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Unit 00

September

1.

READING AND WRITING NUMBERS.

1.1.

CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS.


The Cardinal numbers (one, two, three, and so on) are adjectives referring to

quantity, and the Ordinal numbers (first, second, third, and so on) refer to distribution.
MATH VOCABULARY: Cardinal numbers, Ordinal Numbers, Quantity. Distribution.
NUMBER

CARDINAL

ORDINAL

NUMBER

CARDINAL

ORDINAL

One

First (1st)

16

Sixteen

Sixteenth (16th)

Two

Second (2nd)

17

Seventeen

Seventeenth (17th)

Three

Third (3rd)

18

Eighteen

Eighteenth (18th)

Four

Fourth (4th)

19

Nineteen

Nineteenth (19th)

Five

Fifth (5th)

20

Twenty

Twentieth (20th)

Six

Sixth (6th)

21

Twenty-One

Twenty-First (21st)

Seven

Seventh (7th)

22

Twenty-Two

Twenty-Second (22nd)

Eight

Eighth (8th)

23

Twenty-Three

Twenty-Third (23rd)

Nine

Ninth (9th)

24

Twenty-Four

Twenty-Fourth (24th)

10

Ten

Tenth (10th)

25

Twenty-Five

Twenty-Fifth (25th)

11

Eleven

Eleventh (11th)

26

Twenty-Six

Twenty-Sixth (26th)

12

Twelve

Twelfth (12th)

27

Twenty-Seven

Twenty-Seventh (27th)

13

Thirteen

Thirteenth (13th)

28

Twenty-Eight

Twenty-Eighth (28th)

14

Fourteen

Fourteenth (14th)

29

Twenty-Nine

Twenty-Ninth (29th)

15

Fifteen

Fifteenth (15th)

30

Thirty

Thirtieth (30th)

MATH VOCABULARY: Table, Row, Column.


If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, we should
write the number as two words separated by a hyphen:
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25 twenty-five
57 fifty-seven
89 eighty-nine
MATH VOCABULARY: Range, Digit, Zero, Hyphen.
NUMBER

CARDINAL

ORDINAL

NUMBER

CARDINAL

ORDINAL

40

Forty

Fortieth (40th)

80

Eighty

Eightieth (80th)

50

Fifty

Fiftieth (50th)

90

Ninety

Ninetieth (90th)

60

Sixty

Sixtieth (60th)

100

A/One Hundred

Hundredth (100th)

70

Seventy

Seventieth (70th)

1,000

A/One Thousand

Thousandth (1,000th)

Numbers over 100 are generally written in figures. If you want to say them
aloud or want to write them in words rather than figures you put and in front of the
number expressed by the last two figures. For example:
203 two hundred and three (AmE: two hundred three)
622 six hundred and twenty-two (AmE: six hundred twenty-two)
MATH VOCABULARY: Figure.
NOTE: The British use and before tens and ones but the Americans usually leave the
and out.
NUMBER

CARDINAL

ORDINAL

10,000

Ten Thousand

Ten Thousandth

100,000

A/One Hundred Thousand

Hundred Thousandth

1,000,000

A/One Million

Millionth

Numbers between 1000 and 1,000,000 are usually said or written in words as:

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1,803 one thousand, eight hundred and three


1,963 one thousand, nine hundred and sixty-three
2,840 two thousand, eight hundred and forty
NOTE: Notice that hundred, thousand, and so on is NOT followed by an s: two
hundred (NOT two hundreds ).
Four-figure numbers ending in 00 can also be said or written as a number of
hundreds. For example:
1800 can be said or written as eighteen hundred
If the number 1963 is being used to identify something, it is said as one nine six
three. We always say each figure separately like this with telephone numbers. If a
telephone number contains a double number, we used the word double:
561 6603 five six one (pause) double six oh three
(AmE: five six one (pause) six six oh three)
MATH VOCABULARY: Double, Ones, Tens.
Beyond a million, the names of the numbers differ depending where you live.
The places are grouped by thousands in America and France, by the millions in Great
Britain, Germany and Spain.
NAME

AMERICA

UK

Billion

1,000,000,000

1,000,000,000,000

Trillion

1 with 12 zeros

1 with 18 zeros

Quadrillion

1 with 15 zeros

1 with 24 zeros

1,412,605 one million four hundred twelve thousand six hundred and five
2,760,300 two million seven hundred sixty thousand three hundred
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1.2.

September

SAYING YEARS AND DATES.

YEARS
We normally say a year in two parts. In the case of years ending in 00, we say
the second part in hundred:
1058 ten fifty-eight
1706 seventeen hundred and six (or seventeen oh six)
1865 eighteen sixty-five
1900 nineteen hundred
There are two ways of saying years ending in 01 to 09 before 2000. For
example:
1901 can be said as nineteen oh one or nineteen hundred and one
The year 2000 is read two thousand, 2006 two thousand and six (AmE: two
thousand six).
Post-2010 dates are often said as normal (2010 would be twenty ten).

DATES
We can say dates either with the day before the month, or the month before
the day.
The first of January / January the first
NOTE: Be careful! The second of December 2007 is written in British English like this:
2/12/07 and in American English like this: 12/2/07
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1.3.

September

FLIGHT NUMBERS AND TITLES.

FLIGHT NUMBERS
We pronounce a flight number in two parts or digit-by-digit. For example:
110 one ten (or one one oh)
1248 twelve forty-eight
2503 twenty-five oh three
3050 three oh five oh (or three zero five zero, thirty fifty)
TITLES
In names for kings and queens, ordinal numbers are written in Roman numbers.
In spoken English, the definite article is used before the ordinal number:
Charles II - Charles the Second
Edward VI - Eduard the Sixth
Henry VIII - Henry the Eighth
1.4.

NUMBER 0.
The figure 0 is normally called nought in UK and zero in USA. When numbers

are said figure by figure, 0 is often called like the letter O Examples:
My telephone number is nine six seven double two oh four six oh (967 220460)
My telephone number is nine six seven double two oh treble/triple six (967 220666)
In measurements (for instance, of temperature), 0 is called zero
Water freezes at zero degrees Celsius
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Zero scores in team-games are usually called nil in UK and zero in USA. In
tennis, table-tennis and similar games the word love is used (this is derived from the
French loeuf, meaning the egg, presumably because zero can be egg-shaped)
Examples:
Ribera del Fresno three Real Madrid nil (nothing)
Nadal is winning forty-love

MATH VOCABULARY: Measurement, Love, Nought, Nil.


1.5.

DECIMALS, FRACTIONS AND PERCENTAGES.

DECIMALS
Decimal Fractions are said with each figure separate. We use a full stop (called
point), not a comma, before the fraction. Each place value has a value that is one
tenth the value to the immediate left of it.
3.375 three point three seven five
2.36 two point three six
0.5 nought point five (AmE: zero point five)
0.75 nought point seven five (AmE: zero point seven five)

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MATH VOCABULARY: Decimal, Fraction, Value.


FRACTIONS
Simple fractions are expressed by using ordinal numbers (third, fourth,
fifth...) with some exceptions:
1/2 One half / a half
1/3 One third / a third
2/3 Two thirds
3/4 Three quarters
5/8 Five eighths
4/33 Four over thirty-three
MATH VOCABULARY: Over. Quarter, Half.
PERCENTAGES.
We don't use the article in front of the numeral.
10% of the people Ten per cent of the people
37% thirty-seven per cent
MATH VOCABULARY: Percentage, Per Cent, Numeral.
REMEMBER: Use (,) and (.) in the opposite way the points for the decimals and the
commas for thousands, millions, and so on.

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2.

September

NATURAL NUMBERS.
The numbers we use for counting are called natural numbers or sometimes just

counting numbers. The possible combination of natural numbers is endless. There is


no largest natural number, so we say the set of all natural numbers is infinite. We use
the letter to refer to the set of all natural numbers.

= {1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 10, 11, . . . }

If we include the number zero or 0, then our set now has a new name, which is
the set of whole numbers.
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 10, 11, . . . }

The Hindu-Arabic system is more useful and more efficient than the systems
used by the Egyptians, Romans, and Mayans.

It uses only 10 digits to construct all the natural numbers.

It uses the digit 0 or zero to show an empty place value.

It has a place value system where digits represent different numbers when
placed in different place value columns.
Each digit in a number has a place value.

This system is called also Decimal system (its base is 10).


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MATH VOCABULARY: Natural Numbers, Whole Numbers, Infinite, Counting Numbers,


Decimal System, Twice, Average.

3.

REPRESENTATION AND ORDER NATURAL NUMBERS.


The Natural numbers can be represented by a line like that:

We can use symbols < and > to express which is the order relation between
two numbers: less than and more than.
Example: Order the following pairs of numbers: 3 and 9; 4 and 5; 9 and 8.
We can write:
3<9

3 is smaller than 9

4<5

4 is smaller than 5

9>8

9 is greater than 8

If you have any doubts then check the correspondent position in the number line:

To compare and order whole numbers:

Align the digits by place value.

Compare the digits in each place, starting with the greatest place.
39,630

19,578

130,434

36,415

There are no hundred thousands in the other numbers. 130,434 is greatest.


39,630

36,415

3 = 3, but the ones of thousands period 9 is bigger than 6, so 39,630 is greatest.


In order from greatest to least, the numbers are:

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130,434 > 39,639 > 36,415 > 19,578


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4.

September

OPERATIONS WITH NATURAL NUMBERS.


Many situations in real life involve operations with numbers so it is useful to

practice them. We strongly recommend you practice them mentally.


4.1.

ADDITION.
The addition is an operation that combines numbers to get a total. The symbol

is +.
Example:

3+5=8

We read 3 + 5 = 8 as: Three plus five is equal to eight or Three plus five
equals eight or Three plus five is eight. The terms in the addition are called addends
and the result is called the sum.
Example: The library lent 45 books last Monday, 50 books on Tuesday and 73
books on Wednesday. How many books have they lent?
45 + 50 + 73 = 168

Answer: They have lent 168 books


We can use the Addition table:

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ADDITION PROPERTIES.
The properties of addition are: closure, commutative, associative, and additive
identity.

Closure property: Addition of two natural numbers is always another natural


number.
6 + 7 = 13 (13 is another natural number)

Commutative property: When we add two natural numbers, the sum is the same
no matter what the order of the addends is.
+ = +
4 + 2 = 2 + 4

Associative Property: When we add three or more natural numbers, the sum is
the same no matter how we group the addends.
+ + = ( + ) + = + ( + )
(2 + 3) + 4 = 2 + (3 + 4)

Additive Identity Property: The sum of any natural number and zero is the
original number.
+ =
5 + 0 = 5

MATH VOCABULARY: Operation, Addition, Plus, Equal, Term, Addends, Sum,


Properties, Closure Property, Commutative Property, Associative Property, Additive
Identity Property, To Group.

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4.2.

September

SUBTRACTION.
Subtracting is removing or taking away some objects from a group. The symbol

is .

Example: 13 7 = 6
We read 13 7 = 6 as: Thirteen minus seven equals six or Thirteen subtract

seven equals six (sometimes you can see thirteen take away seven equals six but it
is better to use the other expressions). The terms of subtraction are called minuend
(M) and subtrahend (S), the result is called the difference (D).
=
The minuend is the first number, it is the number from which you take
something and it must be the larger number. The subtrahend is the number that is
subtracted and it must be the smaller number. The difference is the result of the
subtraction.
To check if the subtraction is correct we add up the subtrahend and the
difference. The result must be the minuend:
+ =
Example: We have saved 3,520 euros but we have spent 745 on a computer.
How much money do we have left?
3,520 745 = 2,775

Answer: We have 2,775 euros left.

SUBTRACTION PROPERTIES.

The Subtraction is NOT Commutative.

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3223

The Subtraction in Natural Numbers has NOT Closure Property when > .
2 3 = 1 (1 is not a Natural Number)

Associative Property: Only when > > ( ) > .


= ( ) = ( )
(5 4) 2 = 5 (4 3)
5>4>3

Additive Identity Property: To subtract zero to any natural number is the original
number.
=

5 0 = 5
MATH VOCABULARY: Subtraction, To Remove, To Take Away, Minus, To Subtract,
Minuend, Subtrahend, Difference, Result, To Be Correct, To Spend.
4.3.

MULTIPLICATION.
Multiplying is doing an addition of equal addends. . The symbol is or .
3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 5 = 15
We read 3 5 = 15 as: Three times five equals fifteen or Three times five is

fifteen. The factors are the numbers that are multiplied together. The product is the
result of multiplying.
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Example: In my living-room I have a bookcase with three shelves. If there are


five books on each shelf, how many books are there?
5 3 = 15

Answer: There are 15 books in my bookcase.


We use the Multiplication Table:

To multiply a number by a unit followed by zeroes, you add the zeroes to the
right of the number.
28 10 = 280

15 1,000 = 15,000
PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLICATION.
The properties of multiplication are: closure, commutative, associative, and
additive identity:
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Closure property: Multiplication of two natural numbers is always another


natural number.
6 7 = 42 (42 is another natural number)

Commutative property: When two numbers are multiplied together, the product
is the same no matter what the order of the factors is.
=
42 = 24

Associative Property: When three or more numbers are multiplied, the product is the
same no matter how we group the factors.

= ( ) = ( )
(2 3) 4 = 2 (3 4)

Additive Identity Property: The product of any number and one is that number.
=

51 = 5

Zero Property of Multiplication: The product of zero and a number is zero.


=

50 =0
MATH VOCABULARY: To Multiply, Times, Factor, Product, Identity.

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4.4.

September

DIVISION.
Dividing is to share a quantity into equal groups. It is the inverse of

multiplication. In Spanish we write 6 : 2 , but in English it is always 6 2, we never use


the colon (:).
We read 15 5 = 3 as: Fifteen divided by five equals three. There are four

terms in a division: dividend, divisor, quotient and remainder.

The dividend is the number that is divided. The divisor is the number that
divides the dividend. The quotient is the number of times the divisor goes into the
dividend. The remainder is a number that is too small to be divided by the divisor.
Example: There are 72 sweets in a bag. If we want to distribute them among 12
children, how many sweets are there for each child?
72 12 = 6

Answer: There are six sweets for each child.

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The division can be:

Exact: the remainder is 0.

Non exact: the remainder isnt 0.


To check if the division is correct we do the Division Algorithm:
= +
Example: Find out the result of the division 237 13 and then check the result

with the division algorithm:

237 13 = 18; = 3

Dividend = Divisor x Quotient + Remainder; 13 x 18 + 3 = 237, so it is correct.

NOTE: We can never divide by Zero.


DIVISION PROPERTIES.

Closure property: The Division in Natural Numbers has NOT Closure Property .
3 2 = 1.5 (1.5 is not a Natural Number)

The Division is NOT Commutative.



Associative Property: Only when > > ( ) > and with exact

divisions.

= ( ) = ( )
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(100 4) 2 = 100 (4 2)
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100 > 4 > 2

Additive Identity Property: The division of any number by one is that number.
=

51 = 5
MATH VOCABULARY: To Divide, To Share, Inverse, Dividend, Divisor, Quotient,
Remainder, Algorithm.
4.5.

COMBINED OPERATIONS.
Look at these expressions: 6 + 2 4 and (6 + 2) 4; although they have the same

numbers and the same operations, their values are different:

6 + 2 4 = 6 + 8 = 14

(6 + 2) 4 = 8 4 = 32
When expressions have more than one operation, we have to follow rules for
the order of operations. To remember these rules we will use the BODMAS or
BEDMAS rule:

B: Brackets. ( ) before [ ].

O: Orders (Powers). E: Exponents

D M: Divisions and Multiplications (left to right).

A S: Additions and Subtractions (left to right).


Example 1:
Solve 3 + 6 (5 + 4) 3 7 using the rules for the correct order of operations.
: 3 + 6 (5 + 4) 3 7 = 3 + 6 9 3 7

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: 3 + 6 9 3 7 = 3 + 54 3 7
: 3 + 54 3 7 = 3 + 18 7
: 3 + 18 7 = 21 7
: 21 7 = 14

Example 2:
Calculate 9 5 (8 3) 2 + 6 using the correct order of operations.
: 9 5 (8 3) 2 + 6 = 9 5 5 2 + 6
: 9 5 5 2 + 6 = 9 1 2 + 6
: 9 1 2 + 6 = 9 2 + 6
: 9 2 + 6 = 7 + 6
: 7 + 6 = 13

PROPERTY.

Distributive Property: says that multiplying a number by a group of numbers


added together is the same as doing each multiplication.
( + ) = +
( ) =
3 (2 + 4) = 3 2 + 3 4
3 (4 2) = 3 4 3 2

MATH VOCABULARY: Combined Operation, Expression, Power, To Solve, To Calculate,


Step, Distributive Property.

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5.

September

WHOLE NUMBER PROBLEMS.


In order to solve problems you must follow the rules below:

Start with a first reading of the problem to know what it is about.

Then you do a second reading more slowly, in order to understand the problem
and find out what data it provides.

Write down the data of the problem clearly. If it is a geometric problem, then
you can make a drawing. You must also check that the units are all the same. If
they are not, then you will have to change them to the appropriate ones.

Now you can do all the necessary operations to solve the problem.

Finally, answering: Reread the question of the problem and answer it with a
sentence. Don't forget to mention the correct unit and check that the answer
makes sense.
Example John has 350 euros in his bank account. He has received 37 euros as a

birthday present and then, he has bought 4 DVDs which cost 15 each. How much
money does he have now?
DATA:
Saved: 350 euros
Gift: 37 euros
Spend: 4 x 15 euros
SOLVE:
350 + 37 = 387
4 15 = 60

387 60 = 327
ANSWER:
John has now 327 euros

MATH VOCABULARY: Geometry, To Draw, Unit, Answer.


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This traditional Japanese game just need two pairs of hands and some strategy
(and simple adding) skills! Good fun for getting kids thinking - and every game ends up
differently! You need at least 2 children, but you can play with more if your adding
skills are up to it!
The object of the game is to be the last player left with a hand in the game. A
hand is "dead" and has to be hidden behind the back when all 5 fingers (or chopsticks)
are extended. Play as follows:

Players each put one finger out and hold their hands in front of them. One
person starts by using one of his hands to touch any other person's hand. The
person he touches adds up the number of fingers involved (on this first go it
would be two - one on each of the children's hands) and holds that number of
fingers out. Play then passes to the next child (move clockwise around the group,
if there are more than two children).

When it is your turn, if you have more than 1 finger extended on each hand, you
can choose to touch your own hands together rather than touch someone else's
hand. If you do this, you add together the number of fingers on both hands, then
split that number between your two hands in a different way. So, for example, if
you had 4 fingers extended on your right hand and 2 on your left hand, you
might tap them together then split them so that you have 3 extended on each
hand. Obviously it is a good idea to do this if you have 4 fingers extended on one
hand, because with one more touch that hand could become "dead" and have to
go out of the game. You can't do this if you 4 fingers extended on each hand, or 4
on one hand and 3 on the other, as you would just be swapping your fingers
around indefinitely.

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Mathematics 4 ESO

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