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University Of Yangon

Faculty of International Relations


Diploma in International Relations

The Personal Diplomacy of Former Prime Minister U Nu

By
Group Seven

September, 2016

ABSTRACT

This assignment paper is about the personal diplomacy of former Prime Minister U Nu
and to understand how he uses in diplomatic on political issues. U Nu is famous and powerful
politician in the history. His decision and way of diplomatic are shaped on our countrys future.
One of his policy on diplomatic is really famous until today that is The Five Principles of Peaceful
Coexistence. Those kinds of diplomatic ideas lead to escape from war especially in developing countries.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to express our deep thankful to the following people who help us to complete
our assignment paper. Firstly, we would like to thanks to our teachers. Second, we would like to
thanks our group members and finally we would like to thanks our classmates who help us with
indirect ways.

ABBREVIATIONS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

RUSU
AFPFL
CLEAN AFPFL
STABLE AFPFL
AAC
PM

= Rangoon University Students Union


= Anti-Fascist Peoples Freedom League
= CLEAN Anti-Fascist Peoples Freedom League
= STABLE Anti-Fascist Peoples Freedom League
= The Asian-African Conference
= Prime Minister

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

ABSTRACT 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3
ABBREVIATIONS 4

1
2
3

INTRODUCTION 6
The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence 7-8
Personal Diplomacy Of U Nu 9-11

CONCLUSION

12

REFERENCES

13

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

U
Nu or Thakin Nu,
was
a
leading Myanmar
statesman,
Social
Democratic politician, nationalist, and political figure of the 20th century. He was the first Prime
Minister of the Union of the Republic of Myanmar under the provisions of the
1947 Constitution of the Union of Myanmar, from 4 January 1948 to 12 June 1956, again from
28 February 1957 to 28 October 1958 and finally from 4 April 1960 to 2 March 1962.
U Nu's political life started as president of the Rangoon University Students Union
(RUSU) with Mr. M. A. Rashid as Vice-President and U Thi Han as the General Secretary. Aung
San was Editor and Publicity Officer. Nu and Aung San were both expelled from the university
after an article, Hell Hound Turned Loose, appeared in the union magazine, which was obviously
about the Rector. Their expulsion sparked off the second university students' strike in February
1936.
U Nu became members of the nationalist Dobama Asiayone which had been formed in
1930 and henceforth gained the prefix Thakin ('Master').
From August, 1943, when the Japanese declared nominal independence for Burma under
a regime led by Dr. Ba Maw, U Nu was appointed foreign minister. In 1944 he was appointed
minister of information until the open rebellion by the AFPFL against the Japanese military in
March, 1945.
After the assassination of its political and military leader Aung San along with his cabinet
ministers on 19 July 1947, U Nu led the AFPFL *(1) and signed an independence agreement (the
Nu-Attlee Treaty) with the British Premier Clement Attlee in October 1947.
Following the Union of Myanmar gained independence from the Britain on 4 January
1948; U Nu *(2) became the chairman of the Old Myoma Students Association in Yangon. He
became the first Prime Minister of the Union of the Republic of Myanmar.
He died of natural causes on 14 February 1995 at his home in Yangons Bahan Township
at the age of 87.
(1) - The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League founded at 1-3 March, 1945. Its Burmese acronym,
was the main political alliance in Burma from 1945 until 1958.

(2) Former Prime Minister U Nu


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CHAPTER 2
The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

In 1951 U NU declared, "Burma has no intention of taking sides in the struggle between
Communist and anti-Communist forces."
Maintaining that position, he became a dominant figure at the 1955 conference of newly
emergent nations at Bandung, Indonesia, which affirmed five "principles of coexistence."
The Five Principles were first set forth by China's late Premier Zhou Enlai in his talks in
Beijing with the Indian delegation at the start of the negotiations that took place from December
1953 to April 1954 between representatives of the Chinese and Indian governments. The AsianAfrican Conference (AAC) was convened in Bandung, Indonesia, on April 18-24, 1955.
The conference, sponsored by Indonesia, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri
Lanka), India and Pakistan, was attended by representatives from 29 Asian and African nations.
The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence are: mutual respect for sovereignty and
territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs,
equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.

BANDUNG CONFERENCE

The first large-scale AsianAfrican or AfroAsian Conferencealso known as


the Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly
independent, which took place on April 1824, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The twenty-nine
countries that participated at the Bandung Conference represented nearly one-quarter of the
Earth's land surface and a total population of 1.5 billion people. The conference was organized
by Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and India and was coordinated by Rusian
Abdulgani, secretary general of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The conference's stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and
to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by any nation. The conference was an important step
toward the Non-Aligned Movement.

Premier U Nu (L) of Burma, Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Ali Sastroamidjojo at


Bandung Conference

CHAPTER 3

Personal Diplomacy of U Nu

Personal Diplomacy is the conduct of the relations of one state with another by
peaceful means. 2. skill in the management of international relations. 3. tact, skill, or cunning in
dealing with people.( www.dictionary.com)
U Nu translated How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie. Thats
why he understands very well to influence on politicians and ethnic groups. One of the powers of
U Nu is communication skill. He built the good public relation with religious works. At the time
being, most of the politician cant show how much they trust in Theravada Buddhist than U Nu.
He had the Kaba Aye Pagoda and the Maha Pasana Guha (Great Cave) built in 1952 in
preparation for the Sixth Buddhist Synod that he convened and hosted in 19541956 as prime
minister.

U Nu paying obeisance to the Buddha in 1961 ceremonies marking Vesak.

U Nu authored several books some of which have been translated into English. Among
his works are The People Win Through (1951), Burma under the Japanese (1954), An Asian
Speaks (1955), and Burma Looks Ahead (1951). His autobiography (19071962) Ta-Tei Sanei
Tha (Naughty Saturday-born) was published in India by Irrawaddy Publishing (U Maw Thiri) in
1975. An earlier version had been published in 1974; it was translated into English by U Law
Yone, Editor of the (Rangoon) Nation till 1963 and who, like U Nu, was jailed by the
Revolutionary Council in the 1960s. Before U Nu became Prime Minister, he had translated, in
the late 1930s, Dale Carnegies book, How to Win Friends and Influence People (Lupaw Luzaw
Louknee in Burmese - in retranslation, it roughly meant 'How to Take Advantage of Man by
Man'); later the translated name was changed to the more palatable 'Meikta Bala Htika' which
can be retranslated as A Treatise on Friendly Social Contract. The translated work under the
second title became a prescribed text in schools in the 1950s as was U Nu's original work in
Burmese, The People Win Through or The Sound of the People Victorious (Ludu Aungthan). He
organized a Burma Translation Society and first volume of Burmese Encyclopedia published in
1954. The Sarpay Beikhman continued those works.
Education is one of the answers of U Nus personal diplomacy because most of the
politician cant write in English and Myanmar very well.
Another personal diplomacy of U Nu is good relationship with great leader around the
world such as Jawaharlal Nehru of India. Personal friendship with global leader makes the better
relationship between two countries than normal relationship diplomacy. One of example is when
Burma under the civil war with so many ethnic armed groups (Press called Yangon Government)
after the Spirit of AFPFL; Burma army needs guns to attack the ethnic armed group. At that
time, U Nu called to Jawaharlal Nehru (Prime Minister of India) to get guns. Most of the cabinet
members of India government didnt want to give guns to Burma but Nehru said U Nu is my
friend thats why I must help him.

Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt (first from left) And Jawaharlal Nehru Of India
(third from left) enjoy the traditional Burmese water festival.
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Once again after the split story of AFPFL at September 1958, U Nu {PM of CLEAN
AFPFL *(1)} wrote the historical two letters date the 26th September, 1958 by himself to change
to national power and authority to General Ne Win.
In this letter, one of the rules for arrangement is
(8) In foreign relations also, I would like to urge the government formed by you to
continue and maintain the policy of strict and straight-forward neutrality.
May you be endowed with physical and mental well-being.
(Sd). U NU
Prime Minister
(8) As the policy of strict and straight forward neutrality in foreign relations is a
policy which can serve the interest of our Union of Burma as well as those of world peace, I
give my promise that the government which I am to lead will never and by no means deviate
from such a policy of neutrality.
(Sd.) General Ne Win
Ref; (THE SPLIT STORY BY SEIN WIN, THE GUARDIAN LTD, March 23, 1959)
According to this letter U Nu very well maintained the foreign policy even the military
era. That policy led our country to escape from war by other powerful nations.
The last diplomacy as we know is U Nu makes sure the border line with China. In this
case, most of the politician didnt like his decision because of three villages become under the
China border. If that problem still has in 21 century, our country will get more dangerous effects
such as South-China Sea problem.

1- The Parliament resumed its fateful sitting on June 9, 1958 as fixed for the debate on noconfidence motion and the voting. Nu-Tin group has 127 votes and Swe-Nyein group has
119 votes. After that the party split into two factions in June 1958, the Clean AFPFL and Stable
AFPFL

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CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

No one argued that Former Prime Minister U Nus personal diplomatic behavior shaped
the future of our country and escape from trap of war with powerful nations. As we know
country located between China and India. Nowadays, those countries try to influence the World
with so many ways. If U Nu didnt use The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, we will suffer
dangerous situation than other developing countries.

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REFERENCES

1- The Rise and Fall of U Nu, Louis J. Walinsk, Pacific Affairs , Vol. 38, No.
2- (THE SPLIT STORY BY SEIN WIN, WITH EMPHASIS ON AFPFL, THE
GUARDIAN LTD, March 23, 1959)
3- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U_Nu

Member list of group seven

Old Roll Number

Name

324

Ma Thin Thin Swe

325

Ma Aye Thiri Aung

326

Ma Mi Mi Hnin Khine

332

Mg Khin Lay Maung

333

Ma Khine Thida Lwin

335

Ma Khant Yamon Myint

336

Ma Hnin Aye Chan

337

Ma Hla Yamin Thu

342

Ma Han Ni Sint

345

Mg Soe Moe Aung

347

Mg Thet Naing Aung

351

Mg Thurein Lwin

352

Ma Theint Kay Kine Win

360

Mg Saw Lae Bwe Htoo

362

Mg Soe Thant

363

Ma Win Min Thant

365

Ma Mu Mu Swe

13

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