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# Ch 02 HW

## Due: 11:59pm on Monday, August 29, 2016

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

## PhET Tutorial: Moving Man

Learning Goal:
To understand the relationships between position, velocity, and acceleration.
For this tutorial, use the PhET simulation The Moving Man. This simulation allows you to drag a person back and forth
and look at the resulting position, velocity, and acceleration. You can also enter a position as a function of time
mathematically and look at the resulting motion.
Start the simulation. When you click the simulation link, you may be asked whether to run, open, or save the file.
Choose to run or open it.

Under the Charts tab you can click and drag the person left and right, or enter a numeric value in the boxes on the left
panel to see plots for the persons position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time. Click the Play button to start a
simulation and the Pause button to stop a simulation. You can also watch a playback by selecting the Playback radio
button instead of the default Record radio button. You can click Clear to remove the current plot while maintaining your
settings for position, velocity and acceleration or click Reset All to start over. In the Playback mode, the grey bar can be
dragged over the plot to any value in time, and the digital readouts will show the corresponding values of the position,
velocity, and acceleration.
Under the Special Features menu, the Expression Evaluator option produces a second window in which you can
mathematically type in any function for the position as a function of time, x(t) . After typing in a function, click the Play
button to start the simulation.
To zoom in vertically, click any of the three + buttons to the top right of each plot. To zoom in horizontally, click the +
button to the bottom right of the acceleration plot.
Feel free to play around with the simulation. When you are done, click Reset All on the Charts tab before beginning Part
A.

Part A
First, you will focus on the relationship between velocity and position. Recall that velocity is the rate of change of
position (vx = dx/dt). This means that the velocity is equal to the slope of the Position vs. Time graph.
Move the person to the position x = 6 m or enter 6.00 in the position box. If you dragged the person to position,
click the Pause button and then the Clear button. Next, drag the person to the right to roughly x = 6 m and reverse
his direction, returning him to the original position, at x = 6 m. Move the person relatively quickly, about a few
seconds for the round trip. Your plots should look something like those shown below.

Look at the Position vs. Time and Velocity vs. Time plots. What is the person's velocity when his position is at its
maximum value (around 6 m )?
zero.
The person's velocity is

positive.
negative.

Correct
When the persons position is a maximum, the slope of the position with respect to time is zero, so dx/dt = 0.
However, due to the persons acceleration, the velocity does not remain zero; he eventually moves to the left.

Part B
Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity, a x

## = dvx /dt, so it is the slope of the Velocity vs. Time graph.

Because it is difficult to drag the person in a consistent and reproducible way, use the Expression Evaluator under
the Special Features menu for this question.
Click Reset All and type in the function x(t) = 8 t 2 t t in the Expression Evaluator. Click the Play
button and let the simulation run roughly 5 simulation seconds before pressing the Pause button. Use the zoom
buttons to adjust the plots so they fit in the screen. You should see a plot similar to what you got in the previous
question, but much smoother.
Look at the Position vs. Time, Velocity vs. Time, and Acceleration vs. Time plots.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

In Playback mode, use the grey vertical bar. Slide the bar until the value x = 8 m is displayed in the position
box on the left panel. What are the values of velocity and acceleration when x = 8 m ?

## both the velocity and the acceleration are nonzero.

When the person is 8 m to the right of the origin,

## the velocity is zero but the acceleration is negative.

the velocity is zero but the acceleration is positive.
both the velocity and the acceleration are zero.

Correct
At x = 8 m , the person turns to go back in the opposite direction. His velocity is zero, but his acceleration is
negative since the velocity is decreasing with time. This is similar to throwing a ball straight up into the air; at its
highest point, the velocity is zero but the acceleration is still directed downward.

Part C
Keep the function x(t) = 8 t 2 t t in the Expression Evaluator. What is the value of the persons
acceleration a at t = 2 s?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use the grey vertical bar. Slide the bar until it coincides with t
displayed in the acceleration box on the left panel?

## = 2 s on the horizontal axis. What is the value

ax =

2 m/s 2
4 m/s 2
0
4 m/s 2

Correct
This is an example of one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration. The position of an object undergoing
this type of motion obeys the kinematic equation x(t) = x 0 + vx,0 t + 1/2 a x t2 . In this case, the initial
velocity is vx,0 = 8 m/s and the acceleration is a x = 4 m/s 2 (since 1/2 a x = 2 m/s 2 ).

Part D
In the previous question, the person had an initial velocity of 8 m/s and a constant acceleration of 4 m/s 2 . How
would the maximum distance he travels to the right of the origin change if instead his initial velocity were doubled (
vx,0 = 16 m/s )?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Go to the Introduction tab to run the simulation using the new initial velocity vx,0 = 16 m/s and the same
acceleration of 4 m/s 2 , and read the value for position when the velocity equals zero. Remember to
remove the walls from the simulation by clicking on the red close button on the walls. In Playback mode the
simulation can be run slowly and paused when the velocity is zero.
Or, mathematically, determine how long it takes for the person to stop and use this value of time in the

x(t)

## equation for x(t) .

The maximum distance would increase by a factor of four.
The maximum distance would double.
The maximum distance would not change.

Correct
Because it takes twice as much time to momentarily stop, and because his average velocity will be twice as fast,
the distance he travels will be four times greater. Using the kinematic equation,
2
x(4 s) = (16 m/s) (4 s) (1/2) (4 m/s 2 ) (4 s) = 32 m .

Part E
Now, assume that the position is given by the equation x(t)

= 4 t3 .

Enter this function in the Expression Evaluator as x(t) = 4 t t t . Run the simulation by clicking the Play
button in the Record mode for roughly three simulated seconds and then click the Pause button. Now take a look at
the graphs. You will have to zoom in horizontally (bottom right), so that your range covers two seconds.
Which of the following statements is true?
The position is increasing at a constant rate.
The acceleration is increasing at a constant rate.
The acceleration is constant in time.
The velocity is increasing at a constant rate.

Correct
The graph showing Acceleration vs. Time is a straight line that is not horizontal.

Part F
What is the position of the person when t

= 1 s?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

You can solve this mathematically using the expression input for position as a function of time,
x(t) = 4 t t t.
Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t
the approximate value for position.

Correct
Notice that since the position is given by x
3

## = 4 t 3 , when the time is t = 1 s, the position is

x = 4(1) m = 4 m.

Part G
What is the velocity of the person when t

= 1 s?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second to two significant figures.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The velocity is the first derivative of position with respect to time, vx
the expression of x(t) and evaluate when t = 1 s.

## = dx/dt. You can take the derivative of

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t
the approximate value for velocity.

12

m/s

Correct
Notice that since the position is given by x(t) = 4t3 , the velocity, which is the first derivative of position with
respect to time, is given by vx = dx/dt = 12t2 . So when t = 1 s, v = 12 m/s .

Part H
What is the acceleration of the person when t

= 1 s?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second squared to two significant figures.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The acceleration is the first derivative of velocity with respect to time, a x = dvx /dt or the second derivative
2
of position with respect to time, a x = d x/dt2 . You can take the derivative of the expression of vx (t) and
evaluate when t = 1 s.
Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t
the approximate value for acceleration.
24

m/s 2

Correct
Notice that since the position is given by x = 4t3 , the acceleration, which is the first derivative of velocity with
respect to time, is given by a x = dvx /dt = d(12t2 )/dx = 24t . So when t = 1 s, a x = 24 m/s 2 . Notice
also that the acceleration is proportional to time, which explains why it is increasing at a constant rate (as
discovered in part G).

## What x vs. t Graphs Can Tell You

To describe the motion of a particle along a straight line, it is often convenient to draw a graph representing the position of
the particle at different times. This type of graph is usually referred to as an x vs. t graph. To draw such a graph, choose
an axis system in which time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and position x on the vertical axis. Then, indicate the
values of x at various times t. Mathematically, this corresponds to plotting the variable x as a function of t. An example
of a graph of position as a function of time for a particle traveling along a straight line is shown below. Note that an x vs. t
graph like this does not represent the path of the particle in space.
Now let's study the graph shown in the figure in more detail.
Refer to this graph to answer Parts A, B, and C.

Part A
What is the total distance x traveled by the particle?

## Hint 1. Total distance

The total distance x traveled by the particle is given by the difference between the initial position x 0 at
t = 0.0 s and the position x at t = 50.0 s. In symbols,

x = x x 0 .
Hint 2. How to read an x vs. t graph
Remember that in an x vs. t graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and position x on the vertical axis.
For example, in the plot shown in the figure, x = 16.0 m at t = 10.0 s.

x = 30 m
Correct

Part B
What is the average velocity vav of the particle over the time interval t

= 50.0 s ?

## Hint 1. Definition and graphical interpretation of average velocity

The average velocity vav of a particle that travels a distance x along a straight line in a time interval t is
defined as

v av =

x
.
t

In an x vs. t graph, then, the average velocity equals the slope of the line connecting the initial and final
positions.

## Hint 2. Slope of a line

The slope m of a line from point A, with coordinates (tA , x A ), to point B, with coordinates (tB , x B ), is
equal to the "rise" over the "run," or

m=

x B x A
tB tA .

## vav = 0.600 m/s

Correct
The average velocity of a particle between two positions is equal to the slope of the line connecting the two
corresponding points in an x vs. t graph.

Part C
What is the instantaneous velocity v of the particle at t

= 10.0 s?

## Hint 1. Graphical interpretation of instantaneous velocity

The velocity of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called instantaneous velocity.
In an x vs. t graph of the particle's motion, you can determine the instantaneous velocity of the particle at any
point in the curve. The instantaneous velocity at any point is equal to the slope of the line tangent to the curve
at that point.

v = 0.600 m/s
Correct
The instantaneous velocity of a particle at any point on its x vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the
curve at that point. Since in the case at hand the curve is a straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself.
Physically, this means that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is constant over the entire time interval of
motion. This is true for any motion where distance increases linearly with time.

Another common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of
(instantaneous) velocity as a function of time. In this graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity v on the
vertical axis. Note that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these
vectors have only one nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call v the velocity and
a the acceleration, even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of
motion.

Part D
Which of the graphs shown is the correct v vs. t plot for the motion described in the previous parts?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Recall your results found in the previous parts, namely the fact that the instantaneous velocity of the particle
is constant. Which graph represents a variable that always has the same constant value at any time?

Graph A
Graph B
Graph C
Graph D

Correct
Whenever a particle moves with constant nonzero velocity, its x vs. t graph is a straight line with a nonzero
slope, and its v vs. t curve is a horizontal line.

Part E
Shown in the figure is the v vs. t curve selected in the previous part. What is the area A of the shaded region under
the curve?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The shaded region under the v vs. t curve is a rectangle whose horizontal and vertical sides lie on the t axis
and the v axis, respectively. Since the area of a rectangle is the product of its sides, in this case the area of
the shaded region is the product of a certain quantity expressed in seconds and another quantity expressed in
meters per second. The area itself, then, will be in meters.

A = 30 m
Correct
Compare this result with what you found in Part A. As you can see, the area of the region under the v vs. t curve
equals the total distance traveled by the particle. This is true for any velocity curve and any time interval: The
area of the region that extends over a time interval t under the v vs. t curve is always equal to the distance
traveled in t .

## What Velocity vs. Time Graphs Can Tell You

A common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous)
velocity as a function of time. In this graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity v on the vertical axis. Note
that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these vectors have only
a single nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call v the velocity and a the
acceleration, even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of
motion, respectively.
Here is a plot of velocity versus time for a particle that travels along a straight line with a varying velocity. Refer to this plot

Part A
What is the initial velocity of the particle, v0 ?

## Hint 1. Initial velocity

The initial velocity is the velocity at t

= 0 s.

## Hint 2. How to read a v vs. t graph

Recall that in a graph of velocity versus time, time is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical
axis. For example, in the plot shown in the figure, v = 2.00 m/s at t = 30.0 s.

v0 = 0.5

m/s

Correct

Part B
What is the total distance x traveled by the particle?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Recall that the area of the region that extends over a time interval t under the v vs. t curve is always equal

to the distance traveled in t . Thus, to calculate the total distance, you need to find the area of the entire
region under the v vs. t curve. In the case at hand, the entire region under the v vs. t curve is not an
elementary geometrical figure, but rather a combination of triangles and rectangles.

## Hint 2. Find the distance traveled in the first 20.0 seconds

What is the distance x 1 traveled in the first 20 seconds of motion, between t

## Hint 1. Area of the region under the v vs. t curve

The region under the v vs. t curve between t = 0.0 s and t = 20.0 s can be divided into a rectangle
of dimensions 20.0 s by 0.50 m/s , and a triangle of base 20.0 s and height 1.50 m/s , as shown in
the figure.

x 1 = 25 m
Correct
Hint 3. Find the distance traveled in the second 20.0 seconds
What is the distance x 2 traveled in the second 20 seconds of motion, from t

= 20.0 s to t = 40.0 s?

## Hint 1. Area of the region under the v vs. t curve

The region under the v vs. t curve between t =
20.0 s by 2.00 m/s , as shown in the figure.

## 20.0 s and t = 40.0 s is a rectangle of dimensions

x 2 = 40 m
Correct
Hint 4. Find the distance traveled in the last 10.0 seconds
What is the distance x 3 traveled in the last 10 seconds of motion, from t

= 40.0 s to t = 50.0 s?

## Hint 1. Area of the region under the v vs. t curve

The region under the v vs. t curve between t =
and height 2.00 m/s , as shown in the figure.

x 3 = 10 m

## 40.0 s and t = 50.0 s is a triangle of base 10.0 s

Correct
Now simply add the distances traveled in each time interval to find the total distance.

x = 75 m
Correct

Part C
What is the average acceleration a av of the particle over the first 20.0 seconds?

## Hint 1. Definition and graphical interpretation of average acceleration

The average acceleration a av of a particle that travels along a straight line in a time interval t is the ratio of
the change in velocity v experienced by the particle to the time interval t , or
v
.
t
In a v vs. t graph, then, the average acceleration equals the slope of the line connecting the two points
representing the initial and final velocities.

a av =

## Hint 2. Slope of a line

The slope m of a line from point A, of coordinates (x A , yA ), to point B, of coordinates (x B , yB ), is equal to
the "rise" over the "run," or

m=

y B y A
x B x A .

a av = 0.075 m/s 2
Correct
The average acceleration of a particle between two instants of time is the slope of the line connecting the two
corresponding points in a v vs. t graph.

Part D
What is the instantaneous acceleration a of the particle at t

= 45.0 s?

## Hint 1. Graphical interpretation of instantaneous acceleration

The acceleration of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called the instantaneous
acceleration. If the v vs. t graph of the particle's motion is known, you can directly determine the

instantaneous acceleration at any point on the curve. The instantaneous acceleration at any point is equal to
the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point.

## Hint 2. Slope of a line

The slope m of a line from point A, of coordinates (x A , yA ), to point B, of coordinates (x B , yB ), is equal to
the "rise" over the "run," or

m=

y B y A
x B x A .

1 m/s 2
0.20 m/s 2

a=

-0.20 m/s 2
0.022 m/s 2
-0.022 m/s 2

Correct
The instantaneous acceleration of a particle at any point on a v vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the
curve at that point. Since in the last 10 seconds of motion, between t = 40.0 s and t = 50.0 s, the curve is a
straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself. Physically, this means that the instantaneous acceleration of the
particle is constant over that time interval. This is true for any motion where velocity increases linearly with time.
In the case at hand, can you think of another time interval in which the acceleration of the particle is constant?

Now that you have reviewed how to plot variables as a function of time, you can use the same technique and draw an
acceleration vs. time graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous) acceleration as a function of time. As usual in these
types of graphs, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis, while the vertical axis is used to indicate acceleration a .

Part E
Which of the graphs shown below is the correct acceleration vs. time plot for the motion described in the previous
parts?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Recall that whenever velocity increases linearly with time, acceleration is constant. In the example here, the
particle's velocity increases linearly with time in the first 20.0 s of motion. In the second 20.0 s , the particle's
velocity is constant, and then it decreases linearly with time in the last 10 s . This means that the particle's
acceleration is constant over each time interval, but its value is different in each interval.

## Hint 2. Find the acceleration in the first 20 s

What is a 1 , the particle's acceleration in the first 20 s of motion, between t

## Hint 1. Constant acceleration

Since we have already determined that in the first 20 s of motion the particle's acceleration is constant,
its constant value will be equal to the average acceleration that you calculated in Part C.

a 1 = 0.075 m/s 2
Hint 3. Find the acceleration in the second 20 s
What is a 2 , the particle's acceleration in the second 20 s of motion, between t

## Hint 1. Constant velocity

In the second 20 s of motion, the particle's velocity remains unchanged. This means that in this time

## interval, the particle does not accelerate.

a 2 = 0 m/s 2
Hint 4. Find the acceleration in the last 10 s
What is a 3 , the particle's acceleration in the last 10 s of motion, between t

## Hint 1. Constant acceleration

Since we have already determined that in the last 10 s of motion the particle's acceleration is constant,
its constant value will be equal to the instantaneous acceleration that you calculated in Part D.

a 3 = -0.20 m/s 2

Graph A
Graph B
Graph C
Graph D

Correct
In conclusion, graphs of velocity as a function of time are a useful representation of straight-line motion. If read
correctly, they can provide you with all the information you need to study the motion.

## The Graph of a Sports Car's Velocity

The graph in the figure shows the velocity v of a sports car as a function
of time t. Use the graph to answer the following questions.

Part A
Find the maximum velocity vmax of the car during the ten-second interval depicted in the graph.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Because the graph displays the car's velocity at each moment in time, the maximum velocity of the car can be
found simply by locating the maximum value of the velocity on the graph.

vmax = 55 m/s
Correct

Part B
During which time interval is the acceleration positive?

## Hint 1. Finding acceleration from the graph

Recall that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Therefore, on this graph of
velocity vs. time, acceleration is the slope of the graph. Recall that the slope m is defined by m = y/x
for a graph of y vs. x , or m = v/t in this case. If the graph is increasing from left to right, then the slope
is positive.

t = 0 s to t = 6 s
t = 0 s to t = 4 s
t = 0 s to t = 10 s
t = 4 s to t = 10 s
t = 2 s to t = 6 s
Correct

Part C
Find the maximum acceleration a max of the car.
Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The car's acceleration is the rate of change of the car's velocity v with respect to time t. In this problem, the

car's velocity is given graphically, so the car's acceleration at a given moment is found from the slope of the v
vs. t curve at that moment. If the v vs. t curve over some time interval is represented by a straight line, the
instantaneous acceleration anywhere in that interval is equal to the slope of the line, that is, to the average
acceleration over that time interval.
To find the maximum acceleration, find the value of the curve's greatest positive slope.

Hint 2. Find the final velocity on the interval with greatest acceleration
The slope of the curve is greatest during the first second of motion. The slope of the graph on this interval is
given by the change in velocity divided by the change in time over the interval from t = 0 to t = 1. At time
t = 0 s , the car's velocity v(0) is zero. Find the velocity v(1) of the car at time t = 1 s .

v(1) = 30 m/s

a max = 30 m/s 2
Correct

Part D
Find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration a min of the car.
Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

To find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration of the car, you must find the point where the absolute
value of the slope is smallest.

a min = 0 m/s 2
Correct

Part E
Find the distance d 0,2 traveled by the car between t

= 0 s and t = 2 s .

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

In this problem, the car's velocity as a function of time is given graphically, so the distance traveled is
represented by the area under the v vs. t graph between t = 0 s and t = 2 s .

## Hint 2. Find the distance traveled in the first second

What is the distance d 0,1 traveled between t

= 0 s and t = 1 s ?

## Hint 1. The area of a triangle

Observe that the region in question is a triangle , whose area is therefore one-half the product of the
base and the height.

d_0,1 = 15

## Hint 3. Find the distance traveled in the second second

What is the distance d 1,2 traveled between t

= 1 s andt = 2 s ?

## Hint 1. The shape of the region

The region under the graph between 1 and 2 seconds can be seen as consisting of a rectangle and a
triangle.

d 1,2 = 40 m

d = 55 m
Correct

## Clear the Runway

To take off from the ground, an airplane must reach a sufficiently high speed. The velocity required for the takeoff, the
takeoff velocity, depends on several factors, including the weight of the aircraft and the wind velocity.

Part A
A plane accelerates from rest at a constant rate of 5.00 m/s 2 along a runway that is 1800 m long. Assume that the
plane reaches the required takeoff velocity at the end of the runway. What is the time tTO needed to take off?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

As the plane travels along the runway, it has constant acceleration. To solve the problem, you'll need to use
the kinematics equations for such motion. In particular, you need to use the equation relating the distance
traveled and time.

Hint 2. Find the equation for the distance traveled by the plane
Which expression best describes the distance d traveled by the plane during a certain interval of time t? Let
s 0 and v0 be, respectively, the initial position and speed of the plane, and use m/s 2 for the acceleration of
the plane. Remember that the plane accelerates from rest.

v 0 + 12 at2
s0 + v 0 t + 12 at2
d=

1
2

at2

s0 + v 0 + 12 at2
s0 + 12 at2
Correct

tTO = 26.8 s
Correct
If you need to use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before
you rounded the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before

Part B
What is the speed vTO of the plane as it takes off?
Express your answer numerically in meters per second using three significant figures.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Since you are given the constant acceleration of the plane, and you have also found the time it takes to take
off, you can calculate the speed of the plane as it ascends into the air using the equation for the velocity of an
object in motion at constant acceleration.

## Hint 2. Find the equation for the velocity of the plane

Which expression best describes the velocity v of the plane after a certain interval of time t? Let v0 be the
initial velocity of the plane, and use m/s 2 for the acceleration of the plane. Remember that the plane starts
from rest.

v=

v0 t
v0 + at

v 0 t + 12 at2
at

Correct
Alternatively, you can use the relation v2

## vTO = 134 m/s

Correct
If you need to use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before
you rounded the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before

Part C
What is the distance d first traveled by the plane in the first second of its run?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Apply the same equation that you used to solve Part A.

d first = 2.50 m
Correct
If you need to use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before
you rounded the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before

Part D
What is the distance d last traveled by the plane in the last second before taking off?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use the equation that gives the distance traveled as a function of time. Note that you are looking for the
distance traveled in the last second before the plane takes off, which can be expressed as the length of the
runway minus the distance traveled by the plane up to that last second.

d last = 132 m
Correct
Since the plane is accelerating, the average speed of the plane during the last second of its run is greater than
its average speed during the first second of the run. Not surprisingly, so is the distance traveled.If you need to
use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before you rounded
the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before submitting your

Part E
What percentage of the takeoff velocity did the plane gain when it reached the midpoint of the runway?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

You need to find the velocity of the plane by the time it covers half the length of the runway and compare it
with the takeoff velocity. Apply the same method that you used to determine the takeoff velocity.
71

Correct
This is a "rule of thumb" generally used by pilots. Since the takeoff velocity for a particular aircraft can be
computed before the flight, a pilot can determine whether the plane will successfully take off before the end of
the runway by verifying that the plane has gained 71% of the takeoff velocity by the time it reaches half the
length of the runway. If the plane hasn't reached that velocity, the pilot knows that there isn't enough time to
reach the needed takeoff velocity before the plane reaches the end of the runaway. At that point, applying the
brakes and aborting the takeoff is the safest course of action.

Problem 2.3
A particle at t1 = -6.1 s is at x 1 = 4.8 cm and at t2 = 2.7 s is at x 2 = 6.4 cm .

Part A
What is its average velocity?

= 0.18 cm/s

Correct

Part B
Can you calculate its average speed from these data?
yes
no

Correct

Problem 2.12
Two locomotives approach each other on parallel tracks. Each has a speed of v = 70 km/h with respect to the ground.

Part A
If they are initially L = 9.5 km apart, how long will it be before they reach each other? (See the figure).
include the appropriate units.

t = 4.1 min
Correct

Problem 2.40
A car traveling at 100 km/h strikes a tree. The front end of the car compresses and the driver comes to rest after
traveling 0.85 m .

Part A
What was the magnitude of the average acceleration of the driver during the collision? Express the answer in terms
of "g's," where 1.00 g = 9.80 m/s 2 .

a = 46 g
Correct

Problem 2.52
A ball player catches a ball 3.1 s after throwing it vertically upward.

Part A
With what speed did he throw it?

v = 15 m/s
Correct

Part B
What height did it reach?

h = 12 m
Correct

## Motion Diagram and Gravity Graphing Question

A stone is thrown upward from the edge of a cliff, reaches its maximum height, and then falls down into the valley below.
A motion diagram for this situation is given in , beginning the instant the stone leaves the throwers hand. Construct or
select the corresponding motion graphs taking the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity as exactly 10 m/s 2 .
Ignore air resistance. In all three motion graphs, the unit of time is in seconds and the unit of displacement is in meters. In
plotting the points, round-off the coordinate values to the nearest integer.

Part A
Select the graph corresponding to the stone's vertical displacement, y(t) . The upward direction on each graph is the
region above the horizontal axis.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The motion diagram indicates the position of the stone at successive values of time, as well as the coordinate
system being used to analyze the motion. By examining the first "point" on the motion diagram, you can
determine the initial value of the position of the stone, which is where your position graph should begin. By
examining the last "point" on the motion diagram, you can determine the final position of the stone, which is
where your position graph should end.

## Hint 2. Find the initial value of the stone's position

Is the initial value of position positive, negative, or zero?
negative
positive
zero

Correct
Hint 3. Find the final value of the stone's position
Is the final value of position positive, negative, or zero?
positive
negative
zero

Correct

Correct

Part B
Construct a graph corresponding to the stone's vertical velocity, vy (t) .

## Hint 1. Find the initial value of the stone's velocity

Is the initial value of velocity positive, negative, or zero?
positive
negative
zero

Correct
Hint 2. Find the final value of the stone's velocity
Is the final value of the stone's velocity positive, negative, or zero?
positive
negative
zero

Correct

Correct

Part C
Construct a graph corresponding to the stone's vertical acceleration, a y (t) .

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Once the stone leaves the throwers hand, it is acted on by only the force of gravity. The force of gravity
causes acceleration that is constant in both magnitude and direction.

Correct

## A Motorcycle Catches a Car

A motorcycle is following a car that is traveling at constant speed on a straight highway. Initially, the car and the
motorcycle are both traveling at the same speed of 22.0 m/s , and the distance between them is 59.0 m . After t1 =
5.00 s , the motorcycle starts to accelerate at a rate of 6.00 m/s 2 . The motorcycle catches up with the car at some time
t2 .

Part A
Which of the graphs correctly displays the positions of the
motorcycle and car as functions of time?

## Hint 1. Describe the graph of the motorcycle's position

t1

t2

Between times t1 and t2 , what is the shape of the graph of the motorcycle's position versus time?

Hint 1. What does the graph of the position as a function of time look like?
If the motorcycle's initial position is x 0 , its initial velocity is v0 , and it travels at constant acceleration
a , the position of the motorcycle, as a function of time, is given by the equation
x(t) = x 0 + v0 t + (1/2)at2 . This is a quadratic equation with respect to the variable t. What is the
shape of its graph?
an increasing straight line
a parabola opening upward
a decreasing straight line
a parabola opening downward

Correct
Hint 2. The relative positions of the two vehicles
The motorcycle starts out behind the car, and has caught up with the car at time t2 . Therefore, at time t2 , the
car and the motorcycle must have the same position.
A
B
C
D
E

Correct

Part B
How long does it take from the moment when the motorcycle starts to accelerate until it catches up with the car? In
other words, find t2 t1 .
Express the time numerically in seconds using three significant figures.

## Hint 1. Using a moving reference frame

For this part, the important quantity is the relative position, or the separation of the two vehicles. You can
consider the motion in a frame of reference that moves with the constant speed of the car (22.0 m/s ). In this
frame of reference, the car is standing still, both vehicles have zero initial speed, and so the calculations are
simpler. With the car at zero speed and the initial speed of the motorcycle zero, the problem reduces to
finding how long it takes the motorcycle to cover a distance of 59.0 m starting at zero velocity with an
acceleration of 6.00 m/s 2 .

However, if you don't feel comfortable with this approach, the rest of the hints for this part will help you with a
more traditional method based on the positions of car and motorcycle with respect to the ground as functions
of time.

Hint 2. Find the initial conditions for the position of the car
If the initial conditions are known at time t1 , and the motion is one of constant acceleration, the equation for
the position of the car at time t2 is

## xc (t2 ) = x1,c + v 1,c (t2 t1 ) + 12 a c (t2 t1 ) 2 ,

where x c (t) is the positon of the car as a function of time, x 1,c is its position at time t1 , v1,c is the car's
velocity at time t1 , and a c is the car's constant acceleration. (If t1 = 0 , the equations become more familiar.)
Let us choose a frame of reference in which at time t1 , the motorcycle is at position x 1,m = 0 . What are the
values of x 1,c , v1,c , and a c that you should use in the above equation?
Enter your answer in the order x 1,c , v1,c , a c , separated by commas as shown, in units of meters ,
m/s, and m/s 2 , respectively.

## x 1,c , v1,c , a c = 59.0,22.0,0

m , m/s, m/s 2

Correct
Hint 3. Find the initial conditions for the position of the motorcycle
If initial conditions are known at time t1 , and the motion is one of constant acceleration, the equation for the
position of the motorcycle at time t2 is

## xm (t2 ) = v 1,m (t2 t1 ) + 12 a m (t2 t1 ) 2 ,

where the meaning of the symbols is analogous to that of Part B.2. Observe that there is no term involving the
initial position, because here we have assumed that at time t1 , the motorcycle is at position x 1,m = 0 . What
are the values of v1,m and a m that you should use in the above equation?
Enter your answer in the order v1,m , a m , separated by commas as shown, in units of m/s and m/s 2
respectively.

## v1,m , a m = 22.0,6.00 m/s, m/s 2

Correct
Hint 4. Solving for the time
At time t2 , the car and motorcycle must be at the same position, since they are side by side. This means that
you can set x c (t2 ) and x m (t2 ), the positions of the car and motorcycle at time t2 , equal to each other, and
then solve for the quantity t2 t1 . You should find that some terms cancel out on either side of the equation,
which will make your calculations simpler.

t2 t1 = 4.43 s

Correct

Part C
How far does the motorcycle travel from the moment it starts to accelerate (at time t1 ) until it catches up with the car
(at time t2 )? Should you need to use an answer from a previous part, make sure you use the unrounded value.
Answer numerically in meters using three significant figures.

Hint 1. Find the initial conditions for the position of the motorcycle
If the initial conditions are known at time t1 , and the motion has constant acceleration, the equation for the
position of the motorcycle at time t2 is

## xm (t2 ) = v 1,m (t2 t1 ) + 12 a m (t2 t1 ) 2 ,

as discussed in Part B.3. Here we have again assumed that at time t1 , the motorcycle is at position
x 1,m = 0 . What are the values of v1,m and a m that you should use in the above equation?
Enter your answer in the order v1,m , a m , separated by commas as shown, in units of m/s and m/s 2
respectively.

## v1,m , a m = 22.0,6.00 m/s and m/s 2

Correct
From Part B, you should know (t2
calculate x m (t2 ).

## t1 ) , which you can substitute into the above equation in order to

x m (t2 ) = 157 m
Correct

Problem 2.9
The position of a rabbit along a straight tunnel as a function of time is plotted in the figure.

Part A
At t

Correct

Part B
At t

30.0 s = 1.2

m/s

Correct

Part C
Between t

1 = 0.28 m/s
Correct

Part D
Between t

2 = 1.4

m/s

Correct

Part E
Between t

## = 40 s and t = 50.0 s , what is its average velocity?

3 = -0.95 m/s
Correct

Problem 2.29
The position of an object is given by x

## = At + Bt2 , where x is in meters and t is in seconds.

Part A
What are the units of A?
Express your answer in terms of m and s (meters and seconds).

Units of A = m
s
Correct

Part B
What are the units of B ?
Express your answer in terms of m and s (meters and seconds).
m

Units of B = s 2
Correct

Part C
What is the acceleration as a function of time?
Express your answer in terms of the variables A, B and t.

a(t) = 2B
Correct

Part D
What is the velocity at 2 s ?

2 = A + 4B
Correct

Part E
What is the acceleration at 2 s ?

a 2 = 2B
Correct

Part F
What is the velocity as a function of time if x

= At + Bt3 ?

## Express your answer in terms of the variables A, B and t.

= A 3Bt4
Correct

Problem 2.39
km/h

m/

A car traveling 95 km/h slows down at a constant 0.60 m/s 2 just by "letting up on the gas."

Part A
Calculate the distance the car coasts before it stops.

x x 0 = 580 m
Correct

Part B
Calculate the time it takes to stop.

tstop = 44 s
Correct

Part C
Calculate the distance it travels during the second second.

Distance = 25 m
Correct

Part D
Calculate the distance it travels during sixth second.

Distance = 23 m
Correct

Rocket Height
A rocket, initially at rest on the ground, accelerates straight upward from rest with constant acceleration 39.2 m/s 2 . The
acceleration period lasts for time 9.00 s until the fuel is exhausted. After that, the rocket is in free fall.

Part A
Find the maximum height ymax reached by the rocket. Ignore air resistance and assume a constant acceleration due
to gravity equal to 9.80 m/s 2 .

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Divide the upward motion into two parts: first the fueled motion, and then the motion under the influence of
gravity alone. Find the height reached over the course of the fueled motion, and then calculate the additional
height achieved during the second part of the motion. Putting these two distances together will give you the
maximum height reached by the rocket.

Hint 2. Find the height reached during the fueled part of the motion
Find the height yfuel above the ground at which the rocket exhausts its fuel.
Answer numerically in units of meters.

## Hint 1. Knowns and unknowns

At the instant that the rocket takes off, take time t0 = 0 and the initial position y0 = 0 . Let the final
values of the variables correspond to those at which the rocket runs out of fuel. Clearly, the final height
yfuel for the fueled portion of the flight and the associated final velocity vfuel are not given.
Let us denote other quantities as follows: tfuel is the time that the rocket travels before it runs out of
fuel; v0,fuel is the rocket's initial velocity; and a fuel is the rocket's net acceleration during the fueled
portion of its flight. Which of the these quantities are known?
Check all that apply.

## Hint 1. What is the initial velocity?

What is the initial velocity v0,fuel for the fueled part of the motion?

v0,fuel = 0 m/s

tfuel
v0,fuel
a fuel

Correct
Note: For the fueled part of the motion the variables usually labeled v0 and a are labeled v0,fuel
and a fuel , to distinguish them from the initial velocity and acceleration for the second part of the
motion, which we will call v0,grav and a grav respectively.

## Hint 2. Determine which kinematic equation to use

Choose the kinematic equation that makes the solution straighforward, that is, the one that contains
the variable you are solving for and in which all of the other quantities are known.

v = v0 + at

y = y0 + v 0 t + 12 at2
v2 = v20 + 2a(y y0 )

y y0 = (

v 0 +v
)t
2

Correct
Now substitute the given values into this equation to find the height yfuel .

yfuel = 1590 m

Correct
Note that the upward acceleration of the rocket results from both the thrust of the engine and from the
force due to gravity; thus, the existence of gravity is already "taken into account" in the statement of the
problem.
You can now either find the total height that the rocket reaches or first determine the additional vertical
distance the rocket travels after it runs out of fuel and add this value to the value you found for yfuel .
Since you don't know the time it takes for the rocket to reach its maximum height, you must determine
the quantities that you do know for this part of the motion: the initial velocity v0,grav , the final velocity
vf,grav , and the acceleration a grav . Look at the figure for a clearer picture.

Hint 3. Find the initial velocity, the final velocity, and the acceleration for the "free-fall" part of the
motion
What are v0,grav , vf,grav , and a grav for the second part of the motion?
Write your answer numerically in the order v0,grav , vf,grav , a grav , separated by commas as shown, in
SI units.

## Hint 1. What is the initial velocity?

When the rocket runs out of fuel, its acceleration changes abruptly, but its velocity changes
continuously. Therefore, the rocket's initial velocity v0,grav for the second part of the flight is just its
velocity at the moment the engine runs out of fuel. What, then, is v0,grav ?

Hint 1. Find the velocity when the engine runs out of fuel
For the fueled part of the motion, you know that the initial velocity is given by v0,fuel = 0 , the
acceleration by a fuel = 39.2 m/s 2 , and the time of fueled flight by tfuel = 9.00 s . You also
determined the height yfuel in Part A.2.
Choose a kinematic equation that you could use to find vf,fuel , the velocity at the end of the
fueled motion.
1.
2.
3.
4.

v = v0 + at
y = y0 + v0 t + (1/2)at2
v2 = v20 + 2a(y y0 )

y y0 = (

v 0 +v
)t
2

Choose one letter corresponding to the equation you have chosen (even though there is
A
B
C
D

## Hint 2. What is the acceleration?

What value should you use for the acceleration a grav ? Keep in mind that the direction is important,
since the acceleration due to gravity is slowing down the rocket as it continues its ascent.

## Hint 3. What is the final velocity?

What is the velocity vf,grav of the rocket when it reaches its maximum height? Note that the rocket has
just ended its ascent and is about to begin its descent. What is its velocity at this instant?

vf,grav = 0 m/s

## v0,grav , vf,grav , a grav = 353,0,-9.80 SI units

Correct
Look at the figure below for a nice way to represent all this data.

## Hint 4. Determine which kinematic equation to use

Choose the kinematic equation that makes the solution straightforward, that is, the one that contains the
variable you are solving for and for which all of the other quantities are known.

v = v0 + at
y = y0 + v0 t + (1/2)at2
v2 = v20 + 2a(y y0 )

y y0 = (

v 0 +v
)t
2

Correct
Now substitute the given values into this equation to find either the total height ymax (if you use
y0,grav = yfuel ) or the additional height gained ygrav (if you use y0,grav = 0 ).