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Emergency Airplane RATs

Michael J. Zolidis
Chief Engineer Electric Systems
February 21, 2006

Page 1
12-2-2002

Over 50 Years of Electric Systems Aerospace Experience

1945

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

MD-90
F-8U/2N

C-131
B-47

F-8U/3

C-133

C-5A

CH-54

A-3J

KC-135A

CH46

F-101
B-57

FALCON 20
CL-44

DC-8 SERIES 60
CH-3C

B-52H

F-106

J-35
B-57D

B-58

CH47A-C
S2F

F-28
A-7A

A300B

Commercial
Military
Business
Ram Air Turbine

F-111
720B

DHC-5D

VH-3D
747-100/200

P-2E/H

707

CL-601

757

A-4 H/M

AMX

A-6E/KA-6D

50

55

60

65

70

IL-96M/T

A321

Page 2
12-2-2002

85

ARJ21

ERJ-135
DHC-8-400

MD-10
G-450

757-300
767 AWACS

737AEW&C

GLOBAL EXPRESS

787
X-45 UCAV

HAWKER HORIZON

C-130J

747-400

80

JSF/CDA

717

DHC-8-200

DHC-8-100

75

E-2C

F-35

LEARJET 45

A320
FOKKER 100

F-18 C/ D

1945

VC-25A
CRJ-100 /200

MD-11

A400M

A380
L-159
RAH-66
728JET
G550-AEP
MMA
D609
DHC-8-300
ERJ-145
GV-SP
SAAB 2000
CRJ-700
SUKHOI RRJ
FOKKER 70
F/A-18 E/F CARGOLIFTER
CL 160

IDF

767

DC-10

HAWK 200

FOKKER 50

C-5B

A310

EF-111A

KFIR

727

AV-8B

F-15E

F-14B/D

747-300
F-15

727-200 ADV
CL-28

F-16 C /D /N

F-16 A/B

A330

C-1 /ECM /STOL

737-300 /400 /500

MERCURE

CONCORDE

F-102

HAWK
100 / T-45A

US-1

P-2J

A340

A300-600

EFA 2000
A319

C-17A

V-22

737-600 /700 /800

F-22
LEARJET 60

C-5 RERP

777-300
CL-604
NIMROD 2000

AVRO RJ

X-31A

E-6A

KC-135R
MD-80

777-200
F2

EH 101

SH / UH-60
LEARJET 55
B-2

L-1011

C-141

HAWKER 800 /1000

F-20

E-4B

CARAVELLE 10B

DC-9

F-27

F-100

F-14A
CF-5

B-1B

E-3A

DHC-7
FALCON 200

SR-71

C-135B

DC-8

EA-6B

AJ-37

B-52F/G
B-36

S-3A

EFA
SR-71

BAE-146

A340-500 /600

2005

AIRBORNE LASER

SAAB 2000

JAS-39

TR-1

TU-204R

LCA

E-8A

CH-47D

CL-600

JA-37

G-222/C-27

737-100/200

JETSTAR

CH53

SABRELINER XFV-12A

KC-135E

F-4

B-66

TORNADO

VFW-614

VC-10

F-3C

GULFSTREAM IV

DC-8 SERIES 70

A-10

2000

E-10A

EMBRAER
170/190
Falcon F7X

767-400ER

90

95

2000

2005

Video

Page 3
12-2-2002

Page 4
12-2-2002

What is a Ram Air Turbine?

A small windmill that extracts power from the airflow


Most common use is to provide emergency power in
the event of an all-engines out failure

Page 5
12-2-2002

Emergency Ram Air Turbine


Purpose: provide emergency power to essential
systems when all engines fail
Hydraulic power for powered actuation of flight control
surfaces
Electric Power for flight control computers,
essential instruments, radio, cockpit lighting,
windshield and pitot tube de-icing

The airplane becomes a glider


when all engines fail
Page 6
12-2-2002

Page 7
12-2-2002

What could cause an all-engines


out condition?

Fuel exhaustion

Fuel contamination

Volcanic ash damage

Extremely heavy rain or hail

Human error
Page 8
12-2-2002

Ram Air Turbines Save Lives!

Boeing 767 - Fuel Exhaustion - August 1983


69 Lives Saved
Page 9
12-2-2002

Ram Air Turbines Save Lives!

CL600 - Fuel Contamination- March 1994


2 Lives Saved
Page 10
12-2-2002

Ram Air Turbines Save Lives!

A310 - Fuel Exhaustion July 12, 2000


150 Lives Saved
Page 11
12-2-2002

Ram Air Turbines Save Lives!

Ram Air
Turbine

A330 - Fuel Leak - August 24, 2001


304 Lives Saved
Page 12
12-2-2002

Do Four-Engine Aircraft Need


an Emergency RAT?

Fuel Exhaustion

Fuel Contamination

Volcanic Ash

Four-Engines Do Not Provide Protection From These Threats


A340, A380,C-5A, C-17, and Nimrod all have Ram Air Turbines

Page 13
12-2-2002

Who uses RATs


All Airbus airplanes

A300/310, A321/320/319/318, A330/340/340-500, A380

Boeings newer airplanes

757, 767, and 777


DC-10/MD-11

Several Business and Regional Jets

Challenger, GX, F7X, CRJ, ERJ-700, 728JET

C-17 & C-5A


Many older military jets
Page 14
12-2-2002

The Worlds Leading Supplier of


Ram Air Turbines

Page 15
12-2-2002

Why not use something else:


Such as batteries or an APU
RATs offer:
Unlimited duration of power
No fuel required
Low cost of ownership
On demand reliable operation
Full flight envelope performance

RATs are usually the most efficient method of


providing aircraft emergency power
Page 16
12-2-2002

Description of RAT Operation


Deploy signal commanded (automatic or manual)
Uplock releases
Deployment actuator provides force to open RAT
compartment doors and deploy RAT into airstream
Turbine locked in position until blades clear aircraft
Turbine is released and accelerates to rated speed
Turbine governor maintains speed control
RAT provides emergency power to aircraft
RAT remains deployed for rest of flight
Page 17
12-2-2002

Turbine Speed Governor

Turbine governor adjusts blade angle to


maintain constant rotational speed
Page 18
12-2-2002

RAT Speed Governor Mechanism

At low speed
Spring holds blades in
fine pitch position
(high power extraction)

At high speed
Counterweights act to compress
spring and rotate blades to
coarse pitch position (low power
extraction)
.
Page 19
12-2-2002

Typical Installations for


Emergency Ram Air Turbines

Mid
Fuselage Belly Mount
Mid-Fuselage
(A321 RAT System)

(belly)
15-35%
Degradation

Forward
Fuselage
Mount
Under Wing
Forward
Fuselage
( Challenger/RJ RAT System)
(Flap10-25%
Track Fairing)
(nose)
5-10%

Wing Flap Track Mount


(A340 RAT System)
Degradation

Page 20
12-2-2002

Degradation

Typical RAT Aircraft Installation

Stowed
Position

Deployed
Position

Page 21
12-2-2002

Emergency Power Approach


Hydraulic RAT with HMG
CRITICAL FLIGHT
CONTROLS HYDRAULIC
LOADS

HM G

AC/DC
CRITICAL LOAD BUS

Page 22
12-2-2002

Emergency Power Approach


Electric RAT with ACMP

CRITICAL FLI GHT


CONTROLS
HYDRAULIC LOADS
ACM P

Page 23
12-2-2002

AC/DC CRITICAL
LOAD BUS

Emergency Power Approach


Hybrid RAT (electric and hydraulic)
CRITICAL FLIGHT CONTROLS
HYDRAULIC LOADS
AC/DC CRITICAL
LOAD BUS

GENERATOR
OUTPUT
HYDRAULIC
PUMP
OUTPUT

Page 24
12-2-2002

Hamilton Sundstrand
RAT Product Line
Existing Turbine Designs
19

24

27

29.5

13 INCH DIAMETER
z Hawk
z Tornado

39.5 INCH DIAMETER


z A321
z A320
z A319
z A318
z A340-500/600

Horsepower Range
2.6 HP at 130 KEAS

54 HP at 130 KEAS

Under development - 62 Diameter A380 RAT - 85 HP at 130 KEAS


Page 25
12-2-2002

Typical RAT Systems

Page 26
12-2-2002

RAT TEST
Wind Tunnel Deployment and Start-up

Page 27
12-2-2002

Icing Conditions Testing

Page 28
12-2-2002

Lightning Strike Testing

Page 29
12-2-2002

RAT Powered Aerial Refueling Pod

Page 30
12-2-2002

Other Pod RAT Applications

Target Towing

Electronic Warfare
Page 31
12-2-2002

Over 50 Years of Electric Systems Aerospace Experience

1945

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

MD-90
F-8U/2N

C-131
B-47

F-8U/3

C-133

C-5A

CH-54

A-3J

KC-135A

CH46

F-101
B-57

FALCON 20
CL-44

DC-8 SERIES 60
CH-3C

B-52H

F-106

J-35
B-57D

B-58

CH47A-C
S2F

F-28
A-7A

A300B

Commercial
Military
Business
Ram Air Turbine

F-111
720B

DHC-5D

VH-3D
747-100/200

P-2E/H

707

CL-601

757

A-4 H/M

AMX

A-6E/KA-6D

50

55

60

65

70

IL-96M/T

A321

Page 32
12-2-2002

85

ARJ21

ERJ-135
DHC-8-400

MD-10
G-450

757-300
767 AWACS

737AEW&C

GLOBAL EXPRESS

787
X-45 UCAV

HAWKER HORIZON

C-130J

747-400

80

JSF/CDA

717

DHC-8-200

DHC-8-100

75

E-2C

F-35

LEARJET 45

A320
FOKKER 100

F-18 C/ D

1945

VC-25A
CRJ-100 /200

MD-11

A400M

A380
L-159
RAH-66
728JET
G550-AEP
MMA
D609
DHC-8-300
ERJ-145
GV-SP
SAAB 2000
CRJ-700
SUKHOI RRJ
FOKKER 70
F/A-18 E/F CARGOLIFTER
CL 160

IDF

767

DC-10

HAWK 200

FOKKER 50

C-5B

A310

EF-111A

KFIR

727

AV-8B

F-15E

F-14B/D

747-300
F-15

727-200 ADV
CL-28

F-16 C /D /N

F-16 A/B

A330

C-1 /ECM /STOL

737-300 /400 /500

MERCURE

CONCORDE

F-102

HAWK
100 / T-45A

US-1

P-2J

A340

A300-600

EFA 2000
A319

C-17A

V-22

737-600 /700 /800

F-22
LEARJET 60

C-5 RERP

777-300
CL-604
NIMROD 2000

AVRO RJ

X-31A

E-6A

KC-135R
MD-80

777-200
F2

EH 101

SH / UH-60
LEARJET 55
B-2

L-1011

C-141

HAWKER 800 /1000

F-20

E-4B

CARAVELLE 10B

DC-9

F-27

F-100

F-14A
CF-5

B-1B

E-3A

DHC-7
FALCON 200

SR-71

C-135B

DC-8

EA-6B

AJ-37

B-52F/G
B-36

S-3A

EFA
SR-71

BAE-146

A340-500 /600

2005

AIRBORNE LASER

SAAB 2000

JAS-39

TR-1

TU-204R

LCA

E-8A

CH-47D

CL-600

JA-37

G-222/C-27

737-100/200

JETSTAR

CH53

SABRELINER XFV-12A

KC-135E

F-4

B-66

TORNADO

VFW-614

VC-10

F-3C

GULFSTREAM IV

DC-8 SERIES 70

A-10

2000

E-10A

EMBRAER
170/190
Falcon F7X

767-400ER

90

95

2000

2005

Page 33
12-2-2002

d0
Volts
e=
dt
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12-2-2002

Page 35
12-2-2002