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Best Practice

SABP-A-011
21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications
Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division

Energy Conservation Requirements


in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
and Materials System Specifications

Previous Issue: 12 March 2011


Next Planned Update: TBD
Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin
Primary contact: Al-Qahtani, Ali Hussain on +966-3-8801600
CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2013. All rights reserved.

Page 1 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

Table of Contents
Page
1

Introduction ................

1.1

Definitions ..................

1.2

Purpose and Scope ..........

1.3

Intended Users ..................

General ..............................

List of Energy Requirements in SAESs and SAMSSs .....

2.1.1

Heat Transfer Equipment ..........

2.1.2

HVAC and Utilities ...........

2.1.3

Compressors, Gears and Steam Turbines


........

14

2.1.4

Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines .......

18

2.1.5

Electrical System Design and Automation ...........

18

2.1.6

UPS, DC Systems and Power Design & Automation


......

20

2.1.7

Motors and Generators ..........

21

2.1.8

Onshore Structures
.........

25

2.1.9

Flare Systems ...........

25

Instrumentation
............

26

2.1

2.1.10
2.2

List of Energy Requirements in Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures (SAEP)..

26

Page 2 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

Introduction
Detailed energy assessments are conducted using Pinch Analysis method and Combined
Heat and Power (CHP) method. In each function the target is to minimize energy
consumption and maximize the efficiency. Equipment/system directly use energy or
indirectly affect the use of energy in other equipment, hence, equipment efficiency
optimization is extremely important in energy generation, energy distribution, and
energy utilization in our plants. This Best Practice is a step in this direction.
Through standards we make sure that equipment are energy efficient which is a major
contributor in energy saving in industry.
1.1

Definitions
Pinch Analysis: refers to a well-proven methodology to improve the efficient
use of energy. It establishes the minimum energy consumption targets for a
given process plant which enables us to identify the maximum potential for
improvement. This approach can be applied on the existing plants or during the
design stage.
Combined Heat and Power (CHP): refers to the simulation model for the
actual facilitys heat and power production and demand. This tool is used to
develop basis for the process energy optimization.

1.2

Purpose and Scope


This Best Practice document enlists all Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
and Material Specifications contents that are related to Energy Conservation.
It is intended to:
Ensure continuous update of the energy conservation requirements in all
Engineering Standards and Material Specifications documents.
Be used as a quick reference for facilities design requirements and operation
conditions that affect energy consumption.
Document energy saving impeded in our standard and Material Specifications
documents.

1.3

Intended Users
This Best Practice manual is intended for use by energy engineers in Saudi
Aramco facilities as well as design and planning engineers.

Page 3 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

General
All Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAESs) and Materials System Specifications
(SAMSSs) as well as Engineering Procedures (SAEPs) were searched to address their
contents related to energy conservation. Energy requirements in SAESs and SAMSSs
are tabulated in the following sections under their respective Standards Committees.
Engineering Procedures (SAEPs) are listed in a separate section as they do not belong to
a specific Standards Committee.
2.1

2.2

List of All Energy Requirements in SAESs and SAMSSs


2.1.1

Heat Transfer Equipment

2.1.2

HVAC/Utilities

2.1.3

Compressors, Gears and Steam Turbines

2.1.4

Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines

2.1.5

Electrical System Design & Automation

2.1.6

UPS, DC Systems and Power Design & Automation

2.1.7

Motors and Generators

2.1.8

Onshore Structures

2.1.9

Flare Systems Design

2.1.10

Instrumentation

List of Energy Requirements in Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures (SAEPs)

Page 4 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

2.1

List of All Energy Requirements in SAESs and SAMSSs


2.1.1

SAES/SAMSS #

Heat Transfer Equipment


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Paragraph 7.7.3

Refractory of gas directing baffles shall


be designed carefully to prevent gas
bypassing, which results in lower
efficiency.

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Paragraph
11.1.2

Achieving lower figures of excess


oxygen (2%) volume (dry) in flue gas
would increase boilers efficiency.

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Paragraph
11.2.1

Introducing high efficiency oil burners


would increase boilers efficiency

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Paragraph
11.3.1

Maintaining high efficiency of gas


burners throughout the burner
turndown range would increase boilers
efficiency.

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Paragraph
11.6.3

Higher effectiveness of common windbox would help increase boilers


efficiency.

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Paragraph
12.2.1, 1) & 3)

Efficiency could be increased by


reducing excess air (combustion air),
and less power consumption is
achieved, too.

Paragraph 14.5

More precise calculation of stack metal


and acid dew point corrosion
temperatures would help determine
exact lining thickness to reduce risk of
loosing energy.

Paragraph 14.7

More compliance with Saudi Aramco


Engineering Standards SAES-N -001
& 100 through 140 (for refractory and
insulation) would help reduce risk of
loosing energy from the furnace.

32-SAMSS-021

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

Page 5 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Life Cycle Cost Evaluation:

32-SAMSS-021

Manufacture of
Industrial Boilers

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph 27

Calculating the efficiency penalty on


the Boiler Manufacturer for not
meeting the guaranteed efficiency
during performance test.
Performance Guarantees:

Paragraph 1.10

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


lowering the excess air.
Proposal:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
1.8.2-l

Energy conservation recommendations


include: using of air-preheats, highefficiency burners, etc.
Design Considerations:

Paragraph 2.2.2

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


lowering the excess air.
Design Considerations:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph 2.3.8

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
8.2.13

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


using corbels to minimize bypassing in
convection section.
Structures and Appurtenances:
Optimizing the heater efficiency by air
or flue gas leakage prevention.
Structures and Appurtenances:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
8.3.1.4

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
9.1.13

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


providing horizontal partitions to
minimize bypassing in convection
section.
Stacks, Ducts, and Breechings:
Optimizing the heater efficiency by
maintaining an adequate draft.
Stacks, Ducts, and Breechings:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
9.1.15

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


maintaining the flue gas stack exit
velocity no less than 4.5m/sec in order
to avoid inversion and downwash.

Page 6 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Stacks, Ducts, and Breechings:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
9.1.20

Optimizing the efficiency by insulating


the burners with plenum or wind box to
provide proper distribution of air to
burners.
Burners and Auxiliary Equipment:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
10.1.13

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


lowering the excess air (10% excess air
for fuel gas and 15% excess air for fuel
oils).
Burners and Auxiliary Equipment:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
10.1.27

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


making burner fuel and air control
accessible to the necessary operating
adjustment.
Burners and Auxiliary Equipment

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph
10.3.5

Optimizing the efficiency by including


pneumatically operated damper to
control combustion air and flue gas
flows.
Life Cycle Cost Evaluation:

32-SAMSS-029

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Paragraph 15

Energy cost appears in calculating the


efficiency penalty on the Heater
Manufacturer for not meeting the
guaranteed efficiency during
performance test.
Scope:

32-SAMSS-029

API 560

Manufacture of Fired
Heaters

Fired Heaters for


General Refinery
Service

Appendix F,
Paragraph F.1.1

Energy cost appears in Heater


Manufacturers evaluation required to
decide the need for air-preheating
systems based on energy conservation.
Mechanical:

Paragraph 2.3.4

Optimizing the heater efficiency by


preventing air or flue gas leakage in the
convection section.

Page 7 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Life Cycle Cost Evaluation:

SAES-F-001

Design Criteria of
Fired Heaters

Paragraph 12

Energy cost appears in calculating the


efficiency penalty on the Heater
Manufacturer for not meeting the
guaranteed efficiency during
performance test.
Addressing the fouling service fouling
factor in heat exchangers. Selection of
a fouling factor value has a significant
effect on a heat exchanger performance
that might result in a significant waste
of energy.

SAES-E-004

Design Criteria of
Shell and Tube Heat
Exchangers

Paragraph
6.2.10

SAES-E-006

Design Criteria of
Double Pipe Heat
Exchangers

Paragraph 6.2.3

SAES-E-007

Design Criteria of
Air-Cooled Heat
Exchangers

Paragraphs
6.1.6 & 6.1.7

SAES-E-007

Design Criteria of
Air-Cooled Heat
Exchangers

Paragraph 6.5

Addressing the use of variable pitch


fans to control amount of airflow as
well as variable speed drivers and their
role in saving energy.

SAES-E-014

Design Criteria of
Plate and Frame Heat
Exchangers

Paragraph 6.2.1

Addressing the service fouling factor


and thermal capacity limits in heat
exchangers.

32-SAMSS-011

Manufacture of AirCooled Heat


Exchangers

Paragraph
7.2.3.18

Addressing the service fouling factor in


heat exchangers.
Addressing the service fouling factor in
heat exchangers.

Addressing the use of variable pitch


fans.

Page 8 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

2.1.2
SAES/SAMSS #

SAES-N-004

HVAC/Utilities
SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Design and
Installation of
Building Thermal
Insulation

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Section 4

Control thermal conductivity by using


building insulation that minimizes net
heating and cooling loads on a timeintegrated (annual) basis. Roofs, walls,
floors and portions of all air
conditioned or mechanically-ventilated
buildings shall be insulated. (U-factor)
of insulated roofs, walls, partitions or
floors shall not exceed 0.568 W/(m
K) or (0.10 btu/h ft F).

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.2.1.1

Selecting the 2.5 % exceedance


temperature values given in
SAES-A-112 to be used as the
minimum ambient design criteria for
HVAC system design, equipment
selection and equipment specification
purposes for the geographic areas listed
for all Saudi Aramco facilities.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph 4.2.2

Indoor Design Conditions to be used


for HVAC systems for different
facilities.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.4.2.5

In all HVAC systems the return air and


fresh air shall be ducted to the air
handling unit within the A/C equipment
room.

Paragraph
4.4.3.1

The selection of a cooling source


requires an analysis of the various
alternatives. If chilled water from an
existing central plant is available in
sufficient quantities and in close
proximity, it shall be considered the
first choice for a cooling source.

Paragraph
4.4.3.2.1

Minimize flow quantity by designing


for the maximum practical temperature
range. Design parameters for existing
central chilled water supply
temperature 9C (48F).

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Page 9 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.4.3.2.2

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.4.3.2.3

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.4.3.3.2

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.4.5.1

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.4.10.2.a

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

COMMENTS
Design for the lowest practical pressure
rise. Design parameters for existing
central chilled water supply with
Maximum pressure drop through
system 140 kPa (20 psi)
Designing Chilled water demand for
0.05 L/S per kW (3 GPM/Ton).
Use of water cooled condensers
requires an evaluation of the condenser
water fouling characteristics and it's
availability.
Location of air conditioning equipment
components shall be selected to
minimize piping and equipment
pressure drop.
All enclosed portions of buildings,
customarily used by occupants, shall be
provided with fresh ventilation air with
the minimum amount of outside air
shall equal the greater of the following:

5% of supply air plus all exhaust


air.

The ventilation air requirements


listed in Table 2 of
ASHRAE STD 62

Paragraph
4.4.10.2.b

No outside/make-up air is required for


residences. However, infiltration load
shall be accounted for at a minimum
rate of 0.5 air change per hour in
heating/cooling load calculations.

Paragraph
4.8.4.2

Water pressure drop through coils,


water chillers or condensers shall not
exceed 100 kPa (35 ft w.c., 15 psi).
This value applies to chillers,
condensers, and cooling coils at their
rated fouling factor, unless a lower
pressure drop is specified in the design
documents.

Page 10 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

COMMENTS

Paragraph
4.8.4.3

Insert type turbulence promoters, not


integral to the coil tubing, (turbulators)
shall not be used.

Paragraph
4.8.4.4

The air velocity through coils shall not


exceed 3 m/s(600 fpm).

Paragraph
4.8.4.5

Wet coil pressure drop shall not exceed


38 Pa (0.15 in. w.c.) per row of coil.

Paragraph
4.8.4.6

Dry coil pressure drop shall not exceed


25 Pa (0.10 in. w.c) per row of coil.

Paragraph
4.8.4.7

Number of rows per coil shall not


exceed 10 rows.

Paragraph
4.8.4.8

Fin spacing of evaporator and


condenser coils shall not be closer than
15 fins per inch.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph 4.8.6

Water cooled condensers shall have


wall thicknesses and fouling factors as
required by27-SAMSS-001 and
27-SAMSS-002.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.8.6

Casing filter mounts or filters shall


have seals to prevent air bypass.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.8.7.d

AHU panels shall have insulation with


a minimum of 2" glass fiber insulation
having a density not less than 48 kg/m
(3.0 lb/ft).

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

PARAGRAPH

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.9.1

Fans shall be air-foil, backwardinclined, backward curved, or forwardcurved and shall conform to AMCA 99
and AMCA 210 requirements. In
variable air volume (VAV) systems a
variable speed fan shall be provided.
Propeller fans may be used for exhaust
services.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.12.4

Use of orifice, duct splitters or


extractors to provide pressure drop in
duct systems is not allowed.

Page 11 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.12.8

Turning vanes, as per SMACNA


HVAC Duct Construction Standards,
shall be provided in all rectangular
elbows of low velocity systems.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.13.1

Ducts shall be insulated in accordance


with Table 10-D of the Uniform
Mechanical Code (SAES-K-100).

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.13.4

PVC nitrile rubber insulation (such as


Armaflex) shall not be used exposed to
sunlight. Chilled water lines shall be
insulated in accordance with Standard
Drawing AA-036913.

Paragraph
4.8.13.4

Chilled water lines shall be insulated in


accordance with Standard Drawing
AA-036913.

Paragraph
4.8.15.3

The air velocity through filters shall not


exceed 3 m/s.

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.15.4

Dirty pre-filter pressure drop shall not


be greater than 125 Pa (0.50 in WC) or
final filter pressure drop greater than
250 Pa (1.00 in WC).

SAES-K-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Paragraph
4.8.16.2

Pump capacity at peak efficiency, with


impeller furnished, shall be equal to or
greater than the design capacity.

Paragraph 5.1.5

Vendor shall advise in his quotation the


minimum stable cooling capacity of the
package without the use of hot gas
bypass under conditions where the
entering condenser cooling medium
temperature varies linearly from the
maximum specified on the Data Sheet
at 100% cooling load to the minimum
at 0% load, as per ARI 550/590. If this
minimum capacity is less than 15% of
full cooling capacity vendor shall
supply a suitable automatic hot gas
bypass system.

SAES-K-001

SAES-K-001

27-SAMSS-001

Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
Heating, Ventilating
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Page 12 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

27-SAMSS-001

27-SAMSS-001

27-SAMSS-001

27-SAMSS-001

27-SAMSS-001

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services
Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services
Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph 6.1.3

Compressor capacity control shall be


by means of suction (pre-rotation)
guide vanes. Capacity reduction shall
be automatically controlled by
temperature actuated controls. External
parts of guide vane mechanism linkage
shall be of corrosion resistant materials.
Guide vanes shall have mechanisms to
prevent vane closure to an extent which
would allow the compressor to enter
into surge.

Paragraph
6.5.1.1.3

All waterboxes, nozzles, divider plates,


and coverplates shall be internally
epoxy coated per SAES-H-100 (or
Buyer-approved Vendor's equivalent),
and internally catholically protected
using sacrificial anodes. Requirements
for installation of sacrificial anodes,
including selection of the anode type
and material shall be by mutual
agreement between Buyer and Vendor
before issuance of the Purchase Order.
To ensure the protection of the
waterbox internal coating an approved
corrosion resistant sleeve shall be used
to mount the sacrificial anode within
the waterbox.

Paragraph
6.5.1.1.9

Condensers and coolers shall be


designed for water flow velocity of at
least 3 fps, but not greater than 9 fps.

Paragraph
6.5.1.1.10

Waterside pressure drop shall not


exceed 30 feet water gauge (13 psi) for
coolers or condensers.

Paragraph
6.5.1.2.1

Condenser tubes shall be seamless,


90-10 copper-nickel (UNS C70600),
-inch O.D., 22 BWG (0.028 inches
measured at root of fin enhancement),
integrally internally and externally
enhanced, conforming to ASTM B359.

Page 13 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


SABP-A-011
Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

27-SAMSS-001

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

27-SAMSS-001

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

Paragraph
6.5.1.3.1

Cooler tubes shall be seamless copper,


integrally internally and externally
enhanced, -inch O.D., 22 BWG
(0.028 inches measured at fin root
enhancement), conforming to ASTM
B359.

27-SAMSS-001

Packaged Water
Cooled Centrifugal
Chillers for Utility
Services

Paragraph
6.5.1.3.2

Design cooler waterside fouling factor


shall be equal to or greater than
0.00018 m.C/W (0.0001 Hr-ftF/BTU).

2.1.3
SAES/SAMSS #

Paragraph
6.5.1.2.2

Design condenser waterside fouling


factor shall be equal to or greater than
0.00053 m.C/W (0.00025 hr - ftF/BTU).

Compressors, Gears and Steam Turbines


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

31-SAMSS-001

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph 2.1.3

The minimum allowable compressor


polytropic efficiency at the normal
operating point shall be 81.0%.

31-SAMSS-001

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph 2.1.3

The power at the normal operating


point shall be guaranteed within 1%
positive tolerance.

General

Integrally Geared Compressors are


acceptable for process air or gas
services upon approval by the
Compressors, Gears & Steam Turbines
Standards Committee Chairman and
shall comply with the requirements of
API 617, 7th edition.

Paragraph
2.2.17

The guaranteed leakage rate for each


seal shall be stated in the Compressor
Vendor's proposal and shall be no
greater than 5 scfm (141 liters/min) for
any service.

31-SAMSS-001

31-SAMSS-001

Centrifugal
Compressors

Centrifugal
Compressors

Page 14 of 27

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SAES/SAMSS #

31-SAMSS-001

31-SAMSS-001

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE
Centrifugal
Compressors

Centrifugal
Compressors

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph
2.9.5.2

High speed balancing on the rotor is an


acceptable alternative to the low-speed
sequential and final trim balancing.

Paragraph 3.1.5

The motor nameplate rating (exclusive


of service factor) shall be a minimum
of 110% of the greatest horsepower
(including gear and coupling losses)
required for any of the specified
operating conditions.
Assembled compressor Gas Leakage
Test:

31-SAMSS-001

31-SAMSS-001

31-SAMSS-001

SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

Centrifugal
Compressors

Centrifugal
Compressors

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph
4.3.5.3

The assembled compressor (with or


without the end seals) shall be
pressurized to the maximum surge
rated discharge pressure shown on the
compressor curves.

Paragraph
4.3.6.1.4

The horsepower based on the measured


head at the normal operating point shall
be guaranteed within 1% positive
tolerance.

Paragraph
5.3.3.1.1

The Vendor shall supply an operating


map and nozzle-to-nozzle performance
curves for the compressor based on test
results. For variable speed drive, the
Vendor shall supply curves showing
change of head, power and efficiency
versus speed covering the complete
range of operation. Certified copies of
test data are required.

Paragraph 4.4

Magnetic Bearings: The use of an


active magnetic bearing system for the
compressor and driver shall be
considered, based on an economic
evaluation, when the lube oil system
can be totally eliminated, resulting in a
"dry" train.

Page 15 of 27

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SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph
4.10.3

Where compressors are operated in


parallel arrangements, a load sharing
controller shall function to distribute
the load by keeping each machine
equidistant from its surge curve or
surge control margin.

SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph
4.10.5.4

The anti-surge controller shall act to


maintain the recycle valve in a closed
position during normal operation and
normal loads.

Paragraph 5.3

A temporary stainless steel conical


strainer of adequate strength shall be
installed, during commissioning, in the
compressor suction line upstream of
performance pressure sensor. This
strainer has to be mounted into a dropout pipe spool.

SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

Shop Performance Test:


SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph 6.3

Paragraph 7.1

A performance test shall be specified


and witnessed for each compressor
duty.
Field Performance Test: As soon as
possible after the installation is
completed, a field performance test
shall be conducted on the compressor.
Life Cycle Cost Evaluation:

SAES-K-402

Centrifugal
Compressors

Paragraph 8

Quotations for compressors of


1000 HP and larger shall be evaluated
on the basis of a Life Cycle Cost
(LCC). This cost is composed of
initial cost of the compressor plus the
present worth of the consumed power
cost over an operating period of
20 years. The Life Cycle Cost of the
compressor shall be determined using
the life cycle cost spreadsheet
LCC-005 or LCC-006.

Page 16 of 27

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SAES/SAMSS #

SAES-K-501

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Steam Turbines

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph 4.1.5

The steam turbine type (back pressure,


condensing, extraction/ condensing or
induction/condensing) shall be
determined by the process steam
balance requirements.
Extraction/condensing steam turbines
shall be considered whenever the plant
design uses steam let-down valves to
produce process steam at lower
pressure than that produced by the
boiler design. Consideration shall be
given to induction/condensing steam
turbines in place of pressure blow-off
or let-down valves to maintain the
plant intermediate pressure steam
headers at their design operating
pressure.
Field Testing:

SAES-K-501

Steam Turbines

Paragraph 5.4

As soon as possible following


installation of the equipment train,
special-purpose steam turbines shall be
load tested to verify performance,
efficiency and steam consumption.
The test procedure shall be agreed with
the vendor at the time of purchase and
shall be generally in compliance with
ASME PTC 6/ ASME PTC 6S.
The results of these tests shall form the
basis for performance acceptance.

Page 17 of 27

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2.1.4

Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

SAES/SAMSS #

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Scope:

Equipment Life
Cycle Cost Procedure

SAEP-341

Procedure provides instructions for


economically evaluating major
equipment purchases with regards to
their estimated total ownership cost
(Life Cycle Cost) to Saudi Aramco
over a fifteen (15) years period.
These costs include procurement and
operation cost (energy cost and
quantifiable periodic maintenance) of
the equipment.
For All the rotating equipment, energy
conservation is achieved through the
application of Equipment Life Cycle
Cost (LCC) Procedure.

2.1.5
SAES/SAMSS #

Electrical System Design & Automation


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Lighting systems shall be designed for
energy efficient operation.
Commentary 4.1.3:

SAES-P-123

Lighting

Paragraph 4.1.3

Lighting systems should be


designed to automatically turn off
or minimize lighting when it is not
required. In buildings, lighting in
areas that are not continuously
occupied should have accessible
manual switches and/or
occupancy sensors to insure that
lighting turned off when the area is
not occupied.

Page 18 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


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Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
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Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES-P-123

SAES-P-123

SAES-P-123

SAES-P-126

SAES-P-126

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Lighting

Lighting

Lighting

Power Monitoring
System

Power Monitoring
System

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph
4.1.11

Outdoor non-plant area and street


lighting fixtures shall be individually
controlled by a photocell mounted on
the fixture.

Paragraph 4.2.2

Energy-efficient fluorescent lamps type


T5 or T8 and compatible energy
efficient electronic ballasts having less
than 10% THD (total harmonic
distortion) shall be used in lighting
fixtures for offices, control buildings,
and in industrial areas where
fluorescent lighting is required.

Paragraph 4.2.5

The use of energy-efficient fixtures like


High Pressure Sodium, Metal Halide
shall be maximized. Mercury vapor
fixtures shall not be used.

General

The standard prescribes the design and


required functions to measure plant
electrical parameters including energy
consumptions. Energy indices are
generated from the power consumption
data prescribed in this standard.

6.4

For plants with DCS, real-time and


historical data (data logs) from PMS
shall be made available for direct
interface with the DCS.
The intention of this paragraph is to
make electrical energy data available to
monitor plant efficiency, generate
efficiency indices, etc.
Per-process Area Data Logs

SAES-P-126

Power Monitoring
System

7.8.3

PMS shall be customized to calculate


and log energy and power for each
operating area (process area in the plant).
Log intervals for the power and power
factor shall be every six (6) hours.
This paragraph describes energy data
aggregation to generate effective
energy consumption measurements of
each process area.

Page 19 of 27

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2.1.6
SAES/SAMSS #

17-SAMSS-514

UPS, DC Systems and Power Design & Automation


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Battery Chargers /
Rectifiers

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph 6.1.2

The charger/rectifier shall be sized to


provide a battery recharge time of 8
hours to at least 80% of battery
capacity, as specified on the Data
Schedule.
This is specified to limit the UPS input
current consumption, thus improves the
UPS overall efficiency.

17-SAMSS-514

Battery Chargers /
Rectifiers

Paragraph
6.5.14

Temperature Compensated Charging:


Negative temperature compensated
charging feature shall be provided on
all chargers.
This is to make sure that battery
recharge current is optimum.

17-SAMSS-516

17-SAMSS-516

UPS Systems

UPS Systems

Paragraph
6.7.3.1

Paragraph
6.7.3.13

Required Recharge time of the system


battery; UPS batteries: 8 hours to at
least 80% capacity.
This is specified to limit the UPS input
current consumption, thus improves the
UPS overall efficiency.
The UPS battery charger/rectifier
shall be equipped with temperature
compensated charging probe and
facility. This process shall adjust the
charging voltage to compensate for the
electrolyte temperature using the
negative coefficient of 3 mV per cell
per degree Celsius deviation from the
ambient 25C.
This is to make sure that battery
recharge current is optimum.

Page 20 of 27

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Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

SAES/SAMSS #

UPS and DC Systems

SAES-P-103

UPS and DC Systems

SAES-P-103

PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 5.3.6

Paragraph 7.2.1

COMMENTS
The minimum battery backup time
shall be in accordance with Table 1,
and shall be based on the actual load
calculation.
This is to avoid over sizing battery
capacity which results in optimum
battery recharge current and efficient
system.
Battery recharge time (for
photovoltaic applications: within 30
days to 90% Ah capacity; and for all
other applications: within 8 hours to
80% Ah capacity)
This is specified to limit the UPS input
current consumption, thus improves the
UPS overall efficiency.

2.1.7
SAES/SAMSS #

16-SAMSS-517

16-SAMSS-517

Motors and Generators


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Adjustable Frequency
Drive System -1 kV
and Above

Adjustable Frequency
Drive System -1 kV
and Above

PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 8.3

COMMENTS
The minimum efficiency of the CDM
shall be 95% at rated load and
frequency.
This value is to determine the overall
efficiency for the Complete Drive
Module.
If specified within Data Schedule 1,
the drive system shall be regenerative.

Paragraph 8.6

Normally during ramping down,


motors with high inertia have access
energy might be resent to the network
if the AFD is regenerative.

Page 21 of 27

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Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

16-SAMSS-517

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Adjustable Frequency
Drive System -1 kV
and Above

16-SAMSS-517

Adjustable Frequency
Drive System -1 kV
and Above

17-SAMSS-502

Form-Wound
Induction Motors 250
HP and Above

17-SAMSS-502

17-SAMSS-502

17-SAMSS-502

Form-Wound
Induction Motors 250
HP and Above

Form-Wound
Induction Motors 250
HP and Above

Form-Wound
Induction Motors 250
HP and Above

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Power conversion bridges within a
BDM rated 10,000 kW and larger shall
be liquid cooled.

Paragraph 17.1

The liquid cooling is to allow the heat


associated with the high power
switching to be dissipated outdoors
properly which helps the drive to work
at the rated efficiency.
The following system tests shall be
performed on the CDM: Efficiency
tests (type test).

Paragraph
25.4.1

2.4.1.2.3f

4.3.4.1

This test is to certify that the Complete


Drive Module was designed and
manufactured to comply with 95%
efficiency at the rated load and
frequency.
If auxiliary cooling fans are used for
TEAAC
Auxiliary cooling fans use 60% less
energy than shaft mounted fans.
The stator core test shall be performed
for all motors rated 6.6 kV and above
and all motors rated above 3700 kW
(5000 HP).
The Stator core test ensures core losses
are kept low to improve efficiency.

4.3.5.1.1

The complete test shall be performed


for all motors rated 6.6 kV and above
and all motors rated above 3700 kW
(5000 HP).
Efficiency testing ensures motor meets
or exceeds efficiency requirements.

Paragraph 5.2

Minimum guaranteed efficiency shall


be 94% for motors with rated
synchronous speed of 1800 RPM or
higher (i.e., 2 or 4 pole motors)
This value is to determine the motor
efficiency that related the input power
to output power.
Page 22 of 27

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SAES/SAMSS #

17-SAMSS-503

17-SAMSS-503

17-SAMSS-510

17-SAMSS-520

17-SAMSS-520

17-SAMSS-520

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE
Severe-Duty, Totally
Enclosed, Squirrel
Cage Induction
Motors to 500 HP
(370 kW)

Severe-Duty, Totally
Enclosed, Squirrel
Cage Induction
Motors to 500 HP
(370 kW)

Brushless
Synchronous
Generators

Synchronous Motors

Synchronous Motors

Synchronous Motors

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS
Motor electrical performance and
characteristics shall be in accordance
with NEMA MG 1 or IEC-60034

Paragraph 5.1

Paragraph 5.1

NEMA standards and IEC standards


both determine the accepted efficiency
levels as well as the values of the
different losses.
Industry Codes and Standards NEMA
MG1 30.2.1.18 Regenerative Braking:
A form of dynamic braking in which
the kinetic energy of the motor and
driven machinery is returned to the
power supply system.
This requirement will help to resend
the excess energy of high inertia loads
to the network during ramping down.

Paragraph 5.2

Minimum guaranteed efficiency at


rated output shall be 94% for
generators with rated synchronous
speed of 1800 RPM or higher.
This value is to determine the generator
efficiency that related the input power
to output power.

General

2.4.1.2.3h

4.3.4.1

This material spec is for synchronous


motors, which are typically 1.5-2%
higher efficiency than induction
motors.
If auxiliary cooling fans are used for
TEAAC
Auxiliary cooling fans use 60% less
energy than shaft mounted fans.
The stator core test shall be performed
for all motors rated 6.6 kV and above
and all motors rated above 3700 kW
(5000 HP).
Stator core test ensures core losses are
kept low to improve efficiency.

Page 23 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


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Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

SAES/SAMSS #

17-SAMSS-520

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

Synchronous Motors

PARAGRAPH

4.3.5.1.1

COMMENTS
The complete test shall be performed
for all motors rated 6.6 kV and above
and all motors rated above 3700 kW
(5000 HP).
Efficiency testing ensures motor meets
or exceeds efficiency requirements.

17-SAMSS-520

Synchronous Motors

Paragraph 5.2

Minimum guaranteed efficiency shall


be 94% for motors with rated
synchronous speed of 1800 RPM or
higher (i.e., 2 or 4 pole motors)
This value is to determine the motor
efficiency that related the input power
to output power.

SAES-P-113

Motors and
Generators

5.13

New or replacement 1000 HP and


larger motor driven pump and
compressor applications in pipeline
service, GOSP crude oil shipping pump
service, GOSP HP gas compressor
service, and pump or compressor
applications with significant variations
in operating conditions shall be
evaluated for variable speed operation
utilizing Adjustable Frequency
Drive(s) (AFD).
This is specified to utilize the process
variation to save energy.
Motors 15000 hp and above should be
synchronous motors.

SAES-P-113

SAES-P-113

Motors and
Generators

Motors and
Generators

6.2

Sec 8

Table 1 mandates the use of


synchronous motors 15,000 HP and
larger, which are typically 1.5-2%
higher efficiency than induction motors.
The motor losses shall be derived
from the motor vendor's guaranteed
efficiency at the operating load of the
driven equipment.
Life cycle cost evaluation takes into
account the cost of energy when
evaluating motor quotations based on
efficiency.
Page 24 of 27

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2.1.8

Onshore Structures
SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES-N-004

Design and
Installation of
Building Thermal
Insulation

SAES-N-004

Design and
Installation of
Building Thermal
Insulation

SAES-N-004

Design and
Installation of
Building Thermal
Insulation

2.1.9
SAES/SAMSS #

SAES-F-007

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph 4.2

Floors shall be thermally insulated


when the air-conditioned space is
above a non-conditioned space or
ambient air (as in a building elevated
above grade).

Paragraph 4.3

Partitions shall be thermally insulated if


the air-conditioned space is adjacent to
a non-conditioned space or to an area
of high heat output.

Paragraph 4.4

The overall heat transmission


coefficient (U-factor) of insulated
roofs, walls, partitions or floors shall
not exceed 0.568 W/(m K) or
(0.10 btu/h ft F).

Flare Systems Design


SAES/SAMSS
TITLE
System Design
Criteria of Flares

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph 6.1

The use of a flare gas recovery as the


first stage in the flare system will
recover the routine daily flare gas
consisting of purge gas and leakages.

SAES-F-007

System Design
Criteria of Flares

Paragraph 6.10

The smokeless capacity of the flare


should be designed according to the
environmental requirements. Over
design will increase the consumption of
steam/air. Use of steam control system
will minimize steam usage. Use of a
variable speed blower for an air assist
flare application can save energy.

SAES-F-007

System Design
Criteria of Flares

Paragraph 6.21

The use of the correct amount of purge


gas requirement in the flare system can
result in purge gas conservation.

Page 25 of 27

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2.1.10

Instrumentation

SAES/SAMSS #

SAES/SAMSS
TITLE

SAES-J-602

Burner Management,
Combustion and
Waterside Control
Systems for Water
tube Boilers System
Design Criteria of
Flares

SAES-J-602

Burner Management,
Combustion and
Waterside Control
Systems for Water
tube Boilers System
Design Criteria of
Flares

2.2

SAEP #

PARAGRAPH

7.2.1.1

COMMENTS
All boilers shall be provided with a flue
gas oxygen analyzer and oxygen trim
controller to monitor and control the
amount of oxygen in the flue gas.
The analyzer shall comply with
34-SAMSS-512, Oxygen Analyzers.
Combustibles Analyzer:

7.2.3

Combustibles analyzers are


recommended for use on large fuel gas
or oil fired boilers as an aid to safe
economical operation. The output of
combustibles analyzers shall be used for
indication and alarm only.

List of Energy Requirements in Engineering Procedures


(SAEPs)
SAEP TITLE

SAEP-1350

Design Basis Scoping


Paper (DBSP)
Preparation and
Revision Procedure

SAEP-1350

Design Basis Scoping


Paper (DBSP)
Preparation and
Revision Procedure

PARAGRAPH

COMMENTS

Paragraph
5.4.8.2

During DBSP development, energy


optimization opportunities should be
identified and evaluated on case by case
bases. Study reports, minutes of
meetings, letters, and other supporting
documentation shall be clearly
referenced and, if practical, included in
an Appendix (e.g., Proposed Facilities).
It is particularly important to document
instances in which the DBSP scope
differs from the scope recommended by
studies or other scope evaluations, due
to Proponent preferences or other
considerations.

Paragraph 5.4.9

The need for detailed evaluation of


specific energy optimization
opportunities should be identified in the
draft DBSP issued for formal review.

Page 26 of 27

Document Responsibility: P&CSD/Energy Systems Division


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Issue Date: 21 July 2013
Energy Conservation Requirements in Saudi Aramco
Next Update: TBD
Engineering Standards and Materials System Specifications

16 March 2011
21 July 2013

Revision Summary
Reaffirmed the contents of the document, and reissued with editorial changes.
Editorial revision to change document responsibility name from P&CSD/Energy Systems Unit
to P&CSD/Energy Systems Division.

Page 27 of 27