ice-cream on a single cone
in Forno di Zoldo, Italy, on 20Sep 2015. In doing so, he topped his own record of
109scoops, set in the same location on 20Jul 2014 at the Gelatiamo festival, an
annual celebration of the ice-cream that
the Val di Zoldo area produces.
When it comes to cones, though,
one towers above all the rest.
The tallest ice-cream cone
measured 3.08m (10ft 1.26in)
and was made by HennigOlsen Is AS and Trond L
Wien (both NOR) at
Kristiansand, Norway,
on 26Jul 2015.

650 CE
86 Recordology

Largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon treasure


A veteran soldier buries 5kg (11lb) of gold in Staffordshire, UK.
The hoard creates a sensation when it is uncovered in 2009.

Largest cupcake mosaic


The Spar Group Ltd (ZAF) put together a 138.56-m
(1,491.44-sq-ft) cupcake mosaic in Durban, South Africa, on
5GR%QORTKUKPIEWRECMGUKVYCUETGCVGFCUC
VTKDWVGVQVJG5RTKPIDQMUHQTVJG4WID[9QTNF%WRCUYGNN
CUCHWPFTCKUGTHQT%JKNFJQQF%CPEGT#YCTGPGUU/QPVJ

FAST FACTS
Americans eat 100 acres (40.4 ha) of pizza every day Hot dogs were
among the rst foods eaten during the Apollo11 Moon mission
Heinz sells 11billion single-serve packets of ketchup each year

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Largest
Cheese sculpture: On
18 Sep 2015, the Melt fastfood eatery in Hollywood,
California, USA, carved
a 1,524-lb (691.27-kg)
cheeseburger out
of a block of
Wisconsin
cheddar.

Glass of beer: Angus Wood


and Ed Dupuy of Stod Fold
Brewing Company (all UK)
served up a 2,082-litre
(550-US-gal) glass of ale
equivalent in volume to
26 bathtubs of beer in
Halifax, West Yorkshire,
UK, on 6 Jul 2014.
Rice cracker:
On 26 Oct 2014,
JCI Noda (JPN)
unveiled a 2.35-m
(25.3-sq-ft) rice
cracker in Noda,
Chiba, Japan.

Sticky rice cake: On 13 Apr


2015, Salakhet Siem Reap
(KHM) made a sticky rice
cake weighing 4,040 kg
(8,906 lb 10 oz) the
weight of six dairy cows
in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Pulled pork: The Pork


Association (AUS) produced
a 707-kg (1,558-lb 10-oz)
portion of pulled pork the
weight of two grand pianos
in the Australian city of
Sydney on 14 Apr 2015.

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en
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Oldest Viking boats


A defeated Viking raiding party buries its dead in a longship on the island of Saaremaa,
Estonia. The remains of this ship represent the oldest evidence of Viking seafarers.

700 CE
guinnessworldrecords.com 87

DATELINE

This gargan
Ottavia in
was named
free pizza
ustus, the
ug
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homage to
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levels, prom
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GARDEN GIANTS
HEAVIEST FRUIT & VEG
WEIGHT

GROWER

DATE

Apple

MI
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MI
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Cabbage

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MI
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Garlic head

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Most blooms on an orchid


In all, 91 blooms were
counted on an orchid grown
by Shi Yuanfeng (CHN), as
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China, on 20 May 2014.

Gooseberry

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MI
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Most tomatoes
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Surjit Singh Kainth (UK)
harvested 1,355 tomatoes
from just one of his plants
in Coventry, West Midlands,
UK, on 11 Sep 2013.

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Largest rose bush
A specimen of the rose
bush Lady Banks (Rosa
banksiae) located in
Tombstone, Arizona, USA,
has a trunk circumference
of 13 ft 5 in (4.09 m), stands
some 9 ft (2.75 m) tall and
covers 8,000 sq ft (743 m).

FRUIT/VEG

Largest cashew tree


A cashew tree in Natal,
Brazil, reputedly planted by
DORFDOVKHUPDQLQ
1888, covers an area
as large as 28 tennis
courts c. 7,500 m2
(80,700 sq ft)
and yields up to
80,000 fruit
(and nuts)
per year.

5GR



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HEAVIEST...

DATELINE

WATERMELON
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717 CE
88 Recordology

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CUCUMBER
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Oldest family business


Buddhist monk Garyo Houshi sets up a ryokan, a traditional inn, in the village of Awazu, Japan, near a spring
reputed to have healing powers. The current owner is Houshis 46th-generation descendant.

FAST FACTS
Strawberries are not true berries but bananas, watermelons and avocados
are Botanically, there is no such thing as a vegetable Peanuts, coconuts,
cashews and pine nuts are not nuts... but pecans, acorns and hazelnuts are

TALLEST PLANTS
PLANT

HEIGHT

GROWER

DATE

Amaranthus

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butterbean)

100%

Cactus (homegrown)

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LONGEST
Beetroot
On 26 Sep 2015, at the
Three Counties Showground
in Malvern, Worcestershire,
UK, Joe Atherton (UK)
presented a 7.212-m-long
(23-ft 7.9-in) beetroot.
By way of contrast, the
reticulated python the
longest snake grows to
around 6.25 m (20 ft 6 in).
The year before, at the
same competition, Joe
submitted the longest
parsnip, which measured
6.28 m (20 ft 7.2 in).

SWEDE
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Bottle gourd
Alan Eaton (CAN) presented
a 3.797-m-long (12-ft 5.5-in)
bottle gourd (Lagenaria
siceraria) at Bracebridge
Fall Fair in Ontario, Canada,
on 19 Sep 2015.
Cucumber
Ian Neale (UK) grew a
1.07-m-long (3-ft 8-in)
cucumber for presentation
at the Royal Bath & West
Show in Shepton Mallet,
UK, on 26 Sep 2011.
Radish
Jamie Courtney-Fortey,
Gareth Fortey and Kevin
Fortey (all UK) grew a radish
measuring 2.235 m (7 ft
4 in) in Cwmbran, Gwent,
Wales, UK,
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on 25 Oct
2015.

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1979

Dandelion

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Fuchsia (climbing)

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1987

Lupin

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1999

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1994

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Oldest university
The University of Karueein is founded in Fez, Morocco, and remains a seat of learning
to this day. Its specialist subjects are Islamic studies and Arabic linguistics.

859 CE
guinnessworldrecords.com 89

DATELINE

Heaviest
strawberry

Coleus
Collard

CHOCOLATE
Galak. The bar was
gradually introduced
in other countries
under various names,
including Milky Bar
and Alpine White.

Most expensive
chocolate bar
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to Antarctica
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supplies were
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Oldest chocolate
In 2007, anthropologist
John Henderson (USA)
found traces of cacao in
pottery fragments dating
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Escondido in Honduras.
Its thought the cacao was
fermented and drank as a
mildly alcoholic beverage.
Although cacaobased drinks may
have emerged
centuries before,
the earliest recipe
for chocolate drink
dates from 1631.

3XEOLVKHGLQChocolate: or,
an Indian Drinke, penned by
Spanish physician Antonio
Colmenero, the book
expounded the food's health
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cure coughs and sickness,
and even aid conception.
First white chocolate
White chocolate was
introduced by Nestl in
1930, and marketed in
Switzerland under the name

First Valentines
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the eldest son of John
Cadbury, who founded
the now iconic brand, was
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to commercialize the
association between the
confectionery and romance,
producing a heart-shaped
box of chocolates for
Valentines Day in 1868.

TRIVIA
Chocolate is derived
from the fruit (pods)
of the cocoa, or cacao,
tree Theobroma cacao,
native to the tropics
of Central and South
America. Cocoa beans
are actually seeds from
the trees pods (below);
after harvesting, the
beans are fermented
and dried.

Tallest chocolate Santa Claus


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ND CDQWVVJGUCOGCUTGCNNKHG5CPVC%NCWUGU

Highest chocolate
consumption per capita
Based on annual
confectionery sales, no
nation eats a greater
amount of chocolate than
Switzerland. In 2015, the
average Swiss person
consumed an estimated
9.3 kg (20 lb 8 oz).

Chocolate bar with


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To date, the standard fourQJHU.LW.DWFKRFRODWHEDU
has been made available
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The variations include
cucumber, wasabi,
watermelon and salt, and,
of course, milk chocolate.

Longest chocolate sculpture

DATELINE

Master chocolatier Andrew Farrugia of Malta used up


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ND QH$GNIKCP
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ever made. The intricately detailed Belcolade Express
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UVTGVEJGFCPKPETGFKDNGO

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modern electric locomotive at
one end and a classic steam
loco at the other. Pictured is
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unveiling ceremony for the
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$GNIKWOQP0QX

870 CE
90 Recordology

Largest ancient castle


Construction begins on Prague Castle (in the present-day Czech Republic).
When completed, the castle covers an area of 18 acres (7.3 ha).

FAST FACTS
The oldest person ever, Jeanne Louise Calment (FRA), who lived
to 122, partly put down her long life to eating chocolate White
chocolate is not technically chocolate as it has no cocoa solids

TOP OF THE CHOCS


Chocolate is seriously big business. Here we take a look
atthebiggest-selling chocolate confectionery brands
Brand

Maker

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Easter egg
In 2011, Le Acciaierie
Shopping Village in
Cortenuova, Italy, unveiled
a chocolate egg weighing
7,200 kg (15,873 lb) and
standing 10.39 m (34 ft 1 in)
tall. At more than twice the
height of a typical London
double-decker bus, this
eggs-treme creation is also
the tallest Easter egg.

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802 kg (1,768 lb 2 oz)
the equivalent of 11
adult men was made
by Mirco Della Vecchia,
Andrea Andrighetti, Rimini
Fiera, Fabbri 1905, Icam
and Martellato (all ITA)
in Rimini, Italy, on 21 Jan
2012. The 1-m-wide (3-ft
LQ WUXHZDVFRQFRFWHG
from dark chocolate, cream
and Amarena cherries.
Rabbit
Some 6,000 chocolate bars
were axed and chiselled
into shape to produce a

Bell
Bonbons Verdier of SerresCastet in France crafted a
gold-coated chocolate bell
weighing 293 kg (645 lb
15 oz) on 16 Jun 2011. The
1.51-m (4-ft 11.4-in) bell
had to be moved into the
shade to prevent it melting
in the intense summer
heat; electric fans were
also deployed to keep the
record-breaking choc cool.

Sculpture
$FLRQ&KRFRODWH &+1
crafted a building 4.08 m
(13 ft 4.6 in) long on 30 Sep
2015. Weighing 10,187 kg
(22,458 lb 7 oz), this edible
HGLFHRXWGLGWKHprevious
record by 1,900 kg (4,188 lb).
Crafted by Andrew
Farrugia (see choc train
opposite), the tallest
chocolate sculpture
UHFUHDWHGWKH%XUM.KDOLID
at Dubai Airport, UAE, on

27 Nov 2014. At
13.5 m (44 ft 4.2 in) high, it
was 61 times smaller than
the real tallest building.
Meanwhile, the Namba
Walk mall in Osaka, Japan,
made the largest chocolatecandy sculpture in 2012:
a 267.4-kg (589-lb 8-oz)
sugar-coated heart.

LARGEST CHOCOLATE COIN


Tipping the scales at 658 kg (1,450 lb 10oz),
this colossal chocolate 1-Euro coin was
presented at the Cioccoshow fair in an
event organized by the BF Servizi SRL (ITA)
in Bologna, Italy, on 15 Nov 2012 to mark
Guinness World Records Day. The coin had
a diameter of 1.96m (6 ft 5.17 in) more
than the height of the average male adult
and was 17 cm (6.69 in) thick. The outsized
confectionery took 22 hr to prepare, after which
sculptors Stefano and Tommaso Comelli (both ITA)
spent a further 12hr carving it into shape.

Oldest parliament
A great assembly (the Althing) is held in Iceland, gathering men from all the islands
clans to decide on matters of law. The Althing, Icelands parliament, still meets today.

930 CE
guinnessworldrecords.com 91

DATELINE

LARGEST
CHOCOLATE

behemoth bunny at the


annual Chocofest event,
held in Gramado, Brazil.
Training agency Senac-RS
%5$ XQYHLOHGWKHQDO
3,850-kg (8,488-lb) sculpture
on 12 Apr 2014. The rabbit
was posed with a chocolate
football in honour of the
2014 FIFA World Cup, which
was hosted by Brazil.

COLLECTIONS
Autographed golf balls
As of 1 Mar 2015, Joe
Galiardi (USA) had 204 golf
balls, all signed by different
professional golf players.
Comic books
On 6 Aug 2015, Bob Bretall
(USA) updated his record
for the third time, with
101,822 publications. He
began buying comics as a
child and adds (and reads)
around 100 titles a month.
Corkscrews
Ion Chirescu (ROM) had
acquired 23,965 pieces over
10 years, up to 18 Jun 2015.
In Aug 2015, he opened
a museum in Bucharest,
Romania, to house them.

Largest collection of sunglasses


In 1999, Auntie Betty Webster (USA) began wearing and collecting novelty sunglasses while
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FGUKIPUYCUXGTKGFVJGTGQP1EV-PQYPVJTQWIJQWVVJGKUNCPFUCUVJG*QUVGUU
YKVJVJG/QUVGUU$GVV[EQNQWTEQQTFKPCVGUJGTUWPINCUUGUYKVJJGTQWVVUCPFKUCNYC[U
on the lookout for new designs, while fans and followers
regularly contribute to her collection.

NOW?
by
DID YOeUhiK
ghly valued

DATELINE

ar
Coprolites
hat they
ogists for w
palaeontol
as bone
ch
aterials su
e
contain: m
pollen. Thes
d
an
r
te
at
and plant m
animals
d
an
ts
an
e pl
indicate th
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960 CE
92 Recordology

The Dark Eye


memorabilia
Alexander Grimme
(DEU), a devotee of the
role-playing game, had
assembled 2,848 print
items, artworks,
videogames,
miniatures
and more by
11 Apr 2015.

Doctor Who memorabilia


Beginning in 1974 with
a yellow Bump and Go
Marx Dalek received for
Christmas, Ian OBrien (UK)
has 2,021 Doctor Who items,
DVYHULHGRQ-XO
Dragon-related items
Born in the year of the
dragon, Huang Xiaojing
(CHN) had spent 40 years
gathering 3,201 different
dragon-related objects,
as of 18 Apr 2015.
Jade
Lam Chung Foon (HKG) had
collected 7,176 exquisite
pieces of jade art and
jewellery by 20 Jun 2015.
He also has the largest
collection of candles: 6,360,
YHULHGRQ'HF
Lupin the Third memorabilia
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collectable cards, keychains,
guitar tabs and toys
comprise the 2,281 items
related to the Japanese
animation character,
gathered by Dario Calabria
(ITA) up to 12 Apr 2015.

LARGEST COLLECTION
OF COPROLITES
George Frandsen (USA) owns 1,277coprolites, or
fossilized faeces, as documented at the South Florida
Museum in Bradenton, Florida, USA, on 1Aug 2015. His
prehistoric poo comes from 15states in the USA and
eight countries worldwide. George began nding the
fossils on camping trips to Utah as a youngster. A prize
piece is Precious (below right), his largest true-to-form
coprolite, weighing in at 1.92kg (4lb 3.5oz). It was found
in South Carolina and dates from the Miocene epoch,
23.85.3million years ago. It is naturally glossy, feels and
smells like rock, and was produced by a huge crocodilian
species around 6m (20ft) long. Coprolite comes
from the Greek for dung stone.

First paper money


Chinese merchants of the Song Dynasty (9601279) begin to use banknotes as currency.
Secret cyphers are included within the design to try to prevent counterfeits.

FAST FACTS
Collectors have proper names based on their speciality, such as
archtophilists (teddy bears), deltiologists (postcards), pannapictagraphists
(comic books), planganologists (dolls) and sucrologists (sugar packets).

?
KNOW
DID YO4U
ebbie
D
s
es
tr
ac
,

Swamp Thing memorabilia


In 20111
500lm
tion of 3,
The DC Comics character
ec
ll
co
s
e
s
th
Reynold
ioned in
has loomed large in the life
was auct
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td
had spen
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19
,
on 21 Mar 2015. Johns
Itch (USA
85m).
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(
m
for$4.6

Rackets
On 1 Jul 2015, Igor Kucej
(SVK) unveiled his display
of 1,260 historic wooden
tennis rackets, all made
between 1890 and 1985.
Skylanders memorabilia
The 4,100 Skylanders items
collected by Christopher
Desaliza (USA), as of
27 Jan 2015, include all
YHUVLRQVRIDOOWKHJXUHV
plus cards, covers, lanyards
and posters.

favourites include a
Swamp Thing TV crewmember jacket and
original comic-book art.

Tea glass holders


The containers for tea
glasses are often collected
as works of art in their own
right. As of 11 Apr 2015,
Sergey Kruglov (RUS) had
amassed 1,921 holders,
each distinctively crafted
in metal or enamel.
Videogames
Joel Hopkins (AUS) had
17,466 games to his name
as of 12 Jan 2016.

ANIMAL COLLECTIONS

It may begin with a gift, an ornament or a plush toy, or


simply with a fondness for a certain kind of animal. But soon
acollector will be the custodian of an entire menagerie
Theme
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Largest collection of
hamburger-related items

Brightest supernova
Exploding star SN 1006 exceeds the luminosity of Sirius todays brightest
star seen from Earth by up to 1,500 times. It remains visible for two years.

1006

guinnessworldrecords.com 93

DATELINE

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&'7 JCFCOCUUGFKVGOUQPCDWTIGTVJGOG
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burger mobile from the movie Good Burger (USA, 1997).
along with two burger beds and one burger waterbed.
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Davidson motorcycle, aka Hamburger Harley,
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has hamburger toys, books, CDs, statues,
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MASS PARTICIPATION
of 11.85 km (7.3 mi) was
covered in the attempt, put
on by Hong Kong-based
company GP22 (CHN).

Largest pantomime animal race


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MOST PEOPLE
Caber tossing
On 8 Aug 2015, a group of
69 people simultaneously
launched a volley of
near-6-m (20-ft) wooden
poles known as cabers
into the air. The mass feat
of strength took place at
the 70th Fergus Scottish

Festival and Highland


Games, an annual event
in Ontario, Canada.
In a zorbing relay
Each running inside a big
plastic zorb ball, 237 people
completed a 50-m (164-ft)
leg of a course within the
required 10 sec on 25 Apr
2015. That means a total

Wearing hair in a beehive


With brushes, hairspray
and almost 50 stylists
at hand, Discovery Italia
gave 261 women beehive
hairdos in Milan, Italy, on
19 Mar 2015. The distinctive
bouffant hairstyle is believed
to have originated in 1960,
when Chicago-based salon
owner Margaret Vinci Heldt
(USA) was challenged to
conceive an original coiffure
to see in the new decade.
A more dramatic change
of hairstyle was chosen
by Pedal for Hope (CAN),
to raise money for the
Canadian Cancer Society.
On 16 May 2015, a total
of 267 people gathered
at Peterborough Airport,
Ontario, to say goodbye to
their locks and set a new
record for the most heads
shaved simultaneously.
Making sand angels
Freshwater West beach in
Pembrokeshire, UK, was
imprinted with 352 sand
angels the seaside take

Most bodies painted


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IQGTUCVVJG9QQFUVQEM(GUVKXCNKP-QUVT\[PPCF1FT
Poland one of Europes largest music events and
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2.#;UQYPGPOCUUGDQF[RCKPVKPITGEQTFCEJKGXGF
CVYYVJGUCOGGXGPVKPD[RGQRNG

on snow angels on
6 Jun 2015. Keep Wales
Tidy arranged the event
to promote the nations
pristine coast, plus its
41 Blue Flag beaches.
Twerking simultaneously
American hip-hop star
Big Freedia, aka
Frederick Ross,

was just one of 406 people


to twerk their way into the
record books on 15 Nov
2014. The event took part
at the eighth Annual Central
City Festival held in New
Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Eating breakfast in bed
Talk about dedication
to customer service
The Sheraton Langfang
Chaobai River Hotel served
up its Color Your Plate
breakfast which includes
pastries, fruit, orange juice
and yoghurt to 418 guests
on 16 Aug 2015. It was
an al-fresco affair, with
225 beds laid out on the
hotels lawn in Beijing, China.
Dressed as Catrinas
and Catrines
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Cuauhtmoc, Mexico, on
1 Nov 2014, La Catrina
Fest MX (MEX) assembled

DID YO

Most people riding a surfboard

DATELINE

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EQPTOGFCUVJGYQTNFUlargest surfboard0QVCDCFYC[VQEGNGDTCVG+PVGTPCVKQPCN5WTPI&C[

1040
94 Recordology

U KNOW
Making
the big
?
board re
a group
quired
effort. It
with CA
was desi
D softw
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are by A
board-m
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bly was
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inCalifo
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A.

Oldest working brewery


The monks of Weihenstephan Abbey in Bavaria (now part of Germany) are given permission to open
abrewery near Freising. It will still be operating 976 years later, although no longer staffed by monks.

FAST FACTS
The largest yoga lesson included: 5,000 schoolchildren, 15,000 yoga
specialists, 500 diplomats and foreign nationals, 5,000 National Cadet
Corps, 1,200 police ofcers and 5,000 army troops

Riding unicycles
Balance and co-ordination
not to mention a total
of 1,682 unicycles were
all required to secure this
record on 1 Nov 2014.
Staged by Taoyuan County
Government (Chinese
Taipei), the 500-m (1,640-ft)

race event was celebrating


the regions newly acquired
Special Municipality status.
Stargazing
As part of a nationwide
science week in Australia,
1,869 astronomy lovers,
wielding telescopes and
binoculars, were brought
together by Mt Stromlo
Observatory, the Australian
National University and
the Canberra Astronomical
Society on 21 Aug 2015 to
study the night sky. This
gathering in Australias
capital city was just one of
37 around the country that

evening, which attracted a


combined 7,960 visitors
the most people stargazing
in multiple locations. The
event was threatened by
cold weather and cloudy
skies, but the passion for
stars, and records, paid off.
Twirling batons
On 21 Sep 2015, a gathering
of 2,002 members of the
Osaka Baton Twirling
Association (JPN) performed
at the Japanese citys central
gymnasium. The dizzying
display was the centrepiece
of the 25th Osaka Baton
Twirling Competition.

Popping bubble wrap


In all, 2,681 boy scouts
assembled at Denver Area
Councils Camporee on
19 Sep 2015 to pop bubble
wrap together. They easily
wrapped up the record, more
than doubling the previous
best of 1,011 people, set
in Jan 2015. The feat took
place at the Peaceful Valley
Scout Ranch in Elbert,
Colorado, USA.

Modelling on a catwalk
On 4 Jul 2015, eRetailer
Very.co.uk and Culture
Liverpool (both UK) joined
forces to organize a unique
fashion show. Comprising
both professional models
and runway wannabes,
a total of 3,651 people
strutted their stuff down
Liverpools Pier Head
riverside promenade
to set this record in style.

LARGEST LESSONS
Extraordinary examples of en-masse education
People

Date

Subject

Organizer

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LARGEST YOGA LESSON


A staggering 35,985 people adopted a cross-legged lotus
position in honour of the inaugural International Day
of Yoga on 21Jun 2015. Organized by the Government
of Indias Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and
Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy), dedicated
to natural wellbeing pursuits, the event took place on
a 1.4-km (0.8-mi) stretch of the Rajpath in the heart of
NewDelhi. As well as soldiers, civil servants and students
(see Fast Facts), even Indias Prime Minister, Narendra
Modi (left), demonstrated his exibility.

First use of rockets


Chinese scholar and military engineer Zeng Gongliang describes the use of re arrows simple
gunpowder rockets launched from crossbows by the armies of Song Dynasty China.

1042

guinnessworldrecords.com 95

DATELINE

509 people decked out


in traditional skeleton
costumes. The event was
held to celebrate Mexicos
annual Day of the Dead
festival, at which deceased
loved ones are remembered.

COSPLAY
LARGEST
GATHERINGOF
PEOPLE DRESSEDAS
Comic-book characters
Conventions for comics
fans are where cosplayers
go to see and be seen, with
large events attracting
huge numbers of costumed
attendees. An impressive
1,784 dressed-up comicbook heroes and villains
gathered at the Salt Lake
Comic Con in Salt Lake City,
Utah, USA, on 25 Sep 2015.
Daleks
Many cosplayers put
hundreds of hours of
work into their creations,
and when theyre copying
something from a movie
or TV show, the end result
can be hard to distinguish
from the original. This made
it all the more terrifying
when a force of 95 Daleks,
Doctor Whos seemingly
indestructible enemy, rolled
on to the grounds of the
National Space Centre in
Leicester, UK, on 29 Nov
2008, waving
their eyestalks
and barking
Exterminate!
at anything
that moved.

Harry Potter
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Dragon Ball characters


Although cosplay has its
RULJLQVLQ$PHULFDQVFL
fandom, it grew into the
cultural phenomenon it
is today as part of the
Japanese anime and manga
scene. The manga Dragon
Ball and its anime offshoot
Dragon Ball Z are
particularly

DATELINE

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Charterhouse drew 438 spider folk to the streets of Sydney,
#WUVTCNKC&QPCVKQPUraised by the masked web-slingers went to
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the classic red, blue and black costume of The Amazing SpiderManVJGHCXQWTKVGQH5RKFGT/CPRWTKUVUUJWPPKPIVJGO[TKCF
QVJGTEQUVWOGUVJCV5RKFG[JCUYQTPKPJKUXCTKQWUTGDQQVU
CPFECOGQCRRGCTCPEGU

96 Recordology

Robin Hood
The UKs Camping and
Caravanning Club hit the
target on 27 Aug 2011,
when 1,215 people dressed
up as the legendary archer.
The attempt took place at
the Newark Showground in
Nottinghamshire, UK, during
the annual National Feast
of Lanterns camping rally.

Rosie the Riveter


We can do it! Inspired by the rallying cry of Americas iconic
female war worker, 1,084 boiler-suited women and girls
ICVJGTGFCVVJG9QTNF9CT++*QOG(TQPV0CVKQPCN*KUVQTKECN
2CTMKP%CNKHQTPKC75#QP#WI

OW?
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ound

Spider-Man

1187

popular with cosplayers.


On 1 Nov 2012, the Sal del
Manga comic festival in
Barcelona, Spain, hosted
307 Dragon Ball characters
as part of an event staged
by Editorial Planeta (ESP).

ar
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s been
rm
play ha
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call cos
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Star Trek characters


As part of Destination
Star Trek in London, UK,
convention organizers
Media 10 Limited (UK)
gathered 1,063 Star Trek
cosplayers for an event
on 20 Oct 2012. Most
SDUWLFLSDQWVZRUHVWDUHHW
uniforms, but the crowd
also included Klingons,
Borg and a variety of
alien monsters from
the original series.
Superheroes
On 2 Oct 2010,
exactly 1,580
caped crusaders,
web-slingers and

Largest monolithic church


Work begins on the church of Medhane Alem in Lalibela, Ethiopia. Rather than building up, the builders dig down, carving
the church out of a uniform piece of bedrock. It measures some 10 m (32 ft) high from the bottom of the pit in which it sits.

FAST FACTS
Cosplay is a portmanteau of costume and play The World
Cosplay Summit attracted teams from 26 different countries in 2015
Competitive cosplayers have to create their own costumes

Santa Claus
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other costumed heroes
assembled at Paramount
Studios in Los Angeles,
USA, in an event to promote
WKHOPMegamind.
Videogame characters
People have been
enjoying game cosplay for
almost as long as games

have had characters


to dress up as. The
Srknniemi theme park in
Tampere, Finland, mustered
491 gaming cosplayers on
7 Sep 2013. The park is no
stranger to gaming,
having opened up
an Angry Birds Land
attraction in 2012.

Zombies
A 15,458-strong horde of
the shambling undead
groaned and lurched its
way through the streets of
Minneapolis in Minnesota,
USA, on 11 Oct 2014,
as part of the
annual Zombie
Pub Crawl.

The Hulk
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on the streets of Castleblayney
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PETER PAN

Largest New World civilization


The Inca Empire reaches its greatest extent, stretching along the Pacic coast of South America from what
isnow southern Colombia to central Chile. Its population is estimated to be around 10 million.

1200

guinnessworldrecords.com 97

DATELINE

As part of a charity event organized on 29Aug 2014


by recruitment rm Goodman Masson, 280 people
donned the green tunic and tights of The Boy Who
Wouldnt Grow Up in London, UK. The event
was staged to raise money and publicity for
Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children,
a much-loved institution and the favourite
philanthropic cause of JMBarrie, the author
of Peter Pan. The Pan-tastic gathering took
place on the steps of St Pauls Cathedral.

BIG STUFF
Horseshoe
Kentucky Derby Museum
(USA) has made a
horseshoe 2.06 m (6 ft
9.1 in) wide and 2.13 m
(6 ft 11.8 in) tall. It was
measured at Eagle Sign
& Design in Louisville,
Kentucky, USA, on
9 Sep 2015.
Lunch box
A 2.6-m-wide
(8-ft 6-in) lunch box with
a capacity of 8.47 m
(299.11 cu ft) was produced
by Altus Viljoen and
Wilgenhof Mens Residence
(both ZAF). It was measured
in Stellenbosch, South
Africa, on 12 Apr 2015.

Largest wheelbarrow
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LARGEST

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DATELINE

y of
ted o
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onstruc
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k and
m
u
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tr
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s
th ec
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w
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al-sized
anorm

1250
98 Recordology

Bean bag
Yogibo (USA) presented
a 211-ft-wide (64.3-m)
bean bag with a volume of
1,406.23 cu ft (39.82 m) at
Nashua, New Hampshire,
USA, on 15 Sep 2015.
Cheese slicer
Kristen Gunstad (NOR)
unveiled a 7.79-m-long

(25-ft 6.6-in) slicer at


the ski resort in Kvitfjell,
Norway, on 7 Mar 2015.
Colouring book
Youd need a lot of felt tips
for the 10-m (107.63-sq-ft)
colouring book produced by
the Zielona Sowa Publishing
House (POL). Its size was
FRQUPHGDWWKH1DWLRQDO
Stadium in Warsaw, Poland,
on 24 May 2014.

Magazine (single edition)


The River Group and
Polestar (both UK) produced
a version of the Aug 2015
issue of Healthy magazine
that measured 2.35 m (7 ft
8.52 in) wide by 3.05 m
(10 ft 0.28 in) tall. Its size
ZDVUDWLHGLQ6KHHOG8.
on 30 Jun 2015.

Largest
folding chair
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collaborated to produce
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seat was presented and
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Largest ukulele
Lawrence Stump (USA, below) has created a tunable and
RNC[CDNGWMWNGNGO
HVKP NQPICUXGTKGFKP
.CPUKPI/KEJKICP75#QP&GE6JGKPUVTWOGPV
YCUDWKNVWUKPIVJGUCOGOGVJQFUCPFOCVGTKCNUCU
CUVCPFCTFUK\GUQRTCPQWMWNGNGCNVJQWIJ
KVKUVKOGUNCTIGT

First gun
Anecdotal evidence suggests that rearms are in use in China and northern Africa, although the
rstdocumentary evidence for gun construction will not emerge until the following century.

FAST FACTS
You could accommodate more than 25,500 conventionally sized sandwiches
in the largest lunch box (see p.98) The largest TV remote control (below) is
around 24times larger than its real-life counterpart and took 68days to build

Largest TV remote control


$TQVJGTU5WTCLCPF4CLGUJ-WOCT/GJGT
DQVJ+0& ETGCVGF
VJKUONQPI
HVKP VGNGXKUKQPTGOQVGEQPVTQNYJKEJ
YCUOGCUWTGFKP5CODCNRWT+PFKCQP5GR+VKUHWNN[
QRGTCVKQPCNCPFYCUUJQYPVQYQTMQPCPQTOCNUK\GF68

Largest ice-cream scoop


&KOKVTK2CPEKGTC
+6# UGTXGFWRCIKICPVKEKEGETGCOUEQQRKP(QTPQFK<QNFQ+VCN[QP5GR
+VOGCUWTGFO
HVKP NQPICPFEO
HVKP YKFGYKVJCFGRVJQHEO
KP 
6JGUWRGTUK\GFUEQQRJCUCYQTMKPIOGEJCPKUOVQGLGEVVJGKEGETGCO
Mortar and pestle
Measured in Macael,
Spain, on 28 Mar 2015, the
largest mortar is 3.29 m
(10 ft 9.5 in) high and
has a diameter of 3.07 m
(10 ft 0.8 in) at its mouth.
Its pestle is 4.73 m (15 ft
6.2 in) long and 0.85 m
(2 ft 9.4 in) at its broadest
point. The ber-utensil was
created by Ayuntamiento
de Macael (ESP).

Piggy bank
Even the keenest savers
ZRXOGVWUXJJOHWROOWKH
8.03-m-long
(26-ft 4.1-in),
5.58-m-tall (18-ft 3.7-in)
piggy bank created by
Kreissparkasse

Ludwigsburg (DEU). It was


measured in Ludwigsburg,
Germany, on
18 May 2015.

Poster
Fareed Lafta (IRQ) has
created a 7,164.78-m
(77,121.05-sq-ft) poster,
DVYHULHGLQ.DUEDOD,UDT
on 26 Feb 2016. The poster,
which depicted a map
of Iraq, was
99.58 m (326 ft

8 in) long and 71.95 m


(236 ft) wide. It was put on
display at Karbala Stadium.
Umbrella
Jiangxi Kuntak Industrial
Co Ltd (CHN) have made
an umbrella 22.9 m (75 ft
1.5 in) in diameter. It was
unveiled at Xingzi
in Jiangxi
Province,
China, on
3 Aug
2015.

LONGEST MONSTER TRUCK

First forensic autopsy


As part of an investigation into the suspected murder of a nobleman, Italian physician Bartolomeo da Varignana
performs the rst medico-legal autopsy. He will later be involved in other legally required autopsies.

1302

guinnessworldrecords.com 99

DATELINE

Brad and Jen Campbell (both USA) of Big Toyz Racing have
created the Sin City Hustler, a 32-ft-long (9.7-m) monster
truck. Measured in an aircraft hangar at Last Stop in
White Hills, Arizona, USA, on 10Jul 2014, it stands 12ft
(3.6m) tall, weighs a hefty 15,000lb (6,800kg) about
the same as a bull elephant and can accommodate
12passengers. It packs a powerful 750-hp engine, but
owing to its considerable weight the Sin City Hustler only
has a maximum speed of around 45mph (72.4km/h). The
titanic truck is currently operated by Russ Mann (USA).

SMALLTOWN BIG STUFF


GALLERY

!!

6JGDKIEQWPVT[VJCVKUVJG75#UJQYECUGUOCP[DKIKFGCUCPFUQOGVKOGUKPUOCNNRNCEGU+PRCTVKEWNCT
VJGVQYPQH%CUG[KP+NNKPQKUKUFQVVGFYKVJUQOGQHVJGYQTNFUNCTIGUVKVGOUCNNHTQOVJGYQTMUJQR$KI6JKPIU
KPC5OCNN6QYPUGVWRD[,KO$QNKP$GUKFGUVJQUGRKEVWTGF,KOJCUURGCTJGCFGFVJGlargest knitting needles
HVNQPI
QTO VJGlargest crochet hook
HVKPNQPIQTO CPFVJGlargest wind chime
HVNQPIQTO /GCPYJKNG
1JKQKUJQOGVQVJGlargest yo-yoCPF/KEJKICPVQVJGlargest chainsawCPFtallest tyre sculpture
CNNRKEVWTGF 

2
1

DATELINE

LARGEST PITCHFORK
1P1EV,KO$QNKPGUVCDNKUJGFC
PGYTGEQTFKP%CUG[HQTJKURKVEJHQTMYJKEJ
OGCUWTGFHVKP
O YKFGCPFHVKP

O NQPI6JCVUOQTGVJCPVKOGU
NQPIGTVJCPCEQPXGPVKQPCNRKVEJHQTMQTCDQWV
VJGUCOGCUVJGNGPIVJQHCDQYNKPICNNG[
+VKUPQYQPFKURNC[QWVUKFG4KEJCTFU(CTO
4GUVCWTCPV$QNKPFGUKIPGFVJGGPQTOQWU
HCTOKPIVQQNVQVYKVJVJGTGUVCWTCPVUTWUVKE
FGEQTCPFU[ODQNK\G%CUG[UCITKEWNVWTCN
EQOOWPKV[+VYGKIJUND
MI 

1311
100 Recordology

LARGEST CLOGS
6TCFKVKQPCNYQQFGPUJQGUQTKIKPCVGFKP
VJG0GVJGTNCPFUDWVVJGNCTIGUVRCKTTGUKFGU
KP,KOUJQOGVQYP1P1EVJG
RTGUGPVGFENQIUOGCUWTKPIHVKP
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NQPIHVKP
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O VCNNQWVUVTKRRKPIVJGRTGXKQWU

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UCPFGFCPFNCESWGTGFVJGOVQCINQUU[PKUJ

LARGEST GOLF TEE


1P,CP,KOWPXGKNGFJKU
ICTICPVWCPIQNHVGGDCUGFQPVJGPQTOCN
UK\GFXGTUKQPWUGFCV%CUG[%QWPVT[%NWD
+VUVCPFUHVKP
O VCNNYKVJCJGCF
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5QOGQHJKUVGCO
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KURGTOCPGPVN[UGVWRCVVJG%QWPVT[%NWD

LARGEST ROCKING CHAIR


#YQQFCPFUVGGNTQEMKPIEJCKTHV
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Tallest building
At 160m (524ft 11in), the UKs Lincoln Cathedral overtakes the Great Pyramid of Giza to become the worlds tallest
building. Construction on the cathedral began in 1088. It will retain the record until 1549, when its spire collapses.

DID YO

U KNOW
On 20N
?
ov 1866,
the earl
patent fo
iest
r a toy y
called a
o-yo (th
bandelo
en
re) was g
to a com
ranted
pany in
Ohio th
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ati,
e locatio
n of this
breakin
recordg yo-yo.
T
h
e
toys desi
dates ba
gn
ck to an
cient Gre
and one
ece,
was dep
ic
te
d on a
vase fro
m 440BC
E.

8
6

LARGEST YO-YO
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CPFUMKNHWNTGRCKTYQTMPCNN[RCKFQHH

TALLEST SCULPTURE
IN THE SHAPE OF A TYRE
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LARGEST CHAINSAW
+PCYQTMKPIEJCKPUCYOGCUWTKPI
HVKP
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/QTCP+TQP9QTMU+PEKP1PCYC[/KEJKICP
#HHGEVKQPCVGN[PCOGFBig GusVJGUWRGTUK\G
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Worst pandemic
A devastating outbreak of the pneumonic form of plague (bacterial infection), known as the
Black Death, draws to a close having claimed some 75million lives worldwide.

1351

guinnessworldrecords.com 101

DATELINE

LARGEST MAILBOX (VOLUME)


1P1EV,KOCPFJKUVGCO
FGDWVGF[GVCPQVJGT%CUG[NCPFOCTMCIKCPV
XGTUKQPQHCUVCPFCTF75OCKNDQZ+VJCUCP
KPVGTPCNXQNWOGQHEWHV
Or 
CPFJCUCUVCKTYC[KPUKFGVJGRQUVUVCPF
UQVJCVXKUKVQTUECPENKODWRVQVJGDQZ
+VUFGUKIPGFVQCEEGRVOCKN
YJKEJYJGP
FGRQUKVGFTCKUGUCTGFHNCI CPF,KOKPVGPFU
VQWUGVJGKPVGTKQTURCEGVQUGVWRCOWUGWO
QHOCKNJKUVQT[6JGDQZKUNQECVGFKP%CUG[U
FQYPVQYPDWUKPGUUFKUVTKEV

BALL SKILLS

Longest tennis volley rally


Angelo A Rossetti and Ettore Rossetti (both USA) exchanged 30,576 volleys of a tennis ball
(without the ball hitting the ground) at the Weston Racquet Club in Weston, Connecticut,
75#QP#WI6JGVYQDTQVJGTUQPEGCEJKGXGFVJGlongest tennis rally, although the
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CPF&GPPKU(WJTOCPP
DQVJ&'7 

Longest duration to spin


CDCUMGVDCNNQPVJGVQG
On 12 Mar 2015, in Wilburby-the-Sea, Florida, USA,
Bernie Boehm (USA) spun
a basketball for 25.52 sec.

Bernie can surf, too. On


31 Aug 2013, this sporty
multi-tasker achieved the
longest duration to spin a
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33.25 sec on the set of

1HEKCNN[#OC\KPIat Ponce
Inlet in Daytona Beach,
Florida, USA.
One ball too easy for
you? The longest duration
to spin two basketballs on

Longest duration spinning a basketball on the nose

DATELINE

5EQQVGT%JTKUVGPUGPQHVJG*CTNGO)NQDGVTQVVGTUMGRVCDCUMGVDCNNURKPPKPIQPJKUPQUGHQT
UGEKP2JQGPKZ#TK\QPC75#QP0QX6JKUYCUQPGQHUGXGPTGEQTFUUGVD[VJG
)NQDGVTQVVGTUKPEGNGDTCVKQPQH)94&C[6JGQVJGTUKPENWFGVJGlongest basketball shot
blindfolded
HVKPQTO D[6JWPFGT.CYVJG most slam dunks in one minute by
an individual
 D[<GWU/E%NWTMKPVJGfarthest kneeling basketball
shot made backwards
HVKPQTO D[*CPFNGU
(TCPMNKPCPFVJG most basketball
three-pointers made by a pair in
one minute
 D[#PV#VMKPUQP
CPF%JGGUG%JKUJQNO
CNN75# 

1373
102 Recordology

Most consecutive soccer ball


headers while treading water
,JQGP.GHQPV4QFTKIWG\
%7$ GZGEWVGFEQPUGEWVKXG
UQEEGTDCNNVQWEJGUYKVJVJGJGCFYJKNGCHNQCV*GCEJKGXGF
VJGTGEQTFKPVJGUYKOOKPIRQQNQHVJG*QVGN0CEKQPCNFG%WDC
KP*CXCPC%WDCQP#WI
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spin) is 4 min 31 sec. Chen
Weiwei (CHN) achieved this
revolutionary performance,
spinning both balls, one on
top of the other, on the set
of .Q5JQYFGK4GEQTF in
Milan, Italy, on 7 Jul 2014.

Most hits of a golf ball


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Soccer player Aaron Ramsey
(UK) racked up 61 hits of a
golf ball on a golf club in 30
sec on the set of #.GCIWG
QH6JGKT1YP (UK) in London,
UK, on 9 Jul 2015.
On the same TV show,
former Premier League
star Jamie Redknapp (UK)
recorded the greatest
height to control a soccer
ball. He brought under
control a ball that
he had kicked
to a height
of 18.6 m
(61 ft).

Oldest treaty still in force


On 16 Jun, diplomats from England and Portugal sign the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Alliance, a peace deal that will
endurethrough countless global conicts and many changes of government. It is still in effect today.

FAST FACTS
A Fdration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) soccer ball is nearly
170 times heavier than a regulation ping-pong ball Basketball was rst
played with soccer balls A golf ball has no ofcial minimum weight

Heaviest balls rotated


QPVJGDCEMQHVJGJCPF
Xie Jiajun (CHN) rotated
two balls weighing 4.5 kg
(9 lb 14.7 oz) which
roughly equates to the
combined weight of seven
NBA basketballs on 9 Jan
2016. This bettered his
previous record, set in 2015,
by 0.31 kg (10.9 oz).

Most soccer
ball rolls
around
the face in
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8KEVQT4WDKNCT
#4) 
rolled a soccer ball
around his face
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EKV[QH+UVCPDWNQP0QX
6JGJGCFVWTPKPI
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collaboration with
/CNVGRG2CTMUJQRRKPI
EGPVTG
674 8KEVQT
also shares the record
for most soccer balls
juggledXG*KU
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0.& KP

Most ping-pong balls


juggled with the mouth
In his performances, Tony
Fercos (USA, b. CZE) is
able to blow and catch
seven ping-pong balls in
succession with his mouth
in a single cycle. Each ball
is fed into his mouth, spat
high into the air and caught
back in his mouth.
Farthest distance travelled
with a soccer ball balanced
QPVJGJGCF
On 22 Oct 2011, Abdul
Halim (BGD) walked 15.2 km
(9.44 mi) with a soccer
ball atop his head. He
made 38 laps of the 400-m
track at the Bangabandhu
National Stadium in Dhaka,
Bangladesh.
The ORQJHVWWLPHWR
balance a soccer ball on
the shin is 1 min 55 sec,
achieved by Sinan ztrk
(DEU) in Mittweida, Saxony,
Germany, on 13 Nov 2014.

2015. He held four balls on


KLVQJHUVFUDGOHGVHYHQLQ
his arms and clamped two
between his lower legs.

Most around the world


WULFNVLQRQHPLQXWH
In this trick, a performer has
to tap a soccer ball in the
air then circle the same foot
around it. Football freestyler
John Farnworth (UK, below)
holds the absolute record,
with 85 tricks achieved in
London, UK, on 3 Oct 2008.
The PRVWDURXQGWKH
PRRQWULFNVLQRQHPLQXWH
is 61, by Adrian Fogel (DEU)
on 14 Feb 2010 in Nordhorn,
Germany. For this, the ball
is placed on the back of the
QHFNDQGLFNHGXSGXULQJ
which time the persons
head must complete one
full revolution.

Most around
the worlds
in one minute
(female)
.CWTC$KQPFQ
+6#8'0 
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the world tricks (see
left) in Edinburgh, UK,
QP,WN1PVJG
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for most soccer ball
touches with the head
(female)

LONGEST DURATION TO CONTROL


A SOCCER BALL ON A SLACKLINE
Most of us nd it hard enough to perform keepieuppies at the best of times. But to do it in mid-air?
On14Dec 2015, in Brentford, London, UK, John
Farnworth kept a soccer ball airborne for 29.82sec
whilemaintaining his balance on a slackline (left).
The footie freestyler also achieved the most fullvolley rebounds in 30 seconds 28 at the National
Football Museum in Manchester, UK, on 25Aug 2015;
Farnworth demonstrates the trick below.

Worst outbreak of dancing mania


In July, a large number of men and women in Aachen, Germany, break into frenzied dancing. Many
dance until they collapse from exhaustion. This medieval illness has never been fully explained.

1374

guinnessworldrecords.com 103

DATELINE

Most bowling balls


JGNFUKOWNVCPGQWUN[
Chad McLean (USA) clung
on to 13 regular bowling
balls (as approved by the
World Tenpin Bowling
Association) in Brigham
City, Utah, USA, on 2 Nov

JOURNEYS

NOW?
DID YOeeUinKthat nebula...

DATELINE

ff
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1407
104 Journeys

Largest palace
Ming Emperor Zhu Di orders the construction of a new palace in Beijing, China. This vast complex of some 980
buildings, today known as the Imperial Palace, requires more than a million workers and a decade to complete.

CONTENTS
JOURNEYS FACTOGRAPHIC

106

EXPLORATION 15001970

108

EXPLORATION 19711995

110

EXPLORATION 19962005

112

EXPLORATION 20062009

114

EXPLORATION 20102015

116

Longest continuous
URCEGHNKIJVD[CYQOCP

Oldest reading glasses


A resident of medieval London throws the broken horn frames of his glasses in the trash heap. When
found more than 500 years later, they are regarded as the oldest known pair of reading glasses.

1450

guinnessworldrecords.com 105

DATELINE

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'5# CUVTQPCWV
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ISS *GTLQDYCU
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,WPVJCVUJGVQWEJGFFQYPCICKPFC[UJTOKP
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THE ENERGY YOULL NEED

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For many adventurers, the ultimate journey on Earth is to the summit


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EVEREST

FACTOGRAPHIC

HIGHEST MOUNTAIN

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ENKODU5QOGMI
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LARGEST EVEREST CLEAR-UP

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HV 6JCVULWUVDGNQYVJGCXGTCIG
ETWKUKPICNVKVWFGQHRCUUGPIGTLGVUOQTG
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buildingVJG$WTL-JCNKHCKP&WDCK
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QH+PFKC+PVJGVJGP$TKVKUJ
5WTXG[QT)GPGTCNQH+PFKCUWIIGUVGF
VJCVKVDGTGPCOGFCHVGTJKURTGFGEGUUQT
%QNQPGN5KT)GQTIG'XGTGUV

Clip-on glacier crampons are essential


for a sure grip on rock and ice. At the
higher reaches of the mountain,
climbers wear both an inner and outer
boot. The high outer boot helps prevent
snow and ice from getting inside.

This lightweight ice axe is attached to


a wrist leash a useful way of keeping
the axe secure when attempting steeper
sections of the climb.

Climbing rope should be both strong


and light. Some types of rope are
treated to prevent them from becoming
heavy in wet conditions.

For summit day, thin inner gloves are


enclosed in two separate mittens; the
outer one is waterproof. Mittens are
EHWWHUWKDQQJHUJORYHVDVWKHODWWHU
PDNHWKHQJHUVPRUHYXOQHUDEOHWRWKH
cold. Inside the inner glove are chemical
hand-warming packs.

Most climbers take supplemental


oxygen bottles and a mask for
their climb. At the summit, oxygen
levels are only around one-third of
those at sea level. Without extra
oxygen, the brain cannot focus
and the body quickly tires.

This lightweight, expandable


backpack can accommodate clothes,
a sleeping bag, provisions, water,
camera and other accessories.

Climbers take clothing that can be worn


as layers, so they can adapt to weather
changes and new stages of a climb. For
the 8,000-ers (mountains of 8,000 m or
more), a warm, all-in-one down suit is
vital, with a hood to shield the face.

2KEVWTGFJGTGKU&CXKF.KCQ)QP\NG\
/': VJGTUVRGTUQP
to climb Everest from both sides in one season*GTGCEJGF
VJGRGCMHTQO0GRCNQPVJGUQWVJUKFGQP/C[CPF
TGVWTPGFVQVJGRGCMQP/C[ENKODKPIHTQO6KDGVQPVJG
PQTVJUKFG#U&CXKFCVVGUVUEJQQUKPIVJGTKIJVGSWKROGPVKU
XKVCNHQTKPETGCUKPI[QWTEJCPEGUQHCUWEEGUUHWNENKOD(QTQWT
RJQVQUJQQV&CXKFFTGUUGFCUJGFKFQPJKUENKODUCPFVCNMGF
WUVJTQWIJVJGXCTKQWUDKVUQHMKVVJCVJGNRGFJKOOCMGJKU
TGEQTFDTGCMKPIUWOOKVU

GEARING UP

CONQUERING MOUNT EVEREST

19 May 2012 Most ascents in one dayENKODGTU

11 May 2011 Most ascentsD[#RC5JGTRCGSWCNNGFD[


2JWTDC6CUJK5JGTRC
DQVJ02. QP/C[

11 May 2006 Most ascents (female)UKZD[.CMRC5JGTRC


02.

21 May 2004 Fastest ascent2GODC&QTLG5JGTRC


02. 
KPJTOKP
UQWVJUKFG

20 Aug 1980 First solo summit4GKPJQNF/GUUPGT


+6# 

8 May 1978 First ascent without supplemental oxygen


4GKPJQNF/GUUPGT
+6# CPF2GVGT*CDGNGT
#76

16 May 1975 First ascent (female),WPMQ6CDGK


,20

29 May 1953 First ascent'FOWPF2GTEKXCN*KNNCT[


0< 
CPF6GP\KPI0QTIC[
+0&6KDGV

DATE RECORD

Increasing numbers of climbers attempt to scale Everest


each year, but it still represents one of the ultimate
challenges. Here are some of its pioneering conquerors.

DID Y

Sources: thebmc.co.uk;
alanarnette.com;
ITKPFVXEQO

Campsite maintenance
c

Supplies and gear


c KPENWFKPI
ENQVJKPIHQQFC0GRCNKEQQMCVDCUGECOR
UWRRNGOGPVCNQZI[GPCPFCOGFKECNMKV

QTc

Climbing permit (per climber)


c HTQOVJGPQTVJ
UKFG
c HTQOVJGUQWVJUKFG

Sherpas
c GCEJRNWUVJGKTDQVVNGF
UWRRNGOGPVCNQZ[IGPCV
c RGTDQVVNG

Porters
c GCEJRGTFC[CVNGCUV
c 
$QVJCTGPGGFGFVQECTT[MKVVQCPFHTQODCUGECOR

Yaks
c GCEJRGTFC[CVNGCUV
c

Travel
cc VQHN[KPVQ
-CVJOCPFWCPFQPVQDCUGECOR

+VECPGCUKN[EQUV
c VQENKOD
'XGTGUVCNVJQWIJHQTVTKRUD[9GUVGTPQRGTCVQTU
VJGRTKEGECPGZEGGF
c 6JG
UWOXCTKGUCEEQTFKPIVQJQYDCUKEVJGVTGMKU
YJGVJGTQTPQV[QWCTGUWRRQTVGFCPFYJGVJGT
[QWENKODVJGPQTVJUKFG
HTQO6KDGV QTVJGUQWVJ
UKFG
HTQO0GRCN 'ZRGPUGUKPENWFG

HOW MUCH IT ALL COSTS

OU KNO
T he mo
W?
s t a s ce n
ts of Ev
one day
erest in
took pla
20 1 2 , w
c
e
on 19M
hen 245
ay
climber
the sum
s reach
mit. A s
ed
y
ou can
photogra
se
e in this
ph from
mounta
th
a
t
day, the
in beca
and clim me ver y conge
sted
bers cau
sed a tr
jam nea
afc
r the su
mmit.

EXPLORATION 15001970
JOURNEYS

1500

1600

1700

1800

1XGTVJGEQWTUGQHVJKUEJCRVGTYGRNQVVJGJKUVQT[QHTGEQTFDTGCMKPILQWTPG[U#U[QW
PCXKICVGVJTQWIJVJKUEJTQPQNQI[QHGZRNQTCVKQP[QWNNPQVKEGVJCVVJGPWODGTQHLQWTPG[U
RGTEGPVWT[KPETGCUGUITGCVN[CUYGPGCTVJGRTGUGPVFC[6JCVJCUOWEJVQFQYKVJQWT
MPQYNGFIGQHVJGINQDGCPFVGEJPKECNKORTQXGOGPVUKPGSWKROGPVXGJKENGUCPFXGUUGNU
CUYGNNCUVJGKPETGCUGFGPVJWUKCUOHQTTGEQTFDTGCMKPI$WVQXGTVJGEGPVWTKGUOWEJ
JCUTGOCKPGFVJGUCOGGPFWTCPEGUGNHDGNKGHCPFUJGGTDTCXGT[CTGUVKNNGUUGPVKCN
RTQXKUKQPUHQTCP[QPGGODCTMKPIQPCLQWTPG[QHVJQWUCPFUQHOKNGU

1642:&WVEJGZRNQTGT
#DGN6CUOCPFKUEQXGTU
CEQWPVT[JGPCOGU
8CP&KGOGPU.CPFNCVGT
ECNNGF6CUOCPKCCHVGT
JKO&WTKPIJKUXQ[CIGU
JGCNUQFKUEQXGTU0GY
<GCNCPFYJKEJ'PINKUJOCP
%CRVCKP,COGU%QQMYKNN
TGCEJKPCPFOCR
KPFGVCKN6CUOCPUCKNU
VQ(KLKCPF6QPICCPF
OCRUVJGPQTVJGTPEQCUV
QH#WUVTCNKCDWVCUJG
FQGUPQVGUVCDNKUJWUGHWN
VTCFGQTUJKRRKPITQWVGU
JKUXQ[CIGUCTGFGGOGF
CHCKNWTGCVJQOG

V1871$TKVKUJDTQVJGTU,QJP
CDQXG CPF
4QDGTV0C[NQTEQORNGVGVJGTUVTGEQTFGF
YCNMHTQO,QJP1)TQCVUVQ.CPFU'PF6JG[
EQXGTCPCXGTCIGQHOK
MO RGTFC[
DWVOCMGOCP[FKXGTUKQPUHQTUKIJVUGGKPI
GPTQWVG1YKPIVQVJGUGVJG[EQXGTOK

MO OQTGVJCPFQWDNGVJGFKUVCPEGQH
VJGLQWTPG[CUVJGETQYHNKGU6JGDQQMCDQWV
VJGKTYCNM
TKIJV KURWDNKUJGFQPN[KP

V 1522: The TUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPQHVJGYQTNFKUCEEQORNKUJGFQP5GR


YJGPVJG5RCPKUJUJKRVittoriaWPFGTVJGEQOOCPFQH,WCP5GDCUVKP
'NECPQ
'52 TGCEJGU5GXKNNGKP5RCKP6JGUJKRJCFUGVQWVHTQO5CPNECT
FG$CTTCOGFCKP#PFCNWEC5RCKPQP5GRCNQPIYKVJHQWTQVJGTU
CURCTVQHCPGZRGFKVKQPNGFD[VJG2QTVWIWGUGGZRNQTGT(GTFKPCPF/CIGNNCP
6JG[TQWPF%CRG*QTPETQUUVJG2CEKE1EGCPXKCVJG2JKNKRRKPGUCPF
TGVWTPVQ'WTQRGCHVGTUCKNKPICTQWPFVJG%CRGQH)QQF*QRGVittoria is the
QPN[UJKRVQUWTXKXGCPFQHVJG'WTQRGCPUYJQUGVQWVQPN[TGVWTP

DATELINE

157780: 5KT(TCPEKU&TCMG
EKTENGUVJGINQDGDGEQOKPI
the TUVRGTUQPVQECRVCKPC
EQORNGVGEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP
CPFVJGTUV'PINKUJOCP
VQFQUQ6JGLQWTPG[NCUVU
OQTGVJCPFC[UCPF
CNNQYU&TCMGVQEQXGTVN[TCKF
5RCPKUJVTGCUWTGUJKRUGP
TQWVG1HVJGXGUJKRUVJCV
UGVUCKNQPN[JKUHNCIUJKR
QTKIKPCNN[MPQYPCUPelican
DWVTGPCOGFVJGGolden Hind
KPOCMGUKVDCEM

1455
108 Journeys

1889: 6JGOVCNN
HV 
'KHHGN6QYGTKUEQORNGVGFKP2CTKU
(TCPEG+PKVKCNN[EQPUVTWEVGFCUVJG
GPVTCPEGVQVJG9QTNFU(CKTYJKEJKU
UVCIGFKPVJCV[GCTVJGYTQWIJVKTQP
GFKEGTGOCKPUVJGYQTNFUtallest
structure WPVKNVJGGTGEVKQPQHVJG
O
HV %JT[UNGT$WKNFKPI
KP0GY;QTM%KV[75#[GCTU
NCVGT#UQHKVKUUVKNNVJG
VCNNGUVUVTWEVWTGKP2CTKU

160711:'PINKUJ
GZRNQTGT*GPT[*WFUQP
OCMGUHQWTXQ[CIGU
CVVGORVKPIVQPFCVTCFG
TQWVGVQ#UKCXKCVJG#TEVKE
*GHCKNUVQFQUQDWVJKU
OCRUQH0QTVJ#OGTKEC
EQPVTKDWVGUKIPKECPVN[
VQGZKUVKPIPCXKICVKQPCN
MPQYNGFIG

1620: +P5GRVJG2KNITKO
(CVJGTUUGVUCKNHQTVJG0GY
9QTNFHTQOVJG'PINKUJRQTV
QH2N[OQWVJQPVJGUJKR
/C[HNQYGT6JG[IQQPVQ
HQWPF2N[OQWVJ%QNQP[VJG
TUVRGTOCPGPVEQNQPKCN
UGVVNGOGPVKP0GY'PINCPF

V 176669:&KUIWKUGFCUCOCP,GCPPG$CTGVYQTMUCUCP
CUUKUVCPVDQVCPKUVQPVJGTUV(TGPEJTQWPFVJGYQTNFXQ[CIG
WPFGT#FOKTCN.QWKU#PVQKPGFG$QWICKPXKNNG5JGDGEQOGUVJG
TUVHGOCNGVQEKTEWOPCXKICVGVJGINQDGCPFJGNRUFKUEQXGTC
YGCNVJQHPGYRNCPVUFWTKPIJGTGZVGPUKXGDQVCPKECNGNFYQTM

Oldest mechanically printed full-length book


The Gutenberg Bible is printed in Mainz, Germany, c. 1455 by Henne zum Genseisch
zurLaden, commonly known as Johannes Gutenberg (c. 13981468).

1903:#VCOQP&GE
1TXKNNG9TKIJV
75# HNKGUVJGM9

JR EJCKPFTKXGP(N[GT+ which


JGJCUDWKNVYKVJJKUDTQVJGT9KNDWT
HQTHV
O KP-KVV[*CYM
0QTVJ%CTQNKPC75#*GHNKGUCVCP
CNVKVWFGQHHV
O KP
the TUV RQYGTFTKXGPHNKIJV

FAST FACTS
Magellan is famed as the rst circumnavigator, but he didnt make it all the way
home: he was hacked to death in the Philippines The rst power-driven ight
lasted 12 sec John OGroats is named after Jan de Groot, a Dutch ferryman

1900

1950

X 1911: The TUV


UWEEGUUHWNGZRGFKVKQP
VQVJG5QWVJ2QNG
TGCEJGUKVUIQCNCV
COQP&GE
6JG0QTYGIKCPRCTV[
QHXGOGPKUNGF
D[%CRVCKP4QCNF
#OWPFUGP
TKIJV 
6JG[TGCEJVJG2QNG
CHVGTCFC[OCTEJ
YKVJFQIUNGFIGUHTQO
VJG$C[QH9JCNGU

1970
1961: %QUOQPCWV(NKIJV/CLQT;WTK#NGMUG[GXKEJ
)CICTKP
7554 HNKGUKPVQURCEGKP8QUVQM on
#RTQPVJGTUVOCPPGFURCEGHNKIJV6JG
VCMGQHHKUHTQOVJG$CKMQPWT%QUOQFTQOGKP
-C\CMJUVCPCVCO)/6CPFVJGNCPFKPI
CV5OGNQXMCPGCT'PIGNUKPVJG5CTCVQXTGIKQP
QH4WUUKCOKPNCVGT
1963: ,WPKQT.V8CNGPVKPC8NCFKOKTQXPC
6GTGUJMQXC
7554 DGEQOGUVJGTUV
YQOCPKPURCEG5JGVCMGUQHHKP
8QUVQMHTQOVJG$CKMQPWT%QUOQFTQOG
CVCO)/6QP,WP

V 1953: #VCOQP/C[
'FOWPF2GTEKXCN*KNNCT[
0<CDQXG
NGHV CPF+PFQ6KDGVCP6GP\KPI0QTIC[

D0COI[CN9CPIFKCDQXGTKIJV 
complete the TUVCUEGPVQH'XGTGUV
6JG[CTGUJQYPJGTGQPVJGFC[
DGHQTGVJGKTJKUVQTKECEJKGXGOGPV

X 1924The TUVCGTKCN
EKTEWOPCXKICVKQPis
OCFGD[VYQ75#TO[
&QWINCU9QTNF%TWKUGT

&9% UGCRNCPGUHTQO
#RTVQ5GRUVCTVKPI
CPFGPFKPICV5GCVVNG
9CUJKPIVQP75#6JG
%JKECIQKURKNQVGFD[
.VU.QYGNN*5OKVJCPF
.GUNKG2#TPQNFYJKNG
.VU'TKM*0GNUQPCPF
,QJP*CTFKPI
CNN75# 
HN[VJG0GY1TNGCPU

V 1950: #VO
HV #PPCRWTPC+
KUVJGVJVCNNGUVOQWPVCKPKPVJGYQTNFCPFKU
UKVWCVGFKPVJG0GRCNGUG*KOCNC[CU+VKUTUV
UWOOKVVGFQP,WPD[/CWTKEG*GT\QICPF
.QWKU.CEJGPCN
DQVJ(4# 

V 1969: The TUVRGTUQPVQTQYCP[QEGCPUQNQ


KU,QJP(CKTHCZ
7-CDQXG YJQETQUUGUVJG
#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUVKP$TKVCPPKCDGVYGGP
,CPCPF,WN+PVJGUCOG[GCT4QDKP
-PQZ,QJPUVQP
7- DGEQOGUVJGTUVRGTUQPVQ
UCKNCTQWPFVJGYQTNF
UQNQCPFPQPUVQR KPJKU
[CEJV5WJCKNK*GNGCXGU(CNOQWVJ7-QP,WP
KPVJG5WPFC[6KOGU)QNFGP)NQDG4CEG
CPFTGVWTPUQP#RT

Oldest android design


Leonardo da Vinci (ITA) sketches a humanoid robot. His ideas for the nished model are lost, but some of his
other drawings show a human knight with anatomically correct joints operated by cables and pulleys.

1495

guinnessworldrecords.com 109

DATELINE

V 1933: $GVYGGPCPF,WN9KNG[2QUV

75# ECTTKGUQWVVJGTUVUQNQHNKIJVCTQWPF
VJGYQTNF in 9KPPKG/CGC.QEMJGGF8GIC
*GEQXGTUOK
MO UVCTVKPI
CPFGPFKPIKP0GY;QTM%KV[75#

V1969: The 'CINGJCUNCPFGF0GKN


#TOUVTQPICPF$W\\#NFTKP
DQVJ75# DGEQOG
the TUV OGPQPVJG/QQPQP,WN#TOUVTQPI
UVGRUQPVQVJGNWPCTUWTHCEGCV)/6
HQNNQYGFD[#NFTKPCV)/6

EXPLORATION 19711995
JOURNEYS

1971

1980

V1980:+VCN[U
4GKPJQNF/GUUPGT
becomes the TUV
RGTUQPVQENKOD
'XGTGUVUQNQ, reaching
VJGUWOOKVQP#WI
+VVCMGUJKOVJTGG
FC[UVQTGCEJVJG
top from his base
ECORCVO

HV 6JGENKOD
is made all the more
FKHEWNVD[VJGHCEV
that he does not use
DQVVNGFQZ[IGP

V1974: David Kunst (USA, above)


completes the TUVEQPTOGF
EKTEWOPCXKICVKQPQPHQQVQP1EV
*GJCFDGIWPQP,WPCPF
EQXGTUMO
OK CETQUU
HQWTEQPVKPGPVU)GQTIG/CVVJGY
Schilling (USA) is reputed to have
YCNMGFCTQWPFVJGYQTNFHTQO
VQCNVJQWIJVJKUKUWPRTQXGF

V1983: )GQTIG/GGICP
7- EQORNGVGUVJGHCUVGUV
YCNMCNQPIVJG2CP#OGTKECP*KIJYC[QP5GR
*GEQXGTUMO
OK KPFC[U
CHVGTUGVVKPIQWVQP,CP*KULQWTPG[VCMGU
him from the southernmost point of South America
VQVJGPQTVJGTPOQUVRQKPVQH0QTVJ#OGTKEC

V1978:,CRCPGUGGZRNQTGT
CPFOQWPVCKPGGT0CQOK
Uemura becomes the TUV
RGTUQPVQTGCEJVJG0QTVJ
2QNGKPCUQNQGZRGFKVKQP
across the Arctic sea ice,
CVCO)/6QP/C[
*GVTCXGNUMO
OK 
UGVVKPIQWVQP/CTHTQO
%CRG'FYCTF'NNGUOGTG
+UNCPFKPPQTVJGTP%CPCFC
6JGGZRGFKVKQPKUFQI
assisted and is supported
YKVJTGUWRRNKGU

DATELINE

V1975:1P/C[,WPMQ6CDGK
,20 DGEQOGUVJG
TUVYQOCPVQENKOD/QWPV'XGTGUV5JGYKNNIQQPVQ
become the TUVYQOCPVQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU

VJGJKIJGUVRGCMQPGCEJEQPVKPGPV YJGPUJGVQRU
2WPECM,C[C
CMC%CTUVGPU\2[TCOKF QP,WP

1535
110 Journeys

V1982: 1P#WI5KT4CPWNRJ(KGPPGU
CDQXGNGHV CPF%JCTNGU$WTVQP

CDQXGTKIJVDQVJ7- TGVWTPVQ)TGGPYKEJ.QPFQP7-JCXKPIEQORNGVGF
VJGTUVUWTHCEGEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPXKCDQVJ2QNGU6JG[JCFUGVQWVHTQO
)TGGPYKEJQP5GRETQUUKPIVJG5QWVJ2QNGQP&GECPFVJG
0QTVJ2QNGQP#RT+PCNNVJGKTGRKEVTGMEQXGTUOK
MO 

Tallest suit of armour


A 2.057-m (6-ft 8-in) suit of armour made at around this time was once thought to have been worn by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke
ofLancaster, in the 14th century. In fact, it is German in origin. It is on display in the White Tower at HM Tower of London, UK.

FAST FACTS
In 2011, a whale graveyard was found near the Pan-American Highway in Chile
The North and South Poles have switched some 400 times in 330million years
The Atlantic Ocean is growing, but the Pacic Ocean is shrinking

1990

V1985: $GVYGGP,WPCPF#WI*CPURGVGT$GEM
#75 WPKE[ENGU
MO
OK HTQO2QTV*GFNCPFKP9GUVGTP#WUVTCNKCVQ/GNDQWTPG
KP8KEVQTKC*KUFC[JTOKPLQWTPG[TGRTGUGPVUVJGHCUVGUV
WPKE[ENGTKFGCETQUU#WUVTCNKC

V1988: 9GCTKPIDWQ[CPVONQPI
HVKP UMKU
4O[$TKEMC
(4# ECTTKGUQWVVJGHCUVGUVYCNMCETQUUVJG
#VNCPVKE1EGCPKPFC[UHTQO#RTVQ/C[*GEQXGTU
MO
OK VQYKPICRNCVHQTOQHUWRRNKGUCPF
GUUGPVKCNUUWEJCUCYCVGTUVKNN
1989 and 1991: 6JGTGEQTFHQTVJGTUVCPFHCUVGUVOCP
CPFYQOCPVQJCXGEKTEWOPCXKICVGFVJG'CTVJD[ECT
EQXGTKPIUKZEQPVKPGPVUWPFGTVJGTWNGUCRRNKECDNGKP
CPFGODTCEKPIOQTGVJCPCPGSWCVQTUNGPIVJQH
FTKXKPI
TQCFOKNGUMO KUJGNFD[5CNQQ
%JQWFJWT[CPFJKUYKHG0GGPC%JQWFJWT[
DQVJ+PFKC 6JG
LQWTPG[VQQMFC[UJQWTUOKPWVGUHTQO5GRVGODGT
VQ0QXGODGT6JGEQWRNGFTQXGC*KPFWUVCP
%QPVGUUC%NCUUKEUVCTVKPICPFPKUJKPIKP&GNJK+PFKC

V1986: 4KEJCTF)&KEM4WVCPCPF
,GCPC;GCIGT
DQVJ75# EQORNGVGVJG
TUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPD[CKTETCHVYKVJQWV
TGHWGNNKPIKPFC[UHTQOVQ&GE
6JGKTWPKSWGCKTETCHVVoyager is designed
CPFDWKNVD[&KEMUDTQVJGT$WTV

X1986: 1P#WI2CVTKEM/QTTQY

%#0 DGEQOGUVJGTUVRGTUQP
VQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU
the highest mountains on all
seven continents according
VQVJG%CTUVGPU\NKUVYJKEJ
TGEQIPK\GUVJGJKIJGUVRQKPV
KP1EGCPKCCU2WPECM,C[C

CMC%CTUVGPU\2[TCOKF 
KP+PFQPGUKC

V1989: 4QDGTV5YCP
7- DGEQOGUVJGTUV
RGTUQPVQYCNMVQDQVJ2QNGUYJGPVJGGKIJV
OCP+EGYCNMGZRGFKVKQPCTTKXGUCVVJG0QTVJ
2QNGWPFGTJKUNGCFGTUJKRQP/C[6JTGG
[GCTUGCTNKGTQP,CPJGJCFNGFVJG
VJTGGOCP+PVJG(QQVUVGRUQH5EQVVGZRGFKVKQP
VQVJG5QWVJ2QNG

1995

V 1992: 6JGHCUVGUVETQUUKPIQHVJG#VNCPVKE
1EGCPKUFC[UJTOKPUGED[VJGO

HV NWZWT[[CEJVDestrieroHTQOVQ#WI
6JGICUVWTDKPGRTQRGNNGFXGUUGNOCKPVCKPUCP
CXGTCIGURGGFQHMPQVU
MOJORJ 
6JGUMKRRGTKU%GUCTG(KQTKQ
+6# 
1993: 1P,CP'TNKPI-CIIG
014 EQORNGVGU
theTUVUQNQGZRGFKVKQPVQVJG5QWVJ2QNG*KU
MO
OK WPUWRRQTVGFUWTHCEGVTGM
HTQO$GTMPGT+UNCPFVCMGUJKOFC[U

V1994: $TIG1WUNCPF
014 RGTHQTOUVJG
HCUVGUVUQNQWPUWRRQTVGFVTGMVQVJG0QTVJ2QNG
KPFC[UHTQO/CTVQ#RT*GUGVUQWVHTQO
%CRG#TMVKEJGUMK[QPVJG4WUUKCPCTEJKRGNCIQ
QH5GXGTPC[C<GON[C6JGHGCVCNUQOCMGUJKO
the TUVRGTUQPVQOCMGC UQNQCPFWPUWRRQTVGF
LQWTPG[VQVJG0QTVJ2QNGHTQONCPF

X 1995: %QXGTKPI
OQTGVJCPMO

OK CPF
EQWPVTKGUCPF
VGTTKVQTKGU'OKNKQ
5EQVVQ
#4) OCMGU
the NQPIGUVGXGT
LQWTPG[D[OQVQTE[ENG,
HTQO,CP
VQ#RT

Oldest botanical garden (same location)


The Orto Botanico in Padua, Italy, is created. As of 2016, the original design remains a circular central plot
(symbolizing the world) surrounded by a ring of water and the site is still dedicated to scientic research.

1545

guinnessworldrecords.com 111

DATELINE

1985

EXPLORATION 19962005
JOURNEYS

1996

1999

V1996: Peter Bird (UK) spends the longest collective time at sea in
an ocean rowboatFC[U(TQOVQJGEQXGTUMO

OK TQYKPICETQUUVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPHTQOGCUVVQYGUVVJG2CEKE
1EGCPHTQOGCUVVQYGUVCPFVJG2CEKE1EGCPHTQOYGUVVQGCUV

V1999: 'OOCPWGN%QKPFTG
(4# GODCTMUWRQPVJGTUVQH
UGXGPGRKECFXGPVWTGUCVUGCVJG most solo ocean crossingsD[
VTCXGTUKPIVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUVKPCRGFCNDQCV*GIQGU
QPVQTQYVJG#VNCPVKEGCUVVQYGUVKPYGUVVQGCUVKPCPF
GCUVVQYGUVKPDGHQTGTGEQTFKPIVJGfastest solo row across the
Atlantic (west to east)CNUQKPKPFC[UJTOKP
RKEVWTGF
CDQXG *GTQYUVJG2CEKE1EGCPYGUVVQGCUVHTQO%JUJKKP,CRCP
VQ%QQU$C[KP1TGIQP75#KPVCMKPIFC[UJTOKP
.CUVN[JGEQORNGVGUVJGfastest solo row across the Indian Ocean
KPFC[UJTOKPUGEHTQO0QXVQ,CP

T1999: 1P ,CP#PVQKPG&G%JQWFGPU
(4# 
DGEQOGUVJGTUVRGTUQPVQEQORNGVGVJG6JTGG2QNGU
Challenge without supplementary oxygen on Everest
JCXKPIGODCTMGFQPJKUHGCVQP#RT

V1998:%QPUVTWEVKQP
DGIKPUQPVJGInternational
Space Station (ISS 9KVJ
CPCNEQUVKPGZEGUUQH
DP
cDP KVYKNN
DGEQOGVJGOQUVexpensive
man-made object

DATELINE

X1998:&CXKF*GORNGOCP#FCOU
7- 
DGEQOGUVJGTUVRGTUQPVQEQORNGVG
the Adventurers Grand SlamCITWGNNKPI
EJCNNGPIGVJCVKPXQNXGUENKODKPIVJG
5GXGP5WOOKVU
VJGJKIJGUVRGCMQPGXGT[
EQPVKPGPV CPFVTGMMKPIVQDQVJVJG0QTVJ
CPF5QWVJ2QNGHTQOVJGEQCUV*GDGIKPU
JKUSWGUVKPCPFEQORNGVGUKV
[GCTUNCVGTYJGPJGCPFHGNNQY
CFXGPVWTGT4WPG)LGNFPGU

014 YCNMVQVJG0QTVJ2QNG
HTQO/CTVQ/C[

1556
112 Journeys

1999: 4QDGTV*CPUGP
QH-KVVGT[/CKPG75#
EQORNGVGUVJGlongest solo
and unsupported journey on
a snowmobileHTQO,CP
VQ(GD*GEQXGTUMO

OK HTQO/GFYC[
/CKPGVQ+PVGTPCVKQPCN(CNNU
/KPPGUQVC75#CPFDCEM

Highest death toll from an earthquake


An estimated 830,000 people perish in the quake (or dizhen) that strikes
the Shaanxi, Shanxi and Henan provinces in China on 2Feb.

2000

V2000: $GVYGGP/C[CPF5GR
%QNKP$QFKNN
7- TGEQTFUVJGfastest
circumnavigation by microlight*GTQWPFU
VJGINQDGKPJKU/CKPCKT$NCFG(NGZYKPI
OKETQNKIJVKPFC[UUVCTVKPICPFNCPFKPI
CV$TQQMNCPFUCKTGNFKP9G[DTKFIG5WTTG[
7-'PTQWVG$QFKNNHNKGUCNQPIUKFGCPQVJGT
TGEQTFDTGCMGT,GPPKHGT/WTTC[
7- YJQ
TGIKUVGTUVJG fastest circumnavigation by
helicopter (female)KPVJGUCOGVKOGCPF
DGVYGGPVJGUCOGFCVGU
T2001: 'TKM9GKJGPOC[GT

75# YCUDQTPYKVJTGVKPQUEJKUKU
CPG[GEQPFKVKQPVJCVNGHVJKO
EQORNGVGN[DNKPFD[VJGCIG
QH&GURKVGVJKUQP/C[
JGDGEQOGUVJGTUVDNKPFOCP
to climb Mount Everest#UQH
#RTJGKUUVKNNVJGQPN[DNKPF
RGTUQPVQJCXGFQPGUQ'TKM
KUCNUQCPCEEQORNKUJGFTQEM
ENKODGTUMKGTCPFRCTCINKFGT

FAST FACTS
Oceans can hold approximately 50% more carbon than Earths
atmosphere No country owns Antarctica The ISS has 15 pressurized
modules (seven US, ve Russian, two Japanese and one European)

2001

2004

2005

V2004: 5CTCJCPF5CNN[-GVVNG
DQVJ7- ECTT[QWVVJG
TUVTQYCETQUUCP[QEGCPD[COQVJGTCPFFCWIJVGTVGCO
6JG[ETQUUVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUVKPCalderdale
The Yorkshire ChallengerDGVYGGP,CPCPF/C[
V2001: The TUVOCTTKGFEQWRNGVQTGCEJDQVJ2QNGU/KMGCPF(KQPC
6JQTPGYKNN
DQVJ7- CTTKXGCVVJG0QTVJ2QNGQP/C[JCXKPITGCEJGF
VJG5QWVJ2QNGD[UMKQP,CP$QVJVTKRUCTGCKTUWRRQTVGFCPF
VJGEQWRNGCTGCEEQORCPKGFD[VGCOOCVG%CVJCTKPG*CTVNG[
7- 
6JGNCVVGTNGICNUQGCTPU(KQPC6JQTPGYKNNCPF*CTVNG[CPQVJGTTGEQTF
HQTHCUVGUVUMKLQWTPG[VQVJG0QTVJ2QNG
HGOCNG FC[U

2002: #XKCVQT5VGXG(QUUGVV
75#TKIJV 
EQORNGVGUVJGTUVUQNQEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPD[DCNNQQP
DGVYGGP,WPCPF,WNKPVJGBud Light Spirit of
Freedom*GVCMGUQHHCPFNCPFUKP#WUVTCNKC
V2005: 2CTM;QWPI5GQM
-14 TGCEJGUVJG
0QTVJ2QNGQPHQQVQP#RTDGEQOKPIVJGTUV
person to achieve the Explorers Grand Slam
6JKUKPXQNXGUENKODKPIVJGJKIJGUVOQWPVCKPU
QPCNNUGXGPEQPVKPGPVUVJGOQWPVCKPUQXGT
O
HV CPFTGCEJKPIVJG0QTVJCPF
5QWVJ2QNGUQPHQQV*KUSWGUVJCFDGIWPYJGP
JGUWOOKVVGF'XGTGUVQP/C[

2002: 'ODCTMKPIQPVJGlongest unicycle


journey.CTU%NCWUGP
75# UGVUQWVHTQO
6KNNCOQQM1TGIQP75#QP#RT*KU
FQWDNGETQUUKPIQHVJGEQWPVT[PKUJGUKP.QU
#PIGNGU%CNKHQTPKCQP0QXJCXKPIEQXGTGF
MO
OK CETQUUUVCVGU

V2005: $GVYGGPCPF/CT5VGXG(QUUGVV
EQORNGVGUVJGTUVUQNQEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPD[
aircraft without refuelling+VVCMGUJKOJT
OKPKPVJGVirgin Atlantic GlobalFlyerUVCTVKPI
CPFPKUJKPICV5CNKPC-CPUCU75#6JGCKTETCHV
YJKEJKUDWKNVD[5ECNGF%QORQUKVGUECTTKGU
PGCTN[VQPPGU
ND QHHWGN
V2005: 1P,WN(NXKQ,CTFKOCPF
&KQIQ)WGTTGKTQ
DQVJ$4# EQORNGVGVJGKTVTKR
HTQO%JWVQ1KCRQSWGQPVJG$TC\KNKCPEQCUV
CURCTVQHVJG$NWG&GUVKPCVKQP'ZRGFKVKQP
#VMO
OK VJKUKUVJGlongest
YKPFUWTPILQWTPG[6JG[DGICPQP/C[

First assassination by rearm


On 23Jan, James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, Scotland a follower and supporter of Mary,
Queen of Scots uses a carbine to kill James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray and Regent of Scotland.

1570

guinnessworldrecords.com 113

DATELINE

X 2002: 6KPC5LITGP

59' DGEQOGUVJGTUV
woman to complete an
unsupported journey to
VJG5QWVJ2QNGQP(GD
#NQPIYKVJJGTJWUDCPF
6JQOCUUJGCEJKGXGUVJG
LQWTPG[
HTQOVJG*GTEWNGU
+PNGV KPFC[UUVCTVKPI
QP0QX

EXPLORATION 20062009
JOURNEYS

2006

2007

S2007: 5VCTVKPIKP#VCNC[C2GTW
CPFPKUJKPIKP$GNO$TC\KN/CTVKP
5VTGN
580 UYKOUVJGGPVKTGNGPIVJQH
VJG#OC\QP4KXGTKPFC[UDGVYGGP
(GDCPF#RT6JGMO
OK 
CEJKGXGOGPVOCTMUVJGHCTVJGUVQRGP
YCVGTUYKO6JGFKUVCPEGUJGEQXGTU
GCEJFC[XCT[HTQOMO
OK VQ
MO
OK 
S2006: Dee Caffari (UK) becomes the TUVHGOCNG
VQEKTEWOPCXKICVGVJGYQTNFUQNQUCKNKPIYGUVDQWPF
CPFPQPUVQR,QP/C[5GVVKPIQWVHTQO2QTVUOQWVJ
7-QP0QXUJGVCMGUFC[UJTOKP
UGEVQEQORNGVGVJGXQ[CIGWPUWRRQTVGFKPVJG
O
HV OQPQJWNNAviva#NOQUVVJTGG[GCTUNCVGT
Caffari becomes the TUVHGOCNGVQUCKNPQPUVQR
CTQWPFVJGYQTNFKPDQVJFKTGEVKQPUQP(GD

S2007: 1P/C[,GPPKHGT/WTTC[
CPF%QNKP$QFKNN
DQVJ7- CEEQORNKUJ
the TUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPXKCDQVJ
2QNGUD[JGNKEQRVGT6JG[UGVQHHHTQO
(QTV9QTVJKP6GZCU75#KPC$GNN
JGNKEQRVGTQP&GE6JGKTHNKIJV
KUCNUQVJGHCUVGUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP
XKCVJG2QNGUD[JGNKEQRVGTVCMKPI
FC[UJTOKPUGE

S2006:$GVYGGP0QXCPF&GE*CPPCJ
/E-GCPF
7- VCMGUFC[UJTOKPVQUMK
HTQO*GTEWNGU+PNGVCVVJGGFIGQHVJG#PVCTEVKE
EQPVKPGPVVQVJG5QWVJ2QNGVJGHCUVGUVUQNQ
WPUWRRQTVGFCPFWPCUUKUVGFLQWTPG[VQVJG5QWVJ
2QNG
HGOCNG 6JGRQNGKUUKVWCVGFCVCPCNVKVWFG
QHO
HV 6JGGPVKTGLQWTPG[KUWRJKNN
CPF/E-GCPFECTTKGUCNNJGTQYPUWRRNKGUVQGPUWTG
CPGUUGPVKCNFCKN[KPVCMGQHECNQTKGU

DATELINE

2006: 6JGVJTGGGZVTGOGRQKPVUQP'CTVJCTG
/QWPV'XGTGUVVJG0QTVJ2QNGCPFVJG5QWVJ2QNG

CMCVJG6JTGG2QNGU 1P#RT%GEKNKG5MQI
014 
TGIKUVGTUVJGHCUVGUVVKOGVQEQORNGVGVJG6JTGG2QNGU
EJCNNGPIG
HGOCNG YJGPUJGENCKOUVJG0QTVJ2QNG
+VVCMGUJGT[GCTFC[UVQCEJKGXGJGTHGCV

1580
114 Journeys

S2007: 1P1EV,CUQP.GYKU
7- EQORNGVGUVJG
TUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPWUKPIJWOCPRQYGTC[GCT
LQWTPG[YKVJQWVYKPFQTOQVQTCUUKUVCPEG,CUQPKU
LQKPGFD[XCTKQWUUWRRQTVGTUCPFHTKGPFUHQTUQOG
UVCIGUQHJKUOCOOQVJVTGM

S2007: #IGF[GCTUFC[U
5COCPVJC.CTUQP
75# DGEQOGUVJG
[QWPIGUVHGOCNGVQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU
KPENWFKPI%CTUVGPU\QP#WI

Longest castle siege


The cathedral fort of Ishiyama Hongan-ji in modern Osaka, Japan, is attacked by the warlord Oda Nobunaga in
Aug1570. It is defended by Ikk-ikki warrior monks until Aug1580, when the complex is nally burned down.

FAST FACTS
Note: Guinness World Records no longer accepts
applications from adventurers under the age of 16

2008

Antarcticas Gamburtsev Mountains are buried under ice up to 4,800m


(15,750ft) thick The top 3m (10ft) of the ocean holds as much heat as Earth's
atmosphere The last year that no one climbed Everest's summit was 1974

2009

S2009: 5CTCJ1WVGP
7-D/C[ KUCIGF[GCTUFC[UYJGP
UJGUGVUQWVVQTQYCETQUUVJG+PFKCP1EGCPHTQO#RTVQ#WI*GTMO

OK ETQUUKPIDGVYGGP#WUVTCNKCCPF/CWTKVKWUKPSerendipityOCMGUJGT
the [QWPIGUVRGTUQPCPFTUVYQOCPVQTQYVJG+PFKCP1EGCPUQNQ

S2009: $GVYGGP/C[CPF0QX/KEM&CYUQPCPF%JTKU/CTVKP
DQVJ7- 
TQYHTQO%JUJKKP,CRCPVQVJG)QNFGP)CVG$TKFIGKP5CP(TCPEKUEQ%CNKHQTPKC
75#CDQCTFBojangles6JGKTGRKEXGPVWTGNCUVUFC[UJTOKPCPF
OCMGUVJGOVJGTUVVGCOVQTQYVJG2CEKE1EGCPYGUVVQGCUV

X 2008: (TCPEKU,Q[QP
(4# 
CTTKXGUKP$TGUV(TCPEGQP
,CPCVVJGGPFQHVJG
HCUVGUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP
UCKNKPIUQNQFC[UJT
OKPUGE*GOCMGU
VJGMO
OK 
XQ[CIGKPVJGO

HV VTKOCTCPIDEC II


1P,WP,Q[QPCNUQ
CEEQORNKUJGUVJGHCUVGUV
UKPINGJCPFGFVTCPUCVNCPVKE
UCKNKPIJGEQXGTUMO

OK KPFC[UJTOKP

S2009: 1P#WI
/KEJCGN2GTJCO
7-
D/CT DGEQOGU
the [QWPIGUVRGTUQP
VQEKTEWOPCXKICVGD[
UCKNKPIUQNQPQPUVQRCPF
WPUWRRQTVGF*GKUCIGF
[GCTUFC[UYJGPJG
UGVUQWVHTQO2QTVUOQWVJ
UK, in TotallyMoney.com
QP0QX

W 2009: 4C[<CJCD-GXKP
8CNNGN[CPF4KEJCTF9GDGT

CNN%#0 TGCEJVJG5QWVJ
2QNGHTQO*GTEWNGU+PNGVKP
#PVCTEVKECQP,CPCHVGT
FC[UJTOKPVJG
HCUVGUVWPUWRRQTVGFCPF
WPCUUKUVGFLQWTPG[VQVJG
5QWVJ2QNGD[CVGCO6JGKT
RGTUQPCNDGUVKUVTGMMKPI
MO
OK KPCFC[

Oldest stock exchange


A stock exchange in Amsterdam, Netherlands, is set up for trading in printed
shares of the United East India Company of the Netherlands.

1602

guinnessworldrecords.com 115

DATELINE

S2008: 1P5GR4QD6JQOUQP
0< 
EQORNGVGUVJGNQPIGUVLQWTPG[D[UMCVGDQCTF,
KP5JCPIJCK%JKPC*GDGIKPUVJGMO

OK VTKRKP.G[UKP5YKV\GTNCPFQP,WP
CPFETQUUGURCTVQH'WTQRGVJGGPVKTG75#
CPF%JKPCYGUVVQGCUVYGCTKPIQWVVJTGGUGVU
QHYJGGNUCPFVJTGGUMCVGDQCTFFGEMU

EXPLORATION 20102015
JOURNEYS

2010

2011

S2010: Alan Bate (UK) completes the fastest circumnavigation by bicycle


(male DGVYGGP/CTCPF#WI*KUVQVCNLQWTPG[VKOGKUFC[UJT
OKPFWTKPIYJKEJJGE[ENGUMO
OK CPFVTCXGNU
OQTGVJCPMO
OK KPENWFKPIVTCPUHGTU*KUGRKETKFG
DGIKPUCPFGPFUCVVJG)TCPF2CNCEGKP$CPIMQM6JCKNCPF

X 2010: 'F5VCHHQTF
7- 
becomes the TUVRGTUQPVQ
YCNMVJGNGPIVJQHVJG#OC\QP
River.*GCEEQORNKUJGUVJGVTKR
KP[GCTUOQPVJUFC[U

FC[U PKUJKPIQP#WI*GYCNMU
OK
MO HTQOVJG2CEKE
1EGCPVQVJGUQWTEGQHVJG#OC\QP
VJGPHQNNQYUVJGTKXGTHQTOK

MO VQVCNNKPIOK

MO EQCUVVQEQCUV

S2010: 1P,CP-CVKG5RQV\
75#D#RT
 KUCIGF[GCTUFC[UYJGPUJGUGVUQHH
HTQO&CMCT5GPGICNVQRCFFNGCETQUUVJG#VNCPVKE
GCUVVQYGUV#HVGTCFC[XQ[CIGUJGCTTKXGUKP
)GQTIGVQYP)W[CPCQP/CTVJGyoungest
female to row across any ocean solo

DATELINE

X 2010: 8GTPQP6GLCU
75# ENKODUVJG
EQODKPGF-QUEKWU\MQCPF%CTUVGPU\NKUVU
QHUWOOKVUKPFC[U6GLCUDGIKPUD[
ENKODKPI8KPUQP/CUUKHQP,CPCPFCHVGT
CUEGPVUQP#EQPECIWC%CTUVGPU\2[TCOKF
-QUEKWU\MQ-KNKOCPLCTQ'NDTWUCPF'XGTGUV
TGCEJGUVJGVQRQHVJGNCUVUWOOKV&GPCNK
CMC/QWPV/E-KPNG[QP/C[6JKUKUVJG
HCUVGUVVKOGVQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU
including Carstensz*GKUUJQYPJGTGCV
VJGVQRQH'XGTGUVYKVJJKU.CRUVKEMIWKVCT

1610
116 Journeys

S2011: 1P,CP%JTKUVKCP'KFG
014 TGCEJGUVJG
5QWVJ2QNGCHVGTCVTGMQHFC[UJTOKPEQORNGVKPI
the HCUVGUVUQNQWPUWRRQTVGFCPFWPCUUKUVGFLQWTPG[VQVJG
5QWVJ2QNG*GUGVUQHHQPVJGMO
OK CFXGPVWTG
QP&GEUVCTVKPICVVJG*GTEWNGU+PNGVQPVJGUQWVJ
YGUVGTPGFIGQHVJG4QPPG+EG5JGNH'KFGEQXGTUCPCXGTCIG
QHMO
OK RGTFC[CNVJQWIJQPJKUNCUVFC[JG
OCPCIGUVQUMKMO
OK *GKUUJQYPCDQXGTGHNGEVGF
KPVJGOKTTQTGFDCNNVJCVUVCPFUCVVJG5QWVJ2QNG

Most prolic female murderer


Countess Elizabeth Bthory is walled up in her castle, in what is now Slovakia. She is alleged to have killed
asmany as 600 people in the previous century, while practising vampirism on girls and young women.

FAST FACTS
The Himalayas formed 60 million years ago; rock at its summit contains
450-million-year-old fossils from the ocean bed Kibo, the highest peak of
Kilimanjaro, is a dormant volcano; its two other peaks are extinct volcanoes

2012

2013

2014

2015

S2014: /CVVJGY)WVJOKNNGT
75#
D0QX DGEQOGUVJGyoungest
RGTUQPVQEKTEWOPCXKICVGD[CKTETCHVUQNQ
*GGPFUJKUVTKRQP,WNKP'N%CLQP
%CNKHQTPKC75#CIGFCTUFC[U

S2012: )DQT4CMQPE\C[
*70 ETQUUGUVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUV
KPJKUONQPI
HVKP ECPQGKPFC[U&GRCTVKPIHTQO.CIQUKP
2QTVWICNCPFCTTKXKPICVVJG%CTKDDGCPKUNCPFQH#PVKIWCQP/CTJGKU
VJGTUVECPQGKUVVQRCFFNGCPQEGCP

X 2012: 1P,WN
'TFGP'TW
674 
EQORNGVGUCLQWTPG[QH
[GCTUFC[UJT
OKPVJGTUVUQNQ
EKTEWOPCXKICVKQPQHVJG
INQDGWUKPIJWOCPRQYGT
*GTQYUMC[CMUJKMGU
CPFE[ENGUCETQUUVJTGG
EQPVKPGPVUCPFVJTGG
QEGCPUVQTGVWTPVQJKU
UVCTVKPIRQKPV$QFGIC$C[
KP%CNKHQTPKC75#

V2013: $TKVKUJ#OGTKECP8CPGUUC#WFK4J[U
1$TKGPEQORNGVGUVJGEQODKPGF-QUEKWU\MQCPF
%CTUVGPU\NKUVUKPFC[UUVCTVKPIYKVJ'XGTGUV
QP/C[CPFGPFKPIYKVJ-KNKOCPLCTQQP
/CT6JKUOCTMUVJGfastest time to climb
VJG5GXGP5WOOKVUKPENWFKPI%CTUVGPU\
HGOCNG 

5GGRHQTVJGOCNGTGEQTF

T 2013: 6JG6TKRNG5GXGP5WOOKVUCTGVJG
VJTGGJKIJGUVOQWPVCKPUQPGCEJEQPVKPGPV
%JTKUVKCP5VCPIN
#76 TGCEJGUJKUNCUV
UWOOKV5JMJCTCO
HV VCNN
QPVJG)GQTIKC4WUUKCDQTFGTQP#WI
VQDGEQOGVJGTUVRGTUQPVQENKODVJG
6TKRNG5GXGP5WOOKVU
S2015: 5KOQP%JCNM
7- 
CEEQORNKUJGUJKUPKPVJQEGCPTQY
QP,CPVJGmost ocean rows
D[QPGRGTUQP*KUETQUUKPIUJCXG
DGGPUQNQCPFKPVGCOUCPFQXGT
VJG#VNCPVKECPF+PFKCPQEGCPU

X 2013: 1P/C[
2JWTDC6CUJK5JGTRC

02.TKIJV CUEGPFUVJG
YQTNFUJKIJGUVRGCMHQT
VJGUVVKOG*GGSWCNU
VJGTGEQTFHQTVJGmost
conquests of Everest
UGVD[#RC5JGTRC
02. 
QP/C[
2013: &CXKF.KCQ
)QP\NG\
/': KU
the TUVRGTUQPVQ
climb Everest from
DQVJUKFGUKPQPG
season*GENKODU
HTQO0GRCNQPVJG
UQWVJUKFGQP/C[
CPFHTQO6KDGVQPVJG
PQTVJUKFGQP/C[
OCMKPIWUGQHDQVVNGF
QZ[IGPDQVJVKOGU

Oldest continuously used national ag


The design of the ag of Denmark a white Scandinavian cross on a red background is adopted.
Itacquires its square shape in 1748. In Denmark, it is called the Dannebrog or Danish cloth.

1625

guinnessworldrecords.com 117

DATELINE

S2015: %CNNWO)CVJGTEQNG
7-
D/C[ KUCIGF[GCTU
FC[UCVVJGUVCTVQHJKU#VNCPVKE
ETQUUKPIQP&GEVJGyoungest
RGTUQPVQTQYCETQUUCP[QEGCPUQNQ

DO TRY THIS
AT HOME
KNOW?d
DID YOU
or
outed the w

DATELINE

Christian sh
r goal
German fo
Tor! the
. His feat
pt
m
te
at
rd
for his reco
est to nd
nt
co
a radio
was part of
shout the
d
n who coul
n
a sports fa
style of Lati
e
th
in
l
longest goa
entators
m
m
co
er
socc
els.
American
h their vow
who stretc
oaaaal!
Goooooooo

1657
118 Do Try This At Home

First operational pendulum clock


Although Italian inventor Galileo had conceived of a pendulum-driven clock before he died, the rst working
model isnt patented until some 20 years later, by astronomer and horologist Christiaan Huygens (NLD).

CONTENTS
IN YOUR KITCHEN

120

IN YOUR BACKYARD

122

IN YOUR BEDROOM

124

IN YOUR GYM

126

Longest shout

Oldest continuing periodical


The rst issue of Philosophical Transactions is published by Britains science academy, the Royal Society, on
6Mar. It will go on to number Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin among its acclaimed contributors.

1665

guinnessworldrecords.com 119

DATELINE

This chapter is all about records that you can try yourself at
home proving that you dont need to be an Olympic athlete or
Hollywood megastar to be a record-breaker. One have-a-go hero
is Germanys Christian Kinner, holder of the record for the worlds
longest-lasting shout the kind of feat that anyone can try.
With the help of radio station Sportradio Sport1.fm, soccer fan
Christian a dedicated follower of Borussia Dortmund let rip
with a shout that lasted for an impressive 43.56 sec in Munich,
)GTOCP[QP#RT$CEMQHVJGPGV
If you want something to shout about, why not try breaking
some of the records that follow on the next eight pages?

DO TRY THIS AT HOME...

IN YOUR KITCHEN
EGGS

If you thought that the kitchen was only good for making your dinner and washing the dishes, think
again: its also the perfect place to cook up some records! From common utensils to everyday foods
such as eggs, sugar and rice, there are record-breaking opportunities in every cupboard and drawer
and even the fruit bowl. Whether youre a pro chef with lightning-quick prep skills or a gourmand with
an acclaimed appetite, there really is something on the menu for everyone.

BANANAS
Most peeled and eaten
in one minute

8 Patrick Bertoletti (USA)

Most snapped in one minute

Most crushed with the head


KPQPGOKPWVG

142 Scott Damerow (USA)

Most cracked with one hand


in one minute

32 4QUU/E%WTF[
75#

Most crushed by sitting


in one minute

72 MichaN.GXKNNCKP
(4#

Most crushed with the wrist


in two minutes

78 Antonio Almijez (ESP)

Fastest time to crush 10 with


elbows pointing forwards

UGE Mauro Vagnini (ITA)

Fastest time to move six


from a box to egg cups
using the feet

UGE Ashlee Carlisle (USA)

Fastest time to balance


a dozen

OKP Brian Spotts (USA)


UGE

99 Ashrita Furman (USA)

SPOONS
SUGAR CUBES
Most balanced on the chin
(single stack)

17 Silvio Sabba (ITA)

Tallest tower

Most balanced on the body

52

Etibar Elchiev (GEO)

Most twisted in one minute

14

Ashrita Furman (USA)

Most balanced on the face

31

Dalibor Jablanovi
54$

EO
HVKP %COKNNG%QWTIGQP
(4#

CREAM CRACKERS
Fastest time to eat three

UGE Ambrose Mendy (UK)

JELLY CANDIES
Most jelly beans moved
using a straw in one minute

 Andrew Kamil Mourad


(LBN)

Fastest time to sort 30 jelly UGE Silvio Sabba (ITA)


beans using chopsticks
Fastest time to sort 30 jelly UGE Stephen Kish (UK)
babies using chopsticks

M&MS/SMARTIES
Most eaten in
one minute with
chopsticks

DATELINE

Largest mosaic

 -CVJT[P4CVENKHHG
7-

O2 Jackson McKenzie (USA)

USHV

Fastest time to
UQTVI
Q\ 
of Peanut M&Ms

OKP Stephen Kish (UK)


UGE

Fastest time to sort


30 using chopsticks

UGE Yinger Guan (CHN)

1670

Oldest elected Pope


Clement X (ITA, b. Emilio Altieri) becomes leader of the Catholic Church aged
79years 290 days. He will hold the position until his death just six years later.

FERRERO ROCHER
Most eaten in one minute

ONIONS
Fastest time to eat a
raw onion
(CUVGUVVKOGVQRGGNND
Most peeled and sliced
in one minute

UGE Yusuke Yamaguchi (JPN)


OKPUGE Bob Blumer (CAN)
I Masanori Fujimura (JPN)

Q\

9 Peter Czerwinski (CAN)


Patrick Bertoletti (USA)

Fastest time to eat 15

OKPUGE Peter Czerwinski (CAN)

Most stacked
Fastest time to eat one
with no hands

12 Silvio Sabba (ITA)


8.04 sec 6JQOCU)CPIUVCF
014

CONDIMENTS
Fastest time to drink a bottle
QHMGVEJWR
IQ\

UGE Benedikt Weber (DEU)

Most mustard drunk


in 30 seconds

I Andr Ortolf (DEU)

Q\

(CUVGUVVKOGVQFTKPMON

HNQ\ QHOWUVCTF

UGE Ashrita Furman (USA)

RICE & PASTA

LEMONS
Fastest time to drink one litre
of lemon juice through a straw

UGE Stephen Dechert II


(USA)

Most uncooked rice grains moved


with chopsticks in one minute

38 Silvio Sabba (ITA)

Fastest time to peel


and eat one

UGE Ashrita Furman (USA)

Most rice grains eaten with


EJQRUVKEMUKPQPGOKPWVG

23 4QD$GCVQP
75#

Fastest time to peel


and eat three

UGE Jim Lyngvild (DEN)

Most rice grains eaten with


chopsticks in three minutes

134 Bob Blumer (CAN)

Most caught blindfolded


in 30 seconds (team of two)

15 Ashrita Furman and


Bipin Larkin (both USA)

Most tortellini made


in three minutes

25 Francesco Boggian
(ITA)

Most caught blindfolded


in one minute (team of two)

33 Ashrita Furman and


Bipin Larkin (both USA)

Fastest time to eat a bowl of pasta UGE Peter Czerwinski

IQ\ YKVJUCWEG
(CAN)

COCKTAIL STICKS
Most peas eaten in one minute

40 Ashrita Furman (USA)


 Paolo Verri (ITA)

Most sweetcorn eaten


in three minutes

 +CP4KEJCTF2WTXKU
7-

Most baked beans eaten


KPXGOKPWVGU

271 Ashrita Furman (USA)

Most prolic hanging judge


Lord Chief Justice George Jeffreys (UK) sentences some 320 rebels to death on the grounds of treason
for participating in the Revolt of the West. These trials will come to be known as the Bloody Assizes.

1685

guinnessworldrecords.com 121

DATELINE

Most peas eaten in 30 seconds

DO TRY THIS AT HOME...

IN YOUR BACKYARD
If its a nice day outside, theres no reason to stay cooped up indoors because there are hundreds
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UQOGHTGUJCKTCPFDQQUV[QWTXKVCOKP&NGXGNUVJKUKUVJGRGTHGEVUGVVKPIVQCVVGORVUQOGURQTV[
CEVKXKVKGUVJCVTGSWKTGCDKVOQTGURCEG5QFKIQWVVJQUGNQPIHQTIQVVGPVQ[U[QWPGXGTVJQWIJV
[QWFWUGCICKPCPFIGVVTCKPKPI9JCVKH[QWFQPVJCXGCICTFGP!0QRTQDNGOYJ[PQVRCEM
CRKEPKEJGCFVQVJGNQECNRCTMCPFVWTP[QWTTGEQTFCVVGORVKPVQCHCOKN[FC[QWV!

FRISBEE/FLYING DISC
Longest duration aloft (male)

UGE &QP%CKP
75#

HULA HOOPS

Longest duration aloft (female)

UGE #O[$GMMGP
75#

Most spun simultaneously

200 /CTCYC+DTCJKO
#75

Most caught and spun


in one minute

236 .KW4QPITQPI
%*0

Longest distance thrown


(male)

O %JTKUVKCP5CPFUVTQO

HVKP
59'

Longest distance thrown


(female)

O ,GPPKHGT)TKHP
75#

HVKP

Longest throw at a target

Most rotations by a team


of three in one minute

O $TQFKG5OKVJ
75#

HV

Most throws at a target


in one minute

27 .QKE&WOQPV
(4#

Most catches behind the back


in one minute

 6KOCPF&CPKGN
*CDGPKEJV
DQVJ75#

Most cones hit in one minute

12 $TQFKG5OKVJ
75#

Most rotations while on a


trampoline in one minute

50 2CWN$NCKT
75# 2CP$QCPF
&KPI*GOGK
DQVJ%*0
130 -GP-QXCEJ
75#

SPACE HOPPER
(CUVGUVO

UGE #UJTKVC(WTOCP
75#

POGO STICK
Highest jump

SOCCER BALL
O $KHH*WVEJKUQP
75#

HVKP

Most peg taps in 30 seconds

69 5KNXKQ5CDDC
+6#

Fewest jumps in one minute

39 $KHH*WVEJKUQP
75#

Most jumps in one minute


Most balloons popped
in one minute
Most skips in one minute

266 6QPG5VCWDU
75#
57 /CTM#NFTKFIG
7-

(CUVGUVOYKVJCDCNN
balanced on the head

UGE &CPKGN%WVVKPI
7-

Most around the Moon


tricks in one minute

61 #FTKCP(QIGN
&'7

Most around the world


tricks in one minute

85 ,QJP(CTPYQTVJ
7-

Most juggled simultaneously

5 8KEVQT4WDKNCT
#4) 

178 #UJTKVC(WTOCP
75#

/CTMQ8GTOGGT
0.&
Longest time spun on
QPGPIGT
Fastest time to complete
RCUUGU
VGCOQHVYQ

OKP 4CRJCGN*CTTKU
+54
UGE
UGE ,QPCVJCP)QOG\
661 
CPF-GKVJ%QPUKFKPG
7-

WATER BALLOONS

DATELINE

Farthest throw and catch


(without bursting)

1705
122 Do Try This At Home...

O #UJTKVC(WTOCPCPF

HVKP $KRKP.CTMKP
DQVJ75#

Most caught and held


in one minute

22 #UJTKVC(WTOCPCPF
$KRKP.CTMKP
DQVJ75#

Most thrown at a person


in one minute

32 #UJTKVC(WTOCPCPF
$KRKP.CTMKP
DQVJ75#

First conrmed periodic comet


British astronomer Edmond Halley realizes that a comet rst documented back in 240 BCE actually passes
Earth in a 75-year cycle. He successfully predicts that the next yby of Halleys Comet will be in 1758.

TRAMPOLINE
Most consecutive somersaults

 $TKCP*WFUQP
7-

Most backwards somersaults in 30 seconds

 5JCPG%QPPQT5OKVJ
75#

Most forward somersaults in one minute

40 ,GF'XCPU
7-

Most high front drops in one minute

26 -GP-QXCEJ
75#

Most seat drops in one minute

49 1NGMUCPFT0CMQPGEJP[
7-4

Most backwards tucks in one minute

 *W<KEJCQ
%*0

SKIPPING ROPE
Most backwards
skips in 30 seconds

 *KLKMK+MW[COC
,20

Most triple unders


in one minute

 *G%JWP[CP
%*0

Most consecutive
triple unders

 5JQ\Q*COCFC
,20

Most consecutive
quadruple unders

 #MKVQUJK/QTKIWEJK

,20

(CUVGUVOUMKRRKPI

UGE #NCKP6TQVVKGT
75#

BASKETBALL
Most circles around the
waist in 30 seconds
Most bounces in one minute

68 %QTG[4KEJ
75#
444 6JCPGUYCT)WTCICK
02.

Longest time spinning three

UGE 6JQOCU%QPPQTU
7-

Longest time spinning on


QPGPIGT
WUKPIQPGJCPF

OKP 4WDGP#NECTC\
'52
UGE

Longest time spinning


on the head

UGE /GJOGV-GMG
&'7

MICRO SCOOTER
Highest bunny hop

EO /CTE8KPEQ
(4#

HVKP

Most tailwhips in one minute

 &CPKGN$CTTGVV
75#

Most backflips in one minute

12 &CMQVC5EJWGV\
75#

TENNIS BALLS

Most bounces on a racket


handle in one minute

11 #PVJQP[-GNN[

#75
185 (NQTKCP<QNNGT

#76

Longest time to control


one with a racket
Most held in one hand

JTOKP 2CNOGT%CORDGNN
UGE
75#
 /CJCFGQ$JWLDCN

+0&

Longest time to bounce


one on the head

JTOKP 6QOCU.WPFOCP
UGE
59'

Longest time to control


one using the feet

JTOKP ,CEGM)W\QYUMK
UGE
21.

DIABOLO
Most catches in one minute

16 9CPI;WGSKW
%*0

Most juggling catches on the back


in one minute

 %JGP;WP
%*0

Most spins around the leg


in one minute

 #FTKCP*KFCNIQ
'52

Most consecutive bounces


around the neck

126 *CTXG[9QQFU
7-

Longest duration to juggle four


around the leg

OKPUGE 2GPI<JCP
62'

Longest grind

OKPUGE *CTT[(GCEJGP
7-

Oldest restaurant
Restaurante Botn opens its doors in the centre of Madrid, Spain. Customers have to bring their
own food and wine, which is then cooked on the premises. The eatery is still open today.

1725

guinnessworldrecords.com 123

DATELINE

Most caught blindfolded


in one minute

DO TRY THIS AT HOME...

IN YOUR BEDROOM
No matter how old we get, some toys and games will never lose their appeal. From juggling
and yo-yoing to solving Rubiks Cubes and launching paper aircraft, what makes these playtime
ENCUUKEUUQGPFWTKPIKUVJGVKOGNGUUEJCNNGPIGVJG[RTGUGPVKPVJGXGT[OQOGPVQHRNC[KPIYKVJ
them. Whether youre a newbie or an old hand, theres always the chance to beat your personal
DGUVQTKPFGGFVJGYQTNFUDGUV#PFVJGEQQNGUVVJKPICDQWVVJGUGTGEQTFU!;QWECPFQVJGO
CNNKP[QWTXGT[QYPDGFTQQOGXGPKP[QWTR[LCOCUKH[QWUQYKUJ

GOLF BALLS
Most stacked
in a tower

9 Don Athey (USA)

JUGGLING BALLS
Most catches in one minute (three)

422 ZdenM$TCF
%<'

Most juggled

11 Alex Barron (UK)

Longest duration (three, blindfolded)


Longest duration (four)

OKPUGE David Rush (USA)


JTOKPUGE ZdenM$TCF
%<'

PAPER AIRCRAFT
Most made and caught
in one minute (team of 10)

25 Airbus Group (FRA)

Most consecutive times


to hit a target

13 Fumihiro Uno (JPN)

Most caught by mouth


in one minute

17 Ashrita Furman and


Bipin Larkin (both USA)

Farthest flight

O Joe Ayoob and John

HVKP Collins (both USA)

MR POTATO HEAD
Fastest time to assemble

UGE Samet Durmaz (TUR)

Fastest time to assemble


while blindfolded

UGE Zoe Jayne Whalley (UK)

RUBIKS CUBE (3x3x3)


Fastest time to solve

UGE Lucas Etter (USA)

Fastest time to solve


with one hand

UGE Feliks Zemdegs (AUS)

Fastest time to solve


while blindfolded

UGE Kaijun Lin (CHN)

Fastest time to solve


with the feet

UGE Jakub Kipa (POL)

Fewest moves to complete

19 Tim Wong (USA) and


Marcel Peters (DEU)

YO-YO

DATELINE

Farthest distance to
walk the dog

O Arron Sparks (UK)

HVKP

Most hop the fence tricks


in one minute

144 Arron Sparks (UK)

Most reach for the Moon


tricks in 30 seconds

27 Arron Sparks (UK)

Most eli hops in 30 seconds

71 Hiroyuki Suzuki (JPN)

Most tricks in one minute

51 Hans Van Dan Elzen (USA)

1749
124 Do Try This At Home

TIDDLYWINKS
Longest wink shot

O Ben Soares (UK)

HVKP

Highest wink shot

O Adrian Jones (UK)

HVKP David Smith (UK)


Ed Wynn (UK)

First lightning rod


American polymath Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod. It works on the principle that a metal rod xed to the
topof a building, and continuing underground, will draw a lightning strike that would otherwise harm the building.

PING-PONG BALLS
Most bounced into a pint
glass in one minute

6 Stephen Kish (UK)


Coby Cotton (USA)

Longest time controlling


with a table tennis bat

JTOKP Deepak Sharma


UGE Bajagain (NPL)

Most spits and catches of


three with the mouth

76 Francisco Tebar
Honrubia (ESP)

SPORT STACKING
Fastest 3-3-3 stack

UGE William Orrell (USA)

Fastest 3-6-3 stack

UGE William Orrell (USA)

Fastest cycle stack

UGE William Orrell (USA)


UGE Chandler Miller, William Orrell, William
Polly and Zhewei Wu (all USA)

Fastest 30-level tower


(team of two)

OKP Tyler and Ryan


UGE Measel (both USA)

PLAYING CARDS
Fastest time to
arrange a deck

UGE ZdenM$TCF
(CZE)

Most held in a fan

LEGO
Tallest tower built with
one hand in one minute

48 Chris Challis (UK)

326 Ralf Laue (DEU)

Tallest house of cards

O Bryan Berg (USA)

HVKP

Fastest time to learn


and recall a deck

UGE Simon Reinhard


(DEU)

Tallest tower built in one minute 131 Andy Parsons (UK)


Most bricks picked up with a
brick in 30 seconds (one hand)

37 Megane Scott (UK)


Nardy Nafzger (NLD)

COINS
Fastest time to stack 25

UGE Stephen Kish (UK)

Most stacked in one minute

69 Silvio Sabba (ITA)

Most balanced in a pyramid

 Aleksandr Bendikov


(BLR)

Most stacked

253 Dipak Syal (IND)

Most prolic composer


Georg Philipp Telemann (DEU) dies, leaving behind a body of work that includes 12 sets of church services for a
year, 40operas, 44 passions and more than 600 orchestral suites, plus concertos and other chamber music.

1767

guinnessworldrecords.com 125

DATELINE

Fastest 3-6-3 relay

JENGA

DO TRY THIS AT HOME...

IN YOUR GYM
How better to overcome the boredom of endless reps at the gym than by aiming for
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RWPEJDCIVJGTGCTG)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFUVKVNGUVQUWKVGXGT[CDKNKV[(GCVWTGFJGTG
CTGLWUVCUOCNNUGNGEVKQPQHVJGJWPFTGFUQHECVGIQTKGUVJCVYGOQPKVQTUQKH[QWFQPV
UGGUQOGVJKPIVJCV[QWYCPVVQCVVGORVFQPVYQTT[LWUVCRRN[VQQWT4GEQTFU/CPCIGTU
CVYYYIWKPPGUUYQTNFTGEQTFUEQOCPFVJG[NNFQVJGKTDGUVVQJGNR

419+0)/#%*+0'
%10%'26++
(CUVGUVO
OCNG
(CUVGUVO
HGOCNG
(CUVGUVOCTCVJQP
OCNG
(CUVGUVOCTCVJQP
HGOCNG
(CUVGUVO
(CUVGUVVKOGVQTQYVJG
'SWCVQT
MO

OKPUGE 4QD9CFFGNN
0<
OKPUGE 5QRJKG$CNOCT[
(4#
JTOKPUGE )NGP)QQFOCP
7-
JTOKPUGE #PPC$CKNG[
7-
JTOKPUGE 0KIGN)QYGT
7-
[GCTUOQPVJU &CXKF*QND[
7-
FC[U

TREADMILL
(CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPMO

JTOKPUGE )GOOC%CTVGT
7-

(CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPMO
OCNG

JTOKPUGE 2JKN#PVJQP[
7-

(CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPMO
HGOCNG

JTOKPUGE 'FKV$TEGU
*70

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU
OCNG

MO
OK &CXKF5VCNG[
75#

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU
HGOCNG

MO
OK &GG$QNCPF
+4.

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU
OCNG

MO
OK 5WTGUJ,QCEJKO
%#0.-#

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU
HGOCNG

MO
OK 'FKV$TEGU
*70

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGYGGM
OCNG

MO
OK /CTEKQ8KNNCT
$4#

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGYGGM
HGOCNG

MO
OK 5JCTQP)C[VGT
7-

DUMBBELLS
/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFYKVJHTQPVTCKUGUKPQPGOKPWVG

MI
ND 'COQPP-GCPG
+4.

/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[TQYUKPQPGOKPWVG
QPGCTO

MI
ND 4QDGTV0CVQNK
75#

/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[TQYUKPQPGJQWT

MI
ND 'COQPP-GCPG
+4.

/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[UVCPFKPIRTGUU
in one minute
/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[KPENKPGHN[GUKPQPGOKPWVG
/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[KPENKPGHN[GUKPQPGJQWT

DATELINE

MI
ND 'COQPP-GCPG
+4.

/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFYKVJHTQPVTCKUGUKPQPGJQWT

1770
126 Do Try This At Home

MI
ND -TKUVKP4JQFGU
75#
MI
ND 'COQPP-GCPG
+4.
MI
ND 'COQPP-GCPG
+4.

First modern circus


Trick rider Philip Astley (UK) adds acrobats, rope dancers and clowns to his horse show in London, UK. In 1782,
aformer member of his company, Charles Hughes (UK), will found the rst such show to call itself a circus.

EXERCISE BIKE
Greatest distance in one minute

MO
OK /KIWGNPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTIWG\
'52

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPVJTGGOKPWVGU

MO
OK /KIWGNPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTIWG\
'52

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGJQWT
OCNG
)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGJQWT
HGOCNG

.QPIGUVOCTCVJQPRWPEJKPI JT -CXGJ(CVGOKCP


7-

MO
OK 6KPC6GTPLCM
580

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPGKIJVJQWTU

MO
OK 2JKNKRRG8C\
(4#

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU
OCNG

MO
OK /KIWGNPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTIWG\
'52

)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU
HGOCNG
)TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU

270%*$#)

MO
OK /KIWGNPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTIWG\
'52

MO
OK 6KPC6GTPLCM
580
MO
OK 2JKNKRRG8C\
(4#

.QPIGUVOCTCVJQP
FWTCVKQP

JTOKPUGE ,COKG/E&QPCNF
7-

56'2$1#4&
/QUVUVGRWRUKPQPGOKPWVG

 6CMCJKTQ/QTKUJKVC
,20

/QUVUVGRWRUKPQPGJQWT

 /CPLKV5KPIJ
7-

/QUVUVGRWRUKPGKIJVJQWTU
MEDICINE BALL
/QUVRWUJWRUQP
COGFKEKPGDCNN
in one minute
.QPIGUVEQPVTQN
QHCOGFKEKPGDCNN

 #TTCP/E.GNNCP
%#0

/QUVUVGRWRUKPJQWTU
 /QJCOOCF*CUUCCP
$WVV
2#-
OKPUGE %QPP[5VTODGTI
59'

 5WDJCUJ5CUPG
+0&

/QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCNDRCEM
in one minute

 4QDGTV0CVQNK
75#

/QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCNDRCEM
in one minute

 4QDGTV0CVQNK
75#

/QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCPNDRCEM
in one minute

 4QDGTV0CVQNK
75#

/QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCNDRCEM
in one minute

 2CFF[&Q[NG
7-

KETTLEBELLS
)TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNNQPIE[ENG
KPQPGJQWT

MI #PCVQN['\JQX
$.4

ND

)TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNUPCVEJ
KPQPGJQWT
OCNG

MI 'XIGP[0C\CTGXKEJ
$.4

ND

)TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNUPCVEJ
KPQPGJQWT
HGOCNG

MI .[WDQX%JGTGRCJC
7-4

ND

)TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNLGTM
KPQPGJQWT
)TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNUYKPI
KPQPGJQWT
/QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFYKVJMGVVNGDGNNUKPQPGOKPWVG

CNVGTPCVKPIHNQQTRTGUU

MI #PCVQN['\JQX
$.4

ND
MI ,COGU5CYCTF#PFGTUQP

ND
7-
MI #PCVQN['\JQX
$.4

ND

SWISS BALLS

)TGCVGUVYGKIJVUSWCVNKHVGF
QPC5YKUUDCNNKPQPGOKPWVG
/QUVMPGGDGPFUQPC
5YKUUDCNNKPQPGJQWT
Longest time standing
QPC5YKUUDCNN
/QUVRCUUGUQHC5YKUUDCNN
KPXGOKPWVGU
VGCO
.QPIGUVLWORDGVYGGP
VYQ5YKUUDCNNU

UGE 0GKN9J[VG
#75
MI 5VGRJGP$WVVNGT
7-

ND
 5VGRJGP$WVVNGT
7-
JTOKP )CTTGVV.CO
75#
UGE
 Health & Diet
%GPVTGU.VF
7-
O
HVKP 0GKN9J[VG
#75

Oldest working steam engine


The Smethwick Engine, designed by James Watt and built by the Birmingham Canal Company (both UK), enters
service on 27 May at Smethwick, West Midlands, UK. It is used to pump water back up a series of canal locks.

1779

guinnessworldrecords.com 127

DATELINE

(CUVGUVVKOGVQLWORCETQUU
5YKUUDCNNU

DONT TRY
THIS AT HOME

KNOW?
DID YOeU
of
three layers

DATELINE

Josef wor
r his fullclothing fo
protective
liberally
as
l
el
, as w
body burn
h heatit
w
s skin
covering hi
Assistants
l.
ge
t
un
st
,
resistant
the ames
re-fuelled
ensure
constantly
to
e
iv
al
pt
t be ke
rn,
which mus
t possible bu
the longes
oring
it
on
m
le
whi
ty.
Josefssafe

1783

First manned ight


On 15Oct in France, Jean-Franois Piltre de Rozier rises 26m (84ft) in a hot-air balloon built by inventors Joseph and
Jacques Montgoler (all FRA). On 21Nov, he and the Marquis dArlandes also make the rst free manned balloon ight.

128 Dont Try This At Home...

CONTENTS
VEHICLES

130

FIRE

132

WATER

134

PERFORMERS

136

Longest duration full-body burn


(without oxygen)

First modern vaccination


To demonstrate the power of inoculation, Dr Edward Jenner (UK) deliberately infects a child with cowpox; a few
weeks later, he injects him with smallpox, but the child proves immune to this otherwise deadly disease.

1796

guinnessworldrecords.com 129

DATELINE

The activities on the following pages are strictly for experts only,
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And who better to introduce a chapter about risky records than
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a cool head to concentrate on controlling his movements: one
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Josef put himself in the hot spot again for this Guinness World
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DONT TRY THIS AT HOME...

VEHICLES
Fastest speed in
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Driving the Ram Trucksponsored 4COKPCVQTMark
Hall (USA) achieved a speed
of 159.49 km/h (99.1 mph)
at the Circuit of the
Americas in Austin, Texas,
USA, on 15 Dec 2014.

Longest time
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On 26 Jul 2015, Gerald
Gschiel (AUT) held back a
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 for
a duration of 22.33 sec on
the set of <&((GTPUGJICTVGP
in Mainz, Germany.

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Longest ramp jump


in a monster truck

DATELINE

On 1 Sep 2013, Joe Sylvester (USA) propelled his 10,000-lb


(4,536-kg) truck Bad HabitCETQUUHVKP
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1800

Heaviest road vehicle


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Igor Zaripov (RUS) pulled
a 13,713.6-kg (30,233-lb)
bus with his teeth for 5 m
(16 ft 5 in) on the set of
CCTVs Guinness World
Records Special
in Jiangyin,
Jiangsu
Province,
China, on
7 Jan 2015.

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Jean Caron (CAN) rolled a
car 13 times in 5 min on
the set of CCTVs Guinness
World Records Special in
Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province,
China, on 11 Jan 2015.
Fastest time to drive a car
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Terry Grant (UK) drove 1 mi
(1.6 km) in 2 min 55 sec
on side wheels at the
Goodwood Festival of
Speed in West Sussex,
UK, on 3 Jul 2011.

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On 18 Apr 1999, Swedens
Patrik Frstenhoff reached
191.30 mph (307.86 km/h)
on the back wheel of a
Honda Super Blackbird
1100 cc Turbo. The
record run took place at
Bruntingthorpe Proving
Ground in Leicestershire, UK.
*KIJGUVCKTQPCOQVQTE[ENG
(quarterpipe)
Ronnie Renner (USA) pulled
off a 35-ft 4-in (10.77-m)
air on a motorcycle from
a quarterpipe ramp during
the Red Bull High Rise in
Grant Park at Butler Field
in Chicago, Illinois, USA,
on 25 Jul 2009.

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U KNOW
DID YOBa
n to
d Habit bega

On landing,
pping
d, nearly ti
nose forwar
ought
br
ve
ha
ould
over. Thatw
ies.
or
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come m
back unwel
ester was
lv
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le
hi
p
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ramp-jum
for his rst
t end
practising
on
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s
it
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d Hab
e
record in Ba
landing. Th
caught on
ed
el
he
w
rt
ca
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d.
andcrashe

Longest human horn


An 82-year-old French woman known as Madame Dimanche has an operation to remove a horn (technically
akeratinous skin tumour) that has been growing out of her forehead for six years. It is 24.9cm (9.8in) long.

130 Dont Try This At Home

FAST FACTS
Monster truck tyres are some 5ft 3in5ft 6in (1.61.67m) tall about the
height of the average woman Evel Knievel (USA) pioneered motorcycle
distance jumping and suffered the most bones broken in a lifetime: 433

LONGEST
Reverse ramp jump in a car
On 13 Feb 2014, Rob Dyrdek
(USA) performed an 89-ft
3.25-in (27.2-m) reverse
ramp jump for Rob Dyrdeks
(CPVCU[(CEVQT[ (MTV) at
Six Flags Magic Mountain
in Valencia, California, USA.
Wheelie in a car
On 12 Aug 2012,
Nitro Mike Kunz
(CAN) maintained a wheelie
in a car for 763.4 m (2,504 ft
7 in) at the Temiskaming
DragNFly Summer Classic
in Earlton, Ontario, Canada.

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Indias Dipayan Choudhury
rode a motorcycle in reverse
for 202 km (125.52 mi)
in Jabalpur, India, on
7 Oct 2014.

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DID YO

Stunt driver Terry Grant and Jaguar


(both UK) achieved a loop-the-loop
measuring 19.08m (62 ft 7.1 in) in
diameter at the Niederrad Racecourse
in Frankfurt, Germany, on 14Sep 2015.
The measurement was calculated from
the at of the track to the apex of the
loop. Grant was driving a Jaguar
F-PACE, and the record was achieved
aspart of the cars debut appearance
infront of the worlds motoring press.

U KNOW
This stu
?
nt was m
onths in
plannin
the
g. At the
apex of
loop-the
the
-loop, th
e cars v
fell to ju
elocity
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nizers u
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rmula to
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ensure
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ff at this
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point.
ulated th
at Grant
approach
must
the loop
at 53 m
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ph
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aintain
the cars
grip.

First passenger car


On 24 Dec, inventor and mining engineer Richard Trevithick (UK) takes passengers for a
ride through Camborne in Cornwall, UK, in the Pufng Devil, a steam-powered automobile.

1801

guinnessworldrecords.com 131

DATELINE

LARGEST LOOPTHE-LOOP IN A CAR

DONT TRY THIS AT HOME...

FIRE
Longest quad bike ride
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Record in Rome, Italy, Dan
Serblin (ITA) rode through
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Farthest distance
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Brian Miser (USA) made
a dazzling trajectory of
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dei Record in Peru, Indiana,
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full-body burns
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LONGEST DISTANCE PULLED BY A HORSE


(FULL-BODY BURN)

DATELINE

On 27Jun 2015, while performing a full-body burn, professional stuntman Josef Tdtling
(AUT) was pulled 500m (1,640ft) by a horse. Josef protected himself with several layers
ofclothing and cooling gel, as well as metal shin and elbow pads. The latter were a vital
piece of equipment, as the specially trained stunt horse kept up a brisk canter for the
whole attempt, dragging Josef along on his front at about 35km/h (21 mph). The fearless
daredevil was accompanied on his bumpy journey in Teichalm-Fladnitz, Styria, Austria
by a quad-bike rider, who replenished the ames with lamp oil as needed.
Having made the full 500-m, pre-measured distance, Josef promptly outstripped it
with another record: a 582-m (1,909-ft) haul, tied this time to the back of the quad bike
the longest distance pulled by a vehicle (full-body burn)!

1814

Youngest doctorate
On 10 Apr, child prodigy Karl Witte of Lochau, Germany, becomes a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
atthe University of Giessen, Germany, at the age of just 13 years 283 days.

132 Dont Try This At Home

FAST FACTS
Fire-eating was rst recorded in Sicily in 133 BCE Historic English performer
Robert Powell ate burning coals and melted sealing wax The Fireproof
Female, Italian Josephine Giardelli, placed molten lead in her mouth

DID YO

U KNOW
Jamie gre
?
w up in
Hawaii,
and beg
an sur
USA,
n
g
a
t a youn
The idea
g age.
of riding
a wave w
on re ca
hile
me from
an Insta
message
gram
he receiv
off such
ed. Pullin
a challe
g
nge was
feat, eve
a major
n thoug
h
he spen
preparin
t a year
g with a
team led
Los Ang
by
eles stun
tman
Riley Ha
rper.

First person to surf


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Deadliest volcanic eruption


On 5 Apr, the Tambora volcano on Sumbawa island in the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia) begins to erupt for several
days. An estimated 71,000 people will die some from the after-effects, which include severe climatic changes.

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record, extinguishing
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1815

guinnessworldrecords.com 133

DATELINE

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Wonderground in London,
UK, The Great Gordo Gamsby
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DONT TRY THIS AT HOME...

WATER

Largest human waterskiing pyramid formation


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HTQO9KUEQPUKPCPF+NNKPQKUOCFGWRVJGOWNVKR[TCOKFHQTOCVKQP

Most waterskiers towed


behind a single boat
A total of 145 waterskiers
from the Horsehead Water
Ski Club (AUS) rode behind
one boat for more than
1 nautical mi (1.1 mi; 1.8 km)
in Strahan, Tasmania,
Australia, on 27 Jan 2012.

Highest bungee jump


dive into water
On 8 Jun 2015, Raymond
Woodcock (UK) performed
a bungee jump of 141.7 m
(464 ft 11 in) taller than
the Great Pyramid of Giza
fully submerging himself
into water, in Chepstow, UK.

Highest waterfall diving


Di Huanran (CHN) dived
12.1 m (39 ft 11 in) off the
Diaoshuilou Waterfall at
Jingpo Lake in Mudanjiang
City, China, for Zheng
Da Zong Yi Guinness
World Records Special
on 5 Oct 2008.

Largest vessel to tow a waterskier


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FASTEST SPEED

DEEPEST UNDERWATER CYCLING


When it comes to submarine cycling, no one is as deeply
committed as Vittorio Innocente (ITA, pictured). On 21 Jul
2008, he rode his bicycle at adepth of 66.5 m (218ft 2in)
in SantaMargherita Ligure in Liguria, Italy.
The farthest distance cycled underwater is 6.7km
(4.1mi), by Jens Sttzner (DEU) at Bibert Bad Zirndorf
inZirndorf, Germany, on 8 Sep 2013.

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Alexandre Caizergues
(FRA) reached a speed of
56.6 knots (104.8 km/h;
PSK NLWHVXUQJLQ
Port St Louis, France, on
11 Nov 2013.
The fastest speed kite
VXUQJE\DZRPDQ is
50.4 knots (93.3 km/h;
58 mph). The feat was
achieved by Frances
Charlotte Consorti at the
Lderitz Speed Challenge
held in Lderitz, Namibia,
on 28 Oct 2010.

DID YO

DATELINE

U KNOW
At the st
?
art of his
submari
record, V
ne
ittorio In
nocente
lowered
was
into the
water by
divers. H
scuba
e got on
to his bik
depth of
ea
28m (92
ft) and se t a
down an
underw
t off
ater slop
reached
e until h
his reco
e
rd
-breakin
depth. T
g
he ride to
o
k
h
im
about 9
min.

1826

Oldest zoo
Founded by British statesman Stamford Rafes, the Zoological Society of London is the earliest scientic zoo.
Two years later, its rst animal houses are erected at Regents Park, marking the birth of London Zoo.

134 Dont Try This At Home

FAST FACTS
Scuba is an acronym, standing for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing
Apparatus American Ralph Samuelson invented waterskiing in 1922; his
initial efforts at fashioning skis included using wooden staves from barrels

5CKNKPI
OCNG
On 24 Nov 2012, Paul Larsen
(AUS) attained a speed of
65.4 knots (121.2 km/h;
75.3 mph) by sail over a
timed 500-m (1,640-ft) run
in Walvis Bay, Namibia. He
rode a Vestas Sailrocket 2.
The IDVWHVWVSHHGXQGHU
VDLORQZDWHUE\DQ\FUDIW
IHPDOH over a 500-m timed
run was set by windsurfer
Karin Jaggi (CHE). She sped
to 46.3 knots (85.7 km/h;
53.2 mph) on board her
customized Patrik speed
board in Lderitz, Namibia,
on 2 Nov 2015.

LONGEST
Open saltwater scuba dive

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Daniel Sammut (MLT)
remained submerged for
13 hr 42 min in St Pauls
Bay, Malta, on 19 Mar 2015.
Swim under ice with breath
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Stig vall Severinsen (DNK)
swam 250 ft (76 m) beneath
the ice at Qordlortoq Lake
(Lake 40) on Ammassalik
Island, East Greenland,
on 17 Apr 2013.
Underwater walk by an
individual in 24 hours
On 1718 Nov 2011, Joey
Kelly (DEU) walked
16.3 km (10.1 mi)

Deepest dive under ice


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underwater on the set of
RTL-Spendenmarathon at
MMC studios in Hrth,
Germany. His walk raised
115,000 (99,498;
$155,716) for a charity to
support children in need.

Underwater walk
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On 19 Apr 2015, Turkeys
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(262-ft 3-in) submarine stroll
at Anafartalar Olympic Pool
in anakkale, Turkey.

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Steve King (UK) surfed
the Severn bore on the River
Severn in Gloucestershire,
UK, for 12.2 km (7.6 mi)
on 30 Mar 2006.

Deepest scuba dive

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Guinness World Records
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First comic
Swiss cartoonist Rodolphe Tpffer creates the 30-page Histoire de M. Vieux Bois (TheAdventures
of Mister Wooden Head), although it is not published for another decade.

1827

guinnessworldrecords.com 135

DATELINE

Highest
shallow dive

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DONT TRY THIS AT HOME...

PERFORMERS
Farthest distance
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The Space Cowboy, aka
Chayne Hultgren, hurled
a running chainsaw 4 m
(13 ft 1 in) to catcher
The Great Gordo Gamsby
(both AUS) at London
Wonderground, UK,
on 14 Sep 2012.
Fastest
WPFGTYCVGT
escape from
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Lucas Wilson
(CAN) freed
himself from a
straitjacket underwater
in 22.86 sec on the set
of.Q5JQYFGK4GEQTF in
Milan, Italy, on 7 Jul 2014.

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Johnny set a new record (since broken) for the most apples held
in ones own mouth and cut by chainsaw in one minuteGKIJV

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Contortionist Zlata, aka Julia
Gnthel (DEU), removed the caps
from eight beer bottles with
her feet in 1 min on the set of
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beat her own record of seven,
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performed the feat in the
contortionist elbow-stand
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Manjit Singh (UK) raised
a weight of 24 kg (52 lb
14.5 oz) using his eye
sockets at Cossington
Sports Hall in Leicester, UK,
on 15 Nov 2012.
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Nik Wallenda (USA) crossed
a tightrope while blindfolded
170.04 m (557 ft 10 in)
above the ground in Chicago,
Illinois, USA, on 2 Nov 2014.

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took place at a height of
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achieved by Mustafa Danger
(MAR) in Benidorm, Spain,
on 16 Oct 2010.

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Serial GWR record-breaker
Ashrita Furman (USA) kept a
chainsaw balanced on his chin
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chainsaw he used
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NDQ\ 

DID YO

DATELINE

U KNOW
After Zla
?
ta was p
roled o
Discove
ry Chan
na
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l show in
a doctor
2010,
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ed an M
to invest
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of most
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, but the
revealed
scan
that Zla
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have rem
ments
ained as
soft
and sup
ple as th
ose
ofabab
y.

1838

First photograph of a human


Louis Daguerre (FRA) takes a test photo of a street scene showing a man having his shoes
shined. The subject sits still for long enough to be visible in the long-exposure shot.

136 Dont Try This At Home

FAST FACTS
The chainsaw originated as a surgical tool called an osteotome, still
used in dentistry and orthopaedics The straitjacket was invented in
1790 by a French upholsterer called Guilleret for an asylum near Paris

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WPFGTYCVGTKPQPGOKPWVG
On 13 Nov 2014, in a
swimming pool in Armidale,
Australia, Anthony Kelly
$86 FDXJKWEROWVUHG
IURPDVKHUPDQV
spear gun at a range
of just 2 m (6 ft
6 in). The event
took place in
celebration
of Guinness
World Records
Day 2014.

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The Space Cowboy
(see opposite page)
swallowed three swords
while atop a unicycle
at Wonderground in
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OGCUWTGFEO

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tall unicycle he used was
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MOST BACKFLIPS PERFORMED


WHILE SWALLOWING A SWORD
INONEMINUTE
On 2Jul 2014, in Milan, Italy, Aerial Manx, aka
James Loughron (AUS), swallowed a 41-cm-long
(1-ft4-in) sword before carrying out an eye-watering
20backips against the clock. The sword prevented
Aerial from breathing, so he had to hold his breath
during the feat. He took two breaks during the
one-minute attempt, removing the sword and then
swallowing it again each time before continuing.

/QUVDQYNKPIDCNNU
ECWIJVQPVJGHQTGJGCF

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by pierced ears

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First sele
Robert Cornelius (USA) becomes the rst person to take a self-portrait. He uses the daguerreotype process
an early photographic technique employing mercury vapour and an iodine-sensitized silvered plate.

1839

guinnessworldrecords.com 137

DATELINE

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TOYS & GAMES

KNOW?the
DID YOU
t on
raft was pu

DATELINE

inec
In 2013, M
r Rydberg
of the Vikto
um
ul
ic
rr
cu
eden,
Sw
,
m
ol
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school in St
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yo
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ty
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r
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ac
te
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.
an
m
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a
Monic

1844
138 Toys & Games

Oldest subway tunnel


The 767-m (2,517-ft) Atlantic Avenue Tunnel is completed. The tunnel runs beneath Brooklyn, New York, USA, and carries
the trains of the Long Island Rail Road until its closure in 1861. It will lie undisturbed and forgotten until 1981.

CONTENTS
TOYS & GAMES
FACTOGRAPHIC

140

TOYS & BOARD GAMES

142

CHESS

144

CHAIN REACTIONS

146

ACTION FIGURES & DOLLS

148

PUZZLES

150

CONSTRUCTION TOYS

152

VIDEOGAMES

154

Most views for a


Minecraft video channel

Longest time to crack a code


British mathematician and computing pioneer Charles Babbage cracks the Vigenre cipher, a
polyalphabetic encryption system that had been thought unbreakable since its invention in 1553.

1854

guinnessworldrecords.com 139

DATELINE

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6JG&KCOQPF/KPGECTVJQUVGFD[&CP6&/CMC
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According to LEGO Education, if you divided the total number of LEGO


bricks on Earth among the planets population, each person would have an
average of 86 bricks. Thats quite a claim, but understandable when you
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rate of 5.2 million bricks per hour! And
they sell quickly, too: for most
of the year, around seven
LEGO sets are sold
every second. But at
Christmas time, that
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per second!

PLENTY OF LEGO BRICKS TO GO ROUND

All LEGO bricks start out as granules of plastic (below) acrylonitrile


butadiene styrene (ABS), to be precise. On arrival at a manufacturing
plant, they are dispersed into silos, then transported via tubes to injection
moulding machines. Here, they are subjected to temperatures up to
310C (590F) and pressures of 25150 tonnes (27165 US tons),
which squeeze them into moulds. Seconds later, the bricks
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robots take the bricks to an assembly room,
where machines stamp them and put together
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BUILDING A LEGEND, BRICK BY BRICK

The name LEGO combines the Danish words leg and godt, meaning
play well. The company began producing Automatic Binding Bricks
back in 1949. And the design was built to last: you can open a
brand-new LEGO box today and join any of the standard bricks with
any LEGO brick made since 1958 (the picture to the right shows box
set 700/5 from that year). Today, LEGO is found in almost every
country on Earth and even in outer space

LEGO-OLOGY

FACTOGRAPHIC

6JTGGURGEKCNN[OCFG.')1/KPKIWTGU
have made the arduous trek to the planet
,WRKVGTQPDQCTF0#5#UJuno space probe.
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QHDKNNKQPMO
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,WRKVGTJKUYKHG,WPQCPFVJGVJEGPVWT[
Italian scientist Galileo (pictured right),
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moons. (See also p.148.)

FARTHEST DISTANCE
TRAVELLED BY
ALEGOMINIFIGURE

LARGEST TYRE MANUFACTURER

Think of all the brands of tyre you know. Who would make the most tyres
on an annual basis? Goodyear? Firestone? Pirelli? The answer is the
.')1)TQWR+PCNQPGVJGEQORCP[RTQFWEGFKPGZEGUUQHOKNNKQP
tyres for its construction kits, easily beating all other manufacturers.
Whats more, the rubber compound used for these
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A big part of the attraction of this construction toy is


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imagination will allow. Bearing this in mind, how many
possible combinations do you think you can make
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The answer is below.

THINK OF A NUMBER

1P,CPVJG.')1
Group patented the now-famous
studded bricks with tubes inside.
They have proved enduringly popular.
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on average. Laid end-to-end, they would stretch
around the world an astonishing 18 times.
Stacked on top of each other, the same number
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HTQOVJGUWTHCEGQH'CTVJVQOQTGVJCPOK

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Its estimated that the children of the world spend
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these hours were arranged consecutively across
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A GLOBAL
PHENOMENON

A: There are 915,103,765 possible combinations


with six two-by-four LEGO bricks!

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VJGRNCPGVCPFVJGPWODGTKUITQYKPICNNVJGVKOG

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they were real humans, they would form the largest
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solid-gold collectables to customisable characters such
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would stretch more than 2.5 times around the Equator!

LARGEST POPULATION GROUP


ONEARTH
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monocle and jewel-topped
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worth almost three times their
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TOP 5 LARGEST LEGO SETS

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name, job title and contact
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DIDmong hisoon has proddolls and

Wheelchair user
Although buildable wheelchairs have
previously been released, the LEGO
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disability campaigners, who have
argued that children with disabilities are
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The days of simple LEGO buildings and vehicles are long gone. Today,
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of pieces, the largest LEGO setKUVJG6CL/CJCNYJKEJKPENWFGU
UGRCTCVGRCTVU0GZVWRKUVJGRKGEGMillennium Falcon, followed
by the 2016-released Ghostbusters Firehouse Headquarters, with 4,634
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set is a second Star Wars entry: the Death Star (above) with 3,803 pieces.

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policeman to Santa Claus, Harry Potter
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Initially, all characters had smiling or
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and consisting of two floors with four rooms
altogether, this life-size LEGO brick dwelling was built
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7- HQTJames Mays Toy Stories (BBC, UK).
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an internal wooden support structure. By way of comparison, you would
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LARGEST LIFE-SIZE
HOUSE MADE FROM
LEGO BRICKS

BENEATH THE SURFACE


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own unique twist to conventional toys by
suggesting what their interiors might look
like. It was only a question of time before
he applied his cutaway skills to the LEGO
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anatomical interiors from them
out of sculpted foam, which he
then painted. But these works
are purely for entertainment,
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are hypothetical, he told
streetanatomy.com.
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TOYS & BOARD GAMES

Largest
collection of
model cars
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built museum in Zouk,
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Billy also holds another
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Fastest time to solve


a Rubiks Cube
On 21 Nov 2015, Lucas Etter
(USA), aged 14 years old,
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breach the 5-sec barrier,
solving a 3x3 cube in an
extraordinary 4.9 sec at
the River Hill Fall 2015 at
River Hill High School in
Clarksville, Maryland, USA.
This also beat the record of
5.09 sec set that same day
by Keaton Ellis (USA).
Just over a month earlier,
on 15 Oct 2015, a robot built
by Zackary Gromko (USA)
achieved the fastest time
to solve a Rubiks Cube by a
robot 2.39 sec at Saint
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in Bradenton, Florida, USA.
Meanwhile, Feliks
Zemdegs (AUS) created
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of 6.88 sec for the fastest
time to solve a Rubiks Cube
one-handed, on 10 May
2015 in Canberra, Australia.
And on 4 Oct 2015, at the
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Guangzhou, Kaijun Lin
(CHN) achieved the fastest
time to solve a Rubiks Cube
blindfolded: 21.05 sec.

Fastest batterypowered, remotecontrolled model car


The aptly named Radio Controlled
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Largest loop-the-loop by
a remote-controlled (RC)
model vehicle
A Venom VMX-450 RC Dirt
Bike controlled by Jason
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3.18 m (10 ft 5 in) high. The
record was set on
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Gadget Show in Birmingham,


West Midlands, UK, on
15 Jun 2013.
Fastest RC jet-powered
model aircraft
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Largest Skylander

DATELINE

As of Jul 2013, the largest Skylander is a life-sized Tree


Rex that tours the world and appears at exhibitions and
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is founder Aden Hynes with Tree Rex and
another SkylandersEJCTCEVGT,GV8CE 
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of the Skylanders GiantsIWTGTKIJV
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1859
142 Toys & Games

First tightrope walk over Niagara Falls


Jean-Franois Gravelet (FRA), aka Charles Blondin, crosses the famous waterfalls
between the USA and Canada on a 335-m-long (1,100-ft) rope.

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in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
To ensure accurate results,
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down a 200-m-long (656-ft),
20-m-wide (65-ft 7-in)
measurement corridor via
his remote-control device.

FAST FACTS
The Ancient Egyptian board game Senet was depicted on the tomb of
Hesy in around 2686 BCE Engineer Richard T James invented the Slinky
by accident while testing springs for hanging up instruments at sea

Largest
rocking horse
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horse was built by Gao Ming

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Largest
collection
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owner of 1,054 different
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Largest Monopoly board


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Hasbro created a 405.6-m2
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board almost twice the
size of a tennis court
to celebrate the 650th
anniversary of the founding
of Warsaw, Poland.
Six times larger than
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board was the largest


Twister game, which was
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regular boards by country
star Thomas Rhett and
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(USA) in Arlington, Texas,
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2,521 m2 (27,135 sq ft).

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A volley of suction darts
and foam bullets secured
a world record for 577
Drake University students
wielding Nerf blasters in
Des Moines, Iowa, USA.
The Dogtown After Hours
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and Blue teams shoot it out
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result? It was a draw.

Largest model
vehicle brand
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c 
This helps to make Mattel

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Wheels, the largest model
vehicle company, with a 2014
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c 

LONGEST FOOSBALL TABLE


On 25 Sep 2015, Marco Berry Onlus (ITA) occupied the Via
Roma, the main street in Turin, Italy, with a table football
(or foosball) game played on a 121.4-m-long (398-ft 3.5-in)
table in fact, a series of linked tables. The fast and
furious action saw a total of 2,332 plastic players or foos
men in red and blue jerseys pass, kick and shoot 101 balls
all operated by 424 pairs of hands. The event raised
money for building and maintaining the Mohamed
Aden Sheikh Childrens Teaching Hospital in Hargeisa,
Somaliland. Afterwards, the tables were divided up
andgiven out to the participating teams to keep.

First man-made plastic


Parkesine, a plastic developed by Alexander Parkes (UK) and derived from
plantcellulose, is publicly unveiled at the Great International Exhibition in London.

1862

guinnessworldrecords.com 143

DATELINE

Longest marathon playing


foosball (doubles)
Between 29 Aug and
6HS$OH[DQGHU
Kuen, Manuel Larcher,
Bernd Neururer and
Dietmar Neururer (all AUT)
SOD\HGWDEOHIRRWEDOOIRU
61 hr 17 min in Innsbruck,
Austria. The feat made
them record holders
for the third time.

CHESS
defeated World Chess
Champion Garry Kasparov
in a formal match on
11 May 1997. Deep Blue
was capable of assessing
200 million board positions
per sec. At the time, this
was the fastest evaluation
of board positions by a
chess computer.

Youngest
chess
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On 30 Jan 2004, Danish
grandmaster Peter Heine
Nielsen played ChessBrain:
2,070 computers operating
together across 56 countries.
The game, professionally
refereed in Copenhagen,
Denmark, ended in a draw
after 34 moves.
Youngest World
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Hou Yifan (CHN, above) was
16 years 300 days old when
she beat her compatriot
Ruan Lufei to become world
champion on 24 Dec 2010.
The Russian (formerly
Soviet) grandmaster Garry
Kasparov (b. Garik Kimovich
Weinstein, 13 Apr 1963) is
the youngest World Chess

Champion (male). He was


aged 22 years 210 days
when he gained the title
in a match against his
compatriot Anatoly Karpov
on 9 Nov 1985.
First computer to beat
a World Chess Champion
under regular time controls
IBM chess-playing
computer Deep Blue

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Magne Sagafos and
Joachim Berg-Jensen (both
NOR) played for 40 hr 42 min
in Stavanger, Norway,
on 2224 Jun 2015.
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Dr Reinhart Straszacker
and Dr Hendrik Roelof van
Huyssteen (both ZAF)
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LARGEST CHESS PIECE

DATELINE

On 4Apr 2014, a chess king measuring


5.076m (16ft 7in) tall and 2.04m
(6ft 8in) in diameter at its base was
unveiled by the Gitok technical school
(BEL) in Kalmthout, Belgium. The piece
was made during lessons in which
students learned artisanal skills such
as woodworking. The attempt was also
a team-building exercise, and helped
to raise money and awareness for an
orphanage and cancer charity.

1863
144 Toys & Games

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correspondence chess in
1946. After 112 games,
with both men having won
half the games, their record
marathon of more than
53 years ended with the
death of Straszacker on
13 Oct 1999.
5NQYGUVEJGUUOQXG

RTGENQEM
Until the chess clock was
adopted in the 1860s,
players could take as long
as they wanted to decide
a move. In Nov 1857, in
the First American Chess
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(USA) and Louis Paulsen
(DEU) took more than
15 hr to play 56 moves.
Paulsen, who decisively
lost the match overall,
caused most of the delay,
taking as long as 1 hr
15 min to decide on a
single move.

First detective novel


Opening with a murder, The Notting Hill Mystery by Charles Felix (UK) rst serialized in the magazine Once a Week
between 1862 and 1863 is published in its complete form, and establishes the classic detective genre.

FAST FACTS
Russias Anatoly Karpov won the 1975 World Chess Championship without playing
amatch, after reigning world champion Bobby Fischer (USA) resigned his title
The term checkmate comes from the Persian Shah mat The king is dead

DID YOU
KNOW?
An extra
ordinary
ca

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chess pie
ces, bea
carved fr
utifully
om ivory
,
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A blindfolded player has
to memorize all their
opponents moves during a
game. On 27 Nov 2011, the
German master Marc Lang
won 25 and drew 19 of
46 games in 21 hr.

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On 89 Feb 2011, Ehsan
Ghaem Maghami (IRN), a
grandmaster and nine-time
Iranian national champion,
played 135 chess games
concurrently in Tehran, Iran.
Anna-Maria Botsari
(GRC) played the most
consecutive games of
chess, in Kalavryta, Greece,
on 2728 Feb 2001. Of her
1,102 games, seven were
draws and the rest wins.

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269 moves in a game
lasting 20 hr 15 min.

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First road-trafc death


On 31Aug, Mary Ward, an Irish scientist, becomes the rst person to die in a
road accident, after falling out of her cousins experimental steam car.

1869

guinnessworldrecords.com 145

DATELINE

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WPVKNQXGTVCMGPD[*QW;KHCP
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CEJKGXGFCRGCMTCVKPIQHVJG highest chess rating (female)

CHAIN REACTIONS
The domino effect made
KVUGuinness World Records
debut in 1977 after Bob
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Most dominoes toppled
On 13 Nov 2009, a team
of 89 builders toppled
4,491,863 dominoes in
the WTC Expo center in
Leeuwarden, Netherlands,
for Domino Day 2009.
The most dominoes
toppled by an individual is
321,197, achieved by Liu
Yang (CHN) at Citic Guoan
Grand Epoch City in Beijing,
China, on 31 Dec 2011.

Largest toppling domino stone


Measuring 9.18 m (30 ft 1.5 in) tall, 4.57 m (15 ft) wide and
1.25 m (4 ft 1.5 in) thick, this outsized domino stone was
produced by Prudential Financial Inc. (USA). It was the last
of a series of dominoes to be toppled by members of the
Prudential in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, on 6 Aug 2014.

Longest time for


continuous domino toppling
A team of 60 people kept
a domino circle toppling
continuously for 35 min
22 sec at the Domino Day
2008 event in Leeuwarden,
Netherlands, on 7 Nov 2008.

Largest Great
Ball Contraption
A Great Ball Contraption
(GBC) is a series of modules
designed from LEGO
Technic arranged in a loop
so that a small plastic ball
can pass from module to
module. The largest yet built
comprised 100 modules, and
was erected by Maico Arts
CPF$GP,QPMOCP
DQVJ0.& 
at the BRICK exhibition in
.QPFQP7-QP&GE

Tallest domino structure


Students Michael Hrmann
and Philipp Zimmermann
(both DEU) erected and
toppled a 9.17-m-high (30-ft
1-in) structure composed of
8,044 dominoes in Buchloe,
Germany, on 21 Apr 2014.

Most books toppled in a domino fashion

DATELINE

As part of the launch of the German edition of Guinness World Records 20165KPPGTU&QOKPQ
'PVGTVCKPOGPV
&'7 CUUGODNGFEQRKGUQHVJGYQTNFUbest-selling annual and set
them sprawling sequentially. The event took place during the Frankfurt Book Fair in Germany
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UGGTKIJV EQPUKUVGFQH
RGQRNG+VVQQMVJGOCVNGCUVJTVQUGVWRVJGDQQMUYJKEJHGNNKPLWUVQXGTCOKPWVG

1876
146 Toys & Games

Largest
stickbomb
Weave a number of flat sticks
into a spring-loaded grid and
youve got yourself a stick
bomb. Remove one, and you
kickstart a shockwave that
launches the sticks, one
after the other, into the air.
1P,WPVJG0CVKEM
High School Bomb Squad
comprising 15 students
from Natick High School
in Massachusetts, USA
successfully triggered a stick
bomb made from 31,370
wooden tongue depressors.
Longest human domino line
On 12 Aug 2010, a group
of 10,267 people formed
a record-breaking human
domino line at the Ordos
International Nadam Fair in
Ordos City, Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region, China.
Most dominoes
UVCEMGFKPUGEQPFU
Serial record-breaker Silvio
Sabba (ITA) built a column
of 48 dominoes in 30 sec
in Pioltello, Milan, Italy, on
28 Apr 2013.
The most dominoes
stacked on one domino
piece is 1,055, by Sinners
Domino Entertainment
at the Wilhelm-LckertGymnasium in Bdingen,
Germany, on 12 Aug 2014.
Most bricks toppled
A total of 165,384 house
bricks were toppled in an
unbroken line in and around
the city of Bremerhaven in
Germany on 17 Jan 2004.
The event was arranged
by Rben Tonbaustoffe
(DEU) and involved 1,305
volunteers from the
\RXWKUHGHSDUWPHQWV
of Cuxhaven.

First telephone call


In March, the rst intelligible phone call takes place in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Alexander Graham Bell (UK), who had led his
patent for the telephone on 14 Feb 1876, phones his assistant in a nearby room to say, Mr Watson come here I want to see you.

FAST FACTS
Dominoes represent all of the possible throws of a pair of dice (plus blanks)
Domino spots are known as pips The start of the domino-toppling
craze can be traced back to a segment on The Tonight Show (USA) in 1976

Most mousetraps
VTKIIGTGFKPCNKPG
Synology Inc. (TPE) in
Hualien, Chinese Taipei,
set off a chain reaction
involving 1,508 mousetraps
on 13 Sep 2013. In fact,
1,509 traps were initially
set but one failed to snap.

Most dominoes toppled


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pyramid at a Pizza Express in Waren (Mritz), Germany.

Fastest time to topple


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Philipp Reiche (DEU) sent
10 portable loos toppling
consecutively in 11.30 sec
on the set of 9KT*QNGP&GP
4GMQTF0CEJ&GWVUEJNCPF
at Europa-Park in Rust,
Germany, on 22 Jun 2013.
Largest Rube Goldberg
A 382-step Rube Goldberg
PDFKLQH VHHGHQLWLRQ
below) was demonstrated
in Szkesfehrvr, Hungary,
on 23 Apr 2015 by a team
of 11 from the Budapest
University of Technology
and Economics. Its many
processes included
dissolving salt into water
to change its conductivity
and pushing balls down
slopes by means
of pneumatic
pistons.

Longest domino wall


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Lckert-Gymnasium in Bdingen, Germany.

NOW?
DID YORUubK
e Goldberg

Most dominoes toppled in a spiral


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spiral for the 1HEKCNN[#OC\KPI TV show in Bdingen,
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toppled: 2,000. These diminutive dominoes
OGCUWTGZZEO
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LARGEST RUBE GOLDBERG


IN COMPETITION

First incandescent light bulb


On 18Dec, Joseph Wilson Swan (UK) reveals his incandescent light bulb (also called an electric lamp)
in ademonstration before a gathering at the Newcastle Chemical Society, UK. It burns out quickly.

1878

guinnessworldrecords.com 147

DATELINE

The building of Rube Goldberg machines


hasbecome a competitive pastime, and
themost complex yet seen in competition
is the 300-step device built by the Purdue
Society of Professional Engineers Rube
Goldberg Team (USA). It was activated
at theNational Rube Goldberg Machine
Contestat Purdue University in Lafayette,
Indiana, USA, on 31Mar 2012. Its objective
was to blow up andpop a balloon!

ACTION FIGURES & DOLLS


Most expensive doll
sold at auction
A rare doll by Kmmer &
Reinhardt (DEU), made in
190912, realized 242,500
($395,750) at Bonhams
in London, UK, on 24 Sep
2014. The life-like
doll is a little girl
dressed in white.
She is thought to
have been a design
experiment that
was abandoned.
Most valuable
FQNNUJQWUG
The 29-room
Astolat
Dollhouse Castle
was constructed
over a period
of 13 years

(197487) by US artist
Elaine Diehl and valued at
$8.5 m (6 m). Modelled
after the castle in Alfred
Lord Tennysons poem The
Lady of Shalott, the 9-ft-tall
(2.7-m) dolls house
contains 10,000 miniature
items, including a
grand piano ($7,000;
4,900), an ornate
desk ($5,000;
(3,500) and a tiny
portrait painted
with a single-bristle
brush ($1,840;
1,290). The dolls
house weighs 800 lb
(363 kg) and boasts a
WRWDORRUDUHDRI
almost
30 sq ft
(2.78 m).

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CPFTGCNUK\G(WP2CTMUJCXGETGCVGFCYKFG2NC[OQDKNEQOOWPKV[VJCVKPENWFGUCFWNVEQNNGEVQTU
Most expensive collection
QHIWTKPGU
UKPINGCWEVKQP
A sale of Action Man and
Star WarsJXULQHVDQG
accessories made 180,000
($256,800) at Vectis Toy
Auction House in Thornaby,
North Yorkshire, UK, on
27 May 2015. Until then,
they had languished in the
garage of retired toy-sales
rep Doug Carpenter. He had
been allowed to keep them
after manufacturer Palitoy
ceased trading in the 1980s.
The most expensive
collection of Star Wars
JXULQHV VLQJOHDXFWLRQ
was also sold at Vectis. On
28 Jan 2015, Craig Stevens
(UK) a former chairman
of the UK Star Wars Fan
&OXEVROGJXULQHV
in their original packaging
for 41,796 ($63,209).

KNOW?
DID YOU
th
eated by Ru

DATELINE

cr
Barbie was
nder of
SA), co-fou
Handler (U
r after
he
ed
m
na
Mattel. She
whom
a,
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rb
er Ba
her daught
per
pa
g
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ed us
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lay rather
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t
ul
dolls for ad
so the
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than baby
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en
te
al
aspiration
rn.
doll was bo

1883
148 Toys & Games

MOST EXPENSIVE BARBIE


DOLL SOLD AT AUCTION
On 10Oct 2010, a glamorous, one-off Barbie sold
at Christies in New York City, USA, for $302,500
(189,445). The 11.5-in (29.2-cm) doll wears a
strapless black evening dress and a diamond
choker showcasing a rare pink diamond. The
doll, unveiled on 4 May 2010 during Australian
Fashion Week, was designed by celebrated
jeweller Stefano Canturi (AUS). He was enlisted
by Barbie manufacturer Mattel to help
promote the launch of the Barbie Basics range
in Australia, which features dolls wearing
commonly available clothing. All proceeds
from the sale went to breast cancer research.

Most valuable
.')1/KPKIWTG
Two 14-carat solid gold
reproductions of Star
Wars bounty hunter Boba
Fett were made by the
LEGO Group in 2010 as
competition prizes. They are
YDOXHGE\WKH0LQLJXUH3ULFH
Guide website at $11,495.95
(8,115) apiece. Only the
SULFHOHVV0LQLJXUHV
sent to Jupiter (see p.140)
could be considered more
valuable, on account of
their inaccessibility!
/QUVGZRGPUKXGVQ[UQNFKGT
7KHUVWKDQGFUDIWHG
G.I. Joe prototype was sold
on 7 Aug 2003 by its creator
Don Levine to Baltimore
businessman Stephen
A Geppi (both USA) for

$200,000 (124,309). The


auction was conducted by
Heritage Comics Auctions
of Dallas, Texas, USA.
.CTIGUVEQNNGEVKQP
QHVQ[UQNFKGTU
Jonathan Perry Waters
(USA) owns 1,020 different
toy-soldier models, as
YHULHGLQ0DFRQ*HRUJLD
USA, on 28 Feb 2016. The
JXULQHVDUHDOOVFDOH
and sourced from around
the world.
The worlds ODUJHVWSXEOLF
FROOHFWLRQRIWR\VROGLHUV
can be found at the Museo
de los Soldaditos de Plomo
in Valencia, Spain. There are
in excess of a million pieces
in the collection, 85,000 of
which are on display.

Most expensive
6WDUb:DUVIWTG
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Strikes Back$$QDC(GVV
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c DWVJCFPQV
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Loudest noise
On 27Aug, the island-volcano Krakatoa in Indonesia explodes in an eruption. The sound is heard 5,000km (3,100mi) away.
It is estimated to be audible over 8% of Earths surface and have 26 times the power of the largest ever H-bomb test.

FAST FACTS
The rst LEGO Minigures had no movable arms or legs Barbies full name is
Barbara Millicent Roberts Hans Beck based his Playmobil faces on childrens
drawings, showing a very large head with a smiley mouth and no nose

DID YO

U KNOW
In the U
?
K, the ea
rliest Act
Man gu
ion
res were
A
ction So
Action S
ldier,
ailor an
d Action
kitted ou
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es. These
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g
a
lia, and
line-up
the
extende
d to the
military
non, such as
explorers
and spo
rtsmen.

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and belongs to Nabil Karam
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Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon, on
17 Nov 2011 in celebration
of GWR Day. A diorama is a
model scene, typically of a
famous battle, containing
toy soldiers and vehicles as
well as buildings, trees and
other landscape features.

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First skyscraper
The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, USA, is completed. The so-called Father of the Skyscraper towers
10storeys high, with its peak at 42m (138ft). It will go on to be dwarfed by later builds, but is gargantuan for its day.

1885

guinnessworldrecords.com 149

DATELINE

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landmarks; pictured above is the corner of a jigsaw showing the
ancient Inca citadel of Machu Picchu in the Peruvian Andes.
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A perfect number is a
number that equals the
sum of its factors excluding
itself. The smallest is
6 its factors (the whole
numbers that divide into 6
exactly) are 1, 2 and 3, and
the sum of these factors
also comes to 6. The next
three perfect numbers are
28, 496 and 8,128. All the
perfect numbers discovered
so far are even but could
a perfect number ever be
odd? This puzzle perplexed
the ancient Greeks, back
to Nicomachus of Gerasa
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and, according to some


historians, right back to
Euclid, 500 years earlier.
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mathematicians, including
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a solution, without success.
Highest score in
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On 21 Jan 2012, Toh Weibin
(SGP) scored 850 points
in a tournament match
against Rik Kennedy (UK)
at the Northern Ireland
Scrabble Championship
in Belfast, UK. The game
was conducted under
World English-language

LARGEST WORDSEARCH PUZZLE


Pictured below, and as a background to these pages,
is part of a word search containing 10,500 words
hidden among 129,600 letters. The puzzle was created
by AshishDutt Sharma (IND) in Rajasthan, India, and
veried on 18Oct2015. Prof Sharma, Principal of the
Apex Institute of Engineering & Technology in Jaipur,
worked on the word search for 10 years. He lled it
with technical words and also the names of various
scientists and inventors to teach these terms to his
engineeringstudents.

Scrabble Players
Association (WESPA)
rules and used the Collins
Scrabble Wordlist.
The highest opening
score in a Scrabble
tournament is 126, for
MUZJIKS (with a blank
for the U). It was played
by Jesse Inman (USA) on
26 July 2008 at the National
Scrabble Championship in
Orlando, Florida, USA.
Most wins of the World
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Ulrich Voigt (DEU) has
won the World Puzzle
Championship 10 times.
He took the gold medal in
200001, 2003, 200506,
200809 and 201214.
Voigts last win came in
London, UK, on 17 Aug
2014 at the 23rd annual
championships.
Largest commercially
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Made by Ravensburger
(DEU), the largest puzzle
measures 5.4 x 1.9 m (17 ft
8.6 in x 6 ft 2.8 in). First sold
in Sep 2014, the jigsaw is
called New York Window
and depicts an ultra-detailed
view of the city skyline.
The largest commercially
available jigsaw puzzle
by number of pieces is
Wildlife, an African
panorama made by Educa
(ESP) in 2014, featuring
33,600 pieces.

DID YOU K

DATELINE

NOW?
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ze of The W
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Largest Wor
d Search Pu
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1886
150 Toys & Games

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A mechanical puzzle is an interlocking puzzle created
from separate pieces (typically wooden), one of which
holds the whole structure together. Swiss construction
company Foffa Conrad created the largest such puzzle a
six-piece challenge known as a Devils Knot in Valchava,
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Beijing Sudoku Association
(CHN) created a multi-sudoku
puzzle of 200 standard grids
in Beijing, China, on 25 Jul
2015. The event was part
of the 2015 World Junior
Sudoku Championship.

First newspaper with a print run of 1million


Ushering in a new era for mass media, French daily Le Petit Journal surpasses the 1-million
circulation mark. Its popularity is likely a result of its small format and low price.

FIRST
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On 21 Dec 1913, a
crossword puzzle appeared
in the Sunday Fun section
of the US newspaper
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by Arthur Wynne (UK), it

FAST FACTS
The rst crossword was originally called a word-cross Theconstruction
of crosswords is termed cruciverbalism Modern sudoku was invented
byHoward Garns (USA), although he called it Number Place

CROSSWORD CHAMPIONSHIPS
When it comes to solving cryptic crosswords, these
record-breaking wordsmiths have all the right answers.
THE TIMES NATIONAL CROSSWORD CHAMPIONSHIP
Title

Holder

Record

Date(s) of win

Most wins

John Sykes (UK)





CPF



Most consecutive Mark Goodliffe (UK,


wins
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1995, 1999
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Most consecutive Dan Feyer (USA)


wins



Youngest winner

Tyler Hinman (USA,


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Doug The Iceman [GCTU /CT


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was based on a diamondshaped grid, had simple,


non-cryptic clues and no
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in the same puzzle. The
crossword had no 1-across,
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at 2-across. The clue was
What bargain hunters
enjoy. The answer? Sales.

The UVWFURVVZRUG
made up entirely of cryptic
clues appeared in 1925
in a Saturday edition of
the British newspaper
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Although cryptic elements
had appeared within
crosswords before, Edward
Powys Mathers (UK) who
later set crosswords under
the name Torquemada
used only cryptic clues. He
is often called the inventor
of the cryptic crossword.

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are simple, logic-based puzzles that can be understood irrespective of your language. Pictured
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appeared in the USA in 1924.
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by Dick Simon and Lincoln
Schuster (both USA); a
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instant success and helped


establish Simon & Schuster,
who continue to produce
crossword books.
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Championship was staged
by the World Puzzle
Federation in Lucca, Italy,
on 1011 Mar 2006.
Accountant Jana Tylov
(CZE) beat 85 players from
22 countries, and was the
only woman in the top 18.

Videogame to
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In 1991, Richard Haier of
the University of California
at Irvine (USA) scanned
the brains of 6GVTKU players.
Haier discovered that,
in new players, cerebral
glucose metabolic rates
soared; after playing daily
for up to eight weeks, brain
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success rates at the game
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teachers and alumni from Yan Chai Hospital Lim Por
Yen Secondary School in Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong,
China, took part in a mass session of sudoku at
the nearby Shing Mun Valley Sports Ground.

Oldest surviving lm
Using a single-lens camera and paper lm, French inventor Louis Le Prince records a
two-second, silent home movie of his family and friends in Roundhay Garden, Leeds, UK.

1888

guinnessworldrecords.com 151

DATELINE

Most wins

CONSTRUCTION TOYS
Most LEGO brick castles
built in one minute
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1889
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LARGEST KNEX SCULPTURE


This full-sized replica of the Bloodhound SSC (supersonic
car) 3.87m (12ft 8.3in) high, 2.44m (8ft) wide and
13.38m (43ft 10.7in) long comprises more than
350,000KNex pieces. It took 1,280 hr of assembly
time by the BLOODHOUND SSC RBLI KNEX Build Team
(UK) and was measured at the Royal British Legion
Industry HQ in Aylesford, Kent, UK, on 26Aug 2014. The
supersonic car itself which is jet-powered and designed
to reach more than 1,600 km/h (1,000mph) is
aiming to beat the land-speed record in 2016.

First production car factory


Ren Panhard and mile Levassor (both FRA) build the Panhard-Levassor
factory in France. Their rst production car is ready by the following year.

FAST FACTS
Meccano was patented in 1901 by Frank Hornby (UK) as Mechanics Made
Easy As of 2015, there were 3,600 different types of LEGO element
Jengas inventor, Leslie Scott, took the name from the Swahili for build

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First radio patent


On 2 Jun, a patent for a system of communication by means of electromagnetic
waves is granted to the Italian-Irish inventor Guglielmo Marconi.

1896

guinnessworldrecords.com 153

DATELINE

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154 Toys & Games

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On 10Dec, the rst of the world-famous awards are given for
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GAMERS
EDITION
These record
holders were all
photographed for
our dedicated Gamers Edition.
Fully updated and illustrated, it
is packed with speed-runs, high
scores and other amazing
achievements.

First land-speed record set with an internal combustion engine


On 5Aug, millionaire playboy William K Vanderbilt, driving a Mors
racing car, achieves a speed of 76.08mph (122.43km/h) in Ablis, France.

1902

guinnessworldrecords.com 155

DATELINE

DATELINE

ENGINEERING
& ARCHITECTURE

1903

First power-driven ight


At 10:35 a.m. on 17 Dec, Orville Wright (USA) ies the 9-kW (12-hp) chain-driven Flyer I, built with his brother Wilbur, for
120ft(36.5m) near Kitty Hawk in North Carolina, USA. The ight lasts for about 12sec, at an altitude of 812 ft (2.43.6 m).

156 Engineering & Architecture

CONTENTS
ENGINEERING
& ARCHITECTURE
FACTOGRAPHIC

158

DOMES

160

WALLS

162

MAZES

164

WATER PARKS

166

EPIC ENGINEERING

168

Fastest monowheel

Largest diamond
On 26 Jan, a 3,106-carat diamond is found at the Premier Diamond Mine, near Pretoria in South
Africa. It is later named The Cullinan and presented to the reigning British monarch, EdwardVII.

1905

guinnessworldrecords.com 157

DATELINE

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10

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Location: Nanjing, China


Completed: 2010
Height: 450 m (1,476 ft)
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EHORZJURXQG
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VHF IWSHUVHF
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LQFRUSRUDWHVVN\JDUGHQV
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ZIFENG TOWER

Location: +RQJ.RQJ&KLQD
Completed: 2010
Height: 484 m (1,588 ft)
Floors: SOXVIRXU
EHORZJURXQG
Number of steps: 2,120
Elevator top speed:PSHU
VHF IWLQSHUVHF
Additional information:
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INTERNATIONAL
COMMERCE
CENTRE

6
5

Location: 7DLSHL&KLQHVH
7DLSHL
Completed: 2004
Height: 508 m (1,667 ft)
Floors:  SOXVYH
EHORZJURXQG
Number of steps: 2,046
Elevator top speed:P
SHUVHF IWLQSHUVHF
Additional information:
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on a bicycleLVE\
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ENGINEERING

FACTOGRAPHIC

Location: 0HFFD
6DXGL$UDELD
Completed: 2012
Height: 601 m (1,972 ft)
Floors:  SOXVWKUHH
EHORZJURXQG
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ABRAJ AL-BAIT
TOWERS (AKA
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CLOCK TOWER)

BURJ KHALIFA

Location: Dubai, UAE


Completed: 2010
Height: 828 m (2,717 ft)
Floors: SOXVRQH
EHORZJURXQG
Number of steps: 2,909
Elevator top speed:PSHU
VHF IWLQSHUVHF
Additional information:
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the Burj KhalifaLVKU
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1
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Location: Shanghai, China


Completed: 2008
Height: 492 m (1,614 ft)
Floors:  SOXVWKUHH
EHORZJURXQG
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VHF IWLQSHUVHF
Additional information:
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SHANGHAI
WORLD
FINANCIAL
CENTER

PETRONAS
TWINTOWERS

Location: .XDOD/XPSXU
0DOD\VLD
Completed: 1998
Height:P IW
Floors: SOXVYH
EHORZJURXQG
Elevator top speed: PSHU
VHF IWSHUVHF
Additional information:
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Height: P IW


Completed: 1889

Eiffel Tower

Height:P IWLQ
Completed: 1886

Statue of Liberty

All measurements and unit conversions are sourced from the CTBUH.

Location: &KLFDJR86$
Completed: 1974
Height: P IW
Floors:  SOXVWKUHH
EHORZJURXQG
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WILLIS TOWER

10

Height:P IWLQ KLJKVLGH


Completed:

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Location: 1HZ<RUN&LW\86$
Completed: 2014
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Number of steps: 1,970
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ONE WORLD
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Height:P IW
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Location: Shanghai, China


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EHORZJURXQG
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VHF IWSHUVHF
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SHANGHAI
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Empire State Building

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DOMES

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The noble hemispheres gracing cathedrals, temples, mosques


and mausoleums worldwide had humble beginnings as a simple
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DATELINE

FIRST GEODESIC DOME


A geodesic dome is a shell structure
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Zeiss-Planetarium built by Walther Bauersfeld
(DEU) on top of the Carl Zeiss optics factory
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1906

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MOST NORTHERLY
GLASS DOME ROOMS
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First full-length feature lm


The Story of the Kelly Gang, made in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, opens at the citys town hall on 26 Dec.
A biopic of the notorious armoured bushranger Ned Kelly, it proves to be a big hit with audiences.

160 Engineering & Architecture

LARGEST WOODEN
DOME HOUSE
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timber-framed, eco-friendly geodesic house
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and wind power, while a green roof captures
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Greatest recorded impact on Earth


Energy released from the disintegration of a meteoroid over the basin of the Podkamennaya TunguskaRiver in
Russia on 30 Jun is equivalent to 1015 megatons of explosive. It devastates an area of 3,900km (1,505sqmi).

1908

guinnessworldrecords.com 161

DATELINE

LARGEST DOME
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WALLS
Thickest wall
The city walls of Ur (now
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were 27 m (88 ft) thick
similar to the length of a
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Memorial in Washington, DC, USA, was designed by Maya Ying Lin

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Longest ancient city wall
The city wall of Nanjing in
Chinas Jiangsu Province
was 35.2 km (21.8 mi) long
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DATELINE

Longest sea wall


South Koreas 33.89-km-long
(21.06-mi) Saemangeum
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on 27 Apr 2010. It is
the countrys
largest-

1909

ever engineering project,


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(414 km2 RIVHDZDWHUDQG
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the size of the South Korean
capital city Seoul.

First cavity-wall insulation


Built in 1860, Overstone Hall
in Northampton, UK, was
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Longest fort walls


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the walls at Kumbhalgarh Fort in Rajasthan, India, are
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Street in Liverpool, UK, is


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LONGEST WALL
The Great Wall of China has a main-line length of 3,460km (2,150mi) nearly three
times the length of Great Britain plus 3,530km (2,193mi) of branches and spurs.
Construction of the wall which was erected to help keep out marauding nomadic
tribes from the north, such as the Mongols began during the reign of Qin Shi Huang
(221210BCE). Its height varies from 4.5 to 12m (1539ft) and it is up to 9.8m (32ft) thick.
The wall runs from Shanhaiguan, on the Gulf of Bohai, to Yumenguan and Yangguan.
Although it was extended and rebuilt over the course of two millennia, most
of the wall was constructed during the Ming Dynasty (13681644). Some
51.5km (32mi) of the structure has been destroyed since 1966, and in
Jul1979, part of it was blown up in order to make way for a dam.

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First people to reach the North Pole


On 6Apr, Robert Peary and Matt Henson (both USA) reach the North Pole, having trekked from Ellesmere Island in
Canada. Historians are unsure if they reached the exact pole, but they certainly came much closer than their rivals.

162 Engineering & Architecture

FAST FACTS
In 1979, Germanys Eija-Riitta Eklf-Berliner-Mauer married the Berlin Wall
(hersurname means Berlin Wall!) In 2011, competitive wallpapering
wascontested at the UKs National Painting and Decorating Show

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Most valuable object stolen


On 21Aug, Leonardo da Vincis priceless painting Mona Lisa disappears from the Louvre in
Paris, France. It is returned in 1913, and Vincenzo Peruggia (ITA) is charged with its theft.

1911

guinnessworldrecords.com 163

DATELINE

U KNOW
The myth
?
that the
Great W
China is
all of
the only
man-ma
structure
de
visible fr
om space
from th
e Moon)
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hinese a
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space in
ent into
2003, he
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Most identical doorways
KPCOC\G
The Bhul Bhulaiya maze
at the Bara Imambara in
Lucknow, India, contains
489 identical doorways. It
includes several staircases
and around 1,000 narrow
passages, some with
dead ends and others with
precipitous drops. This
bewildering three-storey
construction was intended
to keep intruders away from
a large central chamber
containing the tomb of
Asaf-ud-Daula, Nawab of
Awadh. It dates from 1791.

TRIVIA
Strictly dened, a maze
(below left) has multiple
routes, while a labyrinth
(right) has just one path
(with no dead ends or
branches) from entrance
to exit. In practice, many
variants exist and the
terms are frequently
interchanged.

Most books in a labyrinth


Created in Aug 2012
by Marcos Saboya and
Gualter Pupo (both
BRA) with production
company HungryMan, the
aMAZEme labyrinth at the
Royal Festival Hall in the
Southbank Centre, London,
UK, had walls built from
250,000 books. The 500-m
(5,382-sq-ft) installation
was inspired by writer
Jorge Luis Borges love
of labyrinths and took the
shape of the Argentinian
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VL]HRID86IRRWEDOOHOG
and has 1.86 mi (2.9 km)
of pathways. Fast-growing
bamboo from more than
30 subspecies forms tall
hedges reaching 5 m (16 ft
4 in) high. The maze has a
Roman-style pattern, with
right-angled paths in four
interconnected quadrants.
Created by former art
publisher Franco Maria
Ricci with architects Pier
Carlo Bontempi and Davide
Dutto (all ITA), the maze
cost $11 m (7.2 m) and
opened on 1 Jun 2015.

LARGEST...

Ancient Egyptian labyrinth


The temple precinct built by
Amenemhet III at Hawara
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a complex architectural
puzzle. Ancient Greek
historian Herodotus, who

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The Labirinto Della Masone
in Fontanellato, near Parma,
Italy, covers 17 acres (6.8 ha)
more than 10 times the

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Cool Patch Pumpkins (USA) crafted this amazing maize maze at their premises in Dixon, California,
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equivalent to the base of the Great Pyramid at Giza four times over!

visited the site, described


it as a labyrinth of identical
courtyards connected by
twisting corridors lined with
false doors. The labyrinth
probably acted as a cult
centre and meeting place
for Egyptian rulers as well
as Amenemhets tomb.
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The square prayer maze at
the 15th-century Buddhist
temple of Haeinsa in
Gyeongsangnam-do, South
Korea, measures some
18 x 18 m (59 x 59 ft). With
four quadrants decorated
by coloured markers, the
right-angled path maze
promotes meditation and
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and takes about 30 min to
walk around. It is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

DID YO

DATELINE

U KNOW
If you are
?
looking
for a fail
method
-safe
of reach
ing the
maze, k
end of a
eep you
r right h
the wall
and on
as you m
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ove arou
take you
nd.
a while,
may n
and you
d that y
ou are g
oing back
on yours
elf, but
you will
eventua
lly nd
your wa
y out.

1912

First parachute jump from a moving aircraft


On 1 Mar, Captain Albert Berry (USA) leaps from a biplane ying some 15,000ft (460m) above
St Louis in Missouri, USA, and makes a safe landing on the grounds of Jefferson Barracks.

164 Engineering & Architecture

FAST FACTS
The word maze derives from an old English word meaning delusion
or bewilderment The largest temporary corn maze (below left) was
so big that some visitors got lost in it and had to call 911 for assistance

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PAC-ManOC\G
A real-life PAC-Man maze
covering 580.86 m
(6,252 sq ft) about the
size of a basketball court
was built in Los Angeles,
California, USA, for a Bud
Light Super Bowl advertising
spot on 7 Jan 2015. Created
by Anheuser-Busch, Energy
BBDO, Bandai Namco
Games America and Mosaic
(all USA), the maze included
four Power Pellets and
242 Pac-dots, all individually
programmed to turn off
when a player ran over
them, as per the famous
videogame.

LARGEST
VERTICAL MAZE
The front faade of the
AlRostamani Maze
Tower, completed in
Jan 2012 in Dubai, UAE,
has an area of 3,947m
(42,485sqft) the size
of 15tennis courts. The
lines of the balconies on
the front and rear faades
form real mazes by
acclaimed puzzle designer
Adrian Fisher (UK).
Pictured right is Hassan
Abdulla Al Rostamani,
Vice Chairman of the
AlRostamani Group.

First industrial moving assembly line


On 7 Oct, the Ford Motor Company (USA) opens its factory in Highland Park, Michigan. Here, the car moves
on a conveyor through the factory, passing workstations where specic parts are tted until it is complete.

1913

guinnessworldrecords.com 165

DATELINE

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Glass-block labyrinth
Made in 2007 by British
labyrinth historian Jeff
Saward, Glass Labyrinth
is found in the Chianti
Sculpture Park in Siena,
Italy. At 9 m (29 ft 6 in)
across and comprising
3,600 blocks, this
octagonal labyrinth is
a reconstruction of a
stone design found
in the Val Camonica valley in
eastern Lombardy, Italy, from
800700 . At the centre,
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stool and a mirror with the
word self set above their
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WATER PARKS
Longest water coaster
Opened on 11 May 2012, MammothCV*QNKFC[9QTNF
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ride includes seven drops and passes through enclosed
tunnels, plunging riders into total darkness.

Longest body slide


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Tallest body slide
The drop on the Kilimanjaro
water slide at guas
Quentes Country Club in
Barra do Pira in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, measures
49.9 m (163 ft 9 in).

KNOW?il
DID YOU
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DATELINE

A specially
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ical Island
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1916

Constructed in 2002, the


slide cleverly makes use
of the local topography to
achieve its record-breaking
height. It was built on top
of a hill that was adapted
to accommodate it.
Largest wave pool
According to the World
Waterpark Association,
the largest wave pool
often referred to

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covers 13,600 m2, or
1.36 ha (146,389 sq ft,
or 3.36 acres), and is
located in Siam Park,
Bangkok, Thailand.

LONGEST

water slide at Action Park


in Vernon, New Jersey, USA,
DVYHULHGRQ-XO

Inflatable water slide


Live More Awesome (NZ)
created a 1,975-ft-long
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Slip and slide


At 611.7 m (2,006 ft 10 in),
the longest slip and slide
was constructed by

Orange Jordan, Ziyad


Mazzawi Corporation
and Monaco Business
Development (all JOR) in
Amman, Jordan, on 16 Oct
2015. Water was sprayed
along the length of the run
to ensure slipperiness.

Largest indoor water park


Originally an airship hangar, Tropical Islands in Krausnick,
Germany, has a 66,000-m (710,400-sq-ft) main hall
VGEJPKECNN[CPCTEJUWRRQTVGFOGODTCPGUVTWEVWTG+VKU
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is large enough to contain eight soccer pitches, hold the
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and themed accommodation venues. Its even possible
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Most powerful steam locomotive


Baldwin Locomotive Works (USA) builds No. 700 a triple-articulated six-cylinder 28884 tank engine. It has a tractive force (the
force exerted at the rim of the driving wheel) of 166,300lb (75,432kg) working compound and 199,560lb (90,519kg) working simple.

166 Engineering & Architecture

FAST FACTS
The Mammoth water coaster is more than seven times longer than a747 jumbo jet
The largest wave pool is 2.5 times larger than a US football pitch In 2014, visitors
to the most visited water park outnumbered the population of Houston, Texas

DID YO

U KNOW
Flowrid
?
ing com
bines asp
ofdiffere
ects
nt sport
s,
includin
surng,
g
skatebo
wakebo
arding,
arding a
n
d
snowbo
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arding.
ants em
ploy tech
from all
niques
these act
maintain
ivities to
balance
, and som
perform
etimes
tricks, o
n an
articia
l wave.

Tallest flowriding wave


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Tube/mat water slide
/CIKE'[G at Galaxy Erding,
in Erding, Germany, is
356.32 m (1,169 ft) long,
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2010 on Guinness World
Records Day. The slippery
slide opened in May 2007
and was constructed by
Klarer Freizeitanlagen AG
(CHE). /CIKE'[G stands
22 m (72 ft 2.14 in) tall.

MOST
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There are 59 water slides in
Yinji Kaifeng Waterpark in
Zhengzhou, Henan, China,
which opened on 1 Jul 2015.
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Designed and constructed
by WhiteWater West
Industries Ltd (CAN) in

Most visited water park


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6'# 

1991, the tower located at


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Island in Kobe, Japan, had
50 slides departing from
either the upper (16 m;
52 ft 6 in) or lower (12.4 m;
40 ft 8 in) level. Each slide
swirled visitors down a
different winding route,
ending in one of seven pools.
People to travel down
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Beerze Bulten (NLD)
held an event in which
396 people descended on
a water slide in an hour in
Overijssel, Netherlands,
on 30 Jul 2014.
The most people down
a water slide in four
hours is 620, by Swiss
youth group Jugendwerk
in Mnchenbuchsee,
Switzerland, on 21 Jun 2014.
Water slides ridden
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Between 1 May and 31 Oct
2013, Sebastian Smith (UK)
rode 186 water slides in
Europe and North Africa,
as a tester for the First
Choice holiday company.

TALLEST WATER SLIDE

First non-stop ight across the Atlantic Ocean


On 14Jun, John William Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown (both UK) take off from St Johns in Newfoundland,
Canada, in aVickersVimy biplane. The pair land near Clifden in Ireland some 16hr 12min later.

1919

guinnessworldrecords.com 167

DATELINE

Verrckt at Schlitterbahn Waterpark


in Kansas City, Kansas, USA,
measured 51.38m (168ft 7in) tall as
of 18Apr 2014. That makes it almost
as tall as Niagara Falls. It took more
than two years to create the ride.

EPIC ENGINEERING
Longest
tunnel-to-tunnel bridge
The Aizhai Bridge, near
Jishou in Hunan, China, has
a tower-to-tower main span
of 1,176 m (3,858 ft) and
a total length of 1,534 m
(5,033 ft). The suspension
bridge has a deck height of
336 m (1,102 ft) above the
Dehang Canyon, making it

also the highest tunnel-totunnel bridge. It opened in


2012 as part of the Jishouto-Chadong expressway.
What makes this
structure unusual is that
it is approached by two
tunnels that are carved into
the mountainous terrain, so
the bridge is hidden until
drivers are already on it.

Longest suspension bridge


Opened in 1998, the
$NDVKL.DLN\URDGEULGJH
linking Honshu and
Shikoku in Japan has an
overall suspended length,
with two side spans,
of 3,911.1 m (12,831 ft
8 in). Almost half of this
consists of its main span
of 1,990.8 m (6,531 ft)
the longest bridge span.
Longest rail tunnel
On 15 Oct 2010,
engineers completed
drilling for the 57-km
(35-mi) Gotthard Base

HIGHEST CANTILEVERED
GLASS-BOTTOMED SKYWALK
Opened on 28Mar 2007, the Grand Canyon Skywalk in
Arizona, USA, has a maximum vertical drop of 250m
(820ft). Located at Grand Canyon West on the Hualapai
Indian Reservation, the structure consists of a 20-m-wide
(65-ft) U-shaped and cantilevered glass-bottomed
observation deck jutting out past the rim of the Grand
Canyon. Conceived by Las Vegas businessman David
Jin and realized by Lochsa Engineering, the Skywalk
can resist an 8.0-magnitude earthquake and 160-km/h
(100-mph) winds. It can hold 120people at any one time.

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Tunnel, 2,000 m (6,560 ft)
beneath the Swiss Alps. It
took 14 years to build and
will carry 300 trains a day
when it opens in 2016.

(374.5 sq mi) of what was


once part of a shallow bay
called the Zuiderzee and is
separated from the mainland
by a chain of lakes.

.CTIGUVCTVKEKCNKUNCPF
The Flevopolder is an
island in the Netherlands
that was created by a vast
land-reclamation project
between 1955 and 1968.
It covers some 969.95 km2

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power station
As of 2016, the 582-MW
Kemper Project in eastern
Mississippi, USA, burns
around 4,000,000 tonnes

(4,409,000 US tons) of
local lignite coal annually.
In a major innovation, the
power station strips out
most of the dust, 90% of
the toxic mercury, 99% of
the hydrogen sulphide and
65% of the carbon dioxide
emissions. The diverted CO2
is then used in enhanced
oil recovery. Kemper is
KHUDOGHGDVWKHUVWFOHDQ
coal facility in the USA.

/QUVGZRGPUKXGITQWPFDCUGFVGNGUEQRG

DATELINE

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RGTHGEVUWTHCEGUQHVJGTCFKQFKUJCTTC[UGPCDNGOCZKOWOEQUOKENKIJVVQDGECRVWTGF

1921

Longest home run hit


On 18Jul, baseball legend George Herman Babe Ruth (USA) smashes a 175-m (574-ft) home run
for the New York Yankees against the Detroit Tigers at Navin Field in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

168 Engineering & Architecture

FAST FACTS
The rst pyramid structures are thought to date from 5,000 years ago in
Mesopotamia The Proserpina gravity dam in Spain, built by the Romans
around the 2nd century CE, is thought to be the oldest operational dam

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Largest
Ancient stadium: Until
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255,000 watched chariot
races, athletics and
other spectacles at the
2,000-ft-long (610-m)
Circus Maximus in
Rome, Italy.

Amphitheatre: Completed
LQ, the Flavian
amphitheatre or Colosseum
in Rome, Italy, covers 2 ha
(5 acres) equivalent to
three international soccer
pitches. Up to 87,000
SHRSOHZRXOGRFNKHUH
to see gladiators and wild
beasts in mortal combat.
Pyramid: The Quetzalcoatl
Pyramid at Cholula de
Rivadavia, south-east
of Mexico City,

is 54 m (177 ft) tall and its


base covers around 18.2 ha
(45 acres). The Aztec
structure is also the largest
monument ever built.

DID YO

U KNOW
The gran
?
ite block
s of the
section
bridge
of the Se
g
o
v
ia
a
are laid
queduct
without
probably
mortar,
owing to
limeston
a lack of
e for cem
local
ent. This
itexible
makes
enough
to surviv
smallea
e
rthquak
es and
buffetin
gwinds.

.CTIGUV4QOCPCSWGFWEV

Highest-grossing silent movie


The Big Parade (USA) makes $22m (4.96m). The record will stand until the release of The Artist (FRA, 2011), which
closely follows the traditions of silent-era movies and will gross in excess of $133m (91m) by Jan 2016.

1925

guinnessworldrecords.com 169

DATELINE

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OCP[UGVVNGOGPVVCPMUENGCPUKPIDCUKPUEJCPPGNUCPFDGPFU

DATELINE

ARTS & MEDIA

1927
170 Arts & Media

First land-speed record run to exceed 200mph


On 29 Mar, British racing driver Henry Segrave drives his Sunbeam 1000 HP a twin-V12-engined
monster known as Mystery to a speed of 203.79mph (327.97km/h) at Daytona Beach in Florida, USA.

CONTENTS
ARTS & MEDIA
FACTOGRAPHIC

172

ART SALES

174

SHAKESPEARE

176

MUSIC

178

MOVIES

182

DISNEY

184

TV

186

VIDEO

188

Fastest movie to gross


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First ight over Mount Everest


Squadron Leader Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (UK) leads a ight of two open-cockpit biplanes over the
summit of Mount Everest. Fighting the thin air and high winds, they clear the peak by only 100ft (30m).

1933

guinnessworldrecords.com 171

DATELINE

5EKDNQEMDWUVGTStar Wars VII: The Force Awakens


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TGEQTFUHQTfastest movie to gross $100 million CPFfastest movie
to gross $200 million%NGCTN[VJG(QTEGKUUVTQPIYKVJVJKUQPG

8%
30%

$0.80
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$1.50

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WORDS ARE NOT CHEAP

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MOVIE TICKETS:
WHO GETS WHAT

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MOVIE MONEY

FACTOGRAPHIC

HIGHEST-GROSSING MOVIE SERIES

300%

1,200%

1,800%

THE POWER OF POPCORN

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7. Jurassic Park

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5. Transformers

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8. The Twilight Saga

MAGIC MARK-UPS

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6. Pirates of the Caribbean

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10. The Lord of the Rings

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9. Shrek

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2. James Bond

3. Star Wars

1. Harry Potter

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ART SALES
Most
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Highest total from


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An evening auction of
Post-War and Contemporary
Art held by Christies
in New York City,
USA, on 12 Nov 2014
raised $852,887,000
(598,244,000). The
auction featured
works by artists such

as Andy Warhol, Roy


Lichtenstein, Jeff Koons
(all USA) and Willem de
Kooning (USA, b. NLD).

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Damien Hirst (UK) made
111 m ($200.8 m) from
the sale of 167 of his works
on 1516 Sep 2008 at
Sothebys in London, UK.

MOST EXPENSIVE
SOLD AT AUCTION
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On 11 May 2015, at
Christies in New York City,
USA, Les Femmes dAlger

8GTUKQP1 by Pablo Picasso


(ESP), dated 14 Feb 1955,
sold for $179.3 m (115 m),
with a commission of just
over 12%. The buyer, who
bid by telephone, chose to
remain anonymous. For the
most expensive painting sold
at a private sale, see below.

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Now a best-selling artist, US astronaut Alan Bean was lunar
module pilot on #RQNNQ
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October on Cape Cod (1946)
by Edward Hopper (USA)
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solitude common to much
of his work. It fetched
$9.6 m (6.7 m) in an
internet auction by
Christies on 28 Nov 2012.

TRIVIA
Leonardo da Vincis
Mona Lisa once hung in
the bedroom of French
emperor Napoleon. The
name is more correctly
spelled Monna Lisa (My
Lady Lisa) in Italian.

KNOW?po
DID YOU
Ipoi
Nafea Faa

DATELINE

s,
For decade
tmuseum
to the Kuns
was on loan
d, before
an
rl
ze
it
Basel, in Sw
ded to sell
chelin deci
Rudolf Stae
pensive
ex
t
os
ious m
it. The prev
Players
rd
as The Ca
),
painting w
zanne (FRA
C
ul
Pa
(1890s), by
s royal
ar
at
Q
to
which sold
m
11 for $250
family in 20
(158.3m).

1935
174 Arts & Media

MOST EXPENSIVE PAINTING


Produced in 1892, Nafea Faa Ipoipo (When Will You
Marry?, above) by French Post-Impressionist painter
PaulGauguin reputedly sold for around $300m (197m)
in Feb2015. Itwas a private sale from the collection of a
retired Sothebys executive to an unnamed buyer.
Seven months later, US tycoon Ken Grifn reportedly
paid $300m for Willem de Koonings Interchange (1955).
He bought it alongside a $200-m (129.8-m) piece by
Jackson Pollock (USA), Number 17A (1948).

First land-speed record to exceed 300 mph


On 3Sep, Sir Malcolm Campbell (UK) achieves a speed of 301.129 mph (484.62km/h) at Bonneville
inUtah,USA, driving the Campbell-Railton Blue Bird. It is powered by a Rolls-Royce R V12 engine.

FAST FACTS
For 46days in 1961, NewYorks Museum of Modern Art hung Henri Matisses work
Le Bateau upside down by mistake Alan Bean has used real dust from the Moon in
his paintings From 1912 to 1948, the Olympic Games included art competitions

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In all, $377 m (264.4 m)
was raised at
Sothebys in New
York City, USA, on
4 Nov 2015 from the
sale of 69 artworks
once owned by a billionaire
real-estate developer.
Portrait de Paulette Jourdain
(1919), by Amedeo
Modigliani (ITA),
sold for $42.8 m
(27.7 m).

Most
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Portrait of a Man, Half-length,
With His Arms Akimbo (1658)
sold by telephone to an
anonymous bidder for 20 m
($28.5 m) at Christies in
London, UK, on 8 Dec 2009.
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A cast of the French
sculptors work The Thinker
realized $15.3 m (10.7 m)
at Sothebys in New York
City, USA, on 7 May 2013.

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On 20 Mar 2013, at
Christies on King Street in
London, UK, the print Young
Woman on the Beach (1896)
by Edvard Munch (NOR)

sold for 2.1 m ($3 m).


Thats three times the presale estimate of 700,000
($1 m). It is believed that
Munch made 11 copies
of the print altogether.

DID YO

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Head of a Muse, by the
Renaissance artist Raphael
(ITA), sold for 29,200,000
($47,788,400) on 9 Dec 2009
at Christies in London, UK.

MOST EXPENSIVE PAINTINGS SOLD PRIVATELY


Few artists make a fortune during their lifetime. But once they die, thevalue of their work
can rise to dizzy heights. Below, we list the 10 most expensive paintings ever sold privately.
As the precise prices for private sales are not often made public, all values are approximate.
TITLE / DATE PAINTED

ARTIST

PRICE
O
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DATE SOLD

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U KNOW
Created
?
at short
no
show in
New York tice for a
City in1
Lhomm
947,
e au doig
t (right)
reported
was
ly made
in a sing
between
le night
midnigh
t and 9a
It is thou
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ght that
the left
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arm
ulpture
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curled a
inally
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second
whichth
e artist th gure,
en
removed
.

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5VCPFKPIEO
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bronze statue sold
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Largest airship
The 213.9-tonne (471,569-lb) German Hindenburg (LZ 129) has her maiden ight. Two years later, the Graf Zeppelin II
(LZ130) takes to the air. Each is 245 m (803 ft 10 in) long with a gas capacity of 200,000 m (7,062,933 cu ft).

1936

guinnessworldrecords.com 175

DATELINE

* Joint sale

SHAKESPEARE

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HTQOKVUQRGPKPIPKIJVQP/CTWPVKNKVENQUGFQP#RT

Best-selling playwright
The plays and poetry
of Englands William
Shakespeare (15641616)
are believed to have sold
in excess of 4 billion
copies in the 400 years
since his death.

Longest-running
5JCMGURGCTGQP$TQCFYC[
Directed by Margaret
Webster, a production
of Othello that opened
on Broadway in
Oct 1943 ran for
296 performances.
The play starred Paul

Robeson in the title role,


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American actor to play
Othello on Broadway.

Youngest professional
actor to play King Lear
Shakespeares King Lear is an old man who gives up his kingdom
to two of his daughters and disowns the other. For most actors,
the part is the capstone of a long career, but UK actor Nonso
#PQ\KG
D/C[ RNC[GFVJGRCTVKPCRTQFWEVKQPHQTVJG
4Q[CN5JCMGURGCTG%QORCP[KPYJGPJGYCUQPN[
Longest speech in
C5JCMGURGCTGRNC[
In Romeo and Juliet,
Romeos friend Mercutio is
given 43 lines to say on the
subject of dreams in Act I,
scene iv (lines 5799).
In the play, she is just
13 years old when she
meets Romeo. Usually,
Juliet is played by a young
actress who is older
than 13, but in 2010 the
76-year-old Sin Phillips (UK)
was cast in the role at
the Bristol Old Vic, UK.
This makes
her the oldest
professional
actor to play
Juliet.

FASTEST RECITAL OF HAMLETS SOLILOQUY

DATELINE

Sean Shannon (CAN) recited Hamlets 260-word soliloquy To be or not to be in 23.8sec


in Edinburgh, UK, on 30Aug 1995 a rate of 655 words per minute. The monologue, from
Act III, scene i of Hamlet, reects on death. Hamlet speculates about whether it is better
to endure lifes hardships stoically or to end them by killing oneself although he fears
that theundiscoverd country beyond death may hold supernatural terrors of its own.

1938
176 Arts & Media

Fastest steam locomotive


The London and North Eastern Railway Class A4 No. 4468 Mallard reaches a speed
of 125mph (201km/h) at Stoke Bank, near Essendine in Rutland, UK, on 3Jul.

Most expensive
literature by
Shakespeare
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The earliest collected edition
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known as the First Folio,
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HQTCVJEGPVWT[DQQM

FAST FACTS
No one knows Shakespeares date of birth, although traditionally it
isregarded as 23Apr 1564 St Georges Day Shakespeares name is
spelled differently in each of the six surviving versions of his signature

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appearances in /CEDGVJ
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TRIVIA
In 1890, Shakespeare
fanatic Eugene
Schieffelin began to try
to introduce all the bird
species mentioned in
the Bards plays into
North America. Alas, the
starlings he released
had a devastating effect
on native birds and are
widely seen as a menace.

Most lines by one character


in a Shakespeare play
*CONGVFGNKXGTUNKPGUQHTWOKPCVKQPQPOQTVCNKV[CPF
VJGJWOCPEQPFKVKQP5GGPCDQXGKU&CXKF6GPPCPV
7- YJQ
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YQTFU*CONGV is the longest Shakespeare play.
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It took Dan Wilson (UK) just
328 days between 27 Nov
2014 and 21 Oct 2015 to
see live performances of all
37 of Shakespeares plays.

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On 3Oct, Germanys V-2 rocket has its third and most successful test launch to date, from Peenemnde
on the countrys Baltic coast. The V-2 climbs to an altitude of 50 mi (80.4 km) above Earths surface.

1942

guinnessworldrecords.com 177

DATELINE

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The Bard wrote 74 death
scenes in his plays. The
goriest of his works is Titus
Andronicus, which stages
14 deaths including
decapitations and suicides
alongside cannibalism.

Highest-grossing
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William Shakespeares
Romeo + Juliet (USA,
1996), directed by
Baz Luhrmann (AUS),
took $147,542,381
(91,030,600) on general
release between 1 Nov
1996 and 14 Feb 1997.
The big-budget, high-octane
adaptation starred Leonardo
DiCaprio and Claire Danes
as the star-crossd lovers.
Shakespeare has 1,121
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TV productions, making
him the PRVWOPHG
author, as of Feb 2016.
These include 106 versions
of Hamlet, 98 versions of
Macbeth and 64 versions
of Romeo and Juliet. The
most recent adaptations
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Macbeth (UK/FRA/USA,
2015), starring Michael
Fassbender and Marion
Cotillard, and Romeo and
Juliet in Harlem (USA, 2015),
and The Hollow Crown
(2012), the BBCs serial of
Shakespeares history plays.

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(b. Adam Wiles) earned
$66 m (43.12 m) in the
12 months to 1 Jun 2015.
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dating US singer Taylor
Swift. They are the highestpaid celebrity couple, with
annual earnings of $146 m
(94.2 m), as announced
by Forbes in Jun 2015.
Best-selling
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Call Me Maybe
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SPOTIFY
Most streamed track in
24 hours: On 31 Jul 2015,
Drag Me Down by One
Direction (UK/IRL) was
streamed 4.75 million times.
Most streamed track in
one week: What Do You
Mean? by Justin Bieber
(CAN) was streamed
30,723,708 times between
28 Aug and 3 Sep 2015.

Most streamed album


in one week: Justin Biebers
chart-topping album
2WTRQUG was streamed
205 million times on Spotify
worldwide in the week after
its release on 13 Nov 2015.
Most streams in one
year: In 2015, Canadian
rapper Drake (b. Aubrey
Drake Graham) attracted
1.8 billion streams from
46 million listeners.

THE RETURN OF ADELE

DATELINE

In 2011, Adele became the rst female to have the biggest-selling album
and single in the USA and UK in the same year. Released in 2015, her
thirdLP, 25, soon became the fastest-selling pop album in the USA,
shifting 2,433,000units in fourdays from its release on 20Nov. Only 24hr
after its release, more than 900,000 copies of 25 had been downloaded on
Apples iTunes store, according to Billboard, making it the fastest-selling album on
iTunes. And on 30Nov 2015, it reached the million-selling mark on the UK albums
chart, the fastest time for an album to sell 1 million copies in the UK.

1942
178 Arts & Media

Largest battleship
The Japanese battleships Yamato and Musashi have a full-load displacement of 71,111tonnes (78,386UStons),
an overall length of 263m (863ft), a beam of 38.7m (127ft) and a full-load draught of 10.8m (35ft 5.1in).

FAST FACTS
Shakira speaks Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and English In 2015, superstar
DJ Calvin Harris became the new face of Giorgio Armani underwear At its
peak, Adeles 25 was selling more than double the rest of Billboards top 100

YOUTUBE & VEVO

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(female): Rihannas (BRB,
b. Robyn Rihanna Fenty)
songs were streamed more
than 1 billion times in 2015.

Most streamed act: Singer


Ed Sheerans (UK) tracks
had been streamed more
than 3 billion times on
Spotify as of 1 Dec 2015.

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First general-purpose electronic computer


The US Armys Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) machine is built. It weighs 27 tonnes
(59,525lb), measures 2.6 x 0.9 x 24 m (8ft 6 in x 2ft 11in x 78ft 9in) and is used to calculate artillery trajectories.

1946

guinnessworldrecords.com 179

DATELINE

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Adeles Hello, which
was uploaded to YouTube
on 22 Oct 2015, reached
1 billion views a mere
88 days later on 18 Jan
2016. It was the 18th
YouTube video to attract
1 billion views since 21 Dec
2012, when PSYs (KOR)
Gangnam Style became
the UVWYLGHRWRUHFHLYH
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period of 159 days).
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JustinBieberVEVO had
10,478,651,389 views logged
by 19 Apr 2016, for the
120 videos uploaded to the
channel since 25 Sep 2009.
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on VEVO in 24 hours:
Recordings by David
Bowie (UK, b. David Jones)
attracted 51 million views
on the video-hosting
platform VEVO on 11 Jan
2016, the day after his
death at the age of 69.

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Most weeks at No.1 on the


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Digital Songs chart. Low by Flo Rida (right) featuring T-Pain (both
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(third from left) and his backing band The Hooligans.

FIRST ACT TO HOLD ALL TOP 3 PLACES


ON THE UK SINGLES CHART
In the 65years of the UKs Ofcial Singles Chart (1952
present), no act had held the top three positions in the
same week until Justin Bieber (CAN) did so with Love
Yourself (No.1), Sorry (No.2) and What Do You
Mean? (No.3) on the chart dated 14 Jan 2016.
On the Billboard Hot 100 dated 5 Dec
2015, Bieber had 17 tracks, the most
simultaneous tracks on the US
singles chart. The highest placed
was Sorry, at No.2. Of these,
13tracks were new entries, the
most simultaneous new entries
in the Hot 100 by a solo act.

KNOW?s,
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ow
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DATELINE

Elvis Presle
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s, John Lenn
TheBeatle
wood
ly
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s to H
Frankie Goe
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1947
180 Arts & Media

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The Recording Industry
Association of America
(RIAA) issues gold records
for sales of 500,000 units;
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sales of 1 million units.
In Jul 2015, the RIAA
announced that Rihanna
(BRB, b. Robyn Rihanna
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to reach 100 million gold
and platinum single sales
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packed 100 songs, all
a little over 30 sec
long, on to their
Dec 2015 album
100x30. The

band made the eclectic


album to protest against the
small royalties offered by
the digital music industry for
tracks longer than 30 sec.
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Austrias free, open-air
Donauinselfest (Danube
Island Festival) drew
3.3 million revellers to
Vienna on 2628 Jun 2015.

CHARTS
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Justin Bieber (b. 1 Mar
1994) was 21 years
202 days old when What
Do You Mean? debuted
at No.1 on the Billboard
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rapper Lil Wayne had
placed 129 different
songs on the
Billboard Hot
100. His debut
was Back that
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in 1999.

Largest aircraft
On 2 Nov, the Hughes H-4 Hercules, better known as the Spruce Goose, makes its rst and only ight, off the coast
of California, USA. This colossal ying boat has a wing-span of 319ft 11in (97.51m) and is 218ft 8in (66.65m) long.

FAST FACTS
David Bowies left pupil became permanently dilated following a ght during
his schooldays Rihanna is a mezzo-soprano, with a three-octave vocal range
It took Mark Ronson 82takes to nail his guitar part for Uptown Funk!

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Out Loud debuted on the
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on 5 Jul 2014 and spent its
54th consecutive week in
the Top 40 on 11 Jul 2015.
The ballad was No.1 for
two weeks and spent
20 weeks inside the Top 10.

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Taylor Swifts (USA)
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Loudest siren
In March, American car maker Chrysler begins making a V8-engined air-raid siren, designed to warn the
public in case of a nuclear attack. It emits a 138-decibel wail that can be heard up to 25 mi (40km) away.

1952

guinnessworldrecords.com 181

DATELINE

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The Weeknd (CAN, b. Abel
Tesfaye) spent 45 weeks
in the Top 10 of Billboards
Hot 100 between 7 Mar
2015 and 9 Jan 2016 the
longest ever Top 10 streak
by a solo male. The historic
run comprised three singles:
Earned It (7 Mar to 4 Jul
2015), Cant Feel My Face
(11 Jul to 14 Nov 2015)
and The Hills (1 Aug and
29 Aug 2015 to 9 Jan 2016).

MOVIES
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According to the Forbes list of the Worlds Highest-Paid
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As of 22 Sep 2015, Avatar
(US/UK, 2009) had grossed
$2,783,918,982 (1.79 bn)
worldwide, according to
The-Numbers.com.
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As of 8 Feb 2016, Jennifer
Lawrence was historys most
successful female action
movie star. According to
The-Numbers.com, the
Hunger Games series (in
which she plays Katniss
Everdeen) and her two
X-Men movies (in which she
plays Raven/Mystique)
have grossed
$4,005,735,448
(2.76 bn)
worldwide.

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Deadpool (USA, 2016)
grossed $260 m (179.4 m)
worldwide over its threeday opening weekend of
1214 Feb 2016. The risqu
superhero movie went on
to become the highestgrossing R-rated movie
ever, making $758,987,687
(537.1 m) by 13 Apr 2016.
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opening of (WTKQWU (USA),
WKHVHYHQWKOPLQWKHFast
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screenings in a total of
810 IMAX locations. The
previous record of 760 IMAX
screens was set in Nov
2014 by Interstellar (USA).
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$1,516,246,709 (965.8 m)
as of 18 Jun 2015, (WTKQWU
is also the highest-grossing
car-chase movie.

MOST PROFITABLE ACTOR FOR


AHOLLYWOOD STUDIO (CURRENT)

DATELINE

In the year up to Jun2015, no other Hollywood actor


hasreturned more prot relative to what they were
paidthan Captain America star Chris Evans (USA),
according to Forbes. In his last three major lms of this
period which include Avengers: Age of Ultron (USA,
2015) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (USA,
2014) Evans grossed $181.80 (118) for every $1 (0.65)
that he was paid.

1953
182 Arts & Media

First ascent of Everest


Edmund Percival Hillary (NZ) and Indo-Tibetan Tenzing Norgay reach the 8,848-m-high
(29,029-ft) summit of the worlds highest mountain at 11:30 a.m. on 29May.

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In Jul 2014, Anders Weberg
(SWE) unveiled a 72-min
trailer for his forthcoming
KUOPAmbianc, which
will be released in 2020.

TRIVIA
British comedy actor
SimonPegg appears in
two sci- institutions.
He plays Montgomery
Scotty Scott (above) in
the Star Trek franchise,
and Unkar Plutt
(below)in the latest
StarWarsepisode.

FAST FACTS
Daniel Craig has starred in the three longest Bond lms: Casino Royale (2006),
Skyfall(2012) and Spectre (2015) Robert Downey Jrs Iron Man suit has around
450parts The Force Awakens is the rst Star Wars movie not released in May

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UWRGTXKUQTUHQT554CLCOQWNKUOGFKGXCNHCPVCU[GRKEBaahubali: The Beginning
+0& 
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VJCP8(:UVCHHYQTMKPIHQTFKHHGTGPVGHHGEVUUVWFKQUCETQUUXGEQWPVTKGU

/QUVEQPPGEVGFNKXKPICEVQT
The University of Virginias
(USA) Oracle of Bacon is
software named after
American actor Kevin Bacon
that maps the working
ties between 2.9 million
actors and actresses, as
well as 1.9 million movies/
TV shows, in the Internet
Movie Database. As of
4 Dec 2015, the most
connected living
movie star that
is, the person at
the Centre of the
Hollywood Universe
is Eric Roberts
(USA), who has
the lowest
score of
2.83285.

.QPIGUV,COGU$QPFOQXKG
At 148 min, Spectre outruns
all other movies in the Bond
franchise. The shortest
%RQGOP is Quantum of
Solace (2008) at 106 min.
Spectres basic production
budget has been estimated
at $245 m (169 m), making
it the most expensive

Bond movie. Spectre isnt


the highest-grossing Bond
movie, however. That
honour goes to Skyfall (UK/
USA, 2012). It grossed
$1,110,526,981 (743.8 m).
Jesper Christensen
(DNK) has made the most
appearances as a Bond
YLOODLQ. As Mr White, he
appears in Casino Royale
(2006), Quantum of Solace
and Spectre.
The record for the
most appearances
as James Bond
is shared

by Sean Connery and Roger


Moore (both UK), with 007
outings each. Connery
DSSHDUHGLQWKHUVW%RQG
movie, &T0Q (UK, 1962), and
Moore made his debut in
Live and Let Die (UK, 1973).

&TGUUGFVQMKNN$QPFCPFSpectre
&CPKGN%TCKIKUVJGJKIJGUVRCKFCEVQTVQJCXGRNC[GF,COGU
$QPF*KUUCNCT[HQTRQTVTC[KPICIGPVKPSpectre is estimated
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cO 
In the movie, Craig is seen on-screen wearing clothes and
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c 
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#EEQTFKPIVQKPHQTOCVKQPRTQXKFGFD[)CT[2QYGNNEJKGHUVWPV
coordinator on SpectreXGJKENGUYQTVJO
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FGOQNKUJGFFWTKPIVJGOCMKPIQHVJGNOVJGJKIJGUVXCNWGQH
XGJKENGUFGUVTQ[GFKPVJGOCMKPIQHCOQXKG6JKUIWTGKPENWFGU
UGXGPQHVJG#UVQP/CTVKP&$RTQVQV[RGUETGCVGFHQTVJGNO
Sam Smiths (UK) Writings on the Wall, taken from Spectre,
became the TUV$QPFVJGOGVQTGCEJ0QKPVJG7-EJCTVwhen
KVFGDWVGFCVVJGVQRQP1EV

DID YO

First person to run a mile in under four minutes


On 6May, in front of a 3,000-strong crowd at Oxford University, UK, 25-year-old Roger Bannister (UK) runs
onemile in 3min 59.4sec. Up to this point, many people had believed that this feat was impossible.

1954

guinnessworldrecords.com 183

DATELINE

U KNOW
Spectre a
lso featu
?
red the
lm stu
largest
nt explo
si
on (pictu
A total y
red).
ield of 6
8.47ton
(75.4US
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ited for
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e in
Morocco
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th
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of
ng 8,418
litres
(2,224U
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k
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ro
with33k
sene
g (72lb 12
oz) of
powder
explosiv
es.

DISNEY
GALLERY

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GKIJVHTQOVQ 

2
1

DATELINE

HIGHEST BOX-OFFICE
GROSS FOR AN ANIMATION
(INFLATION-ADJUSTED)
&KUPG[UTUVHWNNNGPIVJHGCVWTGNOSnow
White and the Seven Dwarfs
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OQXKGYKVJCPQHEKCNUQWPFVTCEM.

1956
184 Arts & Media

FIRST ANIMATION
NOMINATED FOR
BESTPICTURE OSCAR
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&KUPG[NOCFCRVGFKPVQCUVCIGOWUKECN.

BEST-SELLING
ANIMATIONSOUNDTRACK
6JGUQWPFVTCEMQH The Lion King (1994)
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CPFKPOWUKECNHQTOKVKUVJGJKIJGUVITQUUKPI
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MOST POSITIVELY
REVIEWED FILM
#UQH,CPCTQWPFOQXKGUJCFC
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6QOCVQGU6JGOQUVYKFGN[EGNGDTCVGFKUToy
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c 'CTPKPIDP

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CPKOCVGFOQXKGVQITQUUDP.

First transatlantic telephone cable


On 25Sep, the telephone cable Transatlantic Number One (TAT-1) between Scotland, UK, and Clarenville in
Newfoundland, Canada, opens for business. It carries 588 UKUSA calls and 119 UKCanada calls in the rst 24hr.

DID YOU

KNOW?
Disneys
Magic K
ingdom
Florida,
in
USA, bo
asts the
castle in
tallest
a theme
park. Cin
Castle, a
derella
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opened
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logo.

8
6

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COMPUTER ANIMATION
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First articial satellite in orbit


On 4Oct, Sputnik 1 is launched by an inter-continental ballistic missile from the Baikonur
Cosmodrome at Tyuratam in Kazakhstan, USSR. Its lifetime is believed to be 92days.

1957

guinnessworldrecords.com 185

DATELINE

HIGHEST-GROSSING
PUPPET MOVIE
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TV
Highest-rated TV series
(current)
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Most scripted TV shows


released in one year
According to TV channel
FX (USA), networks and
streaming services
broadcast a
record 409
dramas,
comedies and
limited series
in 2015.

Highest-earning comedian
(current)
According to Forbes, Jerry
Seinfeld (USA) earned
$36 m (25.57 m) between
Jun 2014 and Jun 2015,
primarily from giving live
performances, but also from
syndicating his eponymous
TV comedy series.

HIGHEST-EARNING
TV STAR, CURRENT
(MALE AND FEMALE)

DATELINE

According to Forbes, Kaley Cuoco


(USA, right), star of The Big Bang
Theory (CBS, USA), earned
around $28.5m (18.1m) in
the year from Jun2014 as
did Sofa Vergara (COL) of
Modern Family (ABC, USA).
Meanwhile, The Big Bang
Theory lead, Jim Parsons (USA,
second right), earned an
estimated $29 m (18.4 m). The
shows Opening Night Excitation
episode (inset) scored Nielsens
largest live+7 audience for a
TVshow: atotal of 24.38 million.

1960
186 Arts & Media

Richest TV creator
The Queen of all Media,
Oprah Winfrey (USA), best
known for the talk show
she created and hosted in
19862011, had a net worth
of $3.1 bn (2.15 bn) in the
Forbes 400 list of Apr 2016.
Forbes put John de Mols
(NLD) net worth at $1.49 bn
(1.03 bn), making him the
richest TV creator (male)
as of Apr 2016. De Mol
took the reality TV concept
global with Big Brother,
and launched6JG8QKEGQH
Holland, which became the
international hit 6JG8QKEG.

Most followers on Twitter


for a TV personality
Ellen DeGeneres (USA, above left, @TheEllenShow) was the
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for a TV personality (male)YCUHQT
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75#CDQXGTKIJV",KOO[(CNNQP 

TRIVIA
In 2015, the Big Bang
Theory LEGO set was
launched to amuse fans
of both the show and
plastic brick-building.
Itrecreates Sheldon and
Leonards living room in
detail, with minigures
of the seven characters,
each dressed in their
own style. Created by
two LEGO fan designers,
the concept originated
from LEGOs Ideas
crowdsourcing
community.

Deepest manned descent


On 23 Jan, Dr Jacques Piccard (CHE) and Lt Donald Walsh (USA) pilot the Swiss-built US Navy bathyscaphe Trieste to a depth
of 10,911m (35,797ft) in the Challenger Deep section of the Mariana Trench, thought to be the deepest point on Earth.

FAST FACTS
SpongeBob SquarePants was created by bona de marine biologist Stephen
Hillenburg The Bazinga rieki jellysh was named after Sheldons catchphrase
bazinga! in The Big Bang Theory The Walking Dead started life as a comic book

Highest annual earnings


for a TV chef
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Longest-running TV sketch
comedy show (current)
As of 20 Feb 2016,
Colombias 5DCFQU(GNKEGU
(Happy Saturdays),
originally titled Campeones
de la Risa (Laughter
Champions), had run on
the Caracol TV channel for
a record 44 years 15 days.

The longest-running
TV music talent show is
0QFQ,KOCP (Proud of
My Voice), which is
created by NHK (JPN).
First broadcast on 15 Mar
1953, the Asia-wide
karaoke-based show was
still running as of 29 Feb
2016 63 years later.

Most
Nickelodeon
Kids Choice
Awards won
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has won the Favorite
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often than SpongeBob
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Avatar: The Last Airbender

Largest series premiere on cable TV


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Dead
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ratings than the hugely popular original, The Walking Dead

Most watched show


worldwide (current)
Eurodata TV Worldwide
surveys the best-performing
episodes of TV shows
across a number of
countries. According to their
reports, crime drama NCIS
(CBS, USA) was sold into
more than 200 markets and
seen by 55 million viewers
in 2014, far in excess
of )COGQH6JTQPGU and
6JG9CNMKPI&GCF.

DID YOU

KNOW?
Peter Din
klage (U
right) ha
s won Em SA, below
my and
Globe aw
Golden
ards for
his port
Tyrion L
rayal of
annister.
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choice o
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Game of
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.

Game of Thrones

First manned spaceight


At 6:07a.m. GMT on 12 Apr, Cosmonaut Flight Major Yuri Gagarin (USSR) takes off in Vostok 1 from Baikonur
Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. He lands 118min later, after a ight of 40,868.6 km (25,394.6 mi).

1961

guinnessworldrecords.com 187

DATELINE

#UQH(GD*$1UUOCUJJKVHCPVCU[UGTKGU
JCFTGEGKXGFCYCTFUHTQOVJG8KUWCN'HHGEVU
5QEKGV[UKPEGVJGmost VES awards
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+PVJGUGTKGUYCUVJGmost pirated TV
showHQTVJGHQWTVJEQPUGEWVKXG[GCTCEEQTFKPI
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(TQO#RTVQ,WPVJGTGYGTGCDQWV
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6JG5GCUQPPCNGCNUQUCYVJGmost viewers
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viewers in the USA, it was ThronesOQUV
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VIDEO
Most
subscribers
for a band
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One Direction (UK/IRL)
are on a break, but their
VEVO channel is still
going strong they had
 subscribers
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groups account was set
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they were competing
in the UK talent show
6JG:(CEVQT

MOST SUBSCRIBERS
ON YOUTUBE
(ASOF11APR2016)
68UJQY
TheEllenShow, featuring
clips, interviews and behindthe-scenes footage from the
eponymous chat show, has
15,650,054 subscribers. Its
videos have been viewed
more than 5.9 billion times.

Most
subscribers
HQTCOWUKEKCP
QP;QW6WDG
(female)

DATELINE

#UQH#RT4KJCPPC

$4$D4QD[P4KJCPPC(GPV[ 
JCFUWDUETKDGTU
VQJGT8'81EJCPPGN

1962
188 Arts & Media

Comedy channel
Published by Chilean
comedian/entertainer
Germn Alejandro
Garmendia Aranis, the
channel HolaSoyGerman
has 27,210,540 subscribers.
Fail video channel
FailArmy by Jukin Media
(USA) has a total of
10,264,097 subscribers.

First person to
reach a million
followers
QP6YKVEJ
British YouTuber and
vlogger Tom Cassell, aka
Syndicate (UK), achieved
an unprecedented 1 million
followers on Twitch on
#WI

Fashion/beauty channel
Yuya, aka Mariand
Castrejn Castaeda (MEX),
has amassed a total of
14,069,841 subscribers.
She began her vlog in 2009.
Musician (male)
The VEVO channel for
Canadian pop star Justin
Bieber has garnered
20,711,202 subscribers.

Most viewed
app trailer
#UQH#RTVJG
trailer for the /[6CNMKPI
6QO app had been viewed
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on a kitten called Tom,
whom users can nurture
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of toys or other products being unpacked, assembled and
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right), is the female with the most followers on Vine, with
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was chosen as one of TIME UOQUVKPHNWGPVKCNVGGPUKP

First successful interplanetary mission


On 14 Dec, the US probe Mariner 2 performs a yby of Venus, coming within 35,000 km (21,750 mi) of its surface. Its observations
reveal the extremely hot nature of the planet. As of 2016, Mariner 2 still orbits the Sun, although it no longer has any power.

FAST FACTS
There are approximately 4billion video views on YouTube each day
The name of the video-sharing service Vine is short for vignette
Every day, around 1.5billion 6-sec loops are played on Vine

Most popular female videogames


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Describing herself as a true geek at heart who loves to make
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features a wide range of creative and geek culture content,
with a huge emphasis on her gaming adventures, especially
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(KTUVOWUKEXKFGQNOGF
QPCTGFWEGFITCXKV[CKTETCHV

Educational video
Wheels On The Bus | Plus
Lots More Nursery Rhymes
| 54 Minutes Compilation
from LittleBabyBum! had
attracted 1,334,622,451
views as of 11 Apr 2016.
Aimed at young children,
the 54-min movie features
popular nursery rhymes
and animated characters.
Created by app developers
and animators Derek and
Cannis Holder (both UK),
it was posted on their
LittleBabyBum channel
on 9 Aug 2014.

The video for Upside Down & Inside Out by OK Go (USA),


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Kulash about the challenges involved in this unique project.

/QXKGVTCKNGT
QHEKCN
Posted on 19 Oct 2015,
the trailer for the seventh
instalment in the Star Wars
series, The Force Awakens,
had amassed 91,512,152
views as of 11 Apr 2016.
As of the same date, the
most viewed superhero
movie trailer was for
Marvels Avengers: Age of

MOST SUBSCRIBERS
ON YOUTUBE
As of 11Apr 2016, the all-time most subscribed YouTube
channel was PewDiePie, with 43,248,969 subscribers.
PewDiePie aka Felix Arvid Ulf Kjellberg (SWE) is a
games reviewer who posts over-the-top commentaries
ofgames as he plays. As of the same date, his videos
had received 11,766,793,379 views. In Feb 2016, a new
web series called Scare PewDiePie launched on pay-for
service YouTube Red, in which Kjellberg walks around
setsinspired by horror videogames that he has played.

9JCVKPURKTGFVJGKFGCVQNOQPCTGFWEGFITCXKV[CGTQRNCPG!
I learned about parabolic flight aka the vomit comet around
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How complex was this video compared with the others that
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This was certainly the most physically demanding video weve
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Ultron (USA, 2015), which
had garnered a total of
78,849,269 views.
Gaming video
A video created in Minecraft
and uploaded by Jordan
CaptainSparklez Maron
(USA) had 160,312,315
views as of 21 Feb 2016.
Originally titled Revenge
A Minecraft Parody of
Ushers DJ Got Us Fallin in
Love, its soundtrack was
altered in 2016 (presumably
for legal reasons). Now

Land-speed record: rst to exceed 400 mph


Driving the jet-engine-powered Spirit of America, Craig Breedlove (USA) reaches
aspeed of 407.518 mph (655.836km/h) in Bonneville, Utah, USA, on 5Aug.

featuring TryHardNinja
(USA), it was renamed
Revenge A Minecraft
Original Music Video.
8KFGQ
Posted to YouTube on
15 Jul 2012, the video for
pop song Gangnam Style
by PSY (aka Park Jae-sang,
KOR) had 2,554,380,660
views as of 11 Apr 2016.
Characterized by its zany
dance moves, Gangnam
Style is also the most liked
video, with 10,721,274 likes.

1963

guinnessworldrecords.com 189

DATELINE

DID YO

U KNOW
The mult
?
i-talente
d PewDie
amultiplatform
Pie is
st
ar. Aside
his YouT
from
ube cha
nnel, he
own vid
has his
eogame
(Legend
Brost) a
of the
nd, in 20
anauth
15, beca
or. This
Book Love me
s You is
atongue
-in-chee
k parody
ofinsp
irationa
l selfhelpboo
ks.

MOST VIEWS
ONYOUTUBE

DATELINE

SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY

1964
190 Science & Technology

First civilian in space


Konstantin Feoktistov (RUS) makes his sole space ight, in Voskhod1, on 1213Oct. As an engineer, he helps design
the Sputnik satellites as well as the Vostok, Voskhod and Soyuz capsules, but is not a member of the military.

CONTENTS
SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY
FACTOGRAPHIC

192

3D PRINTING

194

CONSUMER TECH

196

ROBOTS

198

SMALL STUFF

200

LASERS

202

CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE

204

Largest robot snake

First car to exceed 600 mph


Driving the jet-powered Spirit of America Sonic I, Craig Breedlove (USA) achieves a new
land-speed record of 600.6mph (966.5km/h) in Bonneville, Utah, USA, on 15 Nov.

1965

guinnessworldrecords.com 191

DATELINE

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comic books to invent the TUVEGNNWNCTRJQPG, an 800-g (1-lb
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long-distance communication on the go commonplace, along
with online access, app downloads and super-sharp photos.

(+%6+10The 1960s TV series of Star Trek featured mobile


communicators. Flipped open, they enabled personnel on alien
RNCPGVUVQEQPVCEVVJGETGYQPDQCTFVJG5VCTUJKREnterprise.

HAND-HELD COMMUNICATORS

Vs

(#%61P,CP4QDGTV9KNNKCOU
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TUVJWOCPMKNNGFD[CTQDQV when he was accidentally struck
in the head by the arm of a production-line robot at a Ford Motor
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belonged to a system that moved parts around the factory.
+VDGICPTWPPKPIUNQYN[UQ9KNNKCOUTGRQTVGFN[ENKODGF
inside to retrieve parts. Hit in the head, he died instantly.

(+%6+10The Terminator (USA, 1984) introduced a terrifying


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sent from the future to assassinate a woman who will
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KILLER ROBOTS

Vs

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avid 8
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DID Y

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(#%6&WTKPIVJG#RQNNQOKUUKQP
,WN#WI 
Alfred M Worden (USA, above right) was orbiting the Moon
in command module Endeavour while fellow astronauts
David Scott and James Irwin (both USA) were at the Hadley
base on the Moons surface. On the far side of the Moon,
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living person, making him historys OQUVKUQNCVGFJWOCP.
For some, being separated from your companions might be
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wish them luck: I hope you land okay! he recounted to
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VJG[XGIQPGDGECWUG+XGIQVVJKURNCEGCNNVQO[UGNH

(+%6+10 In The Martian (USA,


2015), Matt Damon plays Mark
Watney (above left), an astronaut
who is separated from his crew on Mars in a
raging storm. Presuming him dead, his fellow astronauts
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he is still alive and survive until he is rescued?

ALONE
INSPACE

(#%6 The Pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica),


commonly known as the bucardo, became extinct in 2000.
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injected nuclei from these specimens into goat eggs, from which the DNA
had been extracted. They then implanted these into surrogate mothers (far
right). Only seven of the animals became pregnant, and of these only one gave
birth. Sadly, the 2-kg (4-lb 8-oz) baby goat lived for only a very short time.

(+%6+10 Based on the novel by


Michael Crichton, Jurassic Park (USA,
1993, near right) imagines a world in which
scientists clone dinosaurs from prehistoric DNA.

REVIVING
EXTINCT SPECIES

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after a 168-day-long mission in space. Added to his previous four missions, Padalka
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Consistent with Albert Einsteins theories of relativity, Padalka has also genuinely
travelled through time, as his internal body clock will have slowed down marginally
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CP'CTVJVJCVJCUOQXGFHQTYCTFKPVKOGD[CTQWPFUGE

(+%6+10 In Doctor Who, the Doctor


(played in his latest incarnation by
British actor Peter Capaldi, above) travels
effortlessly through space, and from the past
to the future, by means of his time machine the
TARDIS (6KOG#PF4GNCVKXG&KOGPUKQP+P5RCEG).

TIME TRAVEL

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8GTPGUPQXGNFrom the Earth to the Moon (1865), 2001: A Space Odyssey
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PQXGNThe Sleeper Awakes
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SCI-FI VS SCIENCE

FACTOGRAPHIC

Vs

(#%6In Mar 2011, scientists from Osaka University


and robotics company Kokoro (both JPN) unveiled a
robot regarded as being the OQUVNKHGNKMGCPFTQKFyet (left).
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of technology professor Henrik Schrfe (near left), of Aalborg
University in Denmark. The robot, which cost $200,000

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(+%6+10Some scenes in 6QVCN4GECNN

75# UGVKPPF#TPQNF
Schwarzenegger in a driverless taxi named
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DRIVERLESS CABS

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SUPER-REALISTIC
HUMANOID ROBOTS

(+%6+10In Prometheus (USA, 2012, above), the


David 8 series android represents a super-advanced,
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QHEGTYKVJVJGETGYQHVJG75%55Prometheus.

Vs

(#%6Since 1992, US company Boston


Dynamics have been developing cuttingedge robots, funded largely by the US
military. They are perhaps best known for
creating the quadruped bot BigDog, but
have also produced Atlas (right), a biped
humanoid robot. The latest version is powered
by electricity and equipped with stereo cameras
that enable it to maintain its balance and navigate
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making it the OQUVCIKNGJWOCPQKFTQDQV. Its articulated
hands allow it to manipulate tools too. Compared
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CTGUOQQVJCPFJWOCPNKMG

(+%6+10 The droid C-3PO (left) made


JKUFGDWVKPStar Wars
75# NCVGT
retitled Episode IV: A New Hope. A protocol
droid, C-3PO is a master of languages
and etiquette, though prone to fussing.

AGILE ANDROIDS

ept ar ole in esta of his


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3D PRINTING
Most 3D-printed 3D printer
Its now possible to 3D-print
everything from car parts
to medical devices. Whats
more surprising, perhaps, is
that you can even 3D-print a
3D printer. The open-source
RepRap Snappy 1.1c printer
was made using 2.4 kg (5 lb
R] RISODVWLFODPHQW
to print 86 of its 110 pieces.
The design was created
by Garth Minette (USA),
who along with Adrian
Bowyer (UK), the designer
of the original RepRap
encourages people to freely
share or modify the design
so that they can 3D-print
their own 3D printer.

First village to 3D-print


all of its residents
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just one day. The company used its new Clonescan 3D machine,
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UECPUQHGCEJRGTUQP%QNQWT&OQFGNUQHVJGOYGTGVJGP
uploaded to cloud-accessible storage in all popular 3D-printer
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OKPKCVWTGENQPGYKVJKPCYGGMQHVJGUECPPKPIGXGPV
UGGKPUGV 

Largest 3D-printed boat


Seattles Seafair festival
holds an annual contest
for the best paddle boat
made of recycled milk
containers. In Jun 2012, a
team from the Washington
Open Object Fabricators
(WOOF) group entered
the competition with a
3D-printed boat that was
2 m (6 ft 6.7 in) long and
weighed 18 kg (39 lb 10 oz).
The plastic used came from
ground-up milk containers.

Fastest 3D-printed robot


In May 2015, engineers at UC Berkeley (USA) built
a robotic cockroach using 3D-printed components.
Because these parts bend and stretch without breaking,
VJG:8GNQEK4Q#%*ECP\KRCTQWPFCVOU
HVU 
thats comparable to a speed between jogging and
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HVKPU CPFKUCNUQOCFGHTQO&RTKPVGFRCTVU

Most commonly
&RTKPVGFOGFKECNFGXKEG
More than 10 million of
the worlds 16 million
hearing aids are made using
3D printing. The technology
allows for hearing aids to
be tailored to an individual

First 3D-printed car


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+6# YCURTKPVGFKPXGFC[UKP5GRCVVJG
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without extra expense.


The result is cheaper hearing
DLGVWKDWWWKHZHDUHU
better than mass-produced
models. US hearing-aid
manufacturers were so
taken with 3D printing that
100% of them now use it.
Medical researchers
are always interested in
pain-free alternatives to
administering medicine.
One example is the
3D-printed micro-needle,
comprising an array of
needles that measures
1 mm (0.03 in) across,
making it the smallest
3D-printed medical device.
Each of the 25 needles
in the instrument is only
20 micrometres wide
DIWKWKHGLDPHWHURI
a human hair.

DATELINE

(KTUV&RTKPVGFRKNNU
In Jul 2015, a
pharmaceutical
drug was
3D-printed for
WKHUVWWLPH
Spritam is made
by Aprecia from
New Jersey, USA,
and is intended
to relieve symptoms
associated with
seizures. With 3D printing,
different doses can be

1966
194 Science & Technology

Longest survival without food


On 12 Jul, Angus Barbieri (UK) eats his rst meal in 382 days, having lost around 293lb (132.9kg) by living on tea and
water. The formerly obese man had been taking part in an experiment looking at the health effects of starvation.

FAST FACTS
Chuck Hull (USA) invented stereolithography (a technique of building up 3D
objects in thin layers) in 1983 Three 3D-printed models of an Aston Martin
DB5 were made by Voxeljet (DEU) for the 2012 James Bond movie Skyfall

cryogenic hydrogen per


minute by spinning at a rate
of more than 90,000 rpm.
During the test, the
rocket generated almost
90 kilonewtons of thrust.
First dress made from
3D-printed material
In Jun 2000, Dutch
industrial engineer Jiri
Evenhuis led a team to
produce the Drape Dress
from 3D-printed fabric. The
material was made from
nylon particles and was
comprised of interlocking
rings like plastic chain mail.

Largest object 3D-printed in metal


In mid-2015, Rolls-Royce began testing jet engines using 3D-printed
metal parts. The Trent XWB-97 engine uses the largest metal
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created for different needs,
instead of creating one
size of pill for all. The pills
porous 3D structure allows
it to dissolve in around 4 sec
far faster than standard
over-the-counter medicines.
In Jul 2015, Spritam was
recognized by the US Food
and Drug Administration
(FDA) the UVW'SULQWHG
medicine to be approved for
commercial release.

First 3D-printing conviction


Yoshitomo Imura (JPN)
was imprisoned for two
years on 21 Oct 2014 for
3D-printing plastic guns. He
also posted clips of himself
WHVWULQJWKHZHDSRQVRQ
video website YouTube.

First 3D-printed laptop


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Dunwoody (both UK), the Pi-Top is a 3D-printed laptop
built around the Raspberry Pi 2 microcomputer. It is
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KPENWFKPIUETGGPDCVVGT[CPF
EQPVTQNNGTDQCTF CPFFGUKIPNGUVJCVCNNQYCP[QPG
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Most powerful rocket


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In Aug 2013, NASA testUHGDURFNHWHQJLQHZLWKD
fuel injector that had been
3D-printed from nickelchromium alloy powder.
The injector provides liquid
hydrogen for the rocket
to burn, and can supply
almost 5,500 litres
(1,450 US gal) of

DID YOU
KNOW?
It may b
e a worl
d

-beating
rst, bu
t this Ha
rley-Dav
replica d
idson
oes have
its limit
includ
ations
ing a top
speed of
15mph
only
(24km/h
). Its un
that any
likely
one will
b
e
using on
these 3D
e of
-printed
motorcy
to go on
cles
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ip
any
timesoo
n

FIRST 3DPRINTED
MOTORCYCLE

First heart transplant


On 3 Dec, South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard completes the rst successful heart transplant.
The patient dies of pneumonia soon after, but for 18 days his new heart functions without external aid.

1967

guinnessworldrecords.com 195

DATELINE

After 3D-printed cars, it was only a matter of time before motorcycle


enthusiasts printed a two-wheeled wonder. At 2015s RAPID show, in Long Beach,
California, USA, TE Connectivity (USA) unveiled the worlds rst 3D-printed motorcycle.
Of the orange-and-blue bikes 100 components, a total of 76 were 3D-printed, using 4.32mi
(6.95km) of ABS plastic lament as well as bronze and steel components. Multiple printers
worked together for 1,700 hr of total print time to create the parts. The electric motor,
tyres and mirrors could not be printed, however, as that technology doesnt yet exist.

CONSUMER TECH
NOW? r
te
DID YOrpUatK
hy, a compu

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According to Interbrands
annual Best Brands
ranking, the worlds most
valuable brand is currently
tech giant Apple (USA),
which grew 43% in 2015 to
be worth an extraordinary
$170.276 bn (112.1 bn).
This places it far ahead of
second-placed Google on
$120.314 bn (79.2 bn).
Its the third consecutive
year that Apple and Google
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places, respectively, in the
Interbrand report.

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aborder.

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On 18 May 2012, a funding
proposal for the Pebble:
E-Paper Watch for iPhone
and Android closed on
the crowdfunding site
Kickstarter, having secured
$10,266,845 (6,468,610)
from 68,929 backers.

Most buttons on a
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With 113 different buttons
representing every possible
QJHUSRVLWLRQRQD
17-fret guitar, the wireless
Fender Mustang PRO-Guitar
controller released with
4QEM$CPF (Harmonix/
MTV Games/EA, 2010)
has more individual inputs
than any peripheral in
console history even
more than a standard
PC keyboard.

$GUVUGNNKPITGOQVG
TCFKQEQPVTQNVQ[DTCPF
Air Hogs is a range of radiocontrolled toys including

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helicopters produced by
Spin Master (CAN). In
2014, the brand earned
a record $239,600,000
(154,240,000).

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With 39,810,000 units
sold as of 6 Apr 2016,
the PlayStation 4 (Sony
Interactive Entertainment)
is not only the fastest-

selling PlayStation to date


but also the biggest-selling
of the eighth-generation
consoles. By the same date,
the PS4s closest rival the
Xbox One (Microsoft) had
sold 18.06 million units.

The best-selling
hand-held videogame
console is the Nintendo
DS (released 2004), with
total worldwide sales of
154.88 million units as
of 13 Apr 2016.

BEST-SELLING BRANDS
We are surrounded by consumer electronics and
gadgetry from the ubiquitous smartphones we
carrywith us to the printers and monitors at work
and laptops and TVs at home. Electronics is big
business. Andthe brands shown here did the biggest
business of all in2014 the latest year for which
full sales gures are available as conrmed by
market-researchcompany Euromonitor.

LCD TV
Samsung (KOR) 49,267,500 units

Tablet
iPad (USA)

65,167,900 units

Printer
HP (USA) 22,249,200 units

In-car navigation

DATELINE

Garmin (CHE)

1969
196 Science & Technology

9,135,500 units

Wearable electronics

Smartphone

Fitbit (USA) 11,794,000 units

Samsung (KOR) 269,008,600 units

First men on the Moon


During the Apollo 11 mission, Neil Alden Armstrong becomes the rst man to set foot on the Moon, at 2:56a.m.
and 15sec GMT on 21Jul 1969. He is followed out of the lunar module Eagle by Buzz Aldrin (both USA).

FAST FACTS
Plasma displays employ minute gas cells set between two glass sheets. Each cell
acts like a tiny uorescent tube In 2015, Disney banned sele sticks from its
theme parks Nomophobia is the fear of being without your mobile phone

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DID YO

U KNOW
The abb
reviatio
?
n LED st
light-em
ands for
itting dio
supply th
d
e
.
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ht for th
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e display
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ast, OLE
are lit by
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itting
rganic
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layer of
a thin
carbon
lm behin
screen,
d the
which p
ro
vides
superior
image
quality.

OLED TV
LG (KOR) 65,800 units

Computer monitor

Portable tablet (eReader)

Portable player

Laptop

Kindle (USA)

iPod (USA)

Lenovo (CHN) 20,698,100 units

9,508,000 units

26,740,900 units

Farthest distance from Earth reached by humans


At 00:21a.m. GMT on 15Apr 1970, the crew of Apollo 13 were 254km (158mi) from the lunar
surface, on the far side of the Moon, putting them 400,171km (248,655mi) away from Earth.

1970

guinnessworldrecords.com 197

DATELINE

Samsung (KOR) 9,005,100 units

ROBOTS
Farthest
distance by
CSWCFTWRGF
robot
Xingzhe No.1 is a fourlegged robot that walked
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OK 
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built by Li Qingdu and
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University of Posts and
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First robot to be arrested


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FIRST
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CRCKTQHFGZVTQWUCTOUCPFJCPFUVJCVCTGKPVGITCVGFKPC
YQTMVQREQQMGTUKPMWPKV+VKUCDNGVQFQYPNQCFTGEKRGUETGCVGF
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CEQQMGT[GSWKXCNGPVQHK6WPGU1PEGCTGEKRGJCUDGGPUVQTGF
VJGTQDQVKUECRCDNGQHTGRGCVKPIKVCUQHVGPCUPGEGUUCT[

MOST CROWDFUNDED SOCIAL ROBOT

DATELINE

In 2014, a venture was launched on funding platform


Indiegogo to nance production of a robot called JIBO.
When the campaign started in July, it attracted huge
interest, with funding soaring past the initial goal of
$100,000 in less than four hours. The nal total raised
was$3,714,505 (2,415,985) from 7,422 supporters.
JIBO is a social robot that has the capability to recognize
owners faces, read emails and perform social-media
interaction via voice commands and apps. It also has
the ability to identify its owners moods by recognizing
smiles and frowns, and it can interact using a series of
complex articial intelligence (AI) routines. JIBO stands
11in (28cm) tall and weighs in at 6lb (2.7kg). It is pictured
herewithCynthia Breazeal (USA), who is the founder
ofthecreative team behind the robot.

1971
198 Science & Technology

First email
Computer engineer Ray Tomlinson (USA, 19412016) sends the landmark electronic message in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, USA. The text was not preserved, but it was something like QWERTYUIOP, said Tomlinson.

FAST FACTS
Leonardo da Vinci devised a robotic knight c. 1495; Mark Rosheim built it
in 2002, then applied some of its features to robots he designed for NASA
The word robot comes from the Czech robota (forced labour or work)

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GHEKGPE[5QPKEVTCPUFWEGTUCNNQYVJGTQDQVUVQEQOOWPKECVGCPFYQTMVQIGVJGTKPCUJQCN

Sweating robot
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VGEJPQNQI[+VUQNXGFVJGRW\\NGKPOKPUGE

First robot
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KNOW?are
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improve.

First all-in-one desktop computer


Hewlett-Packard launches the HP 9830, which includes a display, keyboard, hard drive
and processor all in one unit. It uses the BASIC programming language.

1972

guinnessworldrecords.com 199

DATELINE

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E\*HRUJH'HYRO 86$ 
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DQDVVHPEO\OLQHDQGZHOG
WKHPRQWRFDUERGLHV,W
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SMALL STUFF
7,300%

100%

Smallest working power tool


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Fastest nanotech DNA
diagnostic machine
On 7 Oct 2015, an
international team of
scientists revealed their

design for a nanometrescale DNA analysis machine.


It uses synthetic DNA tuned
to respond to antibodies
that indicate diseases such
as arthritis and HIV, giving
a result in just 5 min.

Most powerful MRI machine


Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (MRI) detects
disease by scanning inside
the body. A French-German
project, the INUMAC
(Imaging of Neuro disease
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Contrastophores) has a
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11.7 Tesla (compared to
conventional 3- or 7-Tesla
machines). This enables it
to image at a cube size of
0.1 mm (0.003 in), one-tenth
of current imaging size.
It can also take a picture
every 0.1 sec, 10 times
faster than average. Due
to be installed in 2016 in
Frances NeuroSpin centre,
it will help in studying and
diagnosing brain conditions.

Smallest sculpture of a human


Trust by Jonty Hurwitz (UK, b. ZAF) is a 3D-printed
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(the diameter of a human hair). The statue, inspired by
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SMALLEST...
Thermometer
On 9 Aug 2007, researchers
from McMaster University
in Hamilton, Ontario,
Canada, published a paper
on a thermometer
made from green
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the substance that
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The thermometer
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of light in direct
relationship to
its temperature.
The protein is
approximately
4.2 nanometres
(0.0000042 mm;
0.00000016 in)
long the size

Smallest engineering
truss framework
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75# JCUKPXGPVGFCHTCEVCNPCPQVTWUUYKVJCYCNNVJKEMPGUUQH
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nanostructures in a lattice framework, like that used in Frances
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Smallest
printed book

DATELINE

Shiki no Kusabana (Flowers


of the Four Seasons) was
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by Toppan Printing Co. in
$WPM[6QM[Q,CRCPKP
CPFKUCOGTGZOO
100%

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+VURCIGUGCEJQHYJKEJECP
VVJTQWIJVJGG[GQHCPGGFNGECTT[FTCYKPIUQH,CRCPGUG
HNQYGTUYKVJPCOGUIKXGPKPhiragana and katakana, the two
OCKP,CRCPGUGUETKRVUCUYGNNCUYKVJCP'PINKUJVTCPUNKVGTCVKQP
6JGDQQMRTKPVGFWUKPIVGEJPQNQI[WUWCNN[TGUGTXGFHQTCPVK
HQTIGT[HGCVWTGUQPDCPMPQVGUYCUUQNFCUCUGVYKVJCPGPNCTIGF
XGTUKQPCPFCOCIPKH[KPIINCUUHQT;GP
c 

1973
200 Science & Technology

of a cell and is safe for


use in humans. It could
be used in micro-surgical
monitoring.
Battery
In 2011, engineers at Rice
University in Houston,
Texas, USA, unveiled
a battery 0.5 microns
(0.0005 mm; 0.000019 in)
high and an almostinvisible 150 nanometres
(0.00015 mm; 0.0000059 in)
thick 60,000 times smaller
than an AAA. The battery is
formed by nanowires, one
half being the cathode and
one half being the anode.

First cellular phone


On 3 Apr, American engineer Martin Cooper makes the rst ever call on his prototype Motorola DynaTAC cellular phone.
Using a base station on the roof of his ofce, he phoned his rival, Joel Engel of AT&T, while standing in the street.

FAST FACTS
A nanometre (nm) is one billionth of a metre, or about one 25-millionth
ofaninch The smallest unit of measurement of length is the Planck, at
about amillionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimetre

Smallest
scissors
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working scissors are
made from stainless steel
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Chen also holds the
record for the smallest
china teapot, which
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spout and handle.

540%

Motorized model car


In 2003, a team of engineers
from the Denso Corporation
(JPN) created a motorized
model of a 1936 Toyota AA
sedan that was only
4.785 mm (0.0681 in) long.
It contained a tiny electric
motor that propelled the

car at a top speed of


0.018 km/h (0.011 mph).
The smallest model
car was made in 2005
by scientists at Rice
University (USA) from a
cluster of carbon atoms
less than 4 nanometres
(0.00000015 in) across.

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chassis, two independent
axles and four wheels made
from buckminsterfullerene
(a type of spherical carbon
molecule).
3D map of Earth
In 2010, scientists at IBM
made a detailed 3D map of
Earth so small that 1,000
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of salt. Patterns of Earths
continents were created
with a silicon cutting tip
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sharpened pencil. It carved
out geographical features
as small as 15 nanometres
high (0.000015 mm;
0.00000059 in).
5VCTUJKREnterprise
Aptly named Nano Trek,
a 1-billionth-scale model

of the USS Enterprise


(NCC-1701-D) was created
by Takayuki Hoshino and
Shinji Matsui (both JPN)
of the Himeji Institute
of Technology in
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used a 30-kV focused
ion beam to etch the
replica of the iconic
Star Trek ship, creating
a sculpture that was
just 8.8 microns
(0.0088 mm;
0.0003 in) long
more than 1,000 to the
centimetre (or nearly
3,000 to the inch)!
It won the Best Ion
Micrograph prize at
the 2003 conference
on Electron, Ion
and Photon Beam
Technology and
Nanofabrication in
Tampa, Florida, USA.
Animal sculpture
In 2015, Jonty Hurwitz
(see opposite page)
created Fragile Giant
a life-like elephant
that measured a mere
0.157 mm (0.006 in)
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a computer model
from photographs
of a real elephant,
then rendered it in
3D using a technique
called multiphoton
lithography. This
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in a process similar
to 3D printing, but
on a micro scale.
The sculpture, which
has features just a
few thousandths of
a millimetre across,
can perch on one ridge
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14,200%

DID YO

U KN
Wigans
sculpture OW?
in the ey
s sit eith
er
e of a ne
edle or o
head of
n the
a pin, an
d are cle
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arly
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er a mic
Wigan b
roscope
ecame in
.
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re
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a
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es and h
ats,
to t an
ts!

SMALLEST STATUE OF LIBERTY

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#75 CPF
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in diameter and uses red phosphorus as propellant.

First aircraft to y on solar power


The AstroFlight Sunrise, an unmanned electric aircraft, takes off on the morning of 4 Nov using the power
fromsolar panels in its wings. It will make another 27 ights before breaking up in heavy turbulence.

1974

guinnessworldrecords.com 201

DATELINE

Smallest working cannon

There are a few Statues of Liberty around the world,


including the most famous one on Liberty Island in New
York, USA. While that statue is an imposing 93.1m (305ft
5in) high, the worlds smallest version of Lady Liberty,
by UK artist Willard Wigan, ts within the eye of a needle.
At c. 0.5mm (0.02in) in height, it is the smallest Statue
of Liberty that exactly conforms to the dimensions of
the New York original. The sculpture is crafted from a
tiny speck of gold painstakingly hand-carved using tools
made by Wigan himself. He applies his sculpting tools in
between heartbeats to reduce the effects of hand tremor.

LASERS
Highest Earth
Moon bandwidth
In Oct 2013, a team from NASA
and the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology sent signals to the Lunar
Atmosphere and Dust Environment
Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft
orbiting the Moon. They achieved a
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per sec. Engineers were able to
download the spacecrafts 1-GB
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Using conventional radio waves,
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Highest laser energy shone on to a single target


In Jun 2009, scientists at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
in California, USA, began operating an array of 192 powerful lasers designed to research nuclear
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for more than 48 hr using a
ground-based laser and a
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DATELINE

Highest altitude achieved


by laser power
On 2 Oct 2000, Lightcraft
Technologies (USA)

1976
202 Science & Technology

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(4.8-in) craft to a height
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distance of 24 million km
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long-distance space
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the Linac Coherent Light


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California, USA, achieved a
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that they had created an
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MOST BALLOONS BURST IN


ONEMINUTE USING A LASER
On 22Sep 2014, Daniel Black (UK) popped 55 balloons in
60sec with a self-built laser at the Institute of Making
at UCL in London, UK. His laser had a wavelength of
445nanometres. The balloons were black, to absorb as much
incident energy (the energy hitting the surface) as possible.

First hand-held electronic videogame


Mattel (USA) release Auto Race, the rst gaming toy with no moving parts. Players have to navigate their car represented
by a large red dot on a tiny LED display past their slower-moving competitors (smaller dots) to win the race.

FAST FACTS
The word laser stands for Light Amplication by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation In 1969, the Apollo 11 astronauts used a laser to measure the distance
from the Moon to Earth; the result was accurate to within the width of a nger

cavity made from silicon,


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This prototype can absorb
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sodium ions. Astronomers used this star to observe how much
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applications in medicine
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In Feb 2011, scientists
from Yale University, USA,
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of cancelling out a laser
beam. It uses an optical

Living laser
In Jun 2011, scientists
at the Wellman Center
for Photomedicine at
Massachusetts General
Hospital, USA, announced
that they had used cells
from a human kidney to
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by around 20C (68F).

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before putting the process
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Longest line of balloons


popped using a laser
The three presenters of ITVs science and technology show
+VU0QV4QEMGV5EKGPEG (UK) burst a line of 200 balloons by
means of an Nd:YAG laser in Borehamwood, UK, on 23 Jan
2016. Pictured above, from left to right, are the trio Rachel
Riley, Romesh Ranganathan and Ben Miller (all UK), with GWR
CFLWFKECVQT5CO/CUQPYJQQXGTUCYVJGTGEQTFCVVGORV

Highest box-ofce gross by a science-ction lm series


Star Wars (USA) later retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope is released. It is the rst movie
inafranchise that will go on to gross $6,452,324,357 (4,513,190,000) worldwide as of Feb2016.

1977

guinnessworldrecords.com 203

DATELINE

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On 26 Mar 2015, scientists
from the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology
(USA) and the University of
Belgrade (SRB) announced
that they had quantumentangled 2,910 atoms

of rubidium (give or take


190 atoms). They achieved
this by trapping the supercooled particles between
two slightly transparent
mirrors and bombarding
them with weak laser pulses.
Quantum entanglement
occurs when particles are so

fundamentally connected
that they can theoretically
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attosecond is a quintillionth
(10-18) of a second. The feat
was achieved by Eleftherios
Goulielmakis (GRC/DEU)
and his team of researchers
at the Max Planck Institute
of Quantum Optics in
Garching, Germany, and
published on 4 Feb 2016.
Largest known
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On 7 Jan 2016, a computer
volunteered by Dr Curtis
Cooper (USA) at the
University of Central
Missouri, USA, discovered
the Mersenne prime number
274,207,281-1. The number has
a designation M74207281.
Reading two digits per
second, it would take more
than 100 days to read out
the 22,338,618-digit number.

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Albert Einstein proposed the existence of gravitational


waves in 1916, but they were not detected until 11Feb
2016. They are made when huge objects in space speed up
or slow down. By mapping the movements of these waves,
scientists have a new way of analysing signals from the
universe. The detection was made by the LIGO Scientic
Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the Laser
Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).
LIGO is the largest gravitational-wave detector. It is
located at two sites in the USA: Hanford in Washington
and Livingston in Louisiana (below). Each houses two
L-shaped, 4-km (2.5-mi) steel vacuum tubes, down which
lasers are red. The lasers interfere with each other in
detectors, allowing tiny uctuationsin space-time to be
studied, a process called interferometry.

DATELINE

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1978
204 Science & Technology

Most Tour de France stage wins


Eddie Merckx (BEL) celebrates his 34th stage win in the Tour de France. His rst had come in 1969. Along with three
other riders, Merckxalso shares the record for the most Tour de France wins (5), with victories in 196972 and 1974.

FAST FACTS
14,650%

When cooled to absolute zero (-273.15C; -459.67F), helium becomes a liquid


that flows against gravity Scientists have developed a way of recharging
mobile phones with urine We share some of our DNA with bananas

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First spacecraft to orbit


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On 6 Aug 2014, the
European Space Agencys
Rosetta spacecraft entered
orbit around comet 67P/
Churyumov-Gerasimenko
(67P). On 12 Nov 2014, it
released Philae, a lander
designed to analyse the
comets surface. As of
27 Jan 2016, Rosetta had
been orbiting 67P for
539 days, and is the longest
orbital survey of a comet.
Most distant object
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Hubble Space Telescope,


a team of astronomers
announced on 3 Mar 2016
their discovery of a galaxy in
the Ursa Major constellation.
The light detected by Hubble
from this galaxy, GN-z11,
dates back 13.4 billion years,
around 400 million years
after the Big Bang. In that
time, the expansion of the
universe means that GN-z11
is now some 32 billion light
years from Earth.
Longest X-ray
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European XFEL stretches
3.4 km (2.1 mi) and across

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laser (XFEL) incorporates
high-speed electrons moving
through magnets. The laser
itself measures 2 km (1.2 mi)
long, with an acceleration
length of 1.7 km (1.06 mi).
It requires 17.5 billion
electron volts and operates
at a temperature of
-271C (-455.8F).

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First object 3D-printed from


extraterrestrial material

Oldest person to get divorced


On 21Nov, after nineyears of marriage, 101-year-old Harry Bidwell of East Sussex, UK, divorces his
65-year-old wife, Lucy. He feels that she wasnt domesticated enough and is soon seeking a new partner.

1980

guinnessworldrecords.com 205

DATELINE

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SPORTS

1981
206 Sports

First car to sell 20 million units


On 15 May, the 20-millionth Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the assembly line, at Volkswagen de
Mxicos factory in Puebla. Production of the car in Germany had ceased three years previously.

CONTENTS
SPORTS FACTOGRAPHIC

208

AMERICAN FOOTBALL/
BASEBALL

210

BASKETBALL / ICE HOCKEY

212

BOXING / MARTIAL ARTS

214

CRICKET / GOLF

216

EXTREME SPORTS/
STREETSPORTS

218

AUTO SPORTS /
CYCLING

220

RUGBY / TENNIS

222

CLUB SOCCER /
INTERNATIONAL SOCCER

224

TRACK / FIELD

226

SWIMMING / WATER SPORTS 228


SPORTS ROUND-UP

230

SPORTS REFERENCE

232

Highest annual earnings


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Youngest player in a FIFA World Cup


On 17 Jun, Norman Whiteside appears for Northern Ireland vs Yugoslavia at La Romareda
stadium in Zaragoza, Spain, aged 17years 41days. The game nishes goalless.

1982

guinnessworldrecords.com 207

DATELINE

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Source: Forbes

=9. Washington Redskins (USA)


American football
$2.4 bn

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=9. Los Angeles Dodgers (USA)


Baseball
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American football
$2.6 bn

RICHEST RETIRED ATHLETES 2015

=2. New York Yankees (USA)


Baseball
$3.2 bn

TIGER WOODS
EARNINGS

8. New York Knicks (USA)


Basketball
$2.5 bn

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Basketball
$2.6 bn

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=2. Dallas Cowboys (USA)


American football
$3.2 bn

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Soccer
$3.26 bn

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NBA EARNINGS

Player:
$59,756

Cheerleader:
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NBA average:
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AMERICAN FOOTBALL

Most
consecutive
pass
completions
Miami Dolphins
quarterback Ryan
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NFL games: seven
straight against the
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All teams and players are USA.


Youngest NFL player to
reach 1,000 receptions
At 32 years 97 days old,
Larry Fitzgerald (b. 31 Aug
1983) of the Arizona
Cardinals caught his 1,000th
pass on 6 Dec 2015.

Most passing yards


in an NFL career
On 15 Nov 2015, Peyton
Manning of the Denver
Broncos gained 35 yards

First quarterback to win the Super Bowl


with two different teams
Peyton Manning led the Indianapolis Colts to a 2917 victory over the Chicago Bears in Super
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passing in a game against
the Miami Dolphins to reach
71,871 passing yards the
NFLs all-time record.
Manning is also the
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MOST RUSHING TOUCHDOWNS


BY AN NFL QUARTERBACK

DATELINE

Cam Newton has run for 43touchdowns in 78games


for the Carolina Panthers since2011. This equals
the record set by Steve Young in 169 games over
15seasons, playing for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers
andSan Francisco 49ers from 1985 to 1999.
Newton also threw two touchdown passes and ran
for two touchdowns in a 3810 victory over the Tampa
Bay Buccaneers on 3Jan 2016. This represents the
most times passing and running for touchdowns
inthe same NFL game a record 31.

1983
210 Sports

SRVWVHDVRQ . He won 186


regular season games and
14 postseason games,
playing for the Indianapolis
Colts and Denver Broncos
between 1998 and 2015.

Minnesota Vikings in a
3014 win over the Oakland
Raiders on 15 Nov 2015. It
was Petersons sixth 200yard game, equalling the
mark set by O J Simpson.

Most games
gaining 200 yards
rushing in an
0(.ECTGGT
Adrian Peterson
gained 203 yards
rushing while
playing for the

Shortest regular season


overtime game
On 4 Oct 2015, New Orleans
Saints Drew Brees (below),
playing the Dallas Cowboys,
threw a touchdown pass to
C J Spiller for a 2620 win
in 13 sec of overtime.

Most combined touchdown


passes in an NFL game
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Deepest penetration into Earths crust


Excavation ceases on a geological exploratory borehole near Zapolyarny, on the Kola Peninsula ofArctic Russia.
The depth reached is 12,261m (40,226ft) when work stops owing to a lack of funds.

BASEBALL
Longest
Major League
Baseball
(MLB) World
Series game
(innings)

Most consecutive
postseason games hitting
a home run (individual)
Playing for the New York
Mets, Daniel Murphy hit a
home run in six successive
playoff games in the 2015
postseason. In Jan 2016,
Murphy signed with the
Washington Nationals.

All teams and individuals are


USA, unless otherwise stated.
Most runs batted in
D[CRKVEJGTKPJKUTUVICOG
On 28 Jun 2015, Steven
Matz, the winning pitcher
for the New York Mets
against the Cincinnati
Reds, batted in four runs.
Most at-bats
without recording
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Sox, Oakland Athletics
and Chicago Cubs from
16 Jun 2006 to 6 Jul 2015,
Jon Lester had the longest
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regular season at-bats.
Most grand slam home runs
in an MLB career
A grand slam home run is
one hit when all the bases
are occupied. Playing for

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the Seattle Mariners, Texas


Rangers and New York
Yankees, Alex Rodriguez
has recorded 25 since 1994.

Most home runs in one


postseason game by a team
On 12 Oct 2015, in Game
Three of the National
League
Division
Series, the
Chicago
Cubs hit six
home runs in an 86 victory
over the St Louis Cardinals.
The Cardinals hit two
home runs in the same
game for a combined
total of eight the PRVW
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WHDPV. Chicagos homerun hitters were Starlin
Castro (DOM), Anthony
Rizzo, Dexter Fowler, Kris
Bryant, Jorge Soler (CUB)
and Kyle Schwarber. Jason
Heyward and Stephen
Piscotty each
connected for
the Cardinals.

Most consecutive matches in MLB


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Highest
National
Baseball Hall
of Fame vote
percentage
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elected to the National
Baseball Hall of Fame
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ever percentage of
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MOST TIMES HITTING


FOR THE CYCLE
The cycle is a rare baseball feat in which
a batter hits a single, double, triple and
home run (in any order) in the same game.
The greatest number of times this has been
done in a career is three: by John Reilly
from 1883 to 1890 (including twice in seven
days); Bob Meusel from 1921 to 1928; Babe
Herman from 1931 to 1933; and Adrin
Beltr (DOM; pictured) from 2008 to 3Aug
2015. Beltr, of the Texas Rangers, secured
his third cycle in a 129 victory against
theHouston Astros.

Most valuable shipwreck found


Treasure-hunter Mel Fisher (USA, 192298) nds the Nuestra Seora de Atocha off the Florida coast on 20Jul. The
ship sank in 1622, with a cargo of 40US tons (36.2tonnes) of gold and silver and some 70lb (32kg) of emeralds.

Most games to feature


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home run by the same player
Two players have each hit a
home run left-handed and
another right-handed in the
same game on 14 occasions.
They are Mark Teixeira (since
2003, for the Texas Rangers,
Atlanta Braves, Los Angeles
Angels and New York
Yankees) and Nick Swisher
(since 2004, for the Oakland
Athletics, Chicago White Sox,
New York Yankees, Cleveland
Indians and Atlanta Braves).

1985

guinnessworldrecords.com 211

DATELINE

1P1EVVJG
Kansas City Royals
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/GVUKPKPPKPIU
Their record equalled that
of the Chicago White
Sox vs Houston Astros in
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Red Sox vs Brooklyn
&QFIGTUKP1EV

BASKETBALL
The most points scored
in NBA All-Star games is
291 by LeBron James
(USA), playing in 11 All-Star
games from 2005 to 2016.
Most points scored by
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The Houston Rockets scored
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of their postseason match
against the Golden State
Warriors on 25 May 2015.
This matched the total set
by the Los Angeles Lakers
on 18 Apr 1985 and Dallas
Mavericks on 4 May 1986.

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5VCVG9CTTKQTUFWTKPIVJG0$#RNC[QHHU6JG9CTTKQTU
UGVCPGYTGEQTFHQTVJGbest season start KP0$#JKUVQT[YKVJ
EQPUGEWVKXGXKEVQTKGUVQDGIKPVJGUGCUQP
All records relate to
the National Basketball
Association (NBA). All teams
and individuals are USA.
Most points scored by
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The West All-Stars scored
196 points in the All-Star
Game held on 14 Feb 2016.
The most points scored by
a player in an All-Star Game
is 42, by Wilt Chamberlain in
1962. The same year, he
recorded the most points
scored by an individual
in an NBA game: 100.

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On 14 Feb 2016, the two
All-Stars sides scored a
combined 369 points. The
West All-Stars beat the
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For 11 min on 16 Jan 2015,
Austin Rivers played under
Los Angeles Clippers coach
Doc Rivers against the
Cleveland Cavaliers.
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28 games in a row from
0DUWR1RY
2015. They also
share the record for
most consecutive
losses to start a
season (18) with the
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Kobe Bryant
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CV
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points
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the OQUVGNFIQCNUOCFGKP0$##NN5VCTICOGU
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MOST THREE-POINT FIELD GOALS


BY A TEAM IN A SEASON

DATELINE

The Houston Rockets set an NBA record by scoring 933 three-point eld
goals during the 2014/15 season. In the course of achieving that milestone,
the Rockets also registered the most three-point eld goals attempted
by a team in a season: 2,680. James Harden (right) performed the most
turnovers in a postseason game by an individual 13 while playing for
the Rockets in a 10490 loss to the Golden State Warriors. He set the record
on 27May 2015, during Game 5 of the teams playoff series.

1986
212 Sports

DID YOU

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2011/12
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Largest monster truck


Over the summer, Bob Chandler (USA) builds the monstrous Bigfoot5, which stands 15ft 6in (4.7m)
tall and tips the scales at 38,000lb (17,235kg). Each of its tyres measures 10ft (3m) off the ground.

ICE HOCKEY

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 CPFVJGmost
shootout goals by a
team
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All records relate to the
National Hockey League
(NHL) contested in the
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Fastest ice hockey shot
Zdeno Chra (SVK)
delivered a 108.8-mph
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for the Boston Bruins
(USA) during the All-Star
Games Skills Competition
in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada,
on 29 Jan 2012.
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In total, 29 goals
were scored in
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All-Star Game
at Columbus in
Ohio, USA. Team
Toews beat
Team Foligno


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of the Ottawa Senators
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In a shutout, a goalie stops
the opposing team from

scoring for the whole game.


The Edmonton Oilers Ben
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the San Jose Sharks (USA)
on 29 Jan 2014.
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The Boston Bruins earned
96 points in the standings
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the postseason. The Bruins
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their points.

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LONGEST ROAD WINNING


STREAK BY A TEAM

Greatest collapse of global stock markets


On 19 Oct Black Monday stocks begin a dramatic worldwide decline. By the end of the month, the US stock
market has dropped by 22.68%, the Canadian stock market by 22.5% and the UK stock market by 26.4%.

1987

guinnessworldrecords.com 213

DATELINE

/QUVUJQVUDNQEMGF
KPCUGCUQP
Kris Russell blocked
283 shots for the
Calgary Flames

The longest unbroken run of wins away from


home is 12 games, rst accomplished by
the Detroit Red Wings during the 2005/06
season and matched by the Minnesota
Wild (both USA) in 2014/15. Pictured,
Zach Parise (USA, far left) and Mikko
Koivu (FIN, left) celebrate as the Wild
tie the score at 11 against the Los
Angeles Kings on 16Oct 2015.
The Detroit Red Wings recorded
thelongest home winning streak
by a team, with 23 consecutive home
wins during the 2011/12 season.
The longest winning streak overall
by a team is 17 games, set by the Pittsburgh
Penguins (USA) between 9Mar and 10Apr 1993.

BOXING
Most expensive boxing
championship belt
The World Boxing
Council (WBC) Emerald
Belt awarded to Floyd
Mayweather Jr (USA) on
2 May 2015 cost $1,000,000
(657,251) to produce.
Mayweather received the
belt following his defeat
of the Philippines Manny
Pacquiao (see below).

/QUVIQNFOGFCNUYQPKPVJG
AIBA World Boxing Championships
(light heavyweight)
Julio Csar La Cruz (CUB) won three consecutive AIBA titles, in
2011, 2013 and 2015. La Cruz is pictured above, in blue, defeating
+TGNCPFU,QG9CTFKPVJGPCNUKP&QJC3CVCT

HIGHEST REVENUE
FROMTICKET SALES
FORABOXING MATCH
A welterweight title ght between
Floyd Mayweather Jr (USA) and
Manny Pacquiao (PHL) earned
$72,198,500 (46,843,387)
from the sale of 16,219 tickets.
The ght took place at the
MGM Grand in Las Vegas,
Nevada, USA, on 2May 2015.
Mayweather won on points.

Most bouts undefeated


by a world champion boxer
in a career
Legendary heavyweight
champion Rocky Marciano,
aka Rocco Francis
Marchegiano (USA),
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professional career, with
49 victories between
17 Mar 1947 and 21 Sep
1955 (he announced his
retirement on 27 Apr
1956). In all, 43 of his 49
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or stoppages. This feat
was equalled by Floyd
Mayweather Jr (USA), a
FKDPSLRQDFURVVYHZHLJKW
divisions, who also retired
with a 490 record, which
he set between 11 Oct 1996
and 12 Sep 2015. He won
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Oldest boxing world
champion (female)
Bettering her
own record
set in 2013,

Most world heavyweight title bouts


Wladimir Klitschko (UKR, above) was crowned WBO champion
QP1EV9KVJJKUYQTNFVKVNGIJVQP0QX
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title bouts. Until then, Klitschko had matched the record set
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75# YJQDGECOGEJCORKQPQP,WP
CPFJCFJKUVJCPFPCNUJQVCVVJGVKVNGQP5GR

Jamaican-American boxer
Alicia Ashley (b. 23 Aug
1967) defeated Christina
McMahon (IRL) to regain
the WBC Female Super
Bantamweight title, in New
York, USA, on 29 Oct 2015,
aged 48 years 67 days.

?
U KNOW
DID YOan
e
at
un
rt
fo
un

DATELINE

There was
ers
Mayweath
epilogue to
cquiao. His
Pa
t
ns
ai
victory ag
m just two
ken from hi
title was ta
ld Boxing
or
W
e
r by th
months late
failing to
r
n (WBO) fo
Organizatio
130,931)
(
00
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00
pay a set $2
come
ve
ha
to
feethat was
s
r
ne
in
outofhis w
purse.

1990
214 Sports

Most distant image of Earth


On 14Feb, NASAs Voyager 1 takes a picture of Earthfrom a distance of almost 6.5billion km (4billion mi).
(For more on the Voyager spacecrafts incredible and still ongoing journey, see pp.2425.)

MARTIAL ARTS

First athlete to win boxing


and MMA world titles
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Association) welterweight champion in 2006 and held
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Most top-division sumo bouts


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bouts; UJKQHQWIJVDQWVUVQ-[QMWVGPJU

UHJXODWLRQJKWVWKDWWRS
rikishi (sumo wrestlers)
contest annually the most
wins in a calendar year.
Most wins of the World
Judo Championships team
competition (female)
The Japanese womens
team has
taken the
top spot at
the World Judo
&KDPSLRQVKLSVYH
times, in 2002, 2008,
2012, 2013 and 2015.

Most wins of the World


Judo Championships (male)
Guadeloupe-born Teddy
Riner (FRA) has won eight
titles at the World Judo
Championships seven in
the +100 kg (heavyweight)
division (2007, 200911,
201315) and one as a
member of
the French
mens team
in 2011.

Most medals won in the


Karate 1 Premier League
Alisa Buchinger and Bettina
Plank (both AUT) each won
14 Karate 1 Premier League
medals from 2013 to 2015.

LONGEST TOTAL FIGHT


TIME IN A UFC CAREER
The greatest aggregate time spent in the octagon (the
eight-sided enclosure where UFC bouts take place) by a
UFC ghter is 5hr 37min 51sec by Frankie Edgar (USA),
between 3Feb 2003 and 11Dec 2015.
Edgar attained his feat in 18 UFC ghts, breaking the
record set by Georges St-Pierre (CAN), who had achieved
a time of 5hr 28min 12sec across 21bouts in 2013.
A UFC lightweight champion in 2010, Edgar defended
the title three times before losing to Benson Henderson
in 2012. Edgar is shown below (left) during his defeat of
fellow American Urijah
Faber on 16May 2015
in the Philippine
capital ofManila.

Youngest
competitor
KPC-CTCVG
Premier League event
Cengizhan Koca (TUR,
b. 7 Oct 1998) was 16 years
333 days old when he fought
at the Karate 1 Istanbul
2015 event on 5 Sep 2015.

First website
On 6Aug in Geneva, Switzerland, computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee (UK) launches
the website he has built to demonstrate the World Wide Web: http://info.cern.ch/.

1991

guinnessworldrecords.com 215

DATELINE

Most top-division sumo


championships won
$VRI-XO+DNXK
6KDND0QNKEDW\Q
Davaajargal (MNG), had
won 35 top-division sumo
championships. In 2009,
and again in 2010, he won
86 bouts out of the 90

CRICKET
against the Adelaide
Strikers in Australia on
18 Jan 2016. This equalled
the record set in 2007 by
Yuvraj Singh (IND), playing
against England in the ICC
World Twenty20 tournament.

Highest partnership in a
6YGPV[
6 +PVGTPCVKQPCN

/QUVTWPUUEQTGFD[
VGCOUKPCP1&+UGTKGU
England (1,617) and New
Zealand (1,534) together
scored 3,151 runs in their
One-Day International
(ODI) series in England in
Jun 2015, including tons
from Englands Jos Buttler,
Joe Root (2) and Eoin
Morgan, and New Zealands
Ross Taylor (2) and Kane
Williamson. England, who
scored the most runs by a
WHDPLQDYHPDWFK2',
series, won the series 32.

/QUV
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D[CYKEMGV
MGGRGT
in a T20
+PVGTPCVKQPCN
/QJCOOCF5JCJ\CF

#() OCFGXG
FKUOKUUCNUCICKPUV1OCP
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KP#DW&JCDK7#'QP
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VJTGGECVEJGUCPFOCFG
VYQUVWORKPIUVQJGNR
JKUVGCOYKPD[TWPU

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NGHV CPF
-CPG9KNNKCOUQPCEJKGXGFCPWPDTQMGPUVCPFQHTWPUKPC6
+PVGTPCVKQPCNCICKPUV2CMKUVCPCV5GFFQP2CTMKP0GY<GCNCPF
)WRVKNN
PQVQWVQHHDCNNU CPF9KNNKCOUQP
PQVQWVQHH
DCNNU UCYVJGJQUVUJQOGKPQXGTUYKVJDCNNUVQURCTG
First daynight Test match
On 2729 Nov 2015,
Australia and New Zealand
contested a daynight Test,
with a pink ball (to increase
visibility), at the Adelaide
Oval in Australia. With this
experiment in starting and
QLVKLQJWKHPDWFKODWHUWKH
International Cricket Council
(ICC) hoped to enable more
people to watch Test cricket.
Fastest Test match hundred
On 20 Feb 2016, playing
against Australia in his
QDO7HVWPDWFK1HZ

FASTEST BALL
BOWLED IN A
TEST MATCH

Zealand captain Brendon


McCullum smashed
a 54-ball hundred,
featuring 16 fours and
four sixes. The feat took
79 min at Hagley Oval in
Christchurch, New Zealand.
McCullum has also hit
the most sixes in a Test
match career: 107 in
176 innings.
(CUVGUVHV[
in a T20 match
Chris Gayle (JAM)
UHFRUGHGDEDOOIW\IRU
the Melbourne Renegades

DATELINE

Australias Mitchell Starc delivered


160.4 km/h
a ball at 160.4 km/h (99.66 mph)
during a Test match between Australia and New Zealand
at the WACA in Perth, Australia, on 15Nov 2015. The
left-armers yorker was defended by New Zealand
batsman Ross Taylor, who weathered the storm and
went on to make 290 the highest Test score by a
visiting batsman in Australia. Starc is only the fourth
bowler after Shoaib Akhtar (PAK, 2003), Brett Lee
(AUS, 2005) and Shaun Tait (AUS, 2010) to achieve
a bowling speed of160km/h (99.41mph) or more
inthe historyof international cricket.

1996
216 Sports

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C6GUVOCVEJ
DCNNUDQYNGF
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OKPVQFKUOKUUXGQH#WUVTCNKCUVQRQTFGTKPVJG(QWTVJ#UJGU
6GUVCV6TGPV$TKFIG7-*GGSWCNNGFVJGTGEQTFD['TPKG6QUJCEM

#75 YJQVQQMXGYKEMGVUHQTVYQTWPUKPGKIJVDCNNQXGTU
CICKPUV+PFKCCV$TKUDCPG%TKEMGV)TQWPF#WUVTCNKCQP&GE
(KTUV1&+UGTKGUYKPHQT
CPCUUQEKCVG+%%OGODGT
CICKPUVCHWNNOGODGT
$IJKDQLVWDQZRQWKHUVW
ODI series against a Testplaying nation, beating
Zimbabwe 32 in Oct 2015.
*KIJGUVUEQTGKP
CNKOKVGFQXGTUOCVEJ

OKPQTETKEMGV 
On 3 Nov 2014, in Ooty
(Ootacamund), India,
15-year-old Sankruth
Sriram (IND) smashed
486 not out playing for
JSS International School
against Hebron School.

/QUVTWPUKP6GUVOCVEJGU
DGVYGGPFKUOKUUCNU
From 10 Dec 2015 to 14 Feb
2016, Adam Voges (AUS)
scored 614 runs.

DID YO

U KN
There are
10 full IC OW?
(Test-pla
C memb
ying nati
ers
ons). Ass
ICC mem
ociate
bers wit
h
ODI statu
Afghanis
tan, Hon
s are
Papua N
g Kong,
Ireland,
ew Guin
ea, Scotl
UAE. As
and and
of 24Oct
the
2015, Afg
had won
hanistan
six of th
e
ir rst 2
against
0 ODIs
Test-pla
ying
nations.

First animal cloned from an adult cell


On 5Jul, Dolly the Sheep is born in the UK to a surrogate mother. Dolly is successfully cloned from the cell
ofan adult Finnish Dorset sheep. She will give birth to lambs by natural means and reach the age of six.

GOLF
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VQRCTKP
COGPU
IQNHOCLQT

/QUVYKPUQHVJG2TGUKFGPVU%WRD[CVGCO
6JG75#JCUYQPVJGDKGPPKCNVQWTPCOGPVPKPGVKOGUKP
CPF6JG2TGUKFGPVU%WRKUEQPVGUVGFD[VJG75#CPFCPKPVGTPCVKQPCNVGCOOCFGWR
QHRNC[GTUYJQCTGKPGNKIKDNGVQRNC[KPVJG4[FGT%WRVJCVKUVJGTGUVQHVJGYQTNFNGUU'WTQRG
+PKVYCUJGNFKP+PEJGQP5QWVJ-QTGCCPFVJG75#YQPD[|VQ|RQKPVU

.QYGUVUEQTGVQRCT
KPCYQOGPUIQNHOCLQT
Five golfers in three
different majors have
UHFRUGHG,WZDVUVW
achieved by Dottie Pepper
(USA) at the 1999 Kraft

Nabisco Championship.
This was matched by
Karen Stupples (UK) at
the 2004 British Open,
and by Cristie Kerr
DID YO
(USA) and Yani Tseng
Mickey W U KNOW?
right (U
SA) was
(TPE) at the 2010
rst to w
the
in the LP
Champio
and 2011 LPGA
GA
nship ba
(19606
ck-to-ba
championships.
1) and a
ck
chieved
wins of
the most
Most recently it
the LPG
A Cham
four. Sh
pionship
e also sh
was achieved
:
ares the
for the m
record
by Inbee Park
ost US W
o
m
O
e
n
p
s
entitles
(KOR, right)
(four) w
ith
BetsyRa
at the LPGA
wls(UK).
Championship in
Harrison, New York,
USA, on 1114 Jun
2015. For Kerr, Tseng and
Park, these records also
marked the lowest score
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-14 YQPVJG.CFKGU2TQHGUUKQPCN)QNH
under par in the LPGA
#UUQEKCVKQP%JCORKQPUJKRVJTGGVKOGUVYKEGD[RNC[QHHCPFQPEG
Championship.
D[XGUVTQMGU5JGGSWCNNGFVJGTGEQTFUGVD[#PPKMC5TGPUVCO

59' KP5GGNGHVHQTCPQVJGTQH2CTMUTGEQTFU
;QWPIGUVIQNHGTVQYKP
CYQOGPUOCLQTIQNH
EJCORKQPUJKR
was already the youngest
2015 Evian Championships
Lydia Ko (NZ, b. KOR, 24 Apr
golfer ranked number one
in vian-les-Bains, France,
1997) was aged 18 years
(aged 17 years 283 days on
on 13 Sep 2015. At the time
142 days when she won the
1 Feb 2015). She was also
of setting this record, Ko
the youngest LPGA Tour
HYHQWZLQQHU of the CN
Canadian Womens Open
HIGHEST EARNINGS
in Vancouver, Canada, on
IN A PGA SEASON
26 Aug 2012, at the age
Jordan Spieth (USA, b. 27Jul 1993) dominated the 2015 PGA
of 15 years 124 days.
Tour and received $12,030,465 (7,851,960) in earnings.

/QUVEQPUGEWVKXGYKPU
QHVJG.2)#%JCORKQPUJKR

No one had ever won more than $11m prior to Spieths


lucrative season. Other than the standard PGA earnings,
he also picked up a $10-m (7.18-m) bonus by winning
the Tours nale, the FedEx Cup. In so doing, he became
the youngest player to win the FedEx Cup, aged 22years
62days. Clinching this and the Tour Championship
returned Spieth to his position as world No.1.

Land-speed record
On 15Oct, Andy Green (UK) pilots the jet-powered Thrust SSC to a speed of 1,227.985 km/h (763.035mph);
Mach 1.020) in the Black Rock Desert, Nevada, USA. It is the rst car to break the sound barrier.

*KIJGUVCPPWCNGCTPKPIU
HQTCIQNHGT
EWTTGPV[GCT
In Jun 2014Jun 2015, Phil
Mickelson (USA) earned an
estimated $51 m (32.4 m),
surpassing Tiger Woods by
one place in the Forbes list.

1997

guinnessworldrecords.com 217

DATELINE

Largest
EQOGDCEM
in the
5QNJGKO%WR
On 20 Sep
2015, at the
start of the third
DQGQDOGD\RI
play at the Golf
Club St Leon-Rot in
Baden-Wrttemberg,
Germany, the USA trailed
610 to Europe. Making
a spectacular comeback
of four points, the USA
stormed to victory by
14 to 13 the smallest
winning margin in the
Solheim Cup.

1P#WI
,CUQP&C[
#75 
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VJ2TQHGUUKQPCN
)QNHGTU#UUQEKCVKQP

2)# %JCORKQPUJKR
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QH9JKUVNKPI5VTCKVUPGCT
-QJNGT9KUEQPUKP75#
&C[URGTHQTOCPEG
UGEWTGFJKOJKUTUV
OCLQT*GPKUJGFYKVJ

 

EXTREME SPORTS
The aviation records on this
page were either sourced from
the Fdration Aronautique
Internationale (FAI) or set at
FAI-accredited events.
Farthest flight by
CRCTCINKFGT
OCNG
Three paraglider pilots
covered a straight distance
of 514 km (319.3 mi) in the
same trip. Frank Brown,
Marcelo Prieto and Donizete
/HPRV DOO%5$ HZIURP
Tacima to Monsenhor
Tabosa in Paraba, Brazil,
on 9 Oct 2015.
Seiko Fukuoka-Naville
(FRA, b. JPN) achieved
the IDUWKHVWLJKWE\D
SDUDJOLGHU IHPDOH when
VKHHZNP PL 
from Deniliquin, Australia,
on 9 Dec 2015.

*KIJGUVENKHHLWOR
On 4 Aug 2015, canyoner and cliff-jumper par excellence Laso
Schaller (CHE, b. BRA) performed a heart-stopping 58.8-m

HVKP NGCRHTQOVJG%CUECVCFGN5CNVQKP/CIIKC
Switzerland. Thats a drop several metres greater than the height
of the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy. As the frame-by-frame
RJQVQCDQXGUJQYUVJGLWORGPFGFKPCRNWPIGRQQNYJKEJ
YCUUQOGO
HVKP FGGR

(CTVJGUVQWVCPFTGVWTP
FKUVCPEGJCPIINKFKPI

HGOCNG
%ULWDLQV.DWKOHHQ5LJJHZ
an out-and-return distance
RINP PL E\
hang-glider in Bischling,
Austria, on 5 Jul 2015.
The IDUWKHVWRXWDQG
UHWXUQKDQJJOLGLQJ PDOH
WLWOHLVMRLQWO\KHOGE\&DUORV
Puet Pellis (ESP) and Ralf
0LHGHUKRII '(8 7KH\ERWK

FASTEST 15M SPEED CLIMB

DATELINE

Ukraines Danylo Boldyrev (right) took just 5.6sec to scale 15m (49ft 2in) at
the International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) World Championships
in Gijn, Spain, on 12Sep 2014. He beat Russian rival Stanislav Kokorin
towin the World Championships title and break the record just weeks
after Libor Hroza (CZE) had established a new world mark of 5.73sec.
The fastest 15m speed climb (female) is 7.53sec, by Iuliia Kaplina
(RUS, above) at the IFSC World Cup in Chamonix, France, on 11Jul 2015.
Kaplina had also set a world record two months earlier with a 7.74-sec climb,
breaking the previous record which she had also set by 0.11sec.

2000
218 Sports

/QUVYKPUQHVJG4GF$WNN
%NKHH&KXKPI9QTNF5GTKGU
HGOCNG 
Rachelle Simpson (USA) has won the Red Bull Cliff Diving World
5GTKGUVYKEGKPCPF$TKVCKPU)CT[*WPVJCUXGYKPU
overall, in 201012 and 201415, the most wins of the Red Bull
Cliff Diving World Series (male). The competition began in 2009.
FRYHUHGNP PL 
ZLWKLJKWVWKDWVWDUWHGDQG
ended in Bugsdorf, Namibia,
on 18 Dec 2015.
/QUVYKPUQHVJG4GF$WNN
#KT4CEG%JCORKQPUJKR
Paul Bonhomme (UK) has
won the Red Bull Air Race
championship three times,

in 2009, 2010 and 2015.


Bonhomme took part in
all 66 races between the
championships founding
in 2003 and 2015, but after
winning his third title he
announced his retirement
from air-racing.
(CUVGUVMOKEGUYKO
OCNG 
2Q0DU&KULVWRI
Wandratsch (DEU)
swam 1 km (0.6 mi) in
PLQH[DFWO\DWWKH
International Ice Swimming
Association (IISA) World
&KDPSLRQVKLSV7KH
event was held in the
near-freezing waters of
/DNH6HPHQRYVNR\HLQ
Murmansk, Russia.
2QWKHVDPHGD\DQG
at the same event, Renata
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the IDVWHVWNPLFHVZLP
E\DIHPDOHVZLPPHU, in
a time of 14 min 21 sec.
(CUVGUVMODCTGHQQV
QPKEGQTUPQY
Latvias Edgars Rencis took
just 21 min 28.48 sec to
cover 5 km (3.1 mi) in the
deep snow of the Latvian
winter. His toe-numbing
record was achieved on the
race track of the Daugava
Stadium in Riga, Latvia,
on 24 Jan 2015.

Largest change in share price (24 hr)


On 27 Mar, after months of optimistic valuations and exuberant investment, the share price of Yahoo! Japan goes into freefall,
losing 54% of its value in 24 hr. A similar fate awaits many other companies as the dot-com technology bubble bursts.

STREET SPORTS
DID YOU
KNOW?
World C
up Skate
b
(W

oarding
CS) is th
e only o
rganiza
that ass
tion
embles
and mo
ranking
nitors a
system
for pro sk
The fede
aters.
ration h
as been
since 19
active
94 and o
v
ersees th
interna
e largest
tional sk
ateboard
contests
ing
in the d
is
ciplines
of vert a
nd stree
t.

Most wins of the


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UVTGGVYQTNFTCPMKPIU
Between 2010 and 2014, Brazils Kelvin Hoefler topped
the World Cup Skateboarding world rankings in the
UVTGGVFKUEKRNKPGCPWPRTGEGFGPVGFXGVKOGU

/QUV$/:QPGJCPFGFVKOG
OCEJKPGUKPUGEQPFU
Takahiro Ikeda (JPN)
performed 45 one-handed
time machines at Oasis
Park in Kakamigahara, Gifu,
Japan, on 10 Oct 2015.

/QUVDCEMHNKRU
QPCDKE[ENG
UKPINGNGCR
-HG0LOGRQ 1= FRPSOHWHG
DWRWDORIIRXUEDFNLSV
at Pastranaland in
'DYLGVRQYLOOH0DU\ODQG
USA, on 12 Jul 2015.

Most wins of the


(TGPEJ%KV[2TQ6QWT
Eric Malavergne (FRA) has
ZRQWKH)UHQFK&LW\3UR7RXU
Frances long-running
annual urban street-golf
competition twice. He
represented the Los Golfos
team in 2012 and 2015.

:)COGU
/QUV5WOOGT:)COGU
OGFCNUYQP
)URPWR-XQ
skateboarder Bob Burnquist
(BRA) secured 29 medals.
TheOQUVUMCVGDQCTFKPI
UVTGGVIQNFOGFCNUYQP
CVVJG5WOOGT
:)COGUis six,
E\1\MDK+XVWRQ
(USA) in 201115.

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5MCVGDQCTFKPIUVTGGV
YQTNFTCPMKPIU
HGOCNG
.GVKEKC$WHQPK
$4# PKUJGF0QKPVJG9QTNF%WR5MCVGDQCTFKPI
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CPF5JGKUCVJTGGVKOG:)COGUEJCORKQP
(USA, b. 20 Aug 1999) took
part in the Off-Road Truck
Racing event in Austin,
Texas, USA, on 8 Jun 2014.
+HQLVKHGLQQLQWKSODFH

;QWPIGUV:)COGU
RCTVKEKRCPVKP
COQVQTK\GFURQTV
$JHGMXVW\HDUV
GD\V*DYLQ+DUOLHQ

Highest
air on a
UMCVGDQCTF

SWCTVGTRKRG
After several terrifying
failed attempts, Danny
Way (USA) performed a
O
HVKP CKT
on a quarterpipe in
Alpine, California, USA,
QP,WN

MOST CONSECUTIVE GOLDMEDALS


ATTHESUMMERXGAMES

Most individuals killed in a terrorist act


Two aircraft are deliberately own into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, USA, on 11Sep.
The ofcial death toll stands at 2,753 fatalities, including those who died from subsequent health complications.

2001

guinnessworldrecords.com 219

DATELINE

Jamie Bestwick (UK) picked up nine consecutive gold


medals at the Summer X Games from 2007 to 2014. All
his golds came in the BMX Vert event, which also earned
him the record for the most consecutive BMX Vert gold
medals won at the Summer X Games. There were two
XGames held in 2013, hence the reason Bestwicks nine
consecutive gold medals came in an eight-year span. His
incredible run nally came to an end in Jun2015, when
he nished second to Vince Byron (AUS) by one point.

AUTO SPORTS
Most consecutive F1 races led
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7- NGF(QTOWNC
( TCEGUKPCTQY
HTQO,WNVQ,WN*COKNVQPDTQMGVJGTGEQTFUGV
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QPVJGTUVNCRD[GXGPVWCNTCEGYKPPGT5GDCUVKCP8GVVGN

Most consecutive NASCAR starts


Most consecutive F1
)TCPF2TKZUVCTVUHTQOFGDWV
Nico Rosberg (DEU) made
189 F1 Grand Prix starts
racing for Williams and
Mercedes, from 12 Mar
2006 to 1 May 2016.
/QUVRQNGRQUKVKQPUD[C
constructor in an F1 season
In 2011, Red Bull Racing
(AUT) became the
UVWFRQVWUXFWRU
to achieve 18 pole
positions in an
F1 season. This
was equalled

by Mercedes (DEU) during


the 2014 season and again
during the 2015 season.
Mercedes has also
registered the most one-two

QLVKHVE\DFRQVWUXFWRULQ
DQ)VHDVRQ, with 12 from
15 Mar to 29 Nov 2015.

Jeff Gordon (USA) made 797 NASCAR (National Association


for Stock Car Auto Racing) starts for Hendrick Motorsports
QXGT5RTKPV%WR5GTKGUUGCUQPUHTQO0QXVQ0QX
)QTFQPTGVKTGFKPJCXKPIPGXGTOKUUGFCTCEGQXGT
[GCTUKPJKU5RTKPV%WR5GTKGUECTGGT+P5GRJGDTQMG
4KEM[4WFFU
75# +TQPOCPTGEQTFQHEQPUGEWVKXGUVCTVU

Fastest lap in the


.G/CPUJQWTTCEG
Driving an Audi R18 e-tron
Quattro, Germanys Andr
Lotterer recorded a 3-min
17.475-sec lap in the famous
24-hour race in Le Mans,
France, on 14 Jun 2015.
Three days earlier saw
the IDVWHVWSUDFWLFHODSIRU
WKH/H0DQVKRXUUDFH.
Neel Jani (CHE) lapped the
course in 3 min 16.887 sec
in a Porsche 919 Hybrid.
Fastest average
URGGFCVC9QTNF4CNN[
%JCORKQPUJKRGXGPV
Jari-Matti Latvala (FIN)
averaged 125.44 km/h
(77.94 mph) at the Neste
Rally Finland in Jyvskyl,
Finland, on 2 Aug 2015.

MOST WORLD
CHAMPIONSHIP
CAREER RACEWINS
INMOTOGP (500CC)

DATELINE

Italys Valentino Rossi has secured


86World Motorcycle Championship race wins in
the MotoGP (500cc) class. He has ridden for Honda,
Ducati and Yamaha. Rossis rst 500cc championship
win came at the British Grand Prix in 2001, riding for
Honda. He won 12 more times in the 500cc class before it
was rebranded as MotoGP in 2002. Since then he has won
73 Grand Prix races including four in the 2015 season.
Giacomo Agostini (ITA) has 122 wins overall compared
toRossis 112, but only 68 came in the 500cc class.

2002
220 Sports

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+PFKCPCRQNKUYKPU
6JGITGCVGUVNCRUGQHVKOGDGVYGGPYKPUQHVJG+PFKCPCRQNKU
KU[GCTUFC[UD[,WCP2CDNQ/QPVQ[C
%1. *GYQP
JKUTUV+PFKCPCRQNKUQP/C[DWVFKFPQVUEQTGC
UGEQPFXKEVQT[KPVJGKEQPKE+PF[%CTTCEGWPVKN/C[

First aerial battle involving a drone


In December, an American MQ-1 Predator is attacked by an Iraqi MiG-25 while on a surveillance mission. Both planes re
missilesat each other, but the drones is diverted by the Iraqi jets own missile. The MiG-25 eventually wins the dogght.

CYCLING
DID YO

U KNOW
Pauline
?
Ferrand
-Prvot
sport of
s (left)
cy
unique ch clo-cross prese
nts
allenges.
Competi
ride and
tors
carry th
eir bicycl
over both
e
road an
country
d crosssections.
They mu
also com
st
plete m
ultiple la
the cours
ps of
es while
n
egotiati
sand pit
ng
s,hurdle
s and
otherob
stacles.

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VJG7%+4QCF%[ENQ
ETQUUCPF/QWPVCKP$KMG
9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU
CVQPEGKU2CWNKPG
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(4# 
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Fastest speed on a
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Team Aerovelos Todd
Reichert (CAN) reached
86.65 mph (139.45 km/h) at
the World Human Powered

Speed Challenge in Nevada,


USA, on 19 Sep 2015. In
fact, he broke the record
three times, hitting
85.71 mph (137.93 km/h)
on 17 Sep and 86.5 mph
(139.2 km/h) on 18 Sep.

Fastest average speed in


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Rohan Dennis (AUS)
averaged 55.446 km/h
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stage of the Tour in Utrecht,
Netherlands, on 4 Jul 2015.
Most consecutive
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The Grand Tours in
cycling are the Tour de
France, Giro dItalia and
Vuelta a Espaa. Adam
Hansen (AUS) achieved 13
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from 11 Sep 2011 to 13 Sep
2015, bettering a record
unbroken since 1958.

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the UCI World
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The Union
Cycliste
Internationale
(UCI) World Tour
is the leading
road tour race
for elite male
riders. Movistar
Team (ESP) won
the tour three times,
in 201315.

FARTHEST
DISTANCE IN
AONE-HOUR
UNPACED
STANDING
START (MALE)

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France has won a total
of 365 medals at the
World Championships:
138 gold, 107 silver and
120 bronze. The wins were
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event, held for amateurs
in 1893, and Feb 2015.

On 7Jun 2015, Sir Bradley


Wiggins (UK, right) cycled
an aggregate distance of 54.526km
(33.881mi) in one hour at the Olympic
velodrome in London, UK. In doing so, he
bettered Alex Dowsetts (UK) 52.937 km
(32.893mi), set only one month before.
Bridie ODonnell (AUS) claimed the
female record on 22Jan 2016, covering
46.882km (29.131mi) in one hour at the
Adelaide Super-Drome in Australia.

Greatest bank heist


On 67 Aug, robbers steal some $69.8m (38.6m) from the Banco Central in Fortaleza, Brazil.
To date, the authorities have only recovered in the region of $9m (5m) of the haul.

2005

guinnessworldrecords.com 221

DATELINE

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RUGBY
Most tries by a player in a
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Most rugby union World Cup wins


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First father and son
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Regan King and Jacob
Cowley (both NZ) played
for the Scarlets

against the Newport Gwent


Dragons at Parc y Scarlets
in Llanelli, Wales, UK, on
30 Oct 2015. Cowley, aged
18, was making his Pro12
debut as a winger.
First National Rugby
League (NRL) Grand Final
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On 4 Oct 2015, in an all4XHHQVODQGQDOWKH1RUWK
Queensland Cowboys
beat the Brisbane Broncos
1716 at the ANZ Stadium
in Sydney, Australia.

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London, UK, on 29 Aug 2015
(see above).
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World Cup
After a barren 24 years
340 days, Japan beat
South Africa in a thrilling
last-minute victory at
the Brighton Community
Stadium in Brighton, UK,
on 19 Sep 2015.

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at a rugby union
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A crowd of 89,267 watched
the Ireland vs Romania pool
match in London, UK, on
27 Sep 2015.
On 10 Oct 2015, at Old
Trafford in Manchester, UK,
73,512 people witnessed
Leeds Rhinos victory
over Wigan Warriors the
largest attendance at a
Super League Grand Final.

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On 6 Oct 2015,
Romania made up
15 points after halftime to beat Canada
1715 in their pool
match at Leicester
City Stadium, UK.
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Leeds Rhinos defeated Hull
Kingston Rovers 500 in the

MOST TRIES BY A
PLAYER INAWORLD
CUPTOURNAMENT

DATELINE

The All Blacks Julian Savea scored eight


tries in the 2015 rugby union World Cup:
two against Namibia, three against Georgia
and three against France. He equalled
the record rst set in 1999 by fellow New
Zealander Jonah Lomu (19752015), who
scored his eight tries in ve games: against
Tonga (two), England, Italy (two), Scotland
and France (two). Bryan Habana (ZAF) also
shares the title, scoring against Samoa (four),
USA (two) and Argentina (two) in 2007.

2006
222 Sports

Youngest player in a
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First tweet
Twitter founder Jack Dorsey (USA) creates the rst tweet at 9:50 p.m. PST on 21Mar. It reads Just setting up my twttr. His
microblogging and social-networking tool allows users to post text messages of up to 140 characters via the world wide web or SMS.

TENNIS

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As of the 2016
Australian Open, Novak
Djokovic (SRB) and Roger
Federer had met 15 times
in Grand Slam tournaments.
Djokovic has won
nine matches.

Most
Australian
Open singles
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On 31 Jan 2016, Novak
Djokovic won his sixth
singles title at the
Australian Open.
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served up an incredible
10,519 aces in 567 singles
matches on the ATP World
Tour as of 20 Apr 2016.

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answered two questions
from Pam Shriver for ESPN
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fellow American Sloane
Stephens at the US Open
in Flushing Meadows, New
York City, on 31 Aug 2015.
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but said afterwards
of the 35-sec

interview: I dont remember


a thing I said. Dead
serious. I dont even
remember what
she [Shriver]
asked.

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Highest annual earnings
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Forbes annual earnings
(versus seasonal earnings
see below) factor in
both match winnings and
sponsorship/endorsement.
Male (ever): $71.5 m
(46.6 m), by Roger Federer
in 201213.
Male (current): $67 m
(42.6 m), earned by Roger
Federer in 201415.
Female (current and
ever): $29.5 m (18.7 m),
amassed by Maria
Sharapova (RUS)
in 201415.

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INATENNISSEASON(MALE)

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World No.1 Novak Djokovic earned $21,646,145


(14,600,200) in the 2015 season,
which included Grand Slam titles
(Australian Open, Wimbledon,
US Open), the most ATP Masters
1000 titles won in a season (six)
and the most ATP Masters 1000
nals in a season (eight).
The most prize money
won in a tennis season
(female) is $12,385,572
(7,510,410), recorded by
Serena Williams in 2013.

Largest points fall on the Dow Jones Industrial Average


On 29Sep, as Congress votes on the US governments bail-out bill to protect taxpayers and the
nancial markets, the Dow Jones stock-market index suffers a record drop of 777.68points.

2008

guinnessworldrecords.com 223

DATELINE

Oldest player to win a


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On her 49th attempt to net a
Grand Slam, Flavia Pennetta
(ITA, b. 25 Feb 1982), aged
33 years 199 days, won
the US Open at Flushing
Meadows in New York City,
USA, on 12 Sep 2015. She
announced her retirement
after the match.

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CLUB SOCCER

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MOST
CONSECUTIVE
PREMIER
LEAGUE GAMES
TO SCORE

DATELINE

Jamie Vardy (UK) scored


in 11 successive games for
Leicester City from 29Aug
2015 to 28Nov 2015. His
run nished with his
14thgoal of the season in a
match against Manchester
United at the King Power
Stadium in Leicester, UK.

2009
224 Sports

FASTEST GOALS
Premier LeagueVHF
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Fastest 100 m
Usain Bolt (JAM) crosses the nish line in a time of 9.58sec in Berlin, Germany, on 16Aug. This breaks his own record
in the 100m sprint, which he set exactly one year previously at the Beijing Olympics in China, with a time of 9.69sec.

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MOST GOALS SCORED IN


UEFA CHAMPIONSHIPS
QUALIFIERS

DID YOU
KNOW?
David H
ealy sco
re

d 13 out
of his si
des 17 g
oals duri
Northern
ng
Irelands
unsucce
qualifyin
ssful
g campa
ig
2008. Le
n for Eu
wandow
ro
ski open
account
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with fou
r
goals in
70 thra
Polands
shing of
Gibralta
scored a
r and
4-min h
at-trick
against
Georgia
in 2015.

Robbie Keane (IRL, left) netted 23 goals from


14Oct 1998 to 4Sep 2015. He has scored in every
qualifying campaign since Euro 2000, with his best
tally in a tournament being seven in Euro 2012.
The most goals scored in a single UEFA Championships
qualifying tournament is 13. David Healy rst achieved this feat, for
Northern Ireland, from 6Sep 2006 to 17Nov 2007. Robert Lewandowski
equalled it between 7Sep 2014 and 11Oct 2015.

Tallest building
The Burj Khalifa (Khalifa Tower) ofcially opens in Dubai, UAE, on 4Jan. It is 828m (2,716ft 6in) tall
and was developed by Emaar Properties and the architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP.

2010

guinnessworldrecords.com 225

DATELINE

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Most goals
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TRACK
Most IAAF Athletics
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Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
(JAM) has won the womens
100 m at the Athletics World
Championships three times,
in 2009, 2013 and 2015.

Most IAAF Athletics World


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?
U KNOW
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0m
g a new 10

Prior to sett
ng
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record at th
feeling
as
w
lt
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Usain
Olympics,
t have
ack: [I] didn
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and
nuggets.

DATELINE

Three athletes have each won three mens 100m


races at the IAAF World Athletics Championships.
They are Carl Lewis (USA) in 1983, 1987 and 1991;
Maurice Greene (USA) in 1997, 1999 and 2001;
and, most recently, Usain Bolt (JAM, right)
in2009, 2013 and 2015.
Bolt also recorded the most gold
medals at the IAAF Athletics World
Championships (male), with 11wins
from 2009 to 2015. His 13 medals
(11 golds and two silvers) in the
competition from 2007 to 2015
represent the most medals won
atthe IAAF Athletics World
Championships (male).
Finally, Bolt is the rst
athlete to win the 100m and
200m sprints at successive
Olympic Games Beijing in
2008 and London in 2012.

226 Sports

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of the IAAF World Cross
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Kenya won the IAAF
World Cross Country
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times, in 200915.

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Liu Hong (CHN) has
won the IAAF Race
Walking Challenge
three times, in
2012, 2014
and 2015.

MOST IAAF ATHLETICS


WORLDCHAMPIONSHIPS
100M WINS (MEN)

2011

/QUVEQPUGEWVKXG#VJNGVKEU
9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU
ZOTGNC[YKPU
OCNG
LaShawn Merritt
(left) has enjoyed
six 4 x 400 m
QDOZLQVDW
the IAAF World
Championships (2005,
2007, 2009, 2011, 2013
and 2015).

(CUVGUV6O
OCNG
The 2015 International
Paralympic Committee
(IPC) Athletics World
Championships in Doha,
Qatar, saw a wealth of new
records. The speediest
100 m in the T44 class
(single below-knee
DPSXWDWLRQRUHTXLYDOHQW
impairment) is 10.61 sec,
by Richard Browne (USA)
on 29 Oct 2015.
Six days earlier, Omara
Durand (CUB) ran the
fastest T12 400 m (female)
in 53.05 sec. T12 denotes
DWKOHWHVZLWKYLVXDO
impairment.
At the IPC Grand Prix in
Canberra, Australia, on 7 Feb
2016, Isis Holt (AUS) ran the
fastest T35 200 m (female),
in 28.38 sec. T35-class
DWKOHWHVKDYHLVVXHVZLWK
dynamic balance.

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O
OCNG
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6ENCUUKUUGE
D[4KEJCTF9JKVGJGCF

7- KPDQVJVJGUGOK
PCNandPCNQHVJG+2%
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QP1EV

Costliest natural disaster


An earthquake strikes off the Pacic coast of Thoku, Japan, on 11Mar. The Economist estimates
thenancial loss to the country at $210bn (130bn), of which only $35bn (21.6bn) is insured.

(CUVGUVMO
TQCFYCNM

HGOCNG
Chinas Liu Hong completed
CMOTQCFYCNMKPCVKOG
QHJTOKPUGECVVJG
)TCP2TGOKQ%CPVQPGUFG
/CTEJCKP.C%QTWC5RCKP
QP,WP

FIELD

#PKVC9QFCTE\[M
21. JWTNGFJGTJCOOGTO

HVKP CVVJG-COKNC5MQNKOQYUMC/GOQTKCN
6JTQYU(GUVKXCNKP%GVPKGYQ2QNCPFQP#WI
5JGDGCVJGTQYPTGEQTFQHO
HVKP UGV
KP$GTNKP)GTOCP[QP#WI

(CTVJGUVJCOOGTVJTQY
$QLWD:RGDUF]\Ns hammer
WKURZUHFRUG VHHDERYH 
LVUHODWLYHO\UHFHQWEXW
WKHPDOH DQGRYHUDOO 
record goes way back.
Yuriy Sedykh (USSR, now
RUS) produced a throw of
86.74 m (284 ft 7 in) on
30 Aug 1986 in Stuttgart,
Germany.

/QUVYKPUQHVJG+##(
JCOOGTVJTQYEJCNNGPIG

HGOCNG
Betty Heidler (DEU)
DFKLHYHGWKUHHZLQVLQ
the IAAF hammer throw
challenge from 2010
to 2012. Her feat was
then equalled by Anita
:RGDUF]\NEHWZHHQ
2013 and 2015.
/QUV&KCOQPF4CEG
CVJNGVKEUVKVNGUYQP
OCNG
The Diamond League was
inaugurated in 2010 to
replace the Golden League

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HGOCNG
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/KNECJ%JGOQU%JG[YC
-'0 TUVCEJKGXGFVJGHGCVKPVJGO
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#FCOU
0< KPVJGUJQVRWVCPF-CNKGUG5RGPEGT
,#/ KPVJGO
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*CTRGT0GNUQP
75# 5JGNN[#PP(TCUGT2T[EG
,#/ #NN[UQP(GNKZ

75# $CTDQTCRQVMQX
%<' CPF5CPFTC2GTMQXK
%41CDQXG 

MOST POINTS
SCORED IN
ADECATHLON
(MALE)
Since taking an Olympic
gold in 2012, decathlete
Ashton Eaton (USA) has
gone from strength to
strength. At the 15th IAAF World Championships held
in Beijing, China, on 29Aug 2015, Eaton scored a total
9,045 points across the 10 disciplines (javelin and long
jump pictured). Indoing so, he bettered his own
record, set in 2012, bysix points to win gold at
the World Championships for the second time.

Fastest speed in freefall


Felix Baumgartner (AUT) falls at 1,357.6km/h (843.6mph), from 39km (24mi) the highest freefall parachute
jump at the time. His stratospheric drop also makes him the rst person to break the sound barrier in freefall.

2012

guinnessworldrecords.com 227

DATELINE

(CTVJGUVJCOOGTVJTQY

HGOCNG

as the premier annual


DWKOHWLFVHYHQW,WLVKHOG
in 14 different locations,
from May to September,
with 32 disciplines in total
(16 for men and 16 for
women). Frances Renaud
/DYLOOHQLHZRQVL['LDPRQG
5DFHWLWOHVLQWKHSROHYDXOW
from 2010 to 2015.
/DYLOOHQLHVKDUHVWKH
record for most wins in
Diamond Race athletics
events by an individual
ZLWK6DQGUD3HUNRYL
(HRV, right). Both athletes
had 27 wins from 2010 to
11 Sep 2015.
/DYLOOHQLHKDVDOVRVFRUHG
the most points in the
Diamond League (male).
By the end of the 2015
season, he had 135 points.
2YHUDOOKRZHYHUWKH
most points scored in a
Diamond League career
LVE\3HUNRYLin the
discus in 201015.
The youngest person to
score points at a Diamond
League athletics meeting
LV/]DUR0DUWQH] &8%
E1RY ZKRSODFHG
second in the triple jump
HYHQWDJHG\HDUV
196 days in Shanghai,
China, on 18 May 2014.
Hicham El Guerrouj
(MAR) is the most
successful IAAF Golden
League athlete in terms of
KDYLQJZRQWKHMDFNSRW RU
a share of the jackpot) the
most times: four, in 1998
and 200002,
which is
one more
than both
Marion
Jones
and Sanya
Richards
(both USA).
The Golden
League was replaced
by the Diamond League
in 2010.

SWIMMING

Fastest long course


50 m breaststroke (male)
#FCO2GCV[
7- UYCOVJGODTGCUVUVTQMGKPCVKOGQHLWUVUGECV
VJGVJ(FTCVKQP+PVGTPCVKQPCNGFG0CVCVKQP
(+0# 9QTNF5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRU
KP-C\CP4WUUKCQP#WI#PFJGULWUVCUIQQFCVFQWDNGVJGFKUVCPEGCVVJG$TKVKUJ
5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRUKP.QPFQP7-QP#RT2GCV[CEJKGXGFVJGfastest long
EQWTUGODTGCUVUVTQMG
OCNG PKUJKPIKPUGE

Youngest participant in
the FINA World Swimming
Championships (female)
#N\CKP6CTGS
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DWVVGTHN[GXGPVCIGF[GCTUFC[UCVVJGVJ(+0#9QTNF
5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRUKP-C\CP4WUUKCQP#WI
+TQPKECNN[CNVJQWIJUJGEQWNFEQORGVGKPVJGUGPKQTEQPVGUV
UJGYCUVQQ[QWPIVQVCMGRCTVKPVJG,WPKQT5YKOOKPI9QTNF
%JCORKQPUJKRUYJKEJJCUCOKPKOWOGPVT[CIGQH

Most gold medals won


KPVJG(+0#5YKOOKPI
World Cup (female)
Hungarys Katinka Hossz
won 152 golds in the World
Cup from 2012 to 2015.
Hossz also recorded
the fastest long course
200 m medley (female), in
2 min 6.12 sec, at the 16th
FINA World Swimming
Championships in Kazan,
Russia, on 3 Aug 2015.
The most gold medals
won in the FINA Swimming
World Cup (male) is 85, by
Chad le Clos (ZAF) from
2009 to 2015.

(CUVGUVNQPIEQWTUGTGNC[
ZOHTGGUV[NG
OKZGF
The USA (comprising
Ryan Lochte, Nathan
Adrian, Simone Manuel
and Missy Franklin)
completed the long course
4 x 100 m freestyle in a
time of 3 min 23.05 sec
at the 16th FINA World
Swimming Championships
on 8 Aug 2015.

(CUVGUVNQPIEQWTUGO
DWVVGTHN[
HGOCNG
Sarah Sjstrm (SWE)
won the womens long
FRXUVHPEXWWHU\
event in a time of 55.64 sec
at the 16th FINA World
Swimming Championships
on 3 Aug 2015.
In 2014, she swam the
fastest long course 50 m
EXWWHU\ IHPDOH , in
a time of 24.43 sec
in Bors, Sweden.

FASTEST LONG COURSE


800M FREESTYLE (FEMALE)

DATELINE

Katie Ledecky (USA) won the 800m freestyle


in8min6.68sec at the Arena Pro Swim
Seriesin Austin, Texas, USA, on
17Jan 2016. At the FINA World
Swimming Championships in
Kazan, Russia, on 8Aug 2015,
she had recorded the fastest
longcourse 1,500 m freestyle
(female), in15min 25.48sec.
On 3Aug 2012, at the London
Olympics, Ledecky (b. 17Mar
1997) became the youngest
Olympic 800m freestyle gold
medallist (female), aged 15years
139days. She won in 8min 14.63sec.

2013
228 Sports

DID Y

OU KNO
Notably
W?
, Ledeck
ys feat
London
at the
2012 Oly
mpics (s
also ma
ee left)
rked the
second-f
womens
astest
800m fr
eestyle sw
sporting
history.
im in
At the ti
the UKs
me, only
Rebecca
Adlingto
swum fa
n had
ster in th
e event,
gold at th
winning
e 2008 O
lympics
in Beijin
g in 8m
in
14.10se
c.

First proof of the existence of the Higgs boson


On 14Mar, two experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research
(CERN)in Geneva, Switzerland, conrm the existence of the (hitherto only theorized) Higgs boson particle.

WATER SPORTS
/QUV(+0#9CVGT2QNQ
World League wins (men)
Serbias water
polo team has
won the World
League nine
times, in 200508,
201011 and 201315.
Serbia won the Water Polo
World League 2015 Super
Final against Croatia, 96,
to complete their third
successive win of the
tournament. Since 2005,
Serbia, Montenegro and
Croatia have won all of
the mens tournaments.

Most gold medals in the FINA


9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRUO
platform diving event (male)
)TGI.QWICPKU
75# YCUVJGTUVOCNGFKXGTVQCEJKGXGVJTGG
IQNFOGFCNUKPVJG(+0#9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRUORNCVHQTO
FKXKPIGXGPVYKVJYKPUKPCPF*KUHGCVYCU
NCVGTGSWCNNGFD[3KW$Q
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Most gold medals
in the same FINA
9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU
diving event (male)
4LQ.DL &+1 ZRQYHJROGV
in the 3 m synchronized
springboard event, in 2007,
2009, 2011, 2013 and
2015. He was partnered by
Cao Yuan in 2015, but had
previously won gold with
Wang Feng (2007, 2009),
Luo Yutong (2011) and
He Chong (2013).

Youngest winner of
CUWTPI9QTNF3WCNKH[KPI
Series event
On 12 Jul 2009, Brazils
Gabriel Medina (b. 22 Dec
1993) won the 2009
Maresia Surf International,
aged 15 years 202 days in
Florianpolis, Brazil. In 2014,
he became the secondyoungest world champion
ever, at 20 years 362 days.
Fastest row double sculls
lightweight class (female)
On 20 Jun 2015, Great
Britain (Charlotte Taylor
and Katherine Copeland)

Most points scored in a WSL


5WTPI9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKR
season (female)
+P*CYCKKCP%CTKUUC/QQTG
CDQXG YQPJGTVJKTFYQTNF
VKVNGCPFUEQTGFRQKPVUDTGCMKPIVJGTGEQTFUGVD[
5VGRJCPKG)KNOQTG
#75 YJQGCTPGFRQKPVUKP

recorded a time of 6 min


48.38 sec at Varese in Italy.
The British pair set the
UHFRUGLQWKHVHPLQDOV
of the World Rowing Cup.

in Olympic years. Michal


Martikn (SVK) has won
eight golds in the C1
Team event, in 1997, 2003,
200911 and 201315.

Most ICF Canoe Slalom


World Championships
IQNFOGFCNUKPVJGUCOG
event (male)
The International Canoe
Federation (ICF) Slalom
World Championships
are held annually except

Most ICF Canoe Sprint


World Championships
medals in the womens
-OGXGPV
Maryna Litvinchuk (BLR)
took gold in 2015, adding
to two silver medals (2011,
2014) and a bronze (2010).

MOST CONSECUTIVE
SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING
WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS
GOLDMEDALS

Largest Ebola outbreak


The deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD) spreads across the African nations of Guinea,
Liberia and Sierra Leone. It will claim more than 11,300 lives by Jan 2016.

2014

guinnessworldrecords.com 229

DATELINE

Russia won
19gold medals in
in a row in synchronized
swimming FINA World
Championships between 23Jul 2009
and 26Jul 2015. Pictured here is Natalia
Ishchenko (RUS) at the World Championships
in Kazan, Russia, in 2015. Ishchenko won
the most synchronized swimming FINA
World Championships gold medals by an
individual 19 between 2005 and 2015.

SPORTS ROUND-UP

*KIJGUVFTGUUCIG
HTGGUV[NGUEQTG
4KFKPI8CNGITQ%JCTNQVVG&WLCTFKP
7- UEQTGFKP
FTGUUCIGHTGGUV[NGKPVJG.QPFQP(FTCVKQPSWGUVTG
+PVGTPCVKQPCNG
('+ 9QTNF%WRCV1N[ORKC.QPFQP7-QP
&GE1PVJGRTGXKQWUFC[UJGTGEQTFGFVJGhighest
dressage Grand Prix scoreCVVJGUCOGGXGPV

/QUV(+5#NRKPG5MK9QTNF%WR5WRGT)TCEGYKPU
(TQO/CTVQ,CP.KPFUG[8QPP
75# YQPVJG(FTCVKQP+PVGTPCVKQPCNGFG5MK
(+5 
9QTNF%WR5WRGT)TCEGVKOGU#UYGNNCUVJGmost FIS Alpine Ski World Cup race wins
CEJKGXGFDGVYGGP&GECPF&GE8QPPCNUQENCKOGFVJGmost FIS Alpine Ski World
Cup womens downhill winsYKVJCVJXKEVQT[QP(GDCV%QTVKPCF#ORG\\QKP+VCN[
1NFGUVURQTVUVTQRJ[
The Antient Scorton Silver
Arrow is 342 years old and
is still competed for to this
day. It has been the prize in
the Antient Silver Arrow
Competition an archery
tournament held in the
village of Scorton in
Lancashire, UK
307 times
between 14 May
1673 and
16 May 2015.

NOW?
DID YOlyUcaKlled himself

He original
y Gary
y, but toda
Dreambo
own
kn
er
tt
is be
Anderson
ng
e The Flyi
m
na
ck
ni
by the
e rst
th
is
e
H
.
Scotsman
onal
the Professi
Scot to win
orld
W
n
io
at
or
Darts Corp
ship.
Champion

Longest frame in a
RTQHGUUKQPCNUPQQMGTOCVEJ
The sixth frame of a match
between Barry Pinches and
Alan McManus (both UK) at

the Ruhr Open in Mlheim,


Germany, on 10 Oct 2015
lasted 100 min 24 sec.
Most career points in
/CLQT.GCIWG.CETQUUG
Casey Powell (USA) scored
504 points from 7 Jun
2001 to 25 Jul 2015.

MOST WINS OF THE


#NN+TGNCPF*WTNKPIPCNU
Kilkenny (IRL) has won the
All-Ireland Senior Hurling
Championship 36 times:
190405, 1907, 1909, 1911
13, 1922, 193233, 1935,
1939, 1947, 1957, 1963,
1967, 1969, 1972, 197475,
1979, 198283, 199293,
2000, 200203, 200609,
201112 and 201415.
#0<%JCORKQPUJKR
Three teams have won
netballs Australia and

New Zealand (ANZ)


Championship twice. They
are: Adelaide Thunderbirds
in 2010 and 2013; Melbourne
Vixens in 2009 and 2014;
and Queensland Firebirds
(all AUS) in 2011 and 2015.
$TKVKUJ1RGP%TQSWGV
%JCORKQPUJKRU
The British Open Croquet
Championships were
instituted at Evesham, UK,
in 1867. Robert Fulford (UK)
has won 11 times, in 1991
92, 1996, 1998, 200304,
200608 and 201415.

MOST 180s IN A DARTS


PDCWORLD CHAMPIONSHIP
BYAPLAYER
The greatest number of maximums scored by a player
in a Professional Darts Corporation (PDC) World
Championship is 64, by Gary Anderson (UK) at Alexandra
Palace in London, UK, between 18Dec 2014 and 4Jan
2015. Anderson won the World Championship, beating
16-time champ Phil Taylor 76 in the nal. He threw
19maximums to surpass the previous
tournament record of 60, set by
Adrian Lewis in 2011.

DATELINE

EHF Handball
%JCORKQPU.GCIWG
FC Barcelona Handbol (ESP)
have won the European
Handball Federation (EHF)
Champions League nine
times, in 1991, 19962000,
2005, 2011 and 2015.

2015
230 Sports

Warmest year on record


According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the global average temperature in 2015 was
0.76C(+/0.1), or 1.3F, above that for 196190, and 1C (1.8F) above the worldwide mean for the pre-Industrial Age.

FAST FACTS
The average speed of a dart in ight is 40mph (64km/h) Figure
skaters can spin at more than 300 revolutions per minute Croquet was
an Olympic sport, but only at the 1900 Olympics in Paris; France won

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IWTGUMCVKPI
OCNG
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+PVGTPCVKQPCN5MCVKPI7PKQP
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6JKUEQODKPGURQKPVUHQTVJGUJQTVCPFNQPI
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CEJKGXKPIVJGJKIJGUVUEQTGKPIWTG
skating short programme (male)YKVJ
RQKPVUCPFNQPIRTQITCOOG
(male)YKVJRQKPVU

/QUV9QOGPU*QEMG[
%JCORKQPU6TQRJ[YKPUD[CVGCO
6JTGGVGCOUJCXGGCEJYQPVJG9QOGPU*QEMG[%JCORKQPU
6TQRJ[UKZVKOGU6JGHGCVYCUTUVCEJKGXGFD[#WUVTCNKCYKVJ
YKPUKPCPF+VYCUGSWCNNGF
D[VJG0GVJGTNCPFUYJQYQPKP
CPF/QUVTGEGPVN[VJKUTGEQTFYCUOCVEJGFD[#TIGPVKPC

CDQXG YJQYGTGEJCORKQPUKPCPF

/GPU*QEMG[
%JCORKQPU6TQRJ[D[CVGCO
Australia have won the
Hockey Champions
Trophy 13 times: 198385,
198990, 1993, 1999, 2005,
200812. Germany are
second, with 10 wins.
9QOGPU*QEMG[%JCORKQPU
6TQRJ[D[CPKPFKXKFWCN
Argentinas Luciana Aymar
(above left) has been on
the winning side in all six of
her teams record-equalling
wins of the Womens Hockey
Champions Trophy.

Most goals
UEQTGFKPCP
#0<%JCORKQPUJKR
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,JCPKGNG(QYNGT4GKF
,#/DGNQYNGHV JCU
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XU%CPVGTDWT[6CEVKZ
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VJGUGEQPFYCUKP&WPGFKP
0GY<GCNCPFQP,WP

/QUV(+8$$GCEJ8QNNG[DCNN
9QTNF6QWTIQNFOGFCNU

First gravitational waves detected


Proving right a prediction made by physicist Albert Einstein 100 years earlier, the LIGO Scientic Collaboration
and the Virgo Collaboration conrm that they have recorded gravitational waves at two sites in the USA.

2016

guinnessworldrecords.com 231

DATELINE

Female.CTKUUC(TCPC
$4# YQP(FTCVKQP
+PVGTPCVKQPCNGFG8QNNG[DCNN
(+8$ IQNFUQPVJG$GCEJ
8QNNG[DCNN9QTNF6QWTHTQO,WNVQ1EV
Male'OCPWGN4GIQ
$4# YQP$GCEJ8QNNG[DCNN9QTNF
6QWTIQNFUDGVYGGP,WPCPF,WN

SPORTS REFERENCE

ATHLETICS: TRACK/ULTRA
#PCUVGTKUM
FGPQVGUVJCVCTGEQTFKUUVKNNCYCKVKPITCVKECVKQPD[VJGURQTVUIQXGTPKPIDQF[CVVJGVKOGQHIQKPIVQRTGUU

ATHLETICS OUTDOOR TRACK EVENTS


MEN

(CUVGUVO
Usain Bolt (JAM) sped to a
PGYYQTNFTGEQTFKP$GTNKP
)GTOCP[QP#WI
TWPPKPIVJGOGPUOKP
UGE6JKUDTQMGJKUQYP
TGEQTFQHUGEUGVCVVJG
Beijing Olympics in China
C[GCTRTGXKQWUN[VQVJGFC[
1P#WI$QNVRTQXGF
JGUCYQTNFDGCVGTCVFQWDNG
the distance too. He ran the
fastest 200 mKPUGE
CICKPDTGCMKPIJKUQYP
TGEQTF
QHUGE UGV
KP$GKLKPIGZCEVN[C[GCT
before to the day.

232 Sports Reference

DATE

Usain Bolt (JAM)

Berlin, Germany

16 Aug 2009

200 m

19.19

Usain Bolt (JAM)

Berlin, Germany

20 Aug 2009

400 m

43.18

Michael Johnson (USA)

Seville, Spain

26 Aug 1999

800 m

1:40.91

David Lekuta Rudisha (KEN)

London, UK

1,000 m

2:11.96

Noah Ngeny (KEN)

Rieti, Italy

5 Sep 1999

1,500 m

3:26.00

Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)

Rome, Italy

14 Jul 1998

1 mile

3:43.13

Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)

Rome, Italy

7 Jul 1999

2,000 m

4:44.79

Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)

Berlin, Germany

7 Sep 1999

3,000 m

7:20.67

Daniel Komen (KEN)

Rieti, Italy

5,000 m

12:37.35

Kenenisa Bekele (ETH)

Hengelo, Netherlands

31 May 2004

10,000 m

26:17.53

Kenenisa Bekele (ETH)

Brussels, Belgium

26 Aug 2005

20,000 m

56:26.00

Haile Gebrselassie (ETH)

Ostrava, Czech Republic

27 Jun 2007
27 Jun 2007

9 Aug 2012

1 Sep 1996

1 hour

21,285 metres

Haile Gebrselassie (ETH)

Ostrava, Czech Republic

25,000 m

1:12:25.40

Moses Cheruiyot Mosop (KEN)

Eugene, USA

30,000 m

1:26:47.40

Moses Cheruiyot Mosop (KEN)

Eugene, USA

3 Jun 2011

Saif Saaeed Shaheen (QAT)

Brussels, Belgium

3 Sep 2004

3,000 m
steeplechase

7:53.63

3 Jun 2011

110 m hurdles

12.80

Aries Merritt (USA)

Brussels, Belgium

7 Sep 2012

400 m hurdles

46.78

Kevin Young (USA)

Barcelona, Spain

6 Aug 1992

4 x 100 m relay

36.84

Jamaica (Yohan Blake, Usain Bolt, Michael Frater, Nesta Carter)

London, UK

11 Aug 2012

4 x 200 m relay

1:18.63

Jamaica (Yohan Blake, Nickel Ashmeade, Warren Weir,


,GTOCKPG$TQYP

Nassau, Bahamas

24 May 2014

4 x 400 m relay

2:54.29

75#
#PFTGY8CNOQP3WKPE[9CVVU*CTT[4G[PQNFU
/KEJCGN,QJPUQP

Stuttgart, Germany

22 Aug 1993

4 x 800 m relay

7:02.43

Kenya (Joseph Mutua, William Yiampoy, Ismael Kombich,


9KNHTGF$WPIGK

Brussels, Belgium

25 Aug 2006

Kenya (Collins Cheboi, Silas Kiplagat, James Kiplagat Magut,


Asbel Kiprop)

Nassau, Bahamas

25 May 2014

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

(NQTGPEG)TKHVJ,Q[PGT
75#

Indianapolis, USA

16 Jul 1988
29 Sep 1988

4 x 1,500 m relay

14:22.22

TIME/DISTANCE

DATE

100 m

10.49

200 m

21.34

(NQTGPEG)TKHVJ,Q[PGT
75#

Seoul, South Korea

400 m

47.60

Marita Koch (GDR)

Canberra, Australia

800 m

1:53.28

Jarmila Kratochvlov (CZE)

Munich, Germany

26 Jul 1983

1,000 m

2:28.98

Svetlana Masterkova (RUS)

Brussels, Belgium

23 Aug 1996

1,500 m

3:50.07

Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)

Fontvieille, Monaco

17 Jul 2015

1 mile

4:12.56

Svetlana Masterkova (RUS)

<WTKEJ5YKV\GTNCPF

14 Aug 1996

2,000 m

5:25.36

Sonia OSullivan (IRL)

Edinburgh, UK

8 Jul 1994

3,000 m

8:06.11

Wang Junxia (CHN)

Beijing, China

13 Sep 1993

5,000 m

14:11.15

Tirunesh Dibaba (ETH)

1UNQ0QTYC[

6 Jun 2008

10,000 m

29:31.78

Wang Junxia (CHN)

Beijing, China

8 Sep 1993

20,000 m

1:05:26.60

1 hour

Mercy Cherono, Irene Jelagat,


Faith Kipyegon and Hellen
Oribi (all KEN) proved
WPECVEJCDNGKPVJGYQOGPU
ZOTGNC[VCMKPIRNCEG
CVVJG64QDKPUQP5VCFKWOKP
0CUUCW$CJCOCUQP/C[
2014. Their time of 16:33.58
YCUUQOGUGEHCUVGTVJCP
VJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFYJKEJ
YCUCNUQUGVD[CVGCOHTQO
Kenya, in Apr 2014.

LOCATION

9.58

WOMEN

Fastest 4 x
OTGNC[

HGOCNG

TIME/DISTANCE NAME & NATIONALITY

100 m

18,517 m

6 Oct 1985

Tegla Loroupe (KEN)

Borgholzhausen, Germany

Dire Tune (ETH)

Ostrava, Czech Republic

12 Jun 2008

3 Sep 2000
21 Sep 2002

25,000 m

1:27:05.90

Tegla Loroupe (KEN)

Mengerskirchen, Germany

30,000 m

1:45:50.00

Tegla Loroupe (KEN)

Warstein, Germany

)WNPCTC5COKVQXC)CNMKPC
475

Beijing, China

17 Aug 2008
20 Aug 1988

3,000 m
steeplechase

8:58.81

6 Jun 2003

100 m hurdles

12.21

Yordanka Donkova (BGR)

Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

400 m hurdles

52.34

Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)

Tula, Russia

8 Aug 2003

4 x 100 m relay

40.82

United States (Tianna Madison, Allyson Felix, Bianca Knight,


Carmelita Jeter)

London, UK

10 Aug 2012

4 x 200 m relay

1:27.46

7PKVGF5VCVGU$NWG
.C6CUJC,GPMKPU.C6CUJC%QNCPFGT
4KEJCTFUQP0CPEGGP2GTT[/CTKQP,QPGU

Philadelphia, USA

29 Apr 2000

4 x 400 m relay

3:15.17

USSR (Tatyana Ledovskaya, Olga Nazarova, Maria Pinigina,


1NIC$T[\IKPC

Seoul, South Korea

1 Oct 1988

4 x 800 m relay

7:50.17

USSR (Nadezhda Olizarenko, Lyubov Gurina, Lyudmila Borisova,


Irina Podyalovskaya)

/QUEQY4WUUKC

5 Aug 1984

Kenya (Mercy Cherono, Irene Jelagat, Faith Kipyegon,


*GNNGP1TKDK

Nassau, Bahamas

4 x 1,500 m relay

16:33.58

24 May 2014

ATHLETICS INDOOR TRACK EVENTS


MEN

TIME

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

DATE

50 m

5.56

Donovan Bailey (CAN)

Reno, USA

9 Feb 1996

60 m

6.39

Maurice Greene (USA)

Madrid, Spain

3 Feb 1998

Atlanta, USA

3 Mar 2001

200 m

19.92

Frankie Fredericks (NAM)

Livin, France

18 Feb 1996

400 m

44.57

Kerron Clement (USA)

Fayetteville, USA

12 Mar 2005

800 m

1:42.67

Wilson Kipketer (DNK)

Paris, France

1,000 m

2:14.20

Ayanleh Souleiman (DJI)

5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP

1,500 m

3:31.18

Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)

Stuttgart, Germany

1 mile

3:48.45

Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)

Ghent, Belgium

3,000 m

7:24.90

Daniel Komen (KEN)

Budapest, Hungary

5,000 m

12:49.60

Kenenisa Bekele (ETH)

Birmingham, UK

9 Mar 1997
17 Feb 2016
2 Feb 1997
12 Feb 1997
6 Feb 1998
20 Feb 2004

50 m hurdles

6.25

Mark McKoy (CAN)

Kobe, Japan

5 Mar 1986

60 m hurdles

7.30

Colin Jackson (GBR)

5KPFGNPIGP)GTOCP[

6 Mar 1994

4 x 200 m relay

1:22.11

)TGCV$TKVCKP0QTVJGTP+TGNCPF
.KPHQTF%JTKUVKG&CTTGP$TCKVJYCKVG#FG/CHG,QJP4GIKU

)NCUIQY7-

3 Mar 1991

4 x 400 m relay

3:02.13

75#
-[NG%NGOQPU&CXKF8GTDWTI-KPF$WVNGT+++%CNXKP5OKVJ

Sopot, Poland

9 Mar 2014

4 x 800 m relay
5,000 m walk

7:13.11
18:07.08

75##NN5VCTU
4KEJCTF,QPGU&CXKF6QTTGPEG&WCPG5QNQOQP'TKM5QYKPUMK

Boston, USA

Mikhail Shchennikov (RUS)

/QUEQY4WUUKC

8 Feb 2014
14 Feb 1995

GBR = Great Britain, as per IAAF listings

WOMEN

TIME

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

50 m

5.96

Irina Privalova (RUS)

Madrid, Spain

(GD

DATE

60 m

6.92

Irina Privalova (RUS)

Madrid, Spain

11 Feb 1993

200 m

21.87

Merlene Ottey (JAM)

Livin, France

13 Feb 1993

400 m

49.59

Jarmila Kratochvlov (CZE)

Milan, Italy

7 Mar 1982

800 m

1:55.82

,QNCPFC$CVCIGNL
580

8KGPPC#WUVTKC

3 Mar 2002

9 Feb 1995

1,000 m

2:30.94

Maria de Lurdes Mutola (MOZ)

5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP

1,500 m

3:55.17

Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)

Karlsruhe, Germany

25 Feb 1999
1 Feb 2014

1 mile

4:13.31

Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)

5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP

17 Feb 2016

3,000 m

8:16.60

Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)

5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP

6 Feb 2014

5,000 m

14:18.86

Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)

5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP

19 Feb 2015

50 m hurdles

6.58

Cornelia Oschkenat (GDR)

Berlin, Germany

20 Feb 1988

60 m hurdles

7.68

Susanna Kallur (SWE)

Karlsruhe, Germany

10 Feb 2008

4 x 200 m relay

1:32.41

Russia (Yekaterina Kondratyeva, Irina Khabarova, Yuliya Pechonkina, Yulia Gushchina)

)NCUIQY7-

29 Jan 2005

4 x 400 m relay

3:23.37

4WUUKC
;WNKC)WUJEJKPC1NIC-QVN[CTQXC1NIC<C[VUGXC1NGU[C-TCUPQOQXGVU

)NCUIQY7-

28 Jan 2006

4 x 800 m relay

8:06.24

6GCO/QUEQY
#NGMUCPFTC$WNCPQXC;GMCVGTKPC/CTV[PQXC'NGPC-QHCPQXC#PPC$CNCMUJKPC

/QUEQY4WUUKC

18 Feb 2011

Claudia Stef (ROM)

Bucharest, Romania

30 Jan 1999

3,000 m walk

11:40.33

ATHLETICS ULTRA LONG DISTANCE


MEN

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

50 km

02:48:06

Jeff Norman (GBR)

Timperley, UK

100 km
100 miles

06:10:20
11:28:03

Donald Ritchie (GBR)


Oleg Kharitonov (RUS)

London, UK
London, UK

Yiannis Kouros (GRC)

Colac, Australia

Peter Silkinas (LTU)

Nanango, Australia

Donald Ritchie (GBR)

London, UK

28 Oct 1978
14 Dec 2013

1,000 km
1,000 miles
6 hours

97.2 km (60.39 mi)

28 Oct 1978
20 Oct 2002
0QX&GE
/CT

163.785 km (101.77 mi)

Zach Bitter (USA)

Phoenix, USA

24 hours

303.506 km (188.59 mi)

Yiannis Kouros (GRC)

Adelaide, Australia

1EV

48 hours

473.495 km (294.21 mi)

Yiannis Kouros (GRC)

Surgres, France

/C[

1,038.851 km (645.51 mi)

Yiannis Kouros (GRC)

Colac, Australia

TIME/DISTANCE

WOMEN

Ethiopias Genzebe Dibaba


ran the indoor mile in
4:13.31 at the Globe Arena
KPVJG5YGFKUJECRKVCNQH
5VQEMJQNOQP(GD

FC[U
FC[U

DATE
7 Jun 1980

12 hours

6 days

Fastest
KPFQQTOKNG

HGOCNG 

TIME/DISTANCE

0QX

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

50 km

03:18:52

%CTQN[P*WPVGT4QYG
)$4

Barry, UK

100 km

07:14:06

Norimi Sakurai (JPN)

8GTQPC+VCN[

100 miles

13:52:07

Mami Kudo (JPN)

Chinese Taipei

1,000 km

7 days 1:28:29

Eleanor Robinson (GBR)

Nanango, Australia

/CT

13 days 1:54:02

Eleanor Robinson (GBR)

Nanango, Australia

/CT

Norimi Sakurai (JPN)

8GTQPC+VCN[

Ann Trason (USA)

*C[YCTF75#

1,000 miles
6 hours

83.2 km (57.69 mi)

12 hours

147.6 km (91.71 mi)

DATE
3 Mar 1996
27 Sep 2003
10 Dec 2011

27 Sep 2003
#WI

24 hours

255.303 km (158.63 mi)

Mami Kudo (JPN)

Chinese Taipei

&GE

48 hours

397.103 km (246.75 mi)

Inagiki Sumie (JPN)

Surgres, France

/C[

6 days

883.631 km (549.06 mi)

5CPFTC$CTYKEM
0<

%CORDGNNVQYP#WUVTCNKC

0QX

guinnessworldrecords.com 233

SPORTS REFERENCE

ATHLETICS & CYCLING


ATHLETICS ROAD RACE

(CUVGUVMO
road race
While running the 2016 Dubai
Marathon on 22 Jan, Amos
Choge Kipruto, Edwin Kibet
Koech (both KEN) and Sisay
Lemma (ETH, above) all
reached the 30-km point
KPCTGEQTFVKOGQHJT
OKPUGE

MEN

TIME

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

10 km



Leonard Patrick Komon (KEN)

7VTGEJV0GVJGTNCPFU

26 Sep 2010

DATE

15 km



Leonard Patrick Komon (KEN)

0KLOGIGP0GVJGTNCPFU

21 Nov 2010

20 km

55:21

<GTUGPC[6CFGUG
'4+

Lisbon, Portugal

21 Mar 2010

Half marathon



<GTUGPC[6CFGUG
'4+

Lisbon, Portugal

21 Mar 2010

25 km



Dennis Kipruto Kimetto (KEN)

$GTNKP)GTOCP[

30 km*

1:27:20

Amos Choge Kipruto (KEN)


Edwin Kibet Koech (KEN)
5KUC[.GOOC
'6*

&WDCK7#'

22 Jan 2016

Marathon

2:02:57

Dennis Kipruto Kimetto (KEN)

$GTNKP)GTOCP[

5GR

100 km

6:13:33

Takahiro Sunada (JPN)

Tokoro, Japan

,WP

Road relay

1:57:06

-GP[C
,QUGRJCV0FCODKTK/CTVKP/CVJCVJK&CPKGN/YCPIK
Mekubo Mogusu, Onesmus Nyerere, John Kariuki)

Chiba, Japan

23 Nov 2005

6 May 2012

WOMEN

TIME

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

10 km

30:21

2CWNC4CFENKHHG
)$4

5CP,WCP2WGTVQ4KEQ

23 Feb 2003

DATE

15 km



Florence Jebet Kiplagat (KEN)

$CTEGNQPC5RCKP

15 Feb 2015

20 km



Florence Jebet Kiplagat (KEN)

$CTEGNQPC5RCKP

15 Feb 2015

Half marathon

1:05:09

Florence Jebet Kiplagat (KEN)

$CTEGNQPC5RCKP

15 Feb 2015

25 km

1:19:53

Mary Jepkosgei Keitany (KEN)

$GTNKP)GTOCP[

9 May 2010

30 km



Mizuki Noguchi (JPN)

$GTNKP)GTOCP[

25 Sep 2005

Marathon

2:15:25

2CWNC4CFENKHHG
)$4

.QPFQP7-

13 Apr 2003

100 km

6:33:11

Tomoe Abe (JPN)

Tokoro, Japan

25 Jun 2000

Road relay



%JKPC
,KCPI$Q&QPI;CPOGK<JCQ(GPIVKPI/C<CKLKG
.CP.KZKP.K0C

$GKLKPI%JKPC

(GD

*5VKNNCYCKVKPITCVKECVKQPCVVJGVKOGQHIQKPIVQRTGUU

ATHLETICS RACE WALKING


MEN

TIME

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION



$GTPCTFQ5GIWTC
/':

$GTIGP0QTYC[

MO
TQCF



;WUWMG5W\WMK
,20

Nomi, Japan

30,000 m



Maurizio Damilano (ITA)

Cuneo, Italy

50,000 m



;QJCPP&KPK\
(4#

4GKOU(TCPEG

12 Mar 2011

MO
TQCF



;QJCPP&KPK\
(4#

Zurich, Switzerland

#WI

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

0CFG\JFC4[CUJMKPC
7554

5GCVVNG75#

,WN

20,000 m

WOMEN

Highest
RQNGXCWNV

HGOCNGKPFQQTU
,GPPKHGT5WJT
75# KUQPN[
the second woman in
JKUVQT[CHVGT4WUUKCU;GNGPC
Isinbayeva, to vault over 5 m

HVKP 5JGFKFUQTUV
KPYKVJCXCWNVQHO

HVKP 6JTGG[GCTU
later, she improved her
RGTUQPCNDGUVD[EO
KP 
at the Golden Eagle Multi
CPF+PXKVCVKQPCNKP$TQEMRQTV
0GY;QTM75##UQH
#RT5WJTKUCNUQVJG
reigning Olympic champion,
having won gold at London
5JGYQPCUKNXGTOGFCN
CVVJG1N[ORKEUUVCIGF
KP$GKLKPI%JKPC
234 Sports Reference

TIME

DATE
/C[
15 Mar 2015
3 Oct 1992

DATE

10,000 m



20,000 m



1NKORKCFC+XCPQXC
475

$TKUDCPG#WUVTCNKC

6 Sep 2001

MO
TQCF



Liu Hong (CHN)

La Corua, Spain

6 Jun 2015

ATHLETICS INDOOR FIELD EVENTS


MEN

DISTANCE/POINTS

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

High jump

O
HVKP

,CXKGT5QVQOC[QT
%7$

$WFCRGUV*WPICT[

Pole vault

O
HVKP

4GPCWF.CXKNNGPKG
(4#

&QPGVUM7MTCKPG

(GD

Long jump

O
HVKP

%CTN.GYKU
75#

0GY;QTM%KV[75#

,CP

Triple jump

O
HVKP

6GFF[6COIJQ
(4# 

Paris, France

Shot

O
HVKP

4CPF[$CTPGU
75#

.QU#PIGNGU75#

,CP

Heptathlon

RQKPVU

#UJVQP'CVQP
75#

Istanbul, Turkey

10 Mar 2012

WOMEN

DISTANCE/POINTS

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

High jump

O
HVKP

-CLUC$GTISXKUV
59'

Arnstadt, Germany

Pole vault*

O
HVKP

,GPPKHGT5WJT
75#

$TQEMRQTV75#

30 Jan 2016

Long jump

O
HVKP

*GKMG&TGEJUNGT
)&4

Vienna, Austria

(GD

Triple jump

O
HVKP

6CV[CPC.GDGFGXC
475 

$WFCRGUV*WPICT[

Shot

O
HVKP

Helena Fibingerov (CZE)

Jablonec, Czechoslovakia 19 Feb 1977

Pentathlon

5,013 points

0CVCNKC&QDT[PUMC
7-4

Istanbul, Turkey

*5VKNNCYCKVKPITCVKECVKQPCVVJGVKOGQHIQKPIVQRTGUU

DATE
/CT OUGE

6 Mar 2011

NQPILWORO
UJQVO
JKIJLWORO
OJWTFNGUUGE
RQNGXCWNVO
OOKPUGE

DATE
(GD OJWTFNGUUGE

/CT
9 Mar 2012

JKIJLWORO
UJQVO
NQPILWORO
OOKPUGE

ATHLETICS OUTDOOR FIELD EVENTS


MEN

DISTANCE/POINTS

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

High jump

O
HVKP

,CXKGT5QVQOC[QT
%7$

Salamanca, Spain

27 Jul 1993 OUGE

DATE

Pole vault

O
HVKP

5GTIGK$WDMC
7-4

Sestriere, Italy

,WN

Long jump

O
HVKP

/KMG2QYGNN
75#

Tokyo, Japan

30 Aug 1991

Triple jump

O
HVKP

,QPCVJCP'FYCTFU
)$4

Gothenburg, Sweden

Shot

O
HVKP

4CPF[$CTPGU
75#

.QU#PIGNGU75#

20 May 1990

Discus

O
HVKP

,TIGP5EJWNV
)&4

Neubrandenburg,
Germany

,WP

Hammer

O
HVKP

;WTK[5GF[MJ
7554

Stuttgart, Germany

#WI

Javelin

O
HVKP

,CPGNG\P
%<'

Jena, Germany

25 May 1996

Decathlon

RQKPVU

#UJVQP'CVQP
75#

$GKLKPI%JKPC

29 Aug 2015

WOMEN

DISTANCE/POINTS

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

High jump

O
HVKP

5VGHMC-QUVCFKPQXC
$)4

4QOG+VCN[

DATE
#WI OJWTFNGU

Pole vault

O
HVKP

;GNGPC+UKPDC[GXC
475

Zurich, Switzerland

#WI

Long jump

O
HVKP

)CNKPC%JKUV[CMQXC
7554

.GPKPITCF4WUUKC

,WP

Triple jump

O
HVKP

+PGUUC-TCXGVU
7-4

Gothenburg, Sweden

10 Aug 1995

Shot

O
HVKP

0CVCN[C.KUQXUMC[C
7554

/QUEQY4WUUKC

,WP

Discus

O
HVKP

)CDTKGNG4GKPUEJ
)&4

Neubrandenburg,
Germany

,WN

Hammer

O
HVKP

#PKVC9QFCTE\[M
21.

Cetniewo, Poland

Javelin

O
HVKP

$CTDQTCRQVMQX
%<'

Stuttgart, Germany

5GR

Heptathlon

7,291 points

,CESWGNKPG,Q[PGT-GTUGG

75#

Seoul, South Korea

5GR

Decathlon

RQKPVU

#WUVTC5MWL[V
.67

%QNWODKC75#

15 Apr 2005

7 Aug 1995

1 Aug 2015

NQPILWORO
UJQVOJKIJLWOR
OOUGE
OJWTFNGUUGE
FKUEWUORQNGXCWNV
OLCXGNKPO
OOKPUGE

UGEJKIJLWOR
OUJQVO
OUGENQPI
LWOROLCXGNKP
OOOKP
UGE
OUGE
NQPILWORO
UJQVOJKIJLWOR
OOUGE
OJWTFNGUUGE
FKUEWUORQNGXCWNV
OLCXGNKPO
OOKPUGE

CYCLING ABSOLUTE TRACK


MEN

TIME/DISTANCE

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

(TCPQKU2GTXKU
(4#

#IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ



%JTKU*Q[
)$4

.C2C\$QNKXKC



)GTOCP[
,QCEJKO'KNGTU4GP'PFGTU
4QDGTV(TUVGOCPP

#IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ

5 Dec 2013

MO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



(TCPQKU2GTXKU
(4#

#IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ

7 Dec 2013

MO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



,CEM$QDTKFIG
#75

Sydney, Australia

2 Feb 2011

6GCOMO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



)TGCV$TKVCKP
'FYCTF%NCPE[2GVGT
-GPPCWIJ)GTCKPV6JQOCU5VGXGP$WTMG

.QPFQP7-

3 Aug 2012
7 Jun 2015

O
HN[KPIUVCTV



O
HN[KPIUVCTV
6GCOO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV

1 hour
WOMEN

MO

$TCFNG[9KIIKPU
)$4

.QPFQP7-

TIME/DISTANCE

NAME & NATIONALITY

LOCATION

DATE
13 May 2007

DATE
7 Dec 2013



-TKUVKPC8QIGN
&'7

#IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ

O
HN[KPIUVCTV



1NIC5VTGNVUQXC
475

/QUEQY4WUUKC

O
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



#PPC/GCTGU
#75

#IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ

6GCOO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



%JKPC
,KPLKG)QPI6KCPUJK<JQPI

5CKPV3WGPVKPGP;XGNKPGU
France

(GD

#IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ

11 May 2010

/C[
6 Dec 2013

MO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



5CTCJ*COOGT
75#

6GCOMO
UVCPFKPIUVCTV



Australia (Amy Cure, Annette Edmondson, 5CKPV3WGPVKPGP;XGNKPGU


#UJNGG#PMWFKPQHH/GNKUUC*QUMKPU
France

19 Feb 2015

'XGN[P5VGXGPU
75#

27 Feb 2016

(CTVJGUVJT
WPRCEGF
UVCPFKPIUVCTV
5KT$TCFNG[9KIIKPU
)$4 
E[ENGFMO
OK 
at the Olympic velodrome in
.QPFQP7-QP,WP
+VKUCOCTMQHVJGCFXCPEGU
KPDQVJCVJNGVKEVPGUUCPF
cycling technology that
YJGPVJGTGEQTFYCUTUV
GUVCDNKUJGFQP/C[
D[*GPTK&GUITCPIG
(4# 
the distance achieved was
QPN[MO
OK 

MO

%QNQTCFQ5RTKPIU75#

+P#UJVQP'CVQP
75# 
UEQTGFRQKPVUVQVCMG
VJGIQNFOGFCNCVVJG+##(
9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRUHQTVJG
UGEQPFVKOG*GDGVVGTGFJKU
QYPTGEQTFD[UKZRQKPVUKP
CUVWPPKPIRGTHQTOCPEG

6 Dec 2013

O
HN[KPIUVCTV

1 hour

/QUVRQKPVU
KPCFGECVJNQP

(CUVG