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*CVEN 435 *Only the homework problems for Chapter 1 are due on Thursday
*CVEN 435
*Only the homework
problems for Chapter 1
are due on Thursday
* Planning can be thought of as determining “what” is going to be done, “how,”
*
Planning can be thought of as determining “what” is going
to be done, “how,” “where,” and by “whom.”
In scheduling, this information is needed in order to
determine “when.”
When we discuss planning and scheduling in the
construction process, we must address the “how” and
therefore, the “what,” “who,” “where,” and “when.”
* A schedule is a timetable of activities , such as of “what” will be
*
A schedule is a timetable of activities , such as of “what”
will be done or “who” will be working. Such a timetable
can be looked at in two ways:
1. The first is focusing on an activity such as determining
“when” a certain task will be performed relative to
other activities.
2. The second is concentrating on a specified time frame
and then ascertaining “who” will be working (or
needed) or “what” should be occurring at a particular
time.
Example: Getting Dressed.
* History of Scheduling 1917 – Henry Gantt developed the bar chart (also known as
*
History of Scheduling
1917 – Henry Gantt developed the bar chart (also known
as the Gantt Chart). The Gantt chart displayed a
number of activities, but it did not show the
relationships among them.
1956-57 – the science of “scheduling, commonly
referred to as the critical path method (CPM) had its
beginning. James E. Kelley, Jr. and Morgan R. Walker
developed the arrow diagramming method.
* History of Scheduling Dupont management decided to use it large Remington Rand Univac I
*
History of Scheduling
Dupont management decided to use it large Remington
Rand Univac I computer for scheduling. Dupont
abandoned the use of the computer for scheduling in
1959. Cost and time were the main reasons.
PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) was
developed about the same time in the late 1950’s by the
U.S. Navy and Booz Allen Hamilton.
* History of Scheduling PERT was very similar to the ADM with the exception that
*
History of Scheduling
PERT was very similar to the ADM with the exception
that PERT also considered the problem of uncertainty.
ADM used a deterministic or fixed value for activity
duration.
PERT utilized an optimistic time, a pessimistic time, and
a most likely time resulting in a probabilistic time.
The PERT team developed the concept of the critical
path, the longest path from the initial event in a
network to the terminal event in a network.
* History of Scheduling Early 1980s – John Fondahl invented the precedence diagramming method (PDM).
*
History of Scheduling
Early 1980s – John Fondahl invented the precedence
diagramming method (PDM).
1983 – Primavera was founded by Dick Faris, Joel
Koppelman and Les Seskin. Originally Primavera could
do both ADM and PDM, but shortly became PDM only.
Primavera purchased MicroTrak and evolved it into
Suretrak. Primavera is now owned by ORACLE.
* Planning and Scheduling Planning can be thought of as determining “what” is going to
*
Planning and Scheduling
Planning can be thought of as determining “what” is
going to be done, including “how,” “where,” and by
“whom.”
Scheduling can never be performed effectively without
planning. The information from the planning effort is
needed to perform scheduling, determining “when”
specific tasks are to be performed.
* Planning and Scheduling When construction projects are undertaken, the construction documents (plans and
*
Planning and Scheduling
When construction projects are undertaken, the
construction documents (plans and specifications) will
define the end project and, often, the general time frame
in which to complete the project. The construction
documents will not normally specifically identify the
individual steps, their order, or the timing to achieve the
end project.
Planning and scheduling by the contractor determines the
steps, their order and the timing.
* Planning and Scheduling The planning portion of a construction project relates to developing the
*
Planning and Scheduling
The planning portion of a construction project relates to
developing the logic of how a project will be constructed.
Scheduling consists of integrating that plan with a
calendar or a specific time frame.
Think about your “TO-DO” list.
Bank, bookstore, lunch, put gas in vehicle, attend class.
* Planning and Scheduling In planning the construction of a project, the superintendent must identify
*
Planning and Scheduling
In planning the construction of a project, the
superintendent must identify and describe all the separate
tasks that must be performed, along with the sequencing
and relationships among these tasks.
Scheduling consists of determining the time needed for
each of the planned tasks and the overall length of the
project schedule.
* BAR CHARTS Bar charts are simple presentations that show when major work activities are
*
BAR CHARTS
Bar charts are simple presentations that show when major
work activities are scheduled.
Activities are represented as bars on the chart, while
across the top or bottom of the chart is a time line.
Its simple graphic representation allows one to grasp
schedule information quickly and easily.
They are easily prepared as timescaled presentations.
A bar chart can show scheduled versus actual progress.
* Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity 5 Activity 7 Activity 6
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
*What can be derived from this barchart *
*What can be derived from this barchart
*
* Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity 5 Activity 7 Activity 6
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity
6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
* *What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today?
*
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity 5 Activity 7 Activity 6
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity
6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
* *What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today? *
*
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 5 is behind schedule – How much?
* Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity 5 Activity 7 Activity 6
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
* *What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today? *
*
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 5 is behind schedule – How much?
* Activity 6 is behind schedule?
* Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity 5 Activity 7 Activity 6
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
*What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today? * Activity
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 5 is behind schedule – How much?
* Activity 6 is behind schedule?
* Activity 8 is ahead of schedule?
*
* What about the completion date? Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity
* What about the
completion date?
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
*What can be derived from this barchart * Activity * Activity * Activity * Activity
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity
* Activity
* Activity
* Activity
4 should start today?
5 is behind schedule – How much?
6 is behind schedule?
8 is ahead of schedule?
* Will the project complete on time?
*
* What about relationships between activities? Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity
*
What about
relationships
between
activities?
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
*What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today? * Activity
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 5 is behind schedule – How much?
* Activity 6 is behind schedule?
* Activity 8 is ahead of schedule?
* Will the project complete on time?
* Must Act. 6 complete before Act 7 begins?
*
Is the project on track? * Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity
Is the project on
track?
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Do these activites
have float?
Activity 8
Can we afford to let
them slip?
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
*What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today? * Activity
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 5 is behind schedule – How much?
* Activity 6 is behind schedule?
* Activity 8 is ahead of schedule?
* Will the project complete on time?
* Must Act. 6 complete before Act 7 begins?
* Overall, is the project ahead or behind progress
*
* Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 Activity 3 Activity 5 Activity 7 Activity 6
*
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 4
Activity 3
Activity 5
Activity 7
Activity 6
Activity 9
Activity 8
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Current Update Date
* *What can be derived from this barchart * Activity 4 should start today? *
*
*What can be derived from this barchart
* Activity 4 should start today?
* Activity 5 is behind schedule – How much?
* Activity 6 is behind schedule?
* Activity 8 is ahead of schedule?
* Will the project complete on time?
* Must Act. 6 complete before Act 7 begins?
* Overall, is the project ahead or behind progress?
* Are Activities 2,3, & 5 dependent on Activity 1?
* BAR CHARTS Shortcomings of Bar Charts: 1. They do not show clear dependencies between
*
BAR CHARTS
Shortcomings of Bar Charts:
1. They do not show clear dependencies between
activities.
2. The overall status of a project cannot be determined
when some activities are not on schedule.
3. Changes in the logical sequencing of the activities in a
bar chart cannot be readily made.
4. The foregoing shortcomings of bar chars are intended
to apply specifically to traditional or hand-drawn bar
charts.
* BAR CHARTS The shortcomings of bar charts virtually disappear when scheduling software is used.
*
BAR CHARTS
The shortcomings of bar charts virtually disappear when
scheduling software is used.
1. Easy conversion between precedence diagrams and bar
charts.
2. Changes can be easily done.
3. They can be displayed with the dependencies shown.
* Value of Bar Charts 1. Strong communication tool regarding scheduling information. 2. Clearly and
*
Value of Bar Charts
1. Strong communication tool regarding scheduling
information.
2. Clearly and quickly presents the status of a project.
3. Extensive training is not required.
* SCHEDULING NETWORKS CPM is the most important network modeling technique. Each activity is assigned
*
SCHEDULING NETWORKS
CPM is the most important network modeling technique.
Each activity is assigned a duration, and calculations
through the network provide a single, specific duration for
the project as a whole.
Each activity has an early start and finish and a late start
and finish.
Duration – period of time that will be consumed in
completing a task.
Event – the point in time at which the status of
completion of a project or activity can be defined.
* SCHEDULING NETWORKS CPM identifies those chains of activities (the critical paths) in the project
*
SCHEDULING NETWORKS
CPM identifies those chains of activities (the critical paths)
in the project that control how long the project will take.
Two variations of CPM
Activity-on-Arrow (arrow diagram) – activities are
represented in the network as arrows or lines.
Activity-on-Node (Precedence technique) – defines the
activities as boxes (nodes in the network), which are
connected together (relationships) by lines.
CPM is deterministic in that specific durations, dates and
times are utilized.
Activity on Arrow Activity on Node
Activity on Arrow
Activity on Node
* WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE It is easy to grasp the total construction effort when there
*
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
It is easy to grasp the total construction effort when there
are few activities. When the tasks become more
numerous, the schedule development becomes more
haphazard, and omissions are sure to occur.
The schedule development must take place without the
omission of any major tasks.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is an approach to
describe the entire scope of work.
Example: I-49 North Segment K I-49 Segment K.pdf
* WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Developing a WBS: 1. Begin with the major systems or components.
*
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
Developing a WBS:
1. Begin with the major systems or components.
2. Each system is defined in greater and greater detail.
3. Finally there is a measurable piece of work and a single
responsibility.
4. In essence the WBS divides the project into different
components, whether by area, phase, function, or
other descriptive means.