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CHILD CARE
Higher Secondary
School
PHYSICS NOTES
1) PHYSICAL QUANTITIES &
MEASURMENTS
2) KINEMATICS
3) DYNAMICS
NOTES OF PHYSICS 9TH CLASS
ENGLISH
MEDIUM COMPLETE
FIRST THREE CHAPTER
PROBLEMS,SHORT AND LONG
QUESTIONS

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1 Define Physics?

Unit No 1

2 Ans: The branch of science which deals with the study of matter and energy and their
mutual relationship is called Physics.
(2) Write names of the branches of Physics?
Ans: (1) Mechanics

(2) Heat & Thermodynamics (3) Sound (4) Light

(5) Electromagnetism (6) Atomic and Molecular Physics (7) Nuclear Physics (8) Plasma
Physics (9) Solid Physics
Why do we study physics?
We study physics to understand the laws of nature and how nature effects the human
action.
(3) Define Plasma?
Ans: The state of matter at a very high temperature comprising the ions and electrons is
called plasma. This is also called fourth state of matter
(4) Name the branches of physics overlapping the other branches of science?
Ans: (1) Astrophysics

(2) Geophysics

(3) Biophysics

(7) Who studied the freely falling bodies?


Ans: Galileo studied the freely falling bodies
BRANCHES OF PHYSICS:
Mechanics:
It is the study of motion of objects, the causes and effect.
Heat:
It deals with the nature of heat, modes of transfer and effects of heat.
Sound:
It deals with the physical aspects of sound waves, their production, properties and
applications.
Light (Optics):
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Electricity and magnetism:

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It is the study of physical aspects of light, its properties, working and use of optical
instruments.
It is the study of the changes at rest and in motion, their effects and their relationships with
magnetism.
Atomic physics:
It is the study of the structure and properties of atom.
Nuclear physics:
It deals with the properties and behaviour of nuclei and the particles within the nuclei.
Plasma physics:
It is the study of production, properties of the ionic state of matter The fourth state of
matter.
Geophysics:
It is the study of the internal structure of the earth.
System international units:
A world-wide system of measurements is known as system international units (SI). In SI,
the units of seven base
quantities are meter, kilogram, second, ampere, Kelvin, candela
and mole.
vernier callipers:
An instrument used to measure small lengths such as internal and external diameter or
length of a cylinder etc is called vernier calipers.
Least count of vernier calliper is 1/10 cm or 0.1 cm which is also called vernier constant.
Screw gauge:
A screw gauge is used to measure small lengths such as diameter of a wire, thickness of a
metal sheet etc.
The least count of micrometer screw gauge is 0.01 mm.
Physical balance
Physical balance is a modified type of a beam balance used to measure small masses by
comparison with greater accuracy.

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MEASUREMENTS
Why a standard unit is need to measure a quantity correctly.
Ans:
Various units have been in use in different times in different parts of the world. The
fast means of communication systems have changed the world into a global village. Due to
this reason an international system of units for mutual business became essential.
The eleventh general conference of weights and measures recommended that all the
countries of world should adopted a system of same kind of standard units, consisting of
seven base units known as international system of units (SI) and derived units.
Q: What is meant by base and derived units? Give three examples of derived units
and explain how they are derived from base units.
Ans:
Base Units:
The units of base quantities are called base units. OR the units used to
express the base quantities are called base units.
Examples:
Kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), Ampere (A)
Derived Units:
The units of derived quantities which are derived from base units are called
derived units.
Examples:
Unit of Area: m2.
Unit of Volume: m3
Unit of Density: Kg m-3
Unit of speed: meter per second (ms-1),
Unit of weight: Newton
Unit of force: Newton,
Unit of Pressure: Pascal
Q : How they are derived from base units:
These units are obtained by multiplication, division or both of base units.
Unit of Area: length x breadth
Unit of length x unit of breadth
Meter x meter
mxm
: m2
Unit of Volume: length x breadth x height
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Unit of length x unit of breadth x unit of height


Meter x meter x meter
mxmxm
: m3

Unit of Density: Mass


Volume
Unit of mass
Unit of volume
Q: What are the number of base units in System International (SI)?
Ans.
There are seven base units which are given below
Number Physical Quantity Unit Symbol
1. Length
Meter (m
2. Mass
Kilogram(kg
3. Time
Seconds (s
4. Electric current
Ampere( A
5. Temperature
Kelvin( K
6. Intensity of light
Candela(cd
7. Amount of substance
(Mole mol
Q: Where multiples and sub-multiples of units are used? Describe some standard
prefaces which are internationally used.
Ans. Multiples and sub-multiples of units are used to make very large and very small
mathematical calculations easier. The multiples and sub-multiples are obtained by
multiplying or dividing with ten or power of tens.
The terms used internationally for the multiples and sub-multiples for different units are
called prefixes.
Q: What is the use of vernier calipers?
Ans A vernier calliper can be used to measure lengths accurately up to one tenth of a
millimetre.
Least Count/Vernier Constant
Q1.7 What is meant by its vernier constant?
Ans.
The minimum length which can be measured accurately with the help of vernier scale or
vernier calipers is called least count.
Least count of vernier calliper is 1/10 mm or 0.1 cm which is also called vernier constant.
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Q: Explain the statement A micrometer screw gauge measures more accurately


than a vernier caliper?
Ans.
The least count of micrometer screw gauge is 0.01 mm and that of Vernier calliper is
0.1. cm. So a micrometer screw gauge measures more accurately than a vernier calliper.
Least Count: The minimum length which can be measured accurately is called
least count of any measuring device.
Significant figures:
All accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are called
significant figures. It reflects the precision of a measured value of a physical quantity.
RULES TO FIND THE SIGNIFICANT FIGURE IN A MEASUREMENT:
(i) Digits other than zero are always significant.
27 have 2 significant digits.
275 have 3 significant digits.
(ii) Zeroes between significant digits are also significant.
2705 have 4 significant digits.
(iii) Final zero or zero after decimal are significant.
275.00 have 5 significant digits.
(iv) Zero used for spacing the decimal points is not significant.
Here zero is place holders only.
0.03 has 1 significant digit.
0.027 has 2 significant digits.
(v) In whole numbers that end in 1 or more zero without a decimal point. These zeroes
may or may not be significant. In such cases, it is not clear which zero serve to locate the
position value and which are actually parts of measurements. In such a case, express the
quantity using scientific notation to find the significant zero.
APPLICATION OF PHYSICS
Physics play an important role in our daily life. We hardly find a device where physics is not
involved. Consider pulleys make it easy to left heavy loads. Electricity is not used only to
get light and heat but also mechanical energy that derives fans electric motors
ctc.Consider the means of transportation such as car and aeroplanes domestic appliances
such as air conditioners refrigerators vacuum cleaners washing machine and micro wave
ovens etc.Similarly the means of communication such as radio T V telephone are the result
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of application of physics. These devices made our lives much comfortable and easier than
the past.
BOOK EXERCISE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
Q: 1.5
Estimate your age in seconds?
Ans :
My age is sixteen years. Its value in seconds
16 x 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 504576000 seconds.
Q1.6: What role SI units have played in the progress of science?
Ans : SI units are very easy to use because their addition, multiplication and division is
very easy . These can be written in terms of multiples of ten.
1.7 SEE ABOVE.
Q1.8: what do you under stand by zero error of measuring instruments?
Ans: When the zero of virnier scale is not coinciding with the zero of main scale, then
instrument has zero error
Q1.9: why is the use of zero error in a measuring instrument?
Ans: By the use of zero error the observation taken can be correct, to get correct
observations
Q1.10: What is stop watch? What is the least count of mechanical stop watch you
have use in laboratory?
Ans: The stop watch is used to measure small intervals of time. Its least count is about
0.1 seconds.
Q1.11: We need to measure extremely small interval of times?
Ans: Small time interval are measured to calculate instantaneous time rate of change of
variable.
Q1.12: What is meant by significant figures of a measurement?
Ans: All the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are known
as significant figures.
Q1.13: How is precision is related to the significant figures in a measured quantity?
Ans: More is the number of significant figures, when the measuring instrument used has
small value of its least count. The small value of least count the large is the value of
precision. For example reading taken by screw gauge has more precision than reading
taken by meter rod or verneir scale.
CHAPTER: 1
Physical quantities and measurement (Problems)
P1.1) Express the following quantities using prefixes.
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Solution:
(a)5000g
As 1000g = 1kg so 5000/1000
=5kg Ans
(b)2000000w
As 106 = mega
So 2000000 W
2 x 106
=2MW
(c) 52 x 10-10 x kg
since 1kg =1000g or103g
=52 x 10-10 x 103g
= 52 x 10-10+3g
= 52 x 10-7g
= 5.2 x 101 x 10-7g
= 5.2 x 10-7+1g
= 5.2 x 10-6g
=5.2ug Ans
-8
(d) 225 x 10 s
=2.25 x 102 x 10-8s
= 2.25 x 102-8s
=2.25 x 10-6s
= 2.25 us ANS
P1.2) How do prefixes micro, nano and pico related to each other.
As we know that,
Micro =10-6
Nano = 10-9
Pico = 10-12
1 p= 1/1000n
1 p= 1/1000000
1 n= 1/1000
1 n = 1000 p
1 = 1000n
1 = 1000000p
P1.3) Your hair grow at the rate of 1mm per day find their growth rate in
nms-1.
As milli = 10-3
Nano = 10-9
1m = 10-6 n OR 1m = 1000000n
By multiplying m on both sides
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1mm = 106 nm OR 1mm = 1000000nm


As we know that
One day = 24 hours
One hour = 60 minutes
One minutes = 60s
So
One day = 24 x60 x6
= 86400 s
So the growth rate in nms-1 is
= 1000000nm/86400s
= 11.57nms-1 Ans:::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::OR S=v xt v= S/t
V= 1 X10-3 s/86400 s
V= 1.157 x 10-8 ms-1
V=11.57 x 10-9 ms-1
Nano = 10-9
P1.4) Rewrite the followings in standard form:
Solution:
27
(a)1168 x 10
Solution:
27
1168 x 10
3

27

1.168 x 10 x 10
1.168 x 10 3-27
24
1.168 x 10
ANS
5
(b)32 x 10

Solution:
1
5
3.2 x 10 x 10
3.2 x 10 1+5
6
3.2 x 10
25
(c) 725 x 10
5
3
7.25 x 10
x 10 g
2
2
7.25 x 10 x 10 x 10 -5+3
7.25 x 10 2-2g
0
7.25 x 10

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10

7.25g ANS
8
(d) 0.02 x 10
Solution:
0.02 x 10-2 x 10-8
2 x 10-2-8 (as we know that powers are added up)
2 x 10-10 ANS
P1.5) Write the following quantities in scientific notation:
Solution:
(a) 6400km
6.4x103km ANS
(b) 380000km
3.8x105 ANS
(c) 300000000ms-1
3.108ms-1
(d) Seconds in a day:
24x60x60s=86400s
8.64x104s ANS
P1.6) Question on book:
As the zero of Vernier scale is on right so zero error will be positive and if its 4 th
division is conceding with the main scale then the zero error=0.01x4=0.04
Zero error= +0.04cm
And zero correction= -0.04cm
P1.7) A screw gauge has 50 divisions on its circular scale. The pitch of the screw
gauge is 0.5mm. What is its least count?
Solution:
Least count= pitch of screw gauge/no. of divisions in circular
0.5/50=0.01mm
0.01x10-3m
1x10-5m
1x10-5x100cm
1x10 -3cm
0.001cm ANS
P1.8) Which of the following quantities have three significant figures?
Solution:
(a)3.006m
(b)5.05x10-21kg
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(c) 0.00309kg
(d)301.0s

P1.9) What are the significant figures in the following measurements?


(a)1.009m (It carry all of them 4)
(b)0.00450kg
0.00450
It has 3 significant figures
(c) 1.66x10-27kg
1.66x10-27kg
It has 3 significant figures.
(d)2001s
It has 4 significant figures.
P.10) A chocolate wrapper is 6.7cm long, 5.4cm wide. Calculate its area up to
reasonable number of significant figures.
Solution:
Area= length x width
=6.7cm x 5.4cm
= 36.18cm2
Area in significant figure= 36cm2

Unit # 2

Kinematics

Define Mechanics and its types.


The branch of physics, which deals with the study of motion of bodies, is called
Mechanics. It has two types:
I) Kinematics
ii) Dynamics
Define Types of Mechanics.
Kinematics:
It is study of motion of bodies without reference of force and mass.
Dynamics:
It is study of motion of bodies with reference of force and mass.
Q2.3 (i) difference between rest and motion?
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in the state of rest.

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Define Rest
If a body does not change its position with respect to some observers then it is said to be
Define Motion
If a body is changing its position with respect of some observers then it is said to be in
the state of motion.
Name the types of motion
a. Translatory Motion
b. Linear motion
c. Circular motion
d. Random motion
e. Rotatory Motion
f. Vibratory Motion
What is the motion butterfly? Executed by
Flight of butterfly is irregular motion. Therefore its motion is called random motion.
What is type of motion of free falling bodies?
Freely falling bodies move downward in straight direction under the force of gravity.
Therefore their motion is called linear motion.
What is the type of motion of a man moving in circular track?
His motion is circulatory motion.
Q2.3 (iii)What is the difference between distance and displacement?
Define Distance
The path between two points is called distance. It is scalar quantity.
Define Displacement
The shortest distance between two points is called displacement. It is a vector quantity.
Q2.3 (VI) what is the difference between Scalar and Vector? OR
What are Scalar and Vector Quantities?
Scalars are those quantities which are described by a number with suitable unit without
direction.
Vectors are those quantities which can be described by a number with suitable unit and
with direction.
Q2.3 (iv) What is the difference between Velocity and Speed?
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Define Velocity
(Part of 2.4
The distance covered by a body in a unit time in a particular direction is called velocity.
OR

The rate of change of displacement is called velocity. It is denoted by v. It is a vector


quantity.
1.

Positive

Acceleration

If the velocity continuously increases then the acceleration will be positive.


2.
Negative
acceleration
If the velocity continuously decreases then the acceleration will be negative.
Define Uniform Speed
If a body covers an equal distance in equal interval of time in a particular direction, the
body is said to be uniform Velocity.
Define variable velocity
If a body does not cover an equal distance in equal
interval of time in a particular direction, the body is

said to be

in variable velocity.
Define relative velocity
When two bodies are in motion then the velocity of one

body

relative

to

other is called relative velocity.


Define Instantaneous velocity
The velocity of a body at any instance of time is called instantaneous velocity.
Define Average velocity
Average velocity of a body can be obtained by dividing the total displacement with total
time taken.
Vav = Displacement/Time =

d
t

Can a body moving with certain velocity in the direction of East can have
acceleration in the direction of West?
Ans:

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Yes, if the velocity of the body decreases, then it will have acceleration in the
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opposite direction, that is, in the direction of west.


Does speedometer of a car measures its velocity?
It measures only speed but not velocity.
Part of 2.4
Define Acceleration.
The rate of change of velocity is called acceleration. It is denoted by a. It is a vector
quantity.
Define Uniform Acceleration
If velocity of a body is changing equally in equal intervals of times then its acceleration
will be uniform.
Define Variable Acceleration
If velocity of a body is not changing equally in equal intervals of times then its
acceleration will be variable.
Define Average Acceleration
The average acceleration can be obtained by dividing total change in velocity with total
time taken.
aav = Change in Velocity/Total Time
=(Vf Vi)t
Define Gravitational Acceleration
The acceleration of freely falling bodies is called gravitational acceleration. It is denoted
by g. Its value is 10 meter per second per second (10 ms -2)
2. A body is thrown vertically upward. What is gravitational acceleration?
Ans :
It is 10 meter per second per second (-10 ms -2)
3. What is acceleration of a body moving with uniform velocity?
Ans :
The acceleration will be 0.
4. What consideration should be kept in mind while using equation of motion for free
falling bodies?
Initial velocity should be taken as zero.
Acceleration will be taken as (g) instead of (a)
Part of 2.4
Define Speed
The distance covered in unit time is called speed.
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Speed = Distance/Time

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v = S/t

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The unit of speed is meter per second (ms-1) or m/s


5. Q#2.7 /Can a body moving at a constant speed have acceleration?
Yes, if it is moving in circular path, it can have acceleration.
6. A body is moving with uniform velocity, what will be its acceleration?
Its acceleration will be zero.
7. A body is moving with a uniform speed. Will its velocity be uniform?
Yes, if it moves in straight line and does not change its direction.
8. Can a body moving with a certain velocity in direction of East, have
Acceleration in the direction of West?
Yes, if its velocity will decrease, it has acceleration in the direction of west.
9. Does speedometer a car measure its velocity?
No, it only measures the speed.
10.
Why a stone and a piece of paper when dropped from the same height,
reach the ground at the same time.
Because both have same gravitational acceleration.
11.
What type of change will occur in three equations of motion under the
action of gravity?
Acceleration (a) will be replaced with gravitational acceleration (g) in all equations.
And distance (s) will be changed in to height (h)
Describe the different types of motion in detail?
Motions of bodies are of three types:
Q2.3 (v) What is the difference between linear and random Motion?
Q2.3 (ii) What is the difference between Circular and Translatory Motion?
i) Translatory Motion: A motion in which each particle of a body has exactly same motion is called
Translatory Motion. It may be of many kinds for examples: a. Linear Motion: If a body moves in straight line

its

motion is called linear motion. e.g. motion of free falling bodies, a


man walking on a straight path

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b. Circular Motion: If a body moves in a circle its


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motion is called circular motion. e.g. motion of stone


attached to thread and whirled.
c. Random Motion: If a body moves in irregular
manner its motion is called random motion. e.g.

motion

of

butterfly.
ii) Rotatory Motion: Motion is said to Rotatory, when the object rotates on its own axis.
Examples: Rotatory motion of a planets on its axis, wheels of a vehicles, spinning
top, ceiling fan etc.
iii) Vibratory Motion: When a body moves to and fro about a point and repeats its motion then its motion
is called vibratory

motion. e.g. Motion of simple Pendulum, motion of tuning fork, A

ruler. Place one inch of it on a desk,

and the other 11 off the desk. Flick the end off the

desk and watch it vibrate.


Q2.10 How can a vector quantity be represented graphically?
Ans: When a vector is represented graphically, its magnitude is represented by the length
of straight line and its direction is represented by the direction of the arrow head . Here is

an example

Q2.11 Why vectors quantities can not be added and subtracted like scalar
quantities?
Ans ; In addition of vector quantities, not their magnitude but their direction also involved
therefore vector can not be added like the addition of scalar.
Q2.12: How are vectors quantities are important to us in our daily life?

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Ans: in our daily life vectors quantities are completely explained only when their direction
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are also considered Q2.13 Derive equation of motion for uniformly accelerated rectilinear
motion?

Three equations of motion are three equations of motion under the action of gravity are
Vf = Vi + at
S = Vi t +

Vf=Vi+gt
1
2

at2

h=Vit+ 2 gt2

2aS = Vf 2 Vi 2 2gh = Vf 2 Vi 2
Q2.14 : Sketch the velocity time graph for the motion of the body?
Motion Graphs

For body moving at constant velocity:


The graph of straight line parallel to the X axis shows that the body is moving with
constant velocity
a)

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b) Q 2.7 Distance time graph for a body start from rest

uniform velocity-- time graph

Derivation of Equation of Motion (Graphically)


First Equation of Motion
Consider an object moving with a uniform velocity u in a straight line. Let it be, given a
uniform acceleration at time, t = 0 when its initial velocity is V i. As a result of the
acceleration, its velocity increases to Vf (final velocity) in time t and s is the distance
covered by the object in time t. The figure shows the velocity-time graph of the motion of
the object.
Slope of the Vf - t graph gives the acceleration of the moving object.
Thus, acceleration = slope = AB = BC/AC
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Where BD=Vf, CD=Vi, AC= OD=t BC=BD-CD

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(Average,acceleration(aav)= Change in Velocity/time)


Slope=AB= Vf - Vi/ t
a = Vf - Vi/ t
Vf Vi = at
Vf = Vi + at ........................................................(1)

Second Equation of Motion


Let Vi be the initial velocity of an object and 'a' the
acceleration produced in the body. The distance travelled
time t is given by the area enclosed by the velocity-time
graph for the time interval 0 to t.
Distance travelled

S = area of the trapezium ABDO

Total aera of OABD=

area of rectangle ACDO + area of

ABC
1
2

= OD x OA +
Where,

(BC x AC)

OA=VI, OD=t, BC=BD-CD,


= t x Vi +

= Vi t +

1
2

1
2

AC=t, BD=Vf, CD=Vi


(Vf - Vi ) x t

(Vf - Vi ) x t

(vf = V i + at I eqn of motion; vf - vi = at)

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S = Vit +

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S = Vi t +

1
2 at x t
1
2
2 at .

Third Equation of Motion


Let 'vi' be the initial velocity of an object and a be the acceleration produced in the body.
The distance travelleds in timet is given by the area enclosed by the speed (v) - t graph.
S= area of the trapezium OABD.
1
= ( 2 ) (OA + BD) x AC
1
( )
2

where OA=Vi, BD= Vf, AC=OD=t

(Vi + Vf)t ....(1)

But we know that a =( Vf - Vi )t


Or t = (Vf - Vi )a
Substituting the value of t in eq. (1) we get,
s=

1
( )
2

(Vi + Vf)( Vf Vi)a =

1
( )
2

(Vf + Vi)( Vf Vi)a

2as = (Vf + Vi) ( Vf - Vi )


(Vf + Vi)( Vf - Vi) = 2as

[using the identity a2 - b2 = (a + b) (a - b)]

v2 - Vi 2 = 2as........... Third Equation of Motion


Acceleration Due To Gravity Or Free Falling Objects
Galileo was the first scientist to observe that, neglecting the effect of air resistance, all
bodies in free-fall close to the Earths surface accelerate vertically downwards with the
same acceleration: namely 9.8 m/s2
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Example

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If a ball is thrown vertically upward, it rises to a particular height and then falls back to the
ground. However this is due to the attraction of the earth which pulls the object towards
the ground
Characteristic Of Free Falling Bodies
1. When a body is thrown vertically upward, its velocity continuously decreases and
become zero at a particular height During this motion the value of acceleration is negative
and Vf is equal to zero
(a = -9.8m/s2 , Vf = 0).
2. When a body falls back to the ground , its velocity continuously increases and become
maximum at a particular height During this motion the value of acceleration is positive and
Vi is equal to zero (a = 9.8m/s2 , Vi = 0).
3. Acceleration due to gravity is denoted by a and its value is 9.8m/s 2 .
4. Equation of motion for the free-falling bodies be written as,
Vf = Vi + gt
1
2

h = Vi t +

gt2

2gh = Vf 2 Vi 2
CHAPTER: 2

KINEMATICS

1
P2.1) A train moves with a uniform Velocity of 36 km h
for 10S. Find the distance
travelled by it. Solution:
1
(Velocity) V= 36 km h
1
= 36x1000/60x60= 36000/3600= 10 m s
1

(Time) t= 10 m s
(Distance) S= ?
Formula: S= Vavx t
= (10) x (10)
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S= 100 m ANS

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P2.2) A train starts from nest. It moves through 1km in 100S with uniform
acceleration. What will be its speed at the end of 100 S?
Solution:
(Distance) S= 1km =1000 m
(Time) t= 100 S
(Velocity)Vi= 0 m/s
Vf=?
By using formula:
1
S= vit+ ( 2 )

1000= 0(t)+
1000=

1
2

at2
1
2

2
a (100)

a (10000)

2x1000/10000=a
2
A= 0.2 m s
ANS
Now by using first equation of motion:
Vf= v ;+at
Vf= 0=(0.2)(100)
1
Vf= 20 m s
ANS
2

P2.3) A car has a Velocity of 10m/s. At accelerate at 0.2 m s for half minute. Find
the distance travelled during this time and the final Velocity of the car.
Solution:
(Initial Velocity) Vi= 10m/s
2
(Acceleration) a= 0.2m/ s
(time) t=

1
2

minutes= 30s

(final velocity) Vf= ?


S=?
st
By using 1 equation of motion:
Vf= Vi+at
Vf= (10)+(0.2)(30)
Vf= 10+6
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Vf= 16m s
By using 3rd equation of motion to find s:
2
2
2aS= V f -V ;

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2
2
2aS= V f -V ;
2
2
2(0.2)= ( 16 ) - ( 10 )

0.4 S= 256-100
S=

156
)
0.4

S= 390m ANS
P2.4) A tennis ball is hit vertically upward with a Velocity of 30m/s. it takes 3s to
reach the highest point. Calculate the maximum highest reached by the ball. How
long it will take to return to the ground?
Solution:
(Initial Velocity) Vi= 30m/s
(Time) t1= 3s
(Height) S=?
Time required returning to the ground t2=?
2
g = -10m/ s
The value of g will be negative because the ball will be decelerating.
Now by using the 2nd equation of the motion:
1
2
S= vit+ ( 2 ) (10) ( 3 )

= 90+(-5)(9)
= 90-45
Height S= 45m ANS
2
P 2.6) A train starts from the nest with an acceleration of 0.5m s . Find its speed in

km h1

when it has moved through 100m.


Solution:
Initial Velocity Vi= 0
2
Acceleration a= 0.5 m s
Distance s= 100m
Final Velocity Vf=?
To find the final Velocity we have to find the time. By using 2 nd equation of motion:
Asif Rasheed BS (HONS) Physics 0344-7846394

)
i)

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S= vit+1/2 a t
By putting the values:
2
100= (0)t+1/2(0.5) ( t )

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2
100= (0.5) t
2
100= 0.25 t

100

= 0.25 =400
= 400

Taking square root on both sides:


t2 = 400
T= 20s
Now for Vf, we have formula:
Vf= Vi+at
Vf= 0=(0.5)(20)
1
Vf= 10m s
Now to convert 10m/s into km/h, we will multiply it with 3600 nad divide it by 1000.
So,

3600

Vf= 10 x 1000

1
Vf= 36 km h

ANS

P2.8) A cricket ball is hit vertically upward and returns to the ground 6s later.
Calculate:
Maximum height reached by the ball
Initial Velocity of the ball
:Solution
2
s /Acceleration g = -10m
Time t= 6s
Time for upward= t1= 6/2= 3s
?= Height= s
?Initial Velocity= Vi
Final Velocity= Vf= 0
:By using 1st equation of motion
Vf= vi+gt
O= vi+(-10)(3)
O= vi-30
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vi=30
s1 Vi=30m
:By using 3rd equation of motion
v i 2 - V f 2 =2aS
2x(-10) x s= 0 (30)
20s= -90020s= 900
S= 900/20
S= 45m ANS

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P2.9) When brakes are applied the speed of train decreases from the 96km/h to
48km/h. In 800m how much distance will it cover before coming to rest? (Assume
the retardation is constant)
:Solution
:The situation can be divided into two parts. The parts 1 data is as follows
Initial Velocity Vi= 96 km/h
= 96x1000/3600= 26.66m/s
Final Velocity Vf= 48km/h
= 48x1000/3600= 13.33m/s
Distance s= 800m
Acceleration a=?
By using 3rd equation of motion:
2
2
2aS= V f - V ;
2
2
2a(800)= ( 13.33 ) - ( 26.66 )

1600s= -533.35
a= -533.35/1600
1
a= -0.33m/ s
vi= 48km/h= 13.33m/s
vf= 0 m/s
s=?
Again by using 3rd equation of motion:
2
2
2aS= v f v i
2
2
2(-0.3)s= ( 0 ) - ( 13.33 )

-0.6s= -177.688
S= -177.688/-0.6
S= 266.53m
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26

P2.10) In problem 2.9 find the time taken by the train to stop after the application of
brakes.
Solution:
Initial Velocity Vi= 96km/h= 26.667m/s
Final Velocity Vf= 0m/s
2
Acceleration a= -0.33m/ s
Time t=?
Formula Vf= vi+at
O= 26.677+(-0.33)t
-26.66= -033t
T= -26.667/-0.33
T= 80.80
Vf-vi=at
0-26.677/-0.3344=t
T=80s ANS
P2.11) A car moves with uniform Velocity of 5s it comes to rest in the next 10s/ Find
deceleration and total distance covered by the car?
Solution:
1
Initial Velocity Vi= 40m s
Time t = 10s
Final Velocity Vf= 0
Retardation a=?
Total distance S=?
As we know that:
a=

vf vi
)
t

a= 0-40/40
2
a= -4 m s
ANS
Distance travelled in 1st five seconds.
S 1 = vxt
= 40x5
S1= 200m
Average Velocity for next 10 seconds.
1
Vav= 40+0/2= 20m s
S2= Vav*t
= 20x10
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Total distance S= S1 + S2
= 200+200 = 400m ANS

Chapter # 3

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s 2 = 200m

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Dynamics

1. FORCE
The Force is an agent which produces or tends to produce a motion in a body or it stops or
tends to stop the motion of a body. In simple words we can also say that force is an agent
which changes or tends to change the state of an object.
UNIT
The unit of a Force in M.K.S System is Newton
2. MASS
The quantity of matter contained in a body is called mass. It is a scalar quantity.
FORMULA
F = ma
m = F/a
UNIT
The unit of mass in M.K.S System is Kilogram (kg).
3. WEIGHT
The force with which earth attracts other bodies towards its centre is called weight. It is a
vector quantity.
FORMULA;
UNIT
The unit of weight in M.K.S System is Newton (N).
INERTIA
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W = mg

Definition

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Examples

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Inertia is the tendency of a body to resist a change in its state.


Cover a glass with a post card and place a coin on it. Now strike the post card swiftly with
the nail of your finger. If the stroke has been made correctly, the postcard will be thrown
away and the coin will drop in the glass.
If a moving bus stops suddenly, the passenger standing in it feels a jerk in the forward
direction. As a result he may fall. It is due to the fact that the lower part of the standing
passengers comes to rest as the bus stops. But the upper portion remains in motion due
to inertia.
Difference between Mass and Weight
Mass
1. The quantity of matter present in a body is called mass.
2. The mass of a body remains constant everywhere and does not change by change in
altitude.
3. It is a scalar quantity.
4. Mass can be determined by a physical balance.
Weight
1. The force with which the earth attracts a body towards its centre is called the weight of
the body.
2. The weight of a body is not constant. It is changed by altitude.
3. Weight is always directed towards the center of the earth. So it is a vector quantity.
4. Weight can be determined by only a spring balance.
MOMENTUM
The quantity or quality of motion is called momentum and it is denoted by P
MATHEMATICAL DEFINITION
It is the product of mass and velocity.
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P = mV
where:

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MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION

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p is the momentum
m is the mass
v the velocity
LAW OF MOTIONS
Newton formulated three laws of motion in his book.
NEWTON FIRST LAW OF MOTIONS
Newtons first law of motion is also known as the Law of Inertia.
STATEMENT
Every body continues its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line until it is acted
upon by an external or unbalance force to change its state of rest or uniform motion.
EXPLANATION
This law consists of a two parts
(a) When body is at rest
(b) When body is moving with uniform velocity
(a). When a body is at rest
Newtons Law states that when a body is at rest, it continues its rest unless we apply a
force on it. When we apply a force, it changes its state of rest and starts moving along a
straight line.
(b) When body is moving with a uniform velocity
Newtons Law states that when a body is moving, it moves in a straight line with uniform
velocity, but when we apply an opposite force, it changes its state of motion and come to
rest.
Examples
If a bus suddenly starts moving, the passengers standing in the bus will fall in the
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30

backward direction. It is due to the reason that the lower part of the passengers which is in
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contract with the floor of the bus is carried forward by the motion of the bus, but the upper
part of the body remains at rest due to inertia and so the passengers fall in backward
direction.
If a bus suddenly stops moving, the passengers standing in the bus will fall in the forward
direction. It is due to the reason that the lower part of the passengers which is in contract
with the floor of the bus is stopped with the bus, but the upper part of the body remains
moving due to inertia and so the passengers fall in forward direction.
SECOND LAW OF MOTION
STATEMENT
When a force acts on an object it produces an acceleration which is directly proportion to
the amount of the force and inversely proportional to the product of mass
EXPLANATION
When we push a body with greater force then its velocity increases and change of velocity
takes place in the direction of the force. If we apply a certain force F on a mass m, then it
moves with certain velocity in the direction of the force. If the force becomes twice then its
velocity will also increase two times. In this way if we go on increasing the fore there will
be increase in velocity, which will increase the acceleration.
DERIVATION
According to the Newton`s Second law of motion when a force acts on an object it
produces an acceleration which is directly proportion to the amount of the force.
aF
and inversely proportional to the product of mass
a

1
m

Combining both.
a

F
m

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A = constant F/m

31

F
m

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a=k

If the Value of constant K is 1


so,
a=

F
m

or
F = ma
THIRD LAW OF MOTION
Statement:
To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction
EXPLANATION
According to Newtons Law of Motion, we have:
F(action) = F(reaction)
The negative (-) sign indicates that the two forces are parallel but in the opposite direction.
If we consider one of the interacting objects as A and the other as B, then according to the
third law of motion:
F(AB) = F(BA)
F(AB) represents the force exerted on A and F(BA) is the force exerted on B.
Examples
We walk on the ground, we push the ground backward and as a reaction the ground
pushes us forward. Due to this reason we are able to move on the ground.
If a book is placed on the table, it exerts some force on the table, which is equal to the
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weight of the book. The table as a reaction pushes the book upward. This is the reason
FRICTION

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that the book is stationary on the table and it does not fall down.

Definition
The force, which resists the motion of one surface on
another surface, is known as
friction.
Explanation
Suppose a wooden block is placed on a table and a spring balance is attached on it. If we
apply a very small force of magnitude F by pulling the spring gradually and increase it, we
observe that the block does not move until the applied force has reached a critical value. If
F is less then critical value, the block does not move. According to Newtons Third Law of
motion an opposite force balance the force. This opposing force is known as the force of
friction or friction.
CausesofFriction
If we see the surface of material bodies through microscope, we observe that they are not
smooth. Even the most polished surfaces are uneven. When one surface is placed over
another, the elevations of one get interlocked with the depression of the other. Thus they
oppose relative motion. The opposition is known as friction.
Factors on which Friction Depends
The force of friction depends upon the following factors:
1. Normal Reaction (R)
Force of friction is directly proportional to normal reaction (R), which act upon the body in
upward direction against the weight of the body sliding on the surface.
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2. Nature of Surfaces

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Force of friction also depends upon the nature of the two surfaces. It is denoted as u and
has constant values for every surface. It is different for the two surfaces in contact.
Coefficient Of Friction
The coefficient of friction is a number which represents the friction between two surfaces.
Between two equal surfaces, the coefficient of friction will be the same. The symbol
usually used for the coefficient of friction is Greek letter , where 0

1.

The maximum frictional force (when a body is sliding) is equal to the


coefficient of friction the normal reaction force.
F=R
Where is the coefficient of friction and R is the normal reaction force.
This frictional force, F, will act parallel to the surfaces in contact and in a direction to
oppose the motion that is taking/ trying to take place.
Advantages of Friction
1. We could not walk without the friction between our shoes and the ground. As we try to
step forward, we push our foot backward. Friction holds our shoe to the ground, allowing
you to walk.
2. Writing with a pencil requires friction. We could not hold a pencil in our hand without
friction.
3. A nail stays in wood due to friction
4. Nut and bold hold due to friction
DISADVANTAGES OF FRICTION
1. In any type of vehiclesuch as a car, boat or airplaneexcess friction means that extra
fuel must be used to power the vehicle. In other words, fuel or energy is wasted because
of the friction.
2. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that the amount of energy remains constant.
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Thus, the energy that is lost to friction in trying to move an object is really turned to heat
Page

energy. The friction of parts rubbing together creates heat.


3. Due to the friction a machine has less efficiency less than 100%.
4. Due to friction machine catch fire.
Laws of Friction
Statement
The value of limiting friction increases proportionally with the increase in normal reaction.
Hence, liming friction F(s) is directly proportional to the normal reaction.
F(s) < R (Here < represents the sign of proportionality dont write it in the examination
paper.)
=> Fs = R .. (i)
u = F(s)/R
u is the constant of proportionality, which depends upon the nature of the surfaces of the
two surfaces in contact. It is known as the coefficient of friction. It is only a number without
any unit. We know that the normal reaction is directly proportional to the weight of the
block, therefore,
R = W = mg
Substituting the value of R in equation (i)
=> Fs = mg
Rolling Friction
When a body rolls over a surface, the force of friction is called rolling friction. Rolling
friction is much less than the sliding friction. This is because the surfaces in contact are
very much less.
LONG QUESTIONS
Question: Explain the Law of Conservation of Momentum?
This law states that
When two or more bodies collide with one another the total momentum of the
system remains the same, provided no external force acts upon them.
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35

Explanation: The law of conservation of momentum is a fundamental law of nature, and it states that
the total momentum of an isolated system of objects (which has no interactions with
external agents) is constant. One of the consequences of this is that the of any centre of
mass system of objects will always continue with the same velocity unless acted on by a
force outside the system.
Consider two balls of masses m 1 and m2. They are initially moving with velocities u 1and u2
in same direction on a straight line. If u1 > u2, then the balls will collide. Let their velocities
becomes v1 and v2 after collision.
Total momentum of balls before collision =

m1u1 + m2u2

Total momentum of balls after collision =

m1v1 + m2v2

According to Law of conservation of momentum


Total Momentum before collision
m1u1 + m2u2

Total Momentum after collision

m1v1 + m2v2

Rockets and jet engines also work on the same principle. In these machines, hot gases
produced by burning of fuel rush out with large momentum. The machines gain an equal and
opposite momentum. This enables them to
move with very high velocities.
Question: Define friction and describe the types of friction?
Question: What is force of friction? How friction can be reduced?
Friction: The force, which resists the motion of one surface on another surface, is known as
friction.
Methods to reduce friction: i) Sliding parts should be highly polished to reduce friction.
ii) Friction of liquids is less than solids. Therefore oil or grease is applied between the parts
of machinery.
iii) Rolling friction is less then sliding friction. Therefore sliding friction should be converted
to rolling friction by using ball bearings.
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iv) Front side of vehicles, aeroplanes and ships are shaped wedge like and pointed so that
Page

minimum friction is offered by air.

Centripetal Force
Definition
The force that causes an object to move along a curve (or a curved path) is called
centripetal force.
Mathematical Expression
We know that the magnitude of centripetal acceleration of a body in a uniform circular
motions is directly proportional to the square of velocity and inversely proportional to the
radius of the path Therefore,
a(c) v2
a(c) 1/r
Combining both the equations:
a(c) v2/r
From Newtons Second Law of Motion:
F = ma
=>

F(c) = mv2/r

Where,
Fc = Centripetal Force
v = Velocity of object

m = Mass of object
r = Radius of the curved path

Banking of the roads Factors on which Fc Depends:


Fc depends upon the following factors:
Increase in the mass will increases Fc.
It increases with the square of velocity.
It decreases with the increase in radius of the curved path.
When a car takes
Examples
The centripetal force required by natural planets to move constantly round a circle is
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provided by the gravitational force of the sun.

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If a stone tied to a string is whirled in a circle, the required centripetal force is supplied to it
by our hand. As a reaction the stone exerts an equal force which is felt by our hand.
The pilot while turning his aero plane tilts one wing in the upward direction so that the air
pressure may provide the required suitable Fc.
Centrifugal Force
Definition
A force supposed to act outward on a body moving in a curve is known as centrifugal
force.
Explanation
Centrifugal force is actually a reaction to the centripetal force. It is a well-known fact that
Fc is directed towards the centre of the circle, so the centrifugal force, which is a force of
reaction, is directed away from the centre of the circle or the curved path.
According to Newtons third law of motion action and reaction do not act on the
same body, so the centrifugal force does not act on the body moving round a circle,
but it acts on the body that provides Fc.
Examples
If a stone is tied to one end of a string and it is moved round a circle, then the force
exerted on the string on outward direction is called centrifugal force.
The aeroplane moving in a circle exerts force in a direction opposite to the pressure of air.
When a train rounds a curve, the centrifugal force is also exerted on the track.

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Vertical motion of two bodies attached to the ends of a string that passes over a
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frictionless

pulley

Consider two bodies A and B of masses m 1 and m2 respectively, let m1 is greater than m2.
the bodies are attached to the opposite ends of an inextensible string. The string passes
over a frictionless pulley. the body A being heavier must be moving downward with some
acceleration. Let this acceleration be a. At the same time, the body B attached to the other
end of the string moves up with the same acceleration a. As the pulley is frictionless,
hence tension will be the same throughout the string. Let the tension in the string be T.
Since the body A moves downwards, hence its weight m1g is greater than the tension T in
the string.
Net force acting on body A=m1g-T
According to the Newtons law of motion:
m1g-T = m1a

.....

...... 1)

As body B moves upwards, hence its weight m2g is less than the tension T in the string.
Net force acting on body B = T m2g
According to Newton law
T- m2g = m2a ......

.....

2)

Adding Eq.1and Eq 2 , we get acceleration a.


a= (

m1m 2
m1+m 2 )g

Divide Eq. 2 by Eq.1, to find tension T in the string.


T=

2m 1m 2
)
m1+m 2 g

.....

.....

3)

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acceleration g due to gravity using ,

Page

39

The above arrangement is also known as Atwood machine. It can be used to find the
g=

m1+m 2
)
m1m2

OR

Motion of two bodies attached to the ends of a string that passes over a frictionless
pulley such that one body moves vertically and the other moves on A smooth
horizontal surface

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Consider two bodies A and B masses m 1 and m2 respectively attached to the ends of an
inextensible string as shown in the figure above.Let the body A moves downwards with an
acceleration a. Since the string is inextensible, therefore, body B also moves over the
horizontal surface with the same acceleration a. As the pulley is frictionless hence tension
T will be the same throughout the string.
Since body A moves downwards, therefore, its weight m 1g is greater than the tension in T
in the string.
Net force acting on the body A = m1g T
According to the Newtons second law of motion:
m1g T = m1a ... ... ... (1)
The forces acting on the body are:
I.
II.
III.

Weight m2g of the body B acting downwards.


Reaction R of the horizontal surface acting on the body B in the upward direction.
Tension in the string pulling the body B horizontally on the smooth surface.

As body B has no vertical motion, hence resultant of vertical forces (m 2g and R) must be
zero.
Thus the net force acting on the body B is T.
According to the Newtons second law of motion:
T = m2a ... ... ... (2)
Adding eqs. 1 and 2, we get acceleration a as:
m
m

g T + T =m1a+ m2a

g = a(m1+m2)

Asif Rasheed BS (HONS) Physics 0344-7846394

m1
m1+m2

... (3)

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a=

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Putting the value of a in equations 2 to get tension T as:


m 1m 2
m1+m2

T=

g ... ... ... (4)

FORCE AND THE MOMENTUM:


Consider a body of mass m moving with initial velocity Vi. Let a force F acts on the body
which produces an acceleration a in it. This changes the velocity of the body. Let its final
velocity after time t becomes Vf. if Pi and Pf be the initial momentum and the final
momentum related to the body related to the initial and the final velocity respectively then:
Pi = mvi
and
Pf = mvf
Changes in momentum = Final momentum initial momentum
Or Pf Pi = mvf - mvi
Thus the rate of change in momentum given by:
p p
t

mvmv
t

=m

vf vi
t

Since

vf vi
t

is the rate of change of velocity equal to the acceleration a produced by the

force F.
pf pi
t

=ma

According to Newtons second law of motion:


F = ma
Or

pf pi
t

=F

Equation also defines the force and states Newtons second aw of motion as:
When a force acts on a body, it produces acceleration in the body and will be equal
to the rate of change of momentum of the body.
SI unit of momentum defined by equation is Newton-second (Ns) which is the same as
kmgs-1.
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3.4. What is the law of Inertia?


Ans:
(Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or
rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion including a change in
direction).
3.5. Why is it dangerous the roof of a bus to travel on?
Ans : The friction or drag force due to air acting on the upper part of the body of a person
standing on the roof of running bus tries to turn over which is dangerous while the lower
part of body remains at rest w.r.t roof of the bus
3.6. Why does a passenger move outward when a bus takes turn?
Ans: When does bus take a turn the passenger sitting inside experienced centrifugal force
and moves out wards
3.7. How can you relate a force with the change of momentum of a body?
Ans : By using 2nd of motion we can write F = ma here

a=

vf vi
t

by putting this

value we can get


F =m
F =

vf vi
t

mvf mvi
t

but F =

final momentuminitial momentum


time

Force = time rate of change of momentum


3.8. What will be the tension in the rope that is pulled from the end by two opposite
forces 100N each?
Ans: When two forces of 100 N each applied on a string then resultant tension is equal to
100.
3.9. Action and reaction are always equal and opposite. Then how does a body
move?
Ans: Action and reaction force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. These do not
act upon the same body. Action force is applied on one body, which give reactional force
acting on other body. Both of these do not neutralized this is the result of motion.
3.10. A horse pulls the cart. If the action and reaction are equal and opposite then
the how does the cart move?
Ans: The horse applies action force by feet on the road the reaction is given by road on
horse due to which the cart tied to the horse also move.
3.11. What is the law of conservation of momentum?
Ans : When two or more bodies collide with one another the total momentum of the
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43

system remains the same, provided no external force acts upon them.
Total Momentum before collision
m1u1 + m2u2

Page

According to Law of conservation of momentum


=

Total Momentum after collision

m1v1 + m2v2

3.12. Why is the law of conservation of momentum important?


Ans : by using law of conservation of momentum it is possible to calculate, force , velocity,
acceleration of a body. Most of elementary particles were discovered by this law.
3.13. When a gun is fired, it recoils. Why?
Ans : according law of conservation of momentum the momentum gained by fired bullet is
neutralized by equal and opposite momentum given to the gun recoils back.
3.14. Describe two situations in which force of friction is needed.
Ans: The friction between walking person and surface of earth is necessary for walking.
To stop a moving vehicle force of friction between tyre and road is required if this is
reduced by putting oil on the road then it would be impossible to stop a vehicles.
3.15. How does oiling the moving parts of a machine lower the friction?
Ans : by oiling the various parts of a matching of friction is reduced which increase its
efficiency
3.16. Describe ways to reduce friction.
Ans: Methods to reduce friction: i) Sliding parts should be highly polished to reduce friction.
ii) Friction of liquids is less than solids. Therefore oil or grease is applied between the parts
of machinery.
iii) Rolling friction is less then sliding friction. Therefore sliding friction should be converted
to rolling friction by using ball bearings.
iv) Front side of vehicles, aeroplanes and ships are shaped wedge like and pointed so that
minimum friction is offered by air.
3.17. Why rolling friction is lower than sliding friction?
Ans: the interlocking between ups and down of two surface need not be ruptured in case
of rolling while in case of sliding these are to be ruptured and result to increase in friction .
3.18. What do you know about the following?
(i) Tension in a string
Ans: Tension in string is to neutralize applied force on the string this prevents it from
moving.
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(iii) Limiting force of friction


Ans: The force of friction on the body at rest lying in a rough surface is called force of
static friction its value increases with the increase of applied force .The maximum possible
value of static friction if applied force made grater then it body starts moving is called
limiting force of static friction
(iv) Braking force
Ans: the bracking force is the force between brake pushing and wheel of vehicle. It is help
to stop the wheels.
(v) Skidding of vehicles
Ans: when a force of friction between tyre and road is small then applying brakes tyre slide
over the road .it is called skidding of vehicles
(vi) Seatbelts
Ans: The seat belts provide opposition against falling ahead when vehicle is stopped
suddenly
(vii) Banking of roads
Ans: the outer edge of road is made higher to provide reactional force on tyre which
prevents it from slopping. It is called banking of road.
(viii) Cream separator
Ans: in a cream separator milk is rotated and lighter particles of cream come at the axis of
rotation and are separated from milk and collected through the pipe.
3.19. What would happen if all friction suddenly disappears?
Ans: when the frictional force suddenly disappears the motion of the object would never be
stopped.
3.20. Why the spinner of a washing machine is made to spin at a high speed?
Ans: at very high spinning speed the water and dirt particles are separate from cloths to
clean them inside washing machine.

Chapter No 3
Dynamics
P 3.1) A force of 20 N moves a body with an acceleration of 20ms -2 what is its mass?
Solution:
Force F= 20 N

Acceleration a= 20ms-2

Mass m=?

Formula F= ma
m=

F
a

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45

Ans

P 3.2) Weight is 147 N what is its mass?

Page

20/2 = 10 kg

Solution:
Weight w=147 N
Acceleration g = 10ms-2
Mass m=?
Formula W = mg

m=

W
g

147/10 = 14.7 kg Ans


P3.3) How much force is needed to prevent a body of mass 10kg from falling?
Solution:
Mass m=10kg
Force F=a
The force needed to prevent the body from falling is equal to the weight of the body
F=W
W=mg
F=mg
F= 10 x 10= 100 N Ans
P3.4) Find the acceleration produce by a force of 100 N in a mass of 50 kg?
Solution:
Acceleration a =?
Force F = 100 N
Mass m = 50kg
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a=

F
m

Page

F= ma

46

Formula:

a=100/50 = 2ms-2
P3.5) A body has weight 20N how much force is required to move it vertically
upward with an acceleration of 20ms-2?
Solution:
Weight W = 20N
Acceleration a = 20ms-2
Force F=?
To find out force we have to first calculate the Mass of the body
To find out the mass to use W= mg

m = w/g

m= 20/10

m = 2kg

So he net force will take the body upward will be


Net force F = W
F= ma
W = mg
The g will be negative because body is moving upward so
W = -mg
Net force F = F-W
ma m(-g )
ma + mg
m(a +g)
2 (2+10)
Force F= 24N Ans
P3.6) Two masses 52kg and 48kg are attached to the end of the string that passes
over a frictionless pulley. Find the tension in the string and acceleration in the
body? When the masses are moving vertically.
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Solution:
m1 = 52kg
m2 = 58kg
T =?
a =?
First we find tension in the string
Formula:
2m 1m 2
T = ( m1+m 2 ) g

T = 2(52) (48) (10)/ 52+48


T = 499.2N
T = 500N approximately Ans
Now we will find the acceleration
Formula:
a= (

m1m 2
m1+m 2 )g

a = (52-48) (10)/ 52+48


a= 4x10/100
a= 40/100
a= 0.4ms-2 Ans
P3.7) Two masses 26kg and 24kg are attached to the end of a string which passes
over a frictionless pulley. 26kg is lying over a smooth horigalal table .24kg mass is
moving vertically downward. Find the tension in string and acceleration in bodies.
Solution:
m1 = 24kg

m2 = 26kg

T =?

a =?

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2m 1m 2
)
m1+m 2 g

Page

T=

48

Formula:

T = (24) (26) (10)/24+26


T = 124.8N
T = 125N
Formula: a = (

m1m 2
m1+m 2 )g

= 24x10 / 24+ 26
a = 408ms-2 Ans
P3.8) How much time is required to change 22 Ns momentum by a force of 20 N?
Solution:
(Initial momentum) Pi = 22Ns
Pf = 0Ns

F = 20N

t =?

Formula:
Pf Pi
t

F=

=F

Pf Pi
t

= 0-22/ 20
t = -1.1s
As time cannot be negative to
t = 1.1s ANS
P3.9) How much is the force of friction between a wooden block of mass 5 kg and
the horizontal marble floor? The coefficient of friction between the wood and marble
is 0.6
Asif Rasheed BS (HONS) Physics 0344-7846394

Fr =?

m= 5 kg

F = mg

u= 0.6

Page

Solution:

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Formula Fr = UF

5 x 10 = 50 N
Fr =UF
Fr = 0.6 x 50 = 30 N ANS

Chapter: 4
Turning effect of force
Q.2 Define followings:
(i Resultant vector
The vector whose effect is same as combined effect of a number of vector, is called resultant vector.
(ii) Torque:
The torque is equal to Turning effect of force.
(iii) Centre of mass:
The point at which whole of mass would be connected then motion of this point describes motion of the body,
is called centre of mass.
(iv) Centre of gravity:
The point at which whole of the weight of the body appears to be active is called centre of gravity.
. Q 3 Differentiate the followings:
(i) Like and unlike force:
Like force act along same direction whereas the unlike force act in opposite direction.
(ii) Torque and Couple:
Torque is turning effect of single force whereas couple is turning effect of two equal and unlike forces, having
different lines of their action.
(iii) Stable and neutral equilibrium:
A body stable when line of action of its weight passes within base and neutral equilibrium is state when line
of action of weight does not pass through base.
Q.4 How Head to Tail rule helps to find the resultant of force?
To explain the Head to Tail rule of addition of vector helps in following steps:
Step.1
We select a suitable scale for the graphical representation of vector.
Step.2
We draw all the given vectors, one by one, so that tail of next lies on head of final drawn vector.
Step.3
We join the tail of first drawn vector with head of the last drawn vector. The length of line joining gives the
magnitude of the resultant according to same suitable selected scale.

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Step.4
The direction of resultant vector is given by measuring angle made by the line joining with a reference axis
(+ve x-axis).
Q.5 How can a force be resolved into its rectangular component?
Resolution of a vector, when a vector is drawn graphically. Then it may be split up into two parts, which are at
90 degree to each other. Then each one of these two parts of same vector are called the rectangular
components.
Let us consider a force, F, which is represented by straight line OA, in the figure.
The line of representation of force F makes an angle of with direction of +ve x-axis.
From the head of F, a perpendicular is drawn on x-axis. This is denoted by line AB. It is used to represent ycomponent of vector, F, because its direction is parallel to y-axis. The line OB is used to represent the other
component of, F, called x-component.
Figure shows that we can write:
OA = OB + BA
Here!
OB = x-component of F = Fx
BA = y-component of F =Fy
Q.6 When a body is said to be equilibrium?
Ans: A body is said to be equilibrium when it does not has linear and angular acceleration.
Q.7 Explain the first condition for equilibrium.
Ans: According to the first condition of equilibrium, the resultant force (or sum of all force) must be zero.
Q.8 Why there is a need of second condition for equilibrium of a body satisfies first condition for
equilibrium?
Ans: Two equal and opposite force having their different lines of action from couple, which produce angular
acceleration. Although first condition of equilibrium is being satisfied. A body/system is definitely in
equilibrium when first, as well as, second condition (both) are being met.
Q.9 What is second condition for equilibrium?
Ans: According to second condition of equilibrium the total/resultant torque acting on a system must be equal
to zero.
Q.10 Give an example of a moving body which is in equilibrium?
Ans: A parachuter moving down with uniform velocity is said to be in dynamic equilibrium.
Q.11 Think of a body which is at rest but not in equilibrium.
Ans: A ball thrown upward becomes at rest at the top. At this state it is not in equilibrium although it is at rest.
Q.12 Why a body cannot be in equilibrium due to single force acting on it?
Ans: A single force acting on a body is not balanced abd produces acceleration therefore, in the presence of
a single force body cannot bbe in equilibrium.
Q.13 Why the height of vehicles is kept as low as possible?
Ans: The height of a vehicle is kept lowest possible so that its centre gravity remain close to its base to get
more gravity.
Q.14 Explain what is meant by stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium? Give examples in each case.

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Ans: A body is in equilibrium when its state does not change with time and a body is unstable when resultant
force on it is zero. A body is in neutral equilibrium when its centre of gravity remains at same height from the
surface of the earth, while it moves. Example is of sphere rolling on horizontal surface.
Q.1 Encircle the correct answer from the given choices:
(i) B
(ii)
D
(iii)
B
(iv)
D
(v) C
(vi)
B
(vii)
C
((viii)
C

Chapter #4
Turning effects of forces
P4.1) Find the resultant of the following forces:
(i)
10N along x-axis
(ii)
6N along y-axis
(iii)
4N along negative x-axis
Let us first represent the above given forces vectors on a graph.

To find the resultant of these vectors, we have to sum up these vectors. For finding resultant we use head to
tail rule.
As the two vectors along x-axisare in opposite direction so the resultant vector of these two vectors will be:
Fx = F1 + F3
= 10N + (-4N)
= 6N
Fy = 6N
Magnitude of resultant =

Fx 2 + Fy2

(6)2 +(6)2

36+36

72

= 8.5N
Direction angle

= tan-1 (

= tan-1 (
6
6

Fx
Fy )

= tan-1 (1)

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= 45

Page

4.2) Find the perpendicular components of a force of 50N making an angle of 30

with x-axis.

Solution:
By perpendicular components we mean the x and y components of a vector.
Fx = ?
Fy = ?
Formula: Fx = F cos
= 50 cos 30
= 50 (0.866)
Fx = 43.3N
Formula: Fy = F sin

= 50 sin 30
= 50 (0.5)
Fx = 25N
4.3) Find the megnitude and direction of force of its =-component in 12N and y-component is N.
Solution:
Fx = 12N
Fy = 5N
F=?
=?
Formula: F =

Fx 2 + Fy2

(12)2+(5)2

144+25
=

169

= tan-1 (

F = 13N
Formula:

= tan-1 (

5
12

Fx
Fy )
)

= tan-1 (0.417)
= 22.6
4.4) A force of 100N is applied perpendicularly an a spanner at a distance of 10cn from a nut. Find the
torque produced by the force:

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r = 10cm =

= 90

= r F sin

10
100

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Solution:
F = 100N
= 0.1m

( because it is perpendicular)

= (0.1) (100) (sin 90 )


= 10 (1)
= 10Nm
P 4.5) A force is acting on a body making an angle of 30

with the horizontal. The horizontal component of

the force is 20N. Find the force:


Solution:
Fx = 20N
= 30
F=?
Formula: F = Fx cos

= 20 (cos 3 0 )
= 20 (0.866)
F = 23.1N
P 4.6) Steering of car having radious 16 cm. Find the torque produced by a couple of 50N.
Solution:
16
r=16cm = 100 m = 0.16m

couple = 2F = 2(50N)
formula
=

=?

= rF

(0.16)(2(50))

= 16Nm

P 4.7) A picture frame is hanging by two vertical strings. The tension in the strings are 3.8N
and 4.4N. Find the weight of the picture frame.

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Solution:
Total tension in the strings is equal to the weight of picture frame
So
W = T1 + T2
= 3.8 + 4.4
W = 8.2N

P 4.8) Two blocks of masses 5Kg and 3Kg are suspended by the two strings as shown. Find the tension
in each string.
Solution:
The tension in the strings will be equal to the respective weights of the blocks.
Tension in string B = weight of m
= m1g
= (3)(10)
Tb = 30N
Tension in string A = Weight of m1 + weight of m2
= 30N + m2g
= 30N + (5)(10)
= 30N + 50N
Ta = 80N
P 4.9) A nut has been tightened by a force of 200N using 10cm long spanner. What length of a
spanner is required to loosen the some nut with 150N force?
Solution:
F1 = 200N
10
r1 = 10cm = 100 m = 0.1m

As

F2 = 150N
r2=?
= rF

So
r1F1 = r2F2
r1 F 1
r2 =
F2
=

( 0.1 )( 200)
150

= 0.133m = 0.133 * 100cm


r2 = 13.3cm

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P 4.10)A block of mass 10Kg is suspended at a distance of 20cm from the center of a uniform bar
1m
long. What force is required to balance it at its center of gravity by applying the force at the other
end
of the bar?
Solution:
r1 = 20cm = 0.2m
r2 = 50cm = 0.5m
m1 =10Kg
F1 = m1g = (10)(10) = 100N
F2 = ?
r1F1 =r2F2
r1 F1
F2 =
r2
=

( 0.2 )( 100)
0.5

F2 = 40N

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