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MEMB 123

MECHANICS 1: STATICS

SEM 2 2013/2014

Lecture 15

Chapter 5

Equilibrium of a rigid body

DR.GRACE PUA OFFICE: BN-3-012

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNITEN

Chapter Outline:

 5.1 Conditions for rigid body equilibrium Equilibrium in two dimensions 5.2 Free body diagrams 5.3 Equations of equilibrium 5.4 Two- and three-force members Equilibrium in three dimensions 5.5 Free body diagrams 5.6 Equations of equilibrium 5.7 Constraints for a rigid body

Chapter Objectives

To develop the equations of equilibrium for a rigid body

To introduce the concept of the free-body diagram for a rigid body

To show how to solve rigid-body equilibrium

problems using the equations of equilibrium

A steel beam is used to

support roof joists. How can we determine the

support reactions at A & B?

Again, how can we make use of an idealized model and a free body diagram to answer this question?

Statics deals primarily with the description of the force

conditions necessary and sufficient to MAINTAIN the equilibrium of engineering structure.

When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant of all forces acting on it is ZERO. Thus, the resultant force R and the resultant couple, M is ZERO.

Equilibrium Equations:

5.1 Conditions for Rigid-Body Equilibrium

Forces on a particle

Forces on a rigid body

In contrast to the forces on a particle, the forces on a rigid-body are not usually concurrent and may cause rotation of the body (due to the moments created by the forces).

For a rigid body to be in equilibrium, the net force as well as the net moment about any arbitrary point O must be equal to zero.

F =

0 and M O = 0

where O is an arbitrary point

The equilibrium of a body is expressed as

F

R

M

R

F

0

O

M

O 0

Consider summing moments about some other

point, such as point A, we require

M

A

r

F

R

M

R

O

0

When applying the Equation of Equilibrium, we

can assume that the body will remain rigid and not deform under the applied load.

Most engineering materials such as steel and

concrete are very rigid and so their deformation

is usually very small.

5.2 Free Body Diagrams (2D)

Forces

All the following FORCES need to be included:

 1. External forces: Loads applied to the structure by the environment (e.g. weight, service loads, etc.) 2. Forces in structural members and connections that are generated by straining of material. 3. **Reactions: Forces that support the structure as a whole.

(Actually, reactions are also internal forces)

5.2 Free Body Diagrams (2D) Support Reactions

If a support prevents the translation of a body in a given direction, then a force is developed on the body in that direction.

If rotation is prevented, a couple moment is exerted on the body.

Support reactions

Example 01:

Example 02:

Beam is supported by a ROLLER or CYLINDER.

This support prevents the beam from translating in the vertical direction, the roller can only exert a force on the

beam in this direction.

Beam

SUPPORT.

is

supported

by

a

FIXED

This support will prevent both

translation and rotation of the beam, and so to do this a force and couple moment must be developed on the

beam at its point of connection.

Refer to Text book

Table 5-1 Supports for rigid bodies subjected to two dimensional force systems.

Example of support reactions:

External and Internal Forces

Internal Forces

Since a rigid body is a composition of particles, both External and Internal loadings may act on it.

However, that if the free body diagram for the body is drawn, the forces that are internal to the body are NOT represented on the FBD.

For FBD, internal forces act between particles which are contained within the boundary of the FBD, are not

represented

Particles outside this boundary exert external forces on the system, and these alone must be shown on the FBD.

Weight and Center of Gravity

Each particle has a specified weight when a body is

subjected to a gravitational field.

System can be represented by a single resultant force, known as weight W of the body

Location of the force application is known as the center of

gravity (Chapter 9).

If the weight of the body is important, the force will then

be reported in problem statement

When the body is uniform or made of homogenous material, the center of gravity will be located at the body’s

geometric center.

If the body is non-homogeneous or unusual shape, the location of center of gravity will be given.

Free Body Diagram (2D)

No equilibrium problem should be solved

without FIRST drawing the free body diagram, so as to account for all the

forces and couple moments that act on

the body

Procedure for drawing a FBD

1. Draw Outlined Shape

Imagine body to be isolated or cut free from its constraints

Draw outline shape

2. Show All Forces and Couple Moments

Identify all external forces and couple moments that act on the body

Show all the external forces and couple moments. These

typically include: a) applied loads, b) support reactions (Table 5-1), and, c) the weight of the body.

Procedure for drawing a FBD

Indicate dimensions for calculation of forces

Known forces and couple moments should be properly labeled with their magnitudes and directions

For the unknown forces and couple moments, use letters

Establish an x,y coordinate system so

that these unknowns can be identified. Indicate any

like A x , A y , M A , etc

necessary dimensions.

Example 03

Draw the free-body diagram of the uniform beam. The beam

has a mass of 100kg.

Solution:

1.

2.

Sketch the body outlined shape.

CHECK your Table 5-1, identify all the reaction acting

on the beam at A.

- The support at A is a fixed wall, thus there are ?? reactions acting on beam at A.

3.

Solution

Free-Body Diagram

Solution

Support at A is a fixed wall

Three forces acting on the beam at A denoted as A x , A y , M A , drawn in an arbitrary direction Unknown magnitudes of these vectors

Assume sense of these vectors

For uniform beam, Weight, W = 100(9.81) = 981N acting through beam’s center of gravity, 3m from A

Example

SUPPORT REACTIONS IN 2-D

A few examples are shown above. Other support reactions are

given in your textbook (in Table 5-1).

As a general rule, if a support prevents translation of a body in a given direction, then a force is developed on the body in the opposite direction. Similarly, if rotation is prevented, a couple moment is exerted on the body.

Try this:

Try this:

Solution

5.3 Equations of Equilibrium

For equilibrium of a rigid body in 2D, F x = 0; F y = 0; M O = 0

F x and ∑F y represent sums of x and y components of all the forces

∑M O represents the sum of the couple moments and moments of the force components

Procedure for Analysis

Step 1: Free-Body Diagram

Label all the loadings and specify their directions relative to the x,y axes.

Force or couple moment having an unknown magnitude but known

line of action can be assumed

Indicate the dimensions of the body necessary for computing the

moments of forces

Step 2: Equations of Equilibrium

Apply ∑M O = 0 about a point O

Unknowns moments of are zero about O and a direct solution the third unknown can be obtained

When applying F x = 0 and F y = 0, orient the x and y axes along the lines that will provide the simplest resolution of the forces into their x and y components

If the solution of the equilibrium equations yields a negative scalar for a force or couple moment magnitude, this indicates that the sense is OPPOSITE to that which was assumed on the free body

diagram.

Example 04

Determine the horizontal and vertical components of reaction for the

beam loaded. Neglect the weight of the beam in the calculations.

Solution

Free Body Diagrams

600N represented by x and y components

200N force acts on the beam at B

Solution

Equations of Equilibrium

 

M

B

0;

600cos45

N

B

x

0

B

x

M

B

N

100

0;

(2

m

)

(600 sin 45

N

A

y

319



F

y

N

0;

319

N

600 sin 45

N

100

B

y

405

N

)(5

m

)

(600 cos 45

N

200

N

B

y

0

N

424

N

)(0.2

m

)

A

y

(7

m

)

0