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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 (2015) pp 633-638 © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Submitted: 2014-08-10 Revised: 2014-10-07 Accepted: 2014-10-14 Online: 2015-05-18

Virtual instrumentation for adaptive control of cutting processes VASILONI Anton Mircea 1,a , DRAGOI Mircea Viorel 1,b

1 Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, B-dul Eroilor 29, Romania a v.mircea@unitbv.ro, b dragoi.m@unitbv.ro

Keywords: Virtual instruments, adaptive control.

Abstract. This paper discusses the application of virtual instruments into the monitoring and control of an adaptive control system used in milling cutting processes. Hardware and software architecture is proposed in order to develop reliable virtual instruments for cutting processes monitoring. Methodology and technique of Virtual instruments for adaptive system calibration are presented in the following paragraphs.

Introduction

When it comes to on-line monitoring and adapting the cutting processes, appropriate and reliable hardware and software instruments must be used. Several solutions are available on the market both for the hardware and for the software component. The integration between them it is not always available as a deliverable. Thus a personalized hardware set-up must be accomplished in accordance with the equivalent software virtual instrument.

Virtual instruments and LabVIEW

Since its appearance, computers have been involved in process monitoring and control. Over the time their importance has grown along with hardware and software development platforms. An application of computer development was control panel’s duplication of existing instruments and related process control directly by the computer interface. The new tools developed were called Virtual Instruments (VI). By that time VI development grew exponentially, being today a self standing technique with a wide range of applications from small laboratory experiments to complex automation of plants and even towns, districts and countries [1]. LabVIEW [2,3] (short for Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) is a platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. The graphical language is named "G". Originally released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986, LabVIEW is commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation on a variety of platforms including Microsoft Windows, various flavors of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X. LabVIEW programs are called Virtual Instruments, or VIs, because their appearance and operation imitate physical instruments, such as oscilloscopes and multimeters. LabVIEW contains a comprehensive set of tools for acquiring analyzing, displaying, and storing data, as well as tools to help you troubleshoot your code. The benefit of LabVIEW over other development environments is the extensive support for accessing instrumentation hardware. Drivers and abstraction layers for many different types of instruments and buses are included or are available for inclusion.

Adaptive Control

Adaptive control provides on-line adjustment of the operating parameters. The three most widely used adaptive control systems of machine tools are [4,5,6,7,8]:

- Geometric Adaptive Compensation (GAC) systems are designated to maintain in real time a desirable part quality by compensating the deflection and wear of cutting tools. Such systems are typically used in finishing operations.

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- Adaptive Control Optimization (ACO) systems refer to systems in which a given performance parameter, such as production time, unit cost, is the optimization subject to process (material removal rate) and system constraints (surface roughness, power consumption, cutting forces, machining time, cost).

- Adaptive Control Constraints (ACC) system is usually applied in rough cutting, to maximize material removal rate by maintain a cutting parameter under a controlled value (mainly the maximum cutting force) in order to prevent the process instability (tool breakage). A basic structure of an adaptive control system for CNC machine-tool is presented in Fig.1 [9].

634 Advanced Technologies in Designing and Progressive Development of Manufacturing Systems - Adaptive Control Optimization (ACO)

Fig. 1. Adaptive control system basic structure

System architecture

An adaptive control system for cutting processes consists of three main components [10,11,12]:

  • 1. a measuring system that allows capturing data about a certain parameter of the process, in order to detect the occurrence of perturbations in that process;

  • 2. a mean to deliver correction inputs to the process;

  • 3. a way to compute the appropriate value(s) of the input(s), related to the perturbation

detected, to be delivered to the process in order to stabilize it. An established system for gathering data in the cutting processes is the Kistler platform [13]. It works with its’ own software that allows selecting the way of work and makes the necessary

computations in order to aggregate the data delivered by the various sensors the platform is equipped with. Kistler is designed to work rather as a monitoring system, than an integrated one in an adaptive control system. Since LabVIEW can be used both as a data acquisition and distribution system, and it provides users with programming facilities, it is very suitable to assume tasks of each of the three components mentioned above. Integration between Kistler hardware platform and LabVIEW software is presented in the next paragraphs.

Hardware system

The hardware system shown in Fig. 2 [5,9,12,14] consists of an educational purpose CNC milling machine (Denford NovaMILL), on which is mounted a (Kistler type 9257B). The signal generated by the cutting forces enters to the charge amplifier (Kistler type 5070A11100). The mains-operated multi-channel charge amplifier receives the charge from the piezoelectric sensor and converts it into a proportional voltage. The analogue signal will be transformed into a digital signal by the acquisition/distribution (A/D) board, so that the LabVIEW software is able to read and receive the data.

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 635 Fig.2 Hardware architecture The electrical signal corresponds to a

Fig.2 Hardware architecture

The electrical signal corresponds to a certain force load of the dynamometric table respectively with the cutting force from the cutting process. The correspondence between electrical signal and the force load depends by the dynamometric table setup according with the estimated cutting force. The electrical voltage unit (1V) corresponds to an equivalent force depending by the measuring range (Fig. 3a) and the A/D board setup (Fig. 3b) [9,15]

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 635 Fig.2 Hardware architecture The electrical signal corresponds to a

a)

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 635 Fig.2 Hardware architecture The electrical signal corresponds to a

b)

Fig. 3. Input signal calibration

After receiving it, the signal is analyzed according to the established rule for the specific cutting operation. Communication between the control system and the CNC machine controller is accomplished with a NI USB-6009 over USB protocol. The output signal (electric voltage) will override the programmed values of the cutting parameters (ex. feed-rate and/or spindle speed) according to the real cutting condition in order to maintain the proposed characteristic (ex. cutting force or MRR) at a certain level. The response signal must correspond with the override scale of the electrical actuators of the machine servomotors. The equivalence between the override percentage and the electrical voltage of response signal is shown in the Fig. 4.

636 Advanced Technologies in Designing and Progressive Development of Manufacturing Systems Electrical signal calibration 6 5
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Manufacturing Systems
Electrical signal calibration
6
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Spindle
2
Feedrate
1
0
0%
20%
40%
60%
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120%
140%
160%
Override pecentage
Electrical volts

Fig. 4. Output signal calibration

Software system

Software system consists of two stage software application: the calibration stage and the adaptive control stage. The calibration stage is described in the following paragraphs. After installing and setting the parameters of the dynamometer, amplifier and A/D board, a calibration of the measurement is to be performed. The calibration consists in determination of the equivalence between the measured parameter (force [N] and torque [Nm]), and the corresponding electric voltage. The calibrated electric voltage is used therefore in the adaptive control stage to modify the require parameter

636 Advanced Technologies in Designing and Progressive Development of Manufacturing Systems Electrical signal calibration 6 5

Fig. 5. Calibration set-up

(feed and/or spindle speed) and control the cutting process. The calibration is performed by using the dedicated DynoWare Software. For a specific set-up, shown in the Fig. 5, the forces are measured. The 4 force components are measured by the system, respectively Fx 1-2 , Fx 3-4 , Fy 1-2 , and Fy 3-4 (Fig. 6a). The measurement data is then selected for a specific component (Fig. 6b) and smoothing is applied (Fig. 6c) In the same set-up, using a VI the equivalent voltage is measured and the equivalence force- voltage is established. The correspondent measurement graphic is shown in the Fig. 6d.

636 Advanced Technologies in Designing and Progressive Development of Manufacturing Systems Electrical signal calibration 6 5

a)

636 Advanced Technologies in Designing and Progressive Development of Manufacturing Systems Electrical signal calibration 6 5

b)

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 637 c) d) Fig. 6. Calibration measurements The software used

c)

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 637 c) d) Fig. 6. Calibration measurements The software used

d)

Fig. 6. Calibration measurements

The software used for calibrating the adaptive system is LabVIEW from National Instruments. In addition specific virtual instruments for A/D are used from Universal Libraries for LabVIEW (ULx) provided by Measurement Computing. The ULx VI is used to facilitate the intercommunication between LabVIEW and A/D board. The ULx is the layer of software for easily communicating with the hardware. It forms the middle layer between the application software and the hardware. Driver software also prevents a programmer from having to do register-level programming or complicated commands in order to access the hardware functions. The data acquisition uses the DAQ Assistant integrated within a LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI). After the calculation of the necessary correction over the controlled parameter(s) using appropriate mathematical models, the correction signal (electrical voltage variation) will be sent to the machine-tool using a NI USB-6009 A/D device. The software system for adaptive control stage will be more detailed in future paper.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 760 637 c) d) Fig. 6. Calibration measurements The software used

Fig. 7 LabVIEW Virtual Instrument for calibrating measurements from Kistler dynamometer

Summary

The future enhancement of machining systems and their operational performance will essentially depend upon the development and implementation of innovative adaptive control systems. An adaptive control system for cutting process is presented in the paper considering the hardware and software components. The setup and calibration stages are presented. This system architecture was

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designated for future researches meant to highlight the different behavior during the cutting processes of some anisotropic material (e.g. composites materials).

Acknowledgments

The work reported in this paper is supported by the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), ID134378, financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government. We hereby acknowledge the structural founds project PRO-DD (POS-CCE, O.2.2.1., ID 123, SMIS 2637, ctr. No 11/2009) for providing the infrastructure used in this work.

References

[1] S. Gupta, J. Joseph, Virtual Instrumentation Using LabVIEW, Tata McGraw-Hill Education,

(2010).

[2] Information on http://www.ni.com (accessed on August 2014)

[3] H. P., Halvorsen, Data Acquisition in LabVIEW, Faculty of Technology, Porsgrunn, Norway,

(2013).

[4] C. Wang, S.B.C. Ghani, K. Cheng, R. Rakovski, Adaptive smart machining based on using constant cutting force and a smart cutting tool, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Volume 227, Issue 2, 249-253, (2013).

[5] U. Zuperl, F. Cus, M. Reibenschuh, Neural control strategy of constant cutting force system in end milling, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Volume 27, (2011), 485–493.

[6] S. Ibaraki, T. Shimizu, A long-term control scheme of cutting forces to regulate tool life in end milling processes, Precision Engineering, Volume 34, (2010), 675–682.

[7] U. Zuperl · F. Cus · M. Reibenschuh, Modeling and adaptive force control of milling by using artificial techniques, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, Volume 23, (2012), ,1805–1815.

[8] P. Stavropoulos, P. Chantzis, D. Doukas. C. Papacharalampopoulos, A. Chryssolouris, G. Monitoring and control of manufacturing processes: A review, Procedia CIRP, Volume 8, ( 2013 ),

421–425.

[9] A. M. Vasiloni, M. V. Dragoi, Hardware/software architecture for adaptive control systems, Academic Journal of Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue 1, (2014).

[10] U. Zuperl, F. Cus, M. Milfelner, Fuzzy control strategy for an adaptive force control in end- milling, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 164–165 (2005), 1472-1478.

[11] F. Cus, U. Zuperl* Zuperl, E. Kiker, M. MIlfelner, Adaptive controller design for federate maximization of machining process, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Volume 17, Issue 1-2, (2006), 237-240.

[12] A. Matsubara, S. Ibaraki, Monitoring and Control of Cutting Forces in Machining Processes:

A Review, Monitoring and Control of Cutting Forces in Machining Processes.

[13] Information on http://www.kistler.com/ro/en/applications/cuttingforce/overview (accessed on August 2014).

[14] A. M. Vasiloni, M. V. Dragoi, Smart Adaptive CNC Machining – State of the Art, Innovative Manufacturing Engineering Conference – ImanE 2014, Chisinau, R. Moldova, (2014).

[15] I. Badan, Utilizarea obiectelor tehnologice inteligente în ingineria produselor, Teza de doctorat, Brasov, (2012)

Advanced Technologies in Designing and Progressive Development of Manufacturing Systems

Virtual Instrumentation for Adaptive Control of Cutting Processes

DOI References

[4] C. Wang, S.B.C. Ghani, K. Cheng, R. Rakovski, Adaptive smart machining based on using constant cutting force and a smart cutting tool, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Volume 227, Issue 2, 249-253, (2013).

[5] U. Zuperl, F. Cus, M. Reibenschuh, Neural control strategy of constant cutting force system in end milling, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Volume 27, (2011), 485-493.

[6] S. Ibaraki, T. Shimizu, A long-term control scheme of cutting forces to regulate tool life in end milling processes, Precision Engineering, Volume 34, (2010), 675-682.

[10] U. Zuperl, F. Cus, M. Milfelner, Fuzzy control strategy for an adaptive force control in endmilling, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 164-165 (2005), 1472-1478.