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Matthew Alonzo

PHYS 4312
3/3/15
Exam I
1. About Nuclear Models
a) Liquid Drop
i) Predicts nuclear binding energy and mass of atomic nuiclei
ii) The energistics of nuclear fission
b) Nuclear Shell
i) The shell model predicts the correct spin parity assignments for the ground states of
nuclei.
ii) It also predicts that pairing between nucleons of the same type lead to an energetically
favorable configuration.
iii) Lastly, it helps predict the magnetic moments of light nuclei.
c) Collective
i) Rotational and vibrational levels in a nucleus
ii) Dipole and quadrapole moments in nuclei
2. Nuclear Stability and Instability
a) Decay processes require that the end state be at a lower energy level than the original. If a
neutron decayed in a nucleus, it would produce a proton. This new proton is surrounded
by all the other protons in the nucleus. The Pauli exclusion principle says that you can't
have two fermions (protons and neutrons are fermions) in the same energy state. Since
the original protons took up all the lower energy states, the lowest possible energy state
the new proton could occupy would be a high one, and hence the new state would not be
more energetically favorable than just keeping the neutron as it was. Hence, neutrons tend
not to decay in stable nuclei.
b) The helium nucleus is particularly stable with a binding energy per nucleon of about 7
MeV. The energistics of existing as a He nucleus for A=5 and A=8 is more favorable than
other isotopes with the same nucleon number. Furthermore I believe that Z=43 and Z=61
is unstable due to the pairing of nucleons (uneven protons and neutrons).
3. Magic Numbers
a) Oxygen (#8/#8): 1D5/2, Sc(#20/#20): 1F7/2, Sb(#50/#82): 1G7/2 Bi: 1H9/2
b) O: J=5/2+ Sc: J=7/2- Sb: J=7/2+ Bi: J=9/2c)
4. Bethe-Weizsacker Formula
a) Finding the derivative with respect to Z of the formula, then plugging in the value of A
and solving for Z gives Z~113: Uut.
b)
5.
6. Anomolous Nuclear Process
a) Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited
nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of its electrons. This causes the electron to
be emitted (ejected) from the atom. Thus, in an internal conversion process, a highenergy electron is emitted from the radioactive atom, not from the nucleus. Usually
happens when no angular momentum can be exchanged.
b)

c) A delayed neutron is a neutron emitted after a nuclear fission event, by one of the fission
products
7. Nuclear Decay Chain
a) If you add the total nuclei at each elapsed time, the total nuclei is 10,000.
Isotope
Time
Nuclei Gained From
Remaining
Total Nuclei
Elapsed
Mother Isotope
Nuclei
114
Te
2 min
9128
9128
-1
4
min
8333
8333
=7.6003E-4 s
20 min
4017
4017
60 min
648
648
114
Sb
2 min
872
872
-1
4 min
795
587
1382
=0.003301 s
20 min
4316
58
4373
60 min
3369
2
3371
114
Sn
2 min
0
4 min
285
285
Stable
20 min
1324
285
1609
60 min
4372
1609
5981
b)
c)
8. H: Paired neutrons, free proton -->2.79N
Li: unpaired proton-->2.79N
Be: Unpaired neutron-->-1.91N
B: Unpaired proton-->2.79N
F: Unpaired proton-->2.79N
9.
10. Nuclear Reactors
a) Nuclear reactors need enriched uranium because it is highly fissionable (once a nuclear
reaction is started, it is cascaded forward in a domino effect) and because it releases a
high amount of energy per fission process that can be utilized.
b)