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13K Aufrufe42 SeitenMotion
Kinematics in One Dimension
Ch.1

Sep 18, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Motion
Kinematics in One Dimension
Ch.1

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

13K Aufrufe

Motion
Kinematics in One Dimension
Ch.1

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Learning Goal:

To understand the relationships between position, velocity, and acceleration.

For this tutorial, use the PhET simulation The Moving Man. This simulation allows you to drag a person back and forth

and look at the resulting position, velocity, and acceleration. You can also enter a position as a function of time

mathematically and look at the resulting motion.

Start the simulation. When you click the simulation link, you may be asked whether to run, open, or save the file.

Choose to run or open it.

Under the Charts tab you can click and drag the person left and right, or enter a numeric value in the boxes on the left

panel to see plots for the persons position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time. Click the Play button to start a

simulation and the Pause button to stop a simulation. You can also watch a playback by selecting the Playback radio

button instead of the default Record radio button. You can click Clear to remove the current plot while maintaining your

settings for position, velocity and acceleration or click Reset All to start over. In the Playback mode, the grey bar can be

dragged over the plot to any value in time, and the digital readouts will show the corresponding values of the position,

velocity, and acceleration.

Under the Special Features menu, the Expression Evaluator option produces a second window in which you can

mathematically type in any function for the position as a function of time, x(t) . After typing in a function, click the Play

button to start the simulation.

To zoom in vertically, click any of the three + buttons to the top right of each plot. To zoom in horizontally, click the +

button to the bottom right of the acceleration plot.

Feel free to play around with the simulation. When you are done, click Reset All on the Charts tab before beginning Part

A.

Part A

First, you will focus on the relationship between velocity and position. Recall that velocity is the rate of change of

position (vx = dx/dt). This means that the velocity is equal to the slope of the Position vs. Time graph.

Move the person to the position x = 6 m or enter 6.00 in the position box. If you dragged the person to position,

click the Pause button and then the Clear button. Next, drag the person to the right to roughly x = 6 m and reverse

his direction, returning him to the original position, at x = 6 m. Move the person relatively quickly, about a few

seconds for the round trip. Your plots should look something like those shown below.

Look at the Position vs. Time and Velocity vs. Time plots. What is the person's velocity when his position is at its

maximum value (around 6 m )?

ANSWER:

zero.

The person's velocity is

positive.

negative.

Correct

When the persons position is a maximum, the slope of the position with respect to time is zero, so dx/dt = 0.

However, due to the persons acceleration, the velocity does not remain zero; he eventually moves to the left.

Part B

Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity, a x

Because it is difficult to drag the person in a consistent and reproducible way, use the Expression Evaluator under

the Special Features menu for this question.

Click Reset All and type in the function x(t) = 8 t 2 t t in the Expression Evaluator. Click the Play

button and let the simulation run roughly 5 simulation seconds before pressing the Pause button. Use the zoom

buttons to adjust the plots so they fit in the screen. You should see a plot similar to what you got in the previous

question, but much smoother.

Look at the Position vs. Time, Velocity vs. Time, and Acceleration vs. Time plots.

In Playback mode, use the grey vertical bar. Slide the bar until the value x = 8 m is displayed in the position

box on the left panel. What are the values of velocity and acceleration when x = 8 m ?

ANSWER:

When the person is 8 m to the right of the origin,

the velocity is zero but the acceleration is positive.

both the velocity and the acceleration are zero.

Correct

At x = 8 m , the person turns to go back in the opposite direction. His velocity is zero, but his acceleration is

negative since the velocity is decreasing with time. This is similar to throwing a ball straight up into the air; at its

highest point, the velocity is zero but the acceleration is still directed downward.

Part C

Keep the function x(t) = 8 t 2 t t in the Expression Evaluator. What is the value of the persons

acceleration a at t = 2 s?

Use the grey vertical bar. Slide the bar until it coincides with t

displayed in the acceleration box on the left panel?

ANSWER:

ax =

2 m/s 2

4 m/s 2

0

4 m/s 2

Correct

This is an example of one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration. The position of an object undergoing

this type of motion obeys the kinematic equation x(t) = x 0 + vx,0 t + 1/2 a x t2 . In this case, the initial

velocity is vx,0 = 8 m/s and the acceleration is a x = 4 m/s 2 (since 1/2 a x = 2 m/s 2 ).

Part D

In the previous question, the person had an initial velocity of 8 m/s and a constant acceleration of 4 m/s 2 . How

would the maximum distance he travels to the right of the origin change if instead his initial velocity were doubled (

vx,0 = 16 m/s )?

Go to the Introduction tab to run the simulation using the new initial velocity vx,0 = 16 m/s and the same

acceleration of 4 m/s 2 , and read the value for position when the velocity equals zero. Remember to

remove the walls from the simulation by clicking on the red close button on the walls. In Playback mode the

simulation can be run slowly and paused when the velocity is zero.

Or, mathematically, determine how long it takes for the person to stop and use this value of time in the

x(t)

ANSWER:

The maximum distance would increase by a factor of four.

The maximum distance would double.

The maximum distance would not change.

Correct

Because it takes twice as much time to momentarily stop, and because his average velocity will be twice as fast,

the distance he travels will be four times greater. Using the kinematic equation,

2

x(4 s) = (16 m/s) (4 s) (1/2) (4 m/s 2 ) (4 s) = 32 m .

Part E

Now, assume that the position is given by the equation x(t)

= 4 t3 .

Enter this function in the Expression Evaluator as x(t) = 4 t t t . Run the simulation by clicking the Play

button in the Record mode for roughly three simulated seconds and then click the Pause button. Now take a look at

the graphs. You will have to zoom in horizontally (bottom right), so that your range covers two seconds.

Which of the following statements is true?

ANSWER:

The position is increasing at a constant rate.

The acceleration is increasing at a constant rate.

The acceleration is constant in time.

The velocity is increasing at a constant rate.

Correct

The graph showing Acceleration vs. Time is a straight line that is not horizontal.

Part F

What is the position of the person when t

= 1 s?

You can solve this mathematically using the expression input for position as a function of time,

x(t) = 4 t t t.

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t

the approximate value for position.

ANSWER:

= 1 s, then read

Correct

Notice that since the position is given by x

3

x = 4(1) m = 4 m.

Part G

What is the velocity of the person when t

= 1 s?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second to two significant figures.

The velocity is the first derivative of position with respect to time, vx

the expression of x(t) and evaluate when t = 1 s.

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t

the approximate value for velocity.

= 1 s, then read

ANSWER:

12

m/s

Correct

Notice that since the position is given by x(t) = 4t3 , the velocity, which is the first derivative of position with

respect to time, is given by vx = dx/dt = 12t2 . So when t = 1 s, v = 12 m/s .

Part H

What is the acceleration of the person when t

= 1 s?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second squared to two significant figures.

The acceleration is the first derivative of velocity with respect to time, a x = dvx /dt or the second derivative

2

of position with respect to time, a x = d x/dt2 . You can take the derivative of the expression of vx (t) and

evaluate when t = 1 s.

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t

the approximate value for acceleration.

ANSWER:

24

m/s 2

= 1 s, then read

Correct

Notice that since the position is given by x = 4t3 , the acceleration, which is the first derivative of velocity with

respect to time, is given by a x = dvx /dt = d(12t2 )/dx = 24t . So when t = 1 s, a x = 24 m/s 2 . Notice

also that the acceleration is proportional to time, which explains why it is increasing at a constant rate (as

discovered in part G).

University of Colorado

http://phet.colorado.edu

To describe the motion of a particle along a straight line, it is often convenient to draw a graph representing the position of

the particle at different times. This type of graph is usually referred to as an x vs. t graph. To draw such a graph, choose

an axis system in which time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and position x on the vertical axis. Then, indicate the

values of x at various times t. Mathematically, this corresponds to plotting the variable x as a function of t. An example

of a graph of position as a function of time for a particle traveling along a straight line is shown below. Note that an x vs. t

graph like this does not represent the path of the particle in space.

Now let's study the graph shown in the figure in more detail.

Refer to this graph to answer Parts A, B, and C.

Part A

What is the total distance x traveled by the particle?

Express your answer in meters.

The total distance x traveled by the particle is given by the difference between the initial position x 0 at

t = 0.0 s and the position x at t = 50.0 s. In symbols,

x = x x 0 .

Hint 2. How to read an x vs. t graph

Remember that in an x vs. t graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and position x on the vertical axis.

For example, in the plot shown in the figure, x = 16.0 m at t = 10.0 s.

ANSWER:

x = 30 m

Correct

Part B

What is the average velocity vav of the particle over the time interval t

= 50.0 s ?

The average velocity vav of a particle that travels a distance x along a straight line in a time interval t is

defined as

v av =

x

.

t

In an x vs. t graph, then, the average velocity equals the slope of the line connecting the initial and final

positions.

The slope m of a line from point A, with coordinates (tA , x A ), to point B, with coordinates (tB , x B ), is

equal to the "rise" over the "run," or

m=

x B x A

tB tA .

ANSWER:

Correct

The average velocity of a particle between two positions is equal to the slope of the line connecting the two

corresponding points in an x vs. t graph.

Part C

What is the instantaneous velocity v of the particle at t

= 10.0 s?

The velocity of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called instantaneous velocity.

In an x vs. t graph of the particle's motion, you can determine the instantaneous velocity of the particle at any

point in the curve. The instantaneous velocity at any point is equal to the slope of the line tangent to the curve

at that point.

ANSWER:

v = 0.600 m/s

Correct

The instantaneous velocity of a particle at any point on its x vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the

curve at that point. Since in the case at hand the curve is a straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself.

Physically, this means that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is constant over the entire time interval of

motion. This is true for any motion where distance increases linearly with time.

Another common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of

(instantaneous) velocity as a function of time. In this graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity v on the

vertical axis. Note that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these

vectors have only one nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call v the velocity and

a the acceleration, even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of

motion.

Part D

Which of the graphs shown is the correct v vs. t plot for the motion described in the previous parts?

Recall your results found in the previous parts, namely the fact that the instantaneous velocity of the particle

is constant. Which graph represents a variable that always has the same constant value at any time?

ANSWER:

Graph A

Graph B

Graph C

Graph D

Correct

Whenever a particle moves with constant nonzero velocity, its x vs. t graph is a straight line with a nonzero

slope, and its v vs. t curve is a horizontal line.

Part E

Shown in the figure is the v vs. t curve selected in the previous part. What is the area A of the shaded region under

the curve?

Express your answer in meters.

The shaded region under the v vs. t curve is a rectangle whose horizontal and vertical sides lie on the t axis

and the v axis, respectively. Since the area of a rectangle is the product of its sides, in this case the area of

the shaded region is the product of a certain quantity expressed in seconds and another quantity expressed in

meters per second. The area itself, then, will be in meters.

ANSWER:

A = 30 m

Correct

Compare this result with what you found in Part A. As you can see, the area of the region under the v vs. t curve

equals the total distance traveled by the particle. This is true for any velocity curve and any time interval: The

area of the region that extends over a time interval t under the v vs. t curve is always equal to the distance

traveled in t .

A common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous)

velocity as a function of time. In this graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity v on the vertical axis. Note

that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these vectors have only

a single nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call v the velocity and a the

acceleration, even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of

motion, respectively.

Here is a plot of velocity versus time for a particle that travels along a straight line with a varying velocity. Refer to this plot

to answer the following questions.

Part A

What is the initial velocity of the particle, v0 ?

Express your answer in meters per second.

The initial velocity is the velocity at t

= 0 s.

Recall that in a graph of velocity versus time, time is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical

axis. For example, in the plot shown in the figure, v = 2.00 m/s at t = 30.0 s.

ANSWER:

v0 = 0.5

m/s

Correct

Part B

What is the total distance x traveled by the particle?

Express your answer in meters.

Recall that the area of the region that extends over a time interval t under the v vs. t curve is always equal

to the distance traveled in t . Thus, to calculate the total distance, you need to find the area of the entire

region under the v vs. t curve. In the case at hand, the entire region under the v vs. t curve is not an

elementary geometrical figure, but rather a combination of triangles and rectangles.

What is the distance x 1 traveled in the first 20 seconds of motion, between t

The region under the v vs. t curve between t = 0.0 s and t = 20.0 s can be divided into a rectangle

of dimensions 20.0 s by 0.50 m/s , and a triangle of base 20.0 s and height 1.50 m/s , as shown in

the figure.

ANSWER:

x 1 = 25 m

Correct

Hint 3. Find the distance traveled in the second 20.0 seconds

What is the distance x 2 traveled in the second 20 seconds of motion, from t

= 20.0 s to t = 40.0 s?

The region under the v vs. t curve between t =

20.0 s by 2.00 m/s , as shown in the figure.

ANSWER:

x 2 = 40 m

Correct

Hint 4. Find the distance traveled in the last 10.0 seconds

What is the distance x 3 traveled in the last 10 seconds of motion, from t

= 40.0 s to t = 50.0 s?

The region under the v vs. t curve between t =

and height 2.00 m/s , as shown in the figure.

ANSWER:

x 3 = 10 m

Correct

Now simply add the distances traveled in each time interval to find the total distance.

ANSWER:

x = 75 m

Correct

Part C

What is the average acceleration a av of the particle over the first 20.0 seconds?

Express your answer in meters per second per second.

The average acceleration a av of a particle that travels along a straight line in a time interval t is the ratio of

the change in velocity v experienced by the particle to the time interval t , or

v

.

t

In a v vs. t graph, then, the average acceleration equals the slope of the line connecting the two points

representing the initial and final velocities.

a av =

The slope m of a line from point A, of coordinates (x A , yA ), to point B, of coordinates (x B , yB ), is equal to

the "rise" over the "run," or

m=

y B y A

x B x A .

ANSWER:

a av = 0.075 m/s 2

Correct

The average acceleration of a particle between two instants of time is the slope of the line connecting the two

corresponding points in a v vs. t graph.

Part D

What is the instantaneous acceleration a of the particle at t

= 45.0 s?

The acceleration of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called the instantaneous

acceleration. If the v vs. t graph of the particle's motion is known, you can directly determine the

instantaneous acceleration at any point on the curve. The instantaneous acceleration at any point is equal to

the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point.

The slope m of a line from point A, of coordinates (x A , yA ), to point B, of coordinates (x B , yB ), is equal to

the "rise" over the "run," or

m=

y B y A

x B x A .

ANSWER:

1 m/s 2

0.20 m/s 2

a=

-0.20 m/s 2

0.022 m/s 2

-0.022 m/s 2

Correct

The instantaneous acceleration of a particle at any point on a v vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the

curve at that point. Since in the last 10 seconds of motion, between t = 40.0 s and t = 50.0 s, the curve is a

straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself. Physically, this means that the instantaneous acceleration of the

particle is constant over that time interval. This is true for any motion where velocity increases linearly with time.

In the case at hand, can you think of another time interval in which the acceleration of the particle is constant?

Now that you have reviewed how to plot variables as a function of time, you can use the same technique and draw an

acceleration vs. time graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous) acceleration as a function of time. As usual in these

types of graphs, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis, while the vertical axis is used to indicate acceleration a .

Part E

Which of the graphs shown below is the correct acceleration vs. time plot for the motion described in the previous

parts?

Recall that whenever velocity increases linearly with time, acceleration is constant. In the example here, the

particle's velocity increases linearly with time in the first 20.0 s of motion. In the second 20.0 s , the particle's

velocity is constant, and then it decreases linearly with time in the last 10 s . This means that the particle's

acceleration is constant over each time interval, but its value is different in each interval.

What is a 1 , the particle's acceleration in the first 20 s of motion, between t

Since we have already determined that in the first 20 s of motion the particle's acceleration is constant,

its constant value will be equal to the average acceleration that you calculated in Part C.

ANSWER:

a 1 = 0.075 m/s 2

Hint 3. Find the acceleration in the second 20 s

What is a 2 , the particle's acceleration in the second 20 s of motion, between t

In the second 20 s of motion, the particle's velocity remains unchanged. This means that in this time

ANSWER:

a 2 = 0 m/s 2

Hint 4. Find the acceleration in the last 10 s

What is a 3 , the particle's acceleration in the last 10 s of motion, between t

Since we have already determined that in the last 10 s of motion the particle's acceleration is constant,

its constant value will be equal to the instantaneous acceleration that you calculated in Part D.

ANSWER:

a 3 = -0.20 m/s 2

ANSWER:

Graph A

Graph B

Graph C

Graph D

Correct

In conclusion, graphs of velocity as a function of time are a useful representation of straight-line motion. If read

correctly, they can provide you with all the information you need to study the motion.

The graph in the figure shows the velocity v of a sports car as a function

of time t. Use the graph to answer the following questions.

Part A

Find the maximum velocity vmax of the car during the ten-second interval depicted in the graph.

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

Because the graph displays the car's velocity at each moment in time, the maximum velocity of the car can be

found simply by locating the maximum value of the velocity on the graph.

ANSWER:

vmax = 55 m/s

Correct

Part B

During which time interval is the acceleration positive?

Indicate the best answer.

Recall that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Therefore, on this graph of

velocity vs. time, acceleration is the slope of the graph. Recall that the slope m is defined by m = y/x

for a graph of y vs. x , or m = v/t in this case. If the graph is increasing from left to right, then the slope

is positive.

ANSWER:

t = 0 s to t = 6 s

t = 0 s to t = 4 s

t = 0 s to t = 10 s

t = 4 s to t = 10 s

t = 2 s to t = 6 s

Correct

Part C

Find the maximum acceleration a max of the car.

Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

The car's acceleration is the rate of change of the car's velocity v with respect to time t. In this problem, the

car's velocity is given graphically, so the car's acceleration at a given moment is found from the slope of the v

vs. t curve at that moment. If the v vs. t curve over some time interval is represented by a straight line, the

instantaneous acceleration anywhere in that interval is equal to the slope of the line, that is, to the average

acceleration over that time interval.

To find the maximum acceleration, find the value of the curve's greatest positive slope.

Hint 2. Find the final velocity on the interval with greatest acceleration

The slope of the curve is greatest during the first second of motion. The slope of the graph on this interval is

given by the change in velocity divided by the change in time over the interval from t = 0 to t = 1. At time

t = 0 s , the car's velocity v(0) is zero. Find the velocity v(1) of the car at time t = 1 s .

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

v(1) = 30 m/s

ANSWER:

a max = 30 m/s 2

Correct

Part D

Find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration a min of the car.

Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

To find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration of the car, you must find the point where the absolute

value of the slope is smallest.

ANSWER:

a min = 0 m/s 2

Correct

Part E

Find the distance d 0,2 traveled by the car between t

= 0 s and t = 2 s .

In this problem, the car's velocity as a function of time is given graphically, so the distance traveled is

represented by the area under the v vs. t graph between t = 0 s and t = 2 s .

What is the distance d 0,1 traveled between t

= 0 s and t = 1 s ?

Observe that the region in question is a triangle , whose area is therefore one-half the product of the

base and the height.

ANSWER:

d_0,1 = 15

What is the distance d 1,2 traveled between t

= 1 s andt = 2 s ?

The region under the graph between 1 and 2 seconds can be seen as consisting of a rectangle and a

triangle.

ANSWER:

d 1,2 = 40 m

ANSWER:

d = 55 m

Correct

To take off from the ground, an airplane must reach a sufficiently high speed. The velocity required for the takeoff, the

takeoff velocity, depends on several factors, including the weight of the aircraft and the wind velocity.

Part A

A plane accelerates from rest at a constant rate of 5.00 m/s 2 along a runway that is 1800 m long. Assume that the

plane reaches the required takeoff velocity at the end of the runway. What is the time tTO needed to take off?

Express your answer in seconds using three significant figures.

As the plane travels along the runway, it has constant acceleration. To solve the problem, you'll need to use

the kinematics equations for such motion. In particular, you need to use the equation relating the distance

traveled and time.

Hint 2. Find the equation for the distance traveled by the plane

Which expression best describes the distance d traveled by the plane during a certain interval of time t? Let

s 0 and v0 be, respectively, the initial position and speed of the plane, and use m/s 2 for the acceleration of

the plane. Remember that the plane accelerates from rest.

ANSWER:

v 0 + 12 at2

s0 + v 0 t + 12 at2

d=

1

2

at2

s0 + v 0 + 12 at2

s0 + 12 at2

Correct

ANSWER:

tTO = 26.8 s

Correct

If you need to use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before

you rounded the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before

submitting your answer.

Part B

What is the speed vTO of the plane as it takes off?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second using three significant figures.

Since you are given the constant acceleration of the plane, and you have also found the time it takes to take

off, you can calculate the speed of the plane as it ascends into the air using the equation for the velocity of an

object in motion at constant acceleration.

Which expression best describes the velocity v of the plane after a certain interval of time t? Let v0 be the

initial velocity of the plane, and use m/s 2 for the acceleration of the plane. Remember that the plane starts

from rest.

ANSWER:

v=

v0 t

v0 + at

v 0 t + 12 at2

at

Correct

Alternatively, you can use the relation v2

ANSWER:

Correct

If you need to use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before

you rounded the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before

submitting your answer.

Part C

What is the distance d first traveled by the plane in the first second of its run?

Express your answer numerically in meters using three significant figures.

Apply the same equation that you used to solve Part A.

ANSWER:

d first = 2.50 m

Correct

If you need to use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before

you rounded the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before

submitting your answer.

Part D

What is the distance d last traveled by the plane in the last second before taking off?

Express your answer numerically in meters using three significant figures.

Use the equation that gives the distance traveled as a function of time. Note that you are looking for the

distance traveled in the last second before the plane takes off, which can be expressed as the length of the

runway minus the distance traveled by the plane up to that last second.

ANSWER:

d last = 132 m

Correct

Since the plane is accelerating, the average speed of the plane during the last second of its run is greater than

its average speed during the first second of the run. Not surprisingly, so is the distance traveled.If you need to

use the answer from this part in subsequent parts, use the unrounded value you calculated before you rounded

the answer to three significant figures. Recall that you should only round as a final step before submitting your

answer.

Part E

What percentage of the takeoff velocity did the plane gain when it reached the midpoint of the runway?

Express your answer numerically to the nearest percent.

You need to find the velocity of the plane by the time it covers half the length of the runway and compare it

with the takeoff velocity. Apply the same method that you used to determine the takeoff velocity.

ANSWER:

71

Correct

This is a "rule of thumb" generally used by pilots. Since the takeoff velocity for a particular aircraft can be

computed before the flight, a pilot can determine whether the plane will successfully take off before the end of

the runway by verifying that the plane has gained 71% of the takeoff velocity by the time it reaches half the

length of the runway. If the plane hasn't reached that velocity, the pilot knows that there isn't enough time to

reach the needed takeoff velocity before the plane reaches the end of the runaway. At that point, applying the

brakes and aborting the takeoff is the safest course of action.

Problem 2.3

A particle at t1 = -6.1 s is at x 1 = 4.8 cm and at t2 = 2.7 s is at x 2 = 6.4 cm .

Part A

What is its average velocity?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 0.18 cm/s

Correct

Part B

Can you calculate its average speed from these data?

ANSWER:

yes

no

Correct

Problem 2.12

Two locomotives approach each other on parallel tracks. Each has a speed of v = 70 km/h with respect to the ground.

Part A

If they are initially L = 9.5 km apart, how long will it be before they reach each other? (See the figure).

Express your answer to two significant figures and

include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

t = 4.1 min

Correct

Problem 2.40

A car traveling at 100 km/h strikes a tree. The front end of the car compresses and the driver comes to rest after

traveling 0.85 m .

Part A

What was the magnitude of the average acceleration of the driver during the collision? Express the answer in terms

of "g's," where 1.00 g = 9.80 m/s 2 .

ANSWER:

a = 46 g

Correct

Problem 2.52

A ball player catches a ball 3.1 s after throwing it vertically upward.

Part A

With what speed did he throw it?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

v = 15 m/s

Correct

Part B

What height did it reach?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

h = 12 m

Correct

A stone is thrown upward from the edge of a cliff, reaches its maximum height, and then falls down into the valley below.

A motion diagram for this situation is given in , beginning the instant the stone leaves the throwers hand. Construct or

select the corresponding motion graphs taking the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity as exactly 10 m/s 2 .

Ignore air resistance. In all three motion graphs, the unit of time is in seconds and the unit of displacement is in meters. In

plotting the points, round-off the coordinate values to the nearest integer.

Part A

Select the graph corresponding to the stone's vertical displacement, y(t) . The upward direction on each graph is the

region above the horizontal axis.

The motion diagram indicates the position of the stone at successive values of time, as well as the coordinate

system being used to analyze the motion. By examining the first "point" on the motion diagram, you can

determine the initial value of the position of the stone, which is where your position graph should begin. By

examining the last "point" on the motion diagram, you can determine the final position of the stone, which is

where your position graph should end.

Is the initial value of position positive, negative, or zero?

ANSWER:

negative

positive

zero

Correct

Hint 3. Find the final value of the stone's position

Is the final value of position positive, negative, or zero?

ANSWER:

positive

negative

zero

Correct

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Construct a graph corresponding to the stone's vertical velocity, vy (t) .

Is the initial value of velocity positive, negative, or zero?

ANSWER:

positive

negative

zero

Correct

Hint 2. Find the final value of the stone's velocity

Is the final value of the stone's velocity positive, negative, or zero?

ANSWER:

positive

negative

zero

Correct

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Construct a graph corresponding to the stone's vertical acceleration, a y (t) .

Once the stone leaves the throwers hand, it is acted on by only the force of gravity. The force of gravity

causes acceleration that is constant in both magnitude and direction.

ANSWER:

Correct

A motorcycle is following a car that is traveling at constant speed on a straight highway. Initially, the car and the

motorcycle are both traveling at the same speed of 22.0 m/s , and the distance between them is 59.0 m . After t1 =

5.00 s , the motorcycle starts to accelerate at a rate of 6.00 m/s 2 . The motorcycle catches up with the car at some time

t2 .

Part A

Which of the graphs correctly displays the positions of the

motorcycle and car as functions of time?

t1

t2

Between times t1 and t2 , what is the shape of the graph of the motorcycle's position versus time?

Hint 1. What does the graph of the position as a function of time look like?

If the motorcycle's initial position is x 0 , its initial velocity is v0 , and it travels at constant acceleration

a , the position of the motorcycle, as a function of time, is given by the equation

x(t) = x 0 + v0 t + (1/2)at2 . This is a quadratic equation with respect to the variable t. What is the

shape of its graph?

ANSWER:

an increasing straight line

a parabola opening upward

a decreasing straight line

a parabola opening downward

Correct

Hint 2. The relative positions of the two vehicles

The motorcycle starts out behind the car, and has caught up with the car at time t2 . Therefore, at time t2 , the

car and the motorcycle must have the same position.

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

Correct

Part B

How long does it take from the moment when the motorcycle starts to accelerate until it catches up with the car? In

other words, find t2 t1 .

Express the time numerically in seconds using three significant figures.

For this part, the important quantity is the relative position, or the separation of the two vehicles. You can

consider the motion in a frame of reference that moves with the constant speed of the car (22.0 m/s ). In this

frame of reference, the car is standing still, both vehicles have zero initial speed, and so the calculations are

simpler. With the car at zero speed and the initial speed of the motorcycle zero, the problem reduces to

finding how long it takes the motorcycle to cover a distance of 59.0 m starting at zero velocity with an

acceleration of 6.00 m/s 2 .

However, if you don't feel comfortable with this approach, the rest of the hints for this part will help you with a

more traditional method based on the positions of car and motorcycle with respect to the ground as functions

of time.

Hint 2. Find the initial conditions for the position of the car

If the initial conditions are known at time t1 , and the motion is one of constant acceleration, the equation for

the position of the car at time t2 is

where x c (t) is the positon of the car as a function of time, x 1,c is its position at time t1 , v1,c is the car's

velocity at time t1 , and a c is the car's constant acceleration. (If t1 = 0 , the equations become more familiar.)

Let us choose a frame of reference in which at time t1 , the motorcycle is at position x 1,m = 0 . What are the

values of x 1,c , v1,c , and a c that you should use in the above equation?

Enter your answer in the order x 1,c , v1,c , a c , separated by commas as shown, in units of meters ,

m/s, and m/s 2 , respectively.

ANSWER:

m , m/s, m/s 2

Correct

Hint 3. Find the initial conditions for the position of the motorcycle

If initial conditions are known at time t1 , and the motion is one of constant acceleration, the equation for the

position of the motorcycle at time t2 is

where the meaning of the symbols is analogous to that of Part B.2. Observe that there is no term involving the

initial position, because here we have assumed that at time t1 , the motorcycle is at position x 1,m = 0 . What

are the values of v1,m and a m that you should use in the above equation?

Enter your answer in the order v1,m , a m , separated by commas as shown, in units of m/s and m/s 2

respectively.

ANSWER:

Correct

Hint 4. Solving for the time

At time t2 , the car and motorcycle must be at the same position, since they are side by side. This means that

you can set x c (t2 ) and x m (t2 ), the positions of the car and motorcycle at time t2 , equal to each other, and

then solve for the quantity t2 t1 . You should find that some terms cancel out on either side of the equation,

which will make your calculations simpler.

ANSWER:

t2 t1 = 4.43 s

Correct

Part C

How far does the motorcycle travel from the moment it starts to accelerate (at time t1 ) until it catches up with the car

(at time t2 )? Should you need to use an answer from a previous part, make sure you use the unrounded value.

Answer numerically in meters using three significant figures.

Hint 1. Find the initial conditions for the position of the motorcycle

If the initial conditions are known at time t1 , and the motion has constant acceleration, the equation for the

position of the motorcycle at time t2 is

as discussed in Part B.3. Here we have again assumed that at time t1 , the motorcycle is at position

x 1,m = 0 . What are the values of v1,m and a m that you should use in the above equation?

Enter your answer in the order v1,m , a m , separated by commas as shown, in units of m/s and m/s 2

respectively.

ANSWER:

Correct

From Part B, you should know (t2

calculate x m (t2 ).

ANSWER:

x m (t2 ) = 157 m

Correct

Problem 2.9

The position of a rabbit along a straight tunnel as a function of time is plotted in the figure.

Part A

At t

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

At t

ANSWER:

30.0 s = 1.2

m/s

Correct

Part C

Between t

ANSWER:

1 = 0.28 m/s

Correct

Part D

Between t

ANSWER:

2 = 1.4

m/s

Correct

Part E

Between t

ANSWER:

3 = -0.95 m/s

Correct

Problem 2.29

The position of an object is given by x

Part A

What are the units of A?

Express your answer in terms of m and s (meters and seconds).

ANSWER:

Units of A = m

s

Correct

Part B

What are the units of B ?

Express your answer in terms of m and s (meters and seconds).

ANSWER:

m

Units of B = s 2

Correct

Part C

What is the acceleration as a function of time?

Express your answer in terms of the variables A, B and t.

ANSWER:

a(t) = 2B

Correct

Part D

What is the velocity at 2 s ?

Express your answer in terms of the variables A, B.

ANSWER:

2 = A + 4B

Correct

Part E

What is the acceleration at 2 s ?

Express your answer in terms of the variables A, B.

ANSWER:

a 2 = 2B

Correct

Part F

What is the velocity as a function of time if x

= At + Bt3 ?

ANSWER:

= A 3Bt4

Correct

Problem 2.39

km/h

m/

A car traveling 95 km/h slows down at a constant 0.60 m/s 2 just by "letting up on the gas."

Part A

Calculate the distance the car coasts before it stops.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

x x 0 = 580 m

Correct

Part B

Calculate the time it takes to stop.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

tstop = 44 s

Correct

Part C

Calculate the distance it travels during the second second.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Distance = 25 m

Correct

Part D

Calculate the distance it travels during sixth second.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Distance = 23 m

Correct

Rocket Height

A rocket, initially at rest on the ground, accelerates straight upward from rest with constant acceleration 39.2 m/s 2 . The

acceleration period lasts for time 9.00 s until the fuel is exhausted. After that, the rocket is in free fall.

Part A

Find the maximum height ymax reached by the rocket. Ignore air resistance and assume a constant acceleration due

to gravity equal to 9.80 m/s 2 .

Write your answer numerically in units of meters.

Divide the upward motion into two parts: first the fueled motion, and then the motion under the influence of

gravity alone. Find the height reached over the course of the fueled motion, and then calculate the additional

height achieved during the second part of the motion. Putting these two distances together will give you the

maximum height reached by the rocket.

Hint 2. Find the height reached during the fueled part of the motion

Find the height yfuel above the ground at which the rocket exhausts its fuel.

Answer numerically in units of meters.

At the instant that the rocket takes off, take time t0 = 0 and the initial position y0 = 0 . Let the final

values of the variables correspond to those at which the rocket runs out of fuel. Clearly, the final height

yfuel for the fueled portion of the flight and the associated final velocity vfuel are not given.

Let us denote other quantities as follows: tfuel is the time that the rocket travels before it runs out of

fuel; v0,fuel is the rocket's initial velocity; and a fuel is the rocket's net acceleration during the fueled

portion of its flight. Which of the these quantities are known?

Check all that apply.

What is the initial velocity v0,fuel for the fueled part of the motion?

Give your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

v0,fuel = 0 m/s

ANSWER:

tfuel

v0,fuel

a fuel

Correct

Note: For the fueled part of the motion the variables usually labeled v0 and a are labeled v0,fuel

and a fuel , to distinguish them from the initial velocity and acceleration for the second part of the

motion, which we will call v0,grav and a grav respectively.

Choose the kinematic equation that makes the solution straighforward, that is, the one that contains

the variable you are solving for and in which all of the other quantities are known.

ANSWER:

v = v0 + at

y = y0 + v 0 t + 12 at2

v2 = v20 + 2a(y y0 )

y y0 = (

v 0 +v

)t

2

Correct

Now substitute the given values into this equation to find the height yfuel .

ANSWER:

yfuel = 1590 m

Correct

Note that the upward acceleration of the rocket results from both the thrust of the engine and from the

force due to gravity; thus, the existence of gravity is already "taken into account" in the statement of the

problem.

You can now either find the total height that the rocket reaches or first determine the additional vertical

distance the rocket travels after it runs out of fuel and add this value to the value you found for yfuel .

Since you don't know the time it takes for the rocket to reach its maximum height, you must determine

the quantities that you do know for this part of the motion: the initial velocity v0,grav , the final velocity

vf,grav , and the acceleration a grav . Look at the figure for a clearer picture.

Hint 3. Find the initial velocity, the final velocity, and the acceleration for the "free-fall" part of the

motion

What are v0,grav , vf,grav , and a grav for the second part of the motion?

Write your answer numerically in the order v0,grav , vf,grav , a grav , separated by commas as shown, in

SI units.

When the rocket runs out of fuel, its acceleration changes abruptly, but its velocity changes

continuously. Therefore, the rocket's initial velocity v0,grav for the second part of the flight is just its

velocity at the moment the engine runs out of fuel. What, then, is v0,grav ?

Give your answer numerically.

Hint 1. Find the velocity when the engine runs out of fuel

For the fueled part of the motion, you know that the initial velocity is given by v0,fuel = 0 , the

acceleration by a fuel = 39.2 m/s 2 , and the time of fueled flight by tfuel = 9.00 s . You also

determined the height yfuel in Part A.2.

Choose a kinematic equation that you could use to find vf,fuel , the velocity at the end of the

fueled motion.

1.

2.

3.

4.

v = v0 + at

y = y0 + v0 t + (1/2)at2

v2 = v20 + 2a(y y0 )

y y0 = (

v 0 +v

)t

2

Choose one letter corresponding to the equation you have chosen (even though there is

more than one correct answer).

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

ANSWER:

What value should you use for the acceleration a grav ? Keep in mind that the direction is important,

since the acceleration due to gravity is slowing down the rocket as it continues its ascent.

Give your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

What is the velocity vf,grav of the rocket when it reaches its maximum height? Note that the rocket has

just ended its ascent and is about to begin its descent. What is its velocity at this instant?

Give your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

vf,grav = 0 m/s

ANSWER:

Correct

Look at the figure below for a nice way to represent all this data.

Choose the kinematic equation that makes the solution straightforward, that is, the one that contains the

variable you are solving for and for which all of the other quantities are known.

ANSWER:

v = v0 + at

y = y0 + v0 t + (1/2)at2

v2 = v20 + 2a(y y0 )

y y0 = (

v 0 +v

)t

2

Correct

Now substitute the given values into this equation to find either the total height ymax (if you use

y0,grav = yfuel ) or the additional height gained ygrav (if you use y0,grav = 0 ).

ANSWER:

ymax = 7940 m

Correct

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 95.6%.

You received 13.39 out of a possible total of 14 points.

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