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READY FOR LTE

LTE TRAINING
FAVE HOTEL JAKARTA
June, 13th June, 14th 2015

LTE OVERVIEW

LTE OVERVIEW SERVICES AND APPLICATION RUN IN LTE

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE OVERVIEW LTE CHANNELS

LTE is Packet Improvement of HSPA(+) Technology.


What LTE Offers ???
Higher Data Throughput (Currently can go up to 326 Mbps)
Better Latency ~ 10 ms (RTT)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE OVERVIEW LTE DUPLEX MODE

LTE FDD : DL and UL separated by Frequency


LTE TDD : DL and UL separated by Time Domain (Slot).

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE OVERVIEW LTE MULTIPLE ACCESS MODE

LTE FDD Multiple Access Method :


UPLINK : SC FDMA (SINGLE CARRIER FDMA)
DOWNLINK : OFDMA (ORHTHOGONAL FDMA)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE OVERVIEW DEPLOYMENT

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE OVERVIEW DEPLOYMENT

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE NETWORK
ARCHITECTURE

LTE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

EUTRAN

June, 2015

EPC

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

LTE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE - EUTRAN

EUTRAN (Evolved UTRAN)


A.

UE : Mobile Subscriber

B.

E Node B :
o Modulation & Demodulation
o Channel Decoding
o Radio Resource Control
o Radio Mobility Management
o Process Layer 2 Protocol

June, 2015

Radio Function
Controller Function

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

10

LTE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE - EPC

EPC (Evolved Packet Core)


A.

MME (Mobility Management Entity)


o Signaling procedure to set up Packet Data Context and Negotiate Quality
Of Services.
o Tracking Area Update process (to page terminal for incoming session).
o Security procedures -> authentication , ciphering and protection
algorithm.

B.

SGW (Serving Gateway)


Terminating point of the packet data towards E-UTRAN and Mobility Anchor
that packet are routed through this point for Intra E-UTRAN Mobility.

C.

PGW = PDN GW (Packet Data Network Gateway)


The termination point of the packet data interface towards the Packet Data
Network. An anchor point for sessions towards the external Packet Data
Networks.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

11

LTE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE - EPC

D. PCRF (Packet Charging and Rule Function)


Server that manages service policy and QoS setting information.
The CRFs role is to provide operator-defined charging rules applicable to
each service data flow. The CRF selects the relevant charging rules based
on information provided by the P-CSCF, such as Application Identifier, Type
of Stream (audio, video, etc.), Application Data Rate, etc.
E.

HSS (Home Subscriber Server) Data Network Gateway)


o User identification and addressing this corresponds to the IMSI
(International Mobile Subscriber Identity) and MSISDN (Mobile
Subscriber ISDN Number) or mobile telephone number.
o User profile information this includes service subscription states and
user-subscribed Quality of Service information (such as maximum
allowed bit rate or allowed traffic class).

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

12

LTE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE - INTERFACES

Interfaces
uu
: Interface between UE and E-Node B
X2
: Interface between E-Node B
S1-MME/S1-CP: Interface E-Node B and MME
S1-UP
: Interface between E-Node B and SGW/PGW
S5/S8
S11
S7
S6a

June, 2015

: Interface between SGW to PGW


: Interface between MME and SGW
: Interface between PGW and PCRF
: Interface between MME and HSS

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

13

LTE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE PSHO LTE to 3G

With S3 interface MME to SGSN enable Packet Switch Handover to WCDMA.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

14

LTE AIR INTERFACE

LTE AIR INTERFACE THROUGHPUT CALCULATION

Theoretical Max for 2x2 MIMO, 10 MHz channel BW assuming 64QAM.


Modulation throughout and 30% overhead = 12*7*2*50*6*70*2 = 70Mbps.

June, 2015

12 Sub carriers
7 OFDM Symbols
2 Timeslots/Scheduling block
50 Resource blocks in 10 MHz
6 bits per symbol for 64 QAM
30% Overhead
2x2 MIMO

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

16

LTE AIR INTERFACE PHYSICAL RESOURCE


FREQUENCY DOMAIN
1 Sub carrier
= 15 KHz
1 Resource Block = 12 Subcarriers * 15
= 180 KHz

TIME DOMAIN
1 Time Slot = 0.5 ms
1 Subframe = 1 ms

Cyclic Prefix
Normal CP = (4.69 sec * 6) + (5.21 * 1 sec)
Extended CP = 16.67 s

LTE FRAME
1 LTE FRAME = 15 SUB FRAME

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

17

LTE AIR INTERFACE LTE FRAME

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

18

LTE AIR INTERFACE MULTIPLE ACCESS

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

19

LTE AIR INTERFACE REFERENCE SYMBOLS

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

20

LTE AIR INTERFACE LTE CHANNELS

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

21

LTE AIR INTERFACE LTE CHANNELS


Downlink

Uplink

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

22

LTE AIR INTERFACE LTE CHANNEL BANDWITH & BANDS

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

23

LTE AIR INTERFACE PHYSICAL CELL IDENTITY

Physical layer Cell Identity (PCI) identifies a cell within a network equivalent of UMTS
Scrambling Code
There are 504 Physical layer Cell Identities compared to 512 UMTS Scrambling Codes
PCI are organized in 168 groups of 3 codes compared to 64 groups of 8 for UMTS
Scrambling Codes

Physical Cell Identity (PCI)

Physical Cell Group (0 167) = 168 Groups


Physical Sub CellId (0 .. 2) = 3 Sub Cell

PCI = Physical Cell Group * 3 + Physical Sub Cell Id


June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

24

LTE AIR INTERFACE RSRP

RSRP (Reference Signal Receive Power) is the average power of Resource


Elements (RE) that carry cell specific Reference Signals (RS) over the entire
bandwidth, so RSRP is only measured in the symbols carrying RS. Its typical
range is around -44 to -130dbm.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

25

LTE AIR INTERFACE RSRQ

RSRQ is defined as (N x RSRP)/RSSI, where N is the number of RBs over


the measurement bandwidth. As you see, this is not the direct
measurement, it is a kind of derived value from RSRP and RSSI. By
dividing RSRP by RSSI, it could give some information about interference
as well in addition to the strength of the wanted signal.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

26

LTE AIR INTERFACE RSSI

RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) is a parameter which provides information


about total received wide-band power (measure in all symbols) including all
interference and thermal noise.
RSSI is the total power UE observes across the whole band. This includes the main
signal and co-channel non-serving cell signal, adjacent channel interference and
even the thermal noise within the specified band.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

27

LTE AIR INTERFACE SINR

SINR also to measure of signal quality as well. Unlike RSRQ, it is not defined in the 3GPP
specs but defined by the UE vendor. It is not reported to the network. SINR is used a lot
by operators, and the LTE industry in general, as it better quantifies the relationship
between RF conditions and throughput. UEs typically use SINR to calculate the CQI
(Channel Quality Indicator) they report to the network.
The components of the SINR calculation can be defined as:
S: indicates the power of measured usable signals. Reference signals (RS) and physical
downlink shared channels (PDSCHs) are mainly involved
I: indicates the power of measured signals or channel interference signals from other
cells in the current system
N: indicates background noise, which is related to measurement bandwidths and
receiver noise coefficients

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

28

LTE AIR INTERFACE RADIO LINK CONDITION

UEs typically use SINR to calculate the CQI (Channel Quality Indicator)
they report to the network.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

29

LTE IDLE MODE


BEHAVIOUR

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR UE STATE comparison to other RAT

WCDMA
UE Mode

June, 2015

LTE
UE Mode

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

GPRS
MS Mode

31

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR UE RRC State in LTE


UE States and State Transitions.
A UE is in RRC_CONNECTED when an RRC connection has been established.
If this is not the case, i.e. no RRC connection is established, the UE is in RRC_IDLE state.
RRC_IDLE
UE controlled mobility;
The UE:
Monitors a Paging channel.
Performs neighbouring cell measurements and cell (re-)selection.
Acquires system information.
RRC_CONNECTED
Transfer of unicast data to/from UE.
Network controlled mobility.
The UE:
Monitors a Paging channel and/ or System Information Block Type 1 contents to detect
system information change
Monitors control channels associated with the shared data channel to determine if data is
scheduled for it.
Provides channel quality and feedback information.
Performs neighbouring cell measurements and measurement reporting.
Acquires system information.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

32

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR Cell Selection and Reselection

Cell Selection Procedure


Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0
Where:
Srlev = Qrxlevmeas (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset) Pcompensation
Squal = Qqualmeas (Qqualmin + Qqualminoffset)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

33

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR Cell Selection and Reselection

Cell Re-Selection Procedure


UE will perform measurement for INTRA FREQUENCY if :
SServingCell <= Sintrasearch
UE will not perform measurement for INTRA FREQUENCY if
SServingCell >= Sintrasearch

UE will perform measurement for INTER FREQUENCY if :


SServingCell <= SNonIntrasearch
UE will not perform measurement for INTER FREQUENCY if :
SServingCell >= SNonitrasearch

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

34

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR Cell Selection and Reselection

Cell Re-Selection Intra Frequency

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

35

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR Cell Selection and Reselection

When multiple E-UTRAN Frequency (Band)


are used in network, priority based cell
reselection can be applied.
When UE Move from Cell A to Cell B, the
UE will reselect to LTE 900 MHz with the
highest priority, for scenario as below
picture.

Cell Reselection Priority C_900 MHz = 7


Cell Reselection Priority C_1800 MHz = 6
Cell Reselection Priority C_2100 MHz = 5

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

36

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR InterFrequency Cell Reselection Priority Based

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR RAT Cell Reselection (3G <> 4G)

How Enable Reselection from 3G to LTE


The steps are :
Create EutranFreqRelation toward EARFCN (Eutran ARFCN) at RNC.
Some Parameter are need to be set (Scenario : LTE cell has higher priority).

Reselection to LTE happens :


If SServing (RSCP) < absPrioCellRes_sPrioritySearch1.utranCell + qRxLevMin.utranCell
AND
STarget(RSRP) > qRxLevmin.EutranFreqRelation + threshHigh.EutranFreqRelation

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

38

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR RAT Cell Reselection (3G <> 4G)


How Enable Reselection from LTE to 3G
The steps are :
Create UtranFreqRelation toward UARFCN (UMTS ARFCN) at e-Node B
Some Parameter are need to be set (Scenario : UMTS (3G) cell has lower priority)

Reselection to 3G happens :
If SServing (RSRP) < SNonIntraSearch.EutranCellFDD + qRxLevMin.EutranCellFDD
And
STarget(RSCP) > qRxLevMin.UtranFreqRelation + threshLow. UtranFreqRelation
June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

39

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR Tracking Area

Tracking Area is similar with Routing Area in GSM or URA in WCDMA/3G.


The Tracking Area update procedure is used by UE to update the registration of its actual location in the network, so that the UE will be able to be paged when there
is incoming data.
Normally UE will perform TA update, in this situation:
UE Switches ON
UE do reselection from UMTS or GSM to LTE Network
Across Tracking Area Border
Routine Tracking Area Update

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

40

LTE IDLE BEHAVIOUR SIB in LTE

SIB-19 in WCDMA
WCDMA SIB19 specifies the LTE frequencies (EARFCN) and priorities. A maximum of 8 EARFCNs (4 FDD + 4 TDD) can be
listed in SIB 19. For each EARFCN, you can configure a max 16 blacklisted cells. The blacklisted cell is the cell UE should not
make reselection to.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

41

LTE
MOBILITY & IRAT

LTE Mobility (Handover)

Why does UE need to perform Handover ?

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

43

LTE Mobility (Handover)

RRC Connected Mode Mobility


Intra LTE Handover
Intra e-Node Node-B
Inter e-Node Node-B (over X2 or S1)
Inter Frequency Handover (Intra or Inter e-Node B)
Inter RAT Mobility (to WCDMA or GSM or CDMA)
June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

44

LTE Mobility (Measurement Report / LTE Handover Events )


Intra and Inter Frequency Handover Events :
Event _A1
Serving Cell becomes better than absolute threshold.
Event _A2
Serving Cell becomes worse than absolute threshold.
Event _A3
Neighbor Cell becomes amount of offset better than serving.
Event_A4
Neighbor Cell becomes better than absolute threshold.
Event_A5
Serving Cell becomes worse than absolute threshold1 AND neighbor cell becomes better than another absolute
threshold2.
IRAT Handover Events :
Event B1
IRAT Neighbor becomes better than threshold.
Event B2
Serving Cell becomes worse than absolute threshold1 AND IRAT neighbor becomes better than another absolute
threshold2.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

45

LTE Mobility (Measurement Report / LTE Handover Events )

Cell A

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

Cell B

46

LTE Mobility (Handover Flow Procedure)


X2 Handover Call Flow Intra LTE Handover (1)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

47

LTE Mobility (Handover Flow Procedure)


X2 Handover call process for Intra LTE Handover (2)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

48

LTE Mobility (IRAT Deployment)

PS Handover to WCDMA Call Flow (1)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

49

LTE Mobility (IRAT Deployment)


PS Handover to WCDMA Call Flow (2)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

50

PS Handover to WCDMA Events


A2 And B2 Event PSHO to WCDMA

LTE Mobility (IRAT Deployment)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

52

LTE Mobility (PSHO Algorithm for Handover Trigger)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

53

LTE Mobility (IRAT Deployment)

License needed in E-Node B , to enable RWR and PS HO Session Continuity

License needed in RNC (UTRAN) , to enable RWR and PS HO (Session Continuity)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

54

LTE Mobility (Packet Session Continuity LTE to WCDMA)

LTE Coverage
WCDMA Coverage

Two ways for Packet Continuity LTE to WCDMA prior Handover Preparation done :

Measurement Based (measure target cell) using :


Event A2
Event A1 (if ue find good coverage of source cell)
Event A5 (need to activate ue measurement)
Event B2 (need to activate ue measurement)
Blind HO (use only event A2)

Once the Handover preparation done, then mobility action taken could be Release With Reditect (RWR) or PS
Handover.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

55

LTE Mobility - Triggering PSHO / Blind Handover to WCDMA

56

LTE Mobility (Mobility Action Release with Redirect VS PS Handover)

UE in LTE System

UE in WCDMA
system

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

57

LTE Mobility (Mobility Action Release with Redirect VS Handover)

Sample Drive Test Log Release With Redirect to WCDMA


Release redirect to UARFCN 10738 (WCDMA F3) happened after RRC Connection release

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

58

LTE Mobility (Mobility Action Release with Redirect VS PS Handover)

Sample Drive Test Log IRAT PS Handover to WCDMA


Successfully PS Handover to WCDMA URAFCN 10763 (F1).
June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

59

LTE ANR

ANR (Automatic Neighbor Relation)

ANR Supports :
Detect and add Intra Frequency LTE Relation
Detect and add Inter Frequency LTE Relation
Detect and add Inter RAT Mobility (to WCDMA or GSM or CDMA).

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

61

ANR (Activation and Setting)

ANR will automatically add or remove relation based on measurement Report when UE in RRC
Connected mode.
To activate ANR :
1. ANRmeasON set to True under MO EutranFreqRelation for neighbor relation Intra/Inter LTE
2. ANRmeasON set to True under MO UtranFreqRelation for neighbor relation toward UTRAN
3. ANRmeasON set to True under MO GeranFreqGroup for relation toward GERAN
Another thing is to set the threshold (minimum signal strength) or quality of neighbor cells that can
be added as relation.
MO ANR Function Eutran for neighbor relation Intra/Inter LTE (RSRP, RSRQ)
MO ANR Function Utran for neighbor relation toward UTRAN (RSCP, EcNo)
MO ANR Function Geran for relation toward GERAN (RxLev,RxQual)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

62

ANR (ANR Activation and Setting)


Example : setting of AnrFunctionEutran -> RSRP threshold -122 dBm a cell added as a neighbor

Example : setting of AnrFunctionUtran -> CelladdRSCPthresholdUtranDelta (Neighbor to WCDMA)


We must see another parameter called b2Threshold2RscpUtra (-110 dBm) to add WCDMA cell as neighbor.
WCDMA neighbor cell ANR = b2Threshold2RscpUtra + CelladdRSCPthresholdUtranDelta = -110 + 6 = -104 dBm

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

63

ANR (Sample Relation)


ANR Function -> Neighbor Removal

removeNrelTime
Parameter to control how long a relation is kept without being used.
Unit : 1 Day
Range : 0 1000, 0 means removal done just 1 minute after relation created.
This parameter is very good to use to remove unnecessary neighbor list.
Less neighbor list , so UE will have less time to measure handover target.
June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

64

ANR (Sample Relation)


Example of LTE Intra/Inter Neighbor Relation created by ANR :

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

65

LTE RRM

LTE Radio Resource Management


Radio Resources in LTE
In LTE, Link Adaptation (LA) selects the transport format, i.e., modulation and
coding scheme (MCS) and allocates power to assigned resources .
Scheduler chooses the time-frequency based on CSI for a UE, then LA selects
MCS and allocates the power to the selected time-frequency resources.
Antennas and their corresponding precoding matrices are selected separately
from time-frequency assignments mechanism.
We discuss following topics (in terms of RRM not limited to these):
Dynamic packet assignment scheduling
Link adaptation and power allocation
Load balancing (Inter Frequency Load Base Handover)
MIMO configuration control
Multi-RAT
Quality of Service (QoS In LTE)
June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

67

LTE Radio Resource Management Scheduling in LTE


How the scheduling works :
UE computes the CQI value from downlink channel and sends it to the eNB
UE sends BSR reports to eNodeB
Based on BSR, CQI and UE QoS, eNodeB computes MCS value and PRB mapping
information and send it to the UE in downlink

June, 2015

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68

LTE Radio Resource Management Link Adaptation

June, 2015

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69

LTE Radio Resource Management Power Control

June, 2015

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70

LTE Radio Resource Management - MIMO

Multiple Antenna Access Scheme

June, 2015

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71

LTE Radio Resource Management - MIMO

MIMO Concept :
Combining Signals compensate of Multipath conditions
With spatial multiplexing each Tx sends a different data stream to multiple Rx.

Multiple-antenna systems can compensate for some of the loss of SNR due to multipath conditions by
combining signals that have different fading characteristics, since the path from each antenna will be slightly
different.
June, 2015

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72

MIMO Transmission mode Rank Indicator

LTE Radio Resource Management MIMO PROCESS

MIMO Process

MIMO 2 x 2 or 4 x 4 can double data rate of LTE

Multiple-antenna systems can compensate for some of the loss of SNR due to multipath
conditions by combining signals that have different fading characteristics, since the path from
each antenna will be slightly different.
To achieve throughput gains where SNR is already very high, LTE uses a MIMO technique called
spatial multiplexing. In spatial multiplexing, each Tx sends a different data stream to multiple Rx.
These data streams are then reconstructed separately by the UE. It may seem counterintuitive
that two signals sent at the same time and frequency within the same sector can result in
increased throughput rather than interference.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

74

LTE Radio Resource Management MIMO TRANSMISSION MODE

June, 2015

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75

LTE Radio Resource Management


MIMO can double data rate of LTE.

June, 2015

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76

LTE Radio Resource Management QoS


Bearer Model in LTE

June, 2015

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77

LTE Radio Resource Management QoS


Standard CQI Characteristic

June, 2015

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78

DSCP Concept (DSCP Marking in QoS)

LTE Radio Resource Management - QoS


Radio Admission Control (RAC).
Is to ensure high radio resource utilization by accepting radio bearer requests if radio
resources are available.
Admits or rejects establishment requests for new radio bearers.
This simultaneously ensures proper QoS for in-progress sessions by rejecting radio
bearer requests when they cannot be accommodated.
High priority GBR requests are granted first.
Pros:
High priority GBR requests are granted first.
In a contention situation, higher priority E-utran Radio Access Bearer (ERABs) can preempt lower priority ones.
Cons:
Pre-emption would lead to the release of lower priority ERABs.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

80

LTE Radio Resource Management - QoS


QoS Handling

LTE Radio Resource Management


Radio Admission Control (RAC).
Priority GBR Based
It is important to realize that Admission Control (AC) is not standardized shlould be, different realizations of LTE
Radio Access Network (RANs ) will run different admission control algorithms.

June, 2015

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82

LTE Radio Resource Management

See more detail Qos Setting in RBS -> MO : QciProfilePredefined


Sample : Site id -> 453BB64E

It is a must to have RAN Qos Setting corresponding to Transport Setting (Design)

LTE Radio Resource Management

Standard QCI Characteristic

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

84

LTE
CS FALLBACK

CS FALLBACK EUTRAN to UTRAN over SGs


Basically , LTE is Packet Technology only. So when the UE want to make voice call the network
will redirect to existing Technology such as WCDMA or GSM. The interface called SGs
conecting between SGSN and MME.

June, 2015

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86

CS FALLBACK CS fallback callflow

Mobile Originating Call

June, 2015

Mobile Terminating Call

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87

CS FALLBACK CSFB Process

CSFB CALL

CSFB Set up
time
June, 2015

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Return Time to LTE


88

CS FALLBACK Features and License

Parameters involved at E-Node B (E-UTRAN)


licenseStateCsfbToGsmWcdma (MO: CsfbToGsmWcdma)
Indicates whether the licensed state of feature CS Fallback to GSM and
WCDMA is ENABLED or DISABLED. That is, whether a valid license key
is installed for the feature or not.
serviceStateCsfbToGsmWcdma (MO: CsfbToGsmWcdma)
Indicates if the feature CS Fallback to GSM and WCDMA is operable or
inoperable, i.e. is the feature providing service or not.
License at RNC (UTRAN)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

89

CS FALLBACK Features and License

Scenario :
CSFB Call Priority to WCDMA has higher priority than GSM.
Example : Value csFallbackPrio for WCDMA is 4.
Value csFallbackPrio for GSM is 3.

June, 2015

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90

CS FALLBACK LTE redirect to WCDMA for CS Fallback

1.
2.
3.

June, 2015

Enable License and Features in E Node


Enable License and Features in UTRAN (RNC).
Set some Parameter under in E-Node B ->UtranFreqrelation
MO.
Example : 10763 (F1 - UARFCN)
csFallbackPrio set to 4
mobilityActionCsfb set to 0 (RELEASE_WITH_REDIRECT).

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

91

CS FALLBACK Redirect to LTE after CS Fallback

1.
2.
3.

June, 2015

Enable License and Features in E Node.


Enable License and Features in UTRAN (RNC).
Set some Parameter at RNC MO Eutranfreqrelation
releaseRedirect set to 1 (EUTRA)
releaseRedirectEutraTriggers.csFallbackCsRelease set to 1 ON

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

92

CS FALLBACK Redirect to LTE after CS Fallback

1.
2.
3.

June, 2015

Enable License and Features in E Node.


Enable License and Features in UTRAN (RNC).
Set some Parameter at RNC MO Eutranfreqrelation
Example : 1478 (F1 EARFCN).
redirection order set to 1
releaseRedirect set to 1 (EUTRA)
releaseRedirectEutraTriggers.csFallbackCsRelease set to 1 ON

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

93

CS Fallback to WCDMA and CSFB to GSM

To get figure number of CS Fallback attempt to WCDMA or GSM, Does this figure already our mobility
management strategy ??

LTE
RF TUNING ACTIVITY

RF TUNING ACTIVITY RF TUNING PROCESS

Enode B
Integration

Alarm Check

Alarm or Faulty

Raise HCR

Parameter
Consistency &
Configuration
Check

Inconsistency
found

Neighbor
Check

Missed Frequency
Creation (with
ANR) or Relation
(without ANR)

Raise NCCR
Raise NCCR

RF Tuning

Final Report*

Acceptance*

* Still not applicable

June, 2015

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96

RF TUNING ACTIVITY - OVERVIEW

RF Tuning Activity :
1. Basic Case Test
2. Initial Tuning and Optimization
a. Initial Tuning (Drive Test)
Antenna azimuth and downtilt/uptilt changes
Network configuration change
b. Optimization (Statistical KPI)
Performance Monitoring
Parameter changes (Consistency Check refer to LLD)
Other Network configuration change

June, 2015

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97

RF TUNING ACTIVITY FUNCTIONALITY TEST


RF Tuning Activity :
1.

Basic Test Case (Initial Test)


Mode : Stationary Test
To ensure all services / applications are running well and the throughput close to
theoretical calculation. For this functionality was done stationary at good radio condition
(at good RSRP and SINR).
a. Throughput and Latency Test
Speed of the network and ping time can be measured
Test server : Speedtest.net
b. Application test
To get user experience perspective when using some applications
Type tests : Web Browsing, Video Streaming (Youtube), Video Conference (Skype)
c. Another Services
Voice Call (CS Fallback), SMS (CS), and USSD Code (Balance Check)

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98

RF TUNING ACTIVITY FUNCTIONALITY TEST


Check list result :

Speed Test Result (OAKLA) :

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99

RF TUNING ACTIVITY FUNCTIONALITY TEST

Network Quality
Components

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100

RF TUNING ACTIVITY FUNCTIONALITY TEST


How to measure your network Quality (Ping Time Result).
Source : http://www.pingtest.net/
A. Excellent Result
All Internet Application to work very well assuming you have sufficient bandwith.
Ping time < 50 ms with 0% Packet Loss
B. Very Good
Your connection should work well for any Internet application. Some
online games may not perform optimally.
Ping time ~ 90 ms with 0% Packet Loss
C. Acceptable
Your VoIP quality will suffer some, and you will have a disadvantage in many
online games. Most streaming media will be fine.
Ping time ~ 150 ms with 1% Packet Loss
C. Concerning
Most online applications will not perform well but should function is some capacity
Ping time ~ 300 ms with 3% Packet Loss
D.

June, 2015

Very Poor
Real-time Internet application performance will suffer greatly on such a
connection
Ping time ~ 500 ms with 20% Packet Loss
Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

101

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Tuning Drive Test


2. Drive Test Initial Tuning.
A. Coverage and Quality improvement by performing Mobility Drive Test.
Log file from Drive Test that can be used for further analysis :
o RSRP analysis, representing coverage
o SINR analysis, representing Link Quality
o PCI analysis (serving cell)
o Throughput analysis
o Ping Time for Latency Analysis
B. Key Event LTE
o LTE attach
o CSFB Success rate , Call Setup time and Return to LTE after CSFB
o Handover (Intra LTE)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

102

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Tuning Drive Test


Drive Test Methodology :
2 UEs + Scanner is reasonable for one laptop
o UE1 doing FTP (or UDP)
o UE2 doing attach and ping
Fixed duration FTP (or UDP) provides regular sampling over the drive rout
o Allows SARR to be used as a KPI
Attach / Detach also tests reliability of MME

2 min
UE1

10 sec

FTP UL

2 min
DL

Attach

ping

Detach

UE2

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

103

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Tuning Drive Test

Some Action taken for Drive Test Tuning Analysis :


1. Identify spot / route that need to be improved
2. Take action for each spot / route such as :
o Physical adjustment (Manual Tuning)
o Lowering Power
o Turn off the cell (need extra attention for this action)
3. Verify the change we made (improved or not)
4. ::: Other Case (Change RU Module from RUS02 to RRU12) to
improve coverage (Part of Configuration Change)

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

104

RF TUNING ACTIVITY- Drive Test Tuning Analysis

Identify spot / area/ route that need for improvement

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

105

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Test Tuning

Theoretically In Downlink , SINR will be the one that we must focus on to get maximum throughput.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

106

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Tuning Analysis

Theoretically in Uplink , good RSRP (represented by Pathloss) by will give us better UL


throughput.
UL PUSCH Throughput / eva70 (75%)
UL PUSCH Throughput / epa5
PUSCH Mean (kbps)

PUSCH vs. Pathloss per Cell


25000

20000

kbps

15000

10000

5000

0
90

June, 2015

100

110

120
130
Pathloss

140

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

150

160

107

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Test Tuning


RSRP Plot
Analysis from Scanner , using 2 layers (Before and After) Scanner Plot.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

108

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Test Tuning


SINR Plot
Analysis from Scanner , using 2 layers (Before VS After) Scanner Plot.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

109

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Test Tuning

PCI Plot (#1st TOP)


Analysis from Scanner , using 2 layers (Before vs After) Scanner Plot.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

110

RF TUNING ACTIVITY FTP Downlink Throughput

FTP Downlink Throughput


Analysis from UE test, using 2 layers (Before vs After).

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

111

RF TUNING ACTIVITY PING TIME

PING TIME

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

112

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Test KPI Event


LTE Attach Event
::: LTE Attached failed

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

113

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Drive Test KPI Event


CSFB Call Setup Attempt event

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

114

RF TUNING ACTIVITY Performance Monitoring


Sample Performance Monitoring (Cluster Level), after Consistency Check

#1st Consistency Check Highlighted -> Change of major parameter in EutranCellFDD MO


# 2nd Consistency Check Highlighted -> Change of qRxLev.EutranCellFdd & qRxlevMin.EutranFreqRelation MO to -122

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

115

LTE
KPI STATISTICAL
ANALYSIS

Statistical Main KPI

LTE Performance Management


1.

Performance Statistic
PM (Performance Monitoring) will collect the required counters
and store them in ZML 15 minutes Report (ROP).
2. Performance Recording
o LTE Cell Trace
o UE Trace
3. Performance Data Analysis
o ENIQ (Ericsson Network IQ)
o ITK

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

117

Statistical Main KPI

KPI , Counters and its Flow Chart.


More details about the counters we see it from Alex.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

118

Statistical Main KPI

Main LTE KPI Performance :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Accessibility
Retainability
Mobility
o Intra LTE Handover (IntraFrequency and InterFrequency)
o IRAT 3G PSHO
Integrity
o User DL/UL Throughput
o DL Latency
Availability

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

119

Statistical Main KPI - Accessibility


SSSR (Session Setup Success Rate)
The ability of a service to be obtained, within specified tolerances and other given conditions, when
requested by the end user. SSSR can also be defined per Quality Class Indicator.

Showing RRC attempt is something good to know to have figure about number of user connect to LTE Network.

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

120

Statistical Main KPI - Accessibility


Accessibility Counters

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

121

Statistical Main KPI - Retainability


SARR (Session Abnormal Release Rate)
The probability that a service, once obtained, continues to be provided under given conditions for a
given time duration.

Minutes Abnormal Release

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

122

Statistical Main KPI - Retainability


Retainability Counters

June, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

123

Statistical Main KPI - Integrity


Integrity
Service Integrity represents the quality experienced by the end user during the call or session.
DL User Throughput

UL User Throughput
DL Latency

DL User Throughput

February, 2015

DL Latency

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

124

Statistical Main KPI - Integrity


Integrity Counters

February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

125

Statistical Main KPI - Mobility


LTE Handover Success Rate Intra and Inter Frequency LTE
The ability of the system to allow movement within the LTE RAN or to another Radio Access Technology (RAT).
Intra LTE Mobility Success Rate (Intra and Inter frequency)

PSHO to WCDMA (IRAT PSHO)

IRAT 3G PSHO =

February, 2015

pmHoPrepSucc x pmHoExeSucc
pmHoPrepAtt x pmHoExeAtt

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

126

Statistical Main KPI - Mobility


Intra LTE Mobility Success Rate (Only Intra Frequency LTE Handover))

PSHO to WCDMA (IRAT PSHO)

For Mobility RAT to 3G, Ratio 3G PSHO vs Session Continuity (RWR) is something to be concerned about.
February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

127

Statistical Main KPI - Mobility


Mobility Counters Intra LTE (IntraF or InterF)

February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

128

Statistical Main KPI - Mobility


Mobility Counters RAT to WCDMA

February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

129

Statistical Main KPI - Availability


Availability
The ability of an item to be in a state to perform a required function at a given instant of time within a given time
interval, assuming that the external resources, if required, are provided

February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

130

Statistical Main KPI Daily Performance Monitoring


Cluster / Region Level Statistic Dashboard

February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

131

Statistical Main KPI Daily Performance Monitoring


Cell Level Daily Statistic

February, 2015

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad

132

ADDITIONAL SLIDE

VOLTE Network Architecture

IMS

SRVCC (Single Radio Voice Call Continuity)

RBS Configuration sample

RBS Configuration sample Cell per Power

Baseband Capacity DUS41 Spec

DUS41

Intra LTE Handover Message Flow

Intra LTE Handover Message Flow

Release With Redirect and PS Handover


Flow Chart

Steps to create relation LTE to GSM

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Activate fetaure GsmSessionContinuity


Create Geran Network
Example : cr ManagedElement=1,ENodeBFunction=1,GeraNetwork=1
Create Geran Freq Group
Example : cr ManagedElement=1,ENodeBFunction=1,GeraNetwork=1,GeranFreqGroup=1
Create Geran Frequency
Example : cr ManagedElement=1,ENodeBFunction=1,GeraNetwork=1,GeranFreqGroup=1,GeranFrequency=109
Create Geran Freq Group Relation
Example : cr ENodeBFunction=1,EUtranCellFDD=xxxxx_1 ,GeranFreqGroupRelation=1
Some parameter needs to be very high concerned :
*cellReselectionPriority 2
*connectedModeMobilityPrio 2
*csFallbackPrio 2
*csFallbackPrioEC 2
*mobilityAction 1
*mobilityActionCsfb 0
*qRxLevMin -105
*threshXHigh 0
*threshXLow 4

Copyright2015 by Abdul Samad


All rights reserved. No part of this materials may be used or reproduced in any manner
whatsoever without the written permission of the Publisher and Author.
Published by Priyo Adi Koesoemo, 2015