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Gravity:

1. Define Newtons law of universal gravitation.


2. Define the three laws of Kepler.
3. What is gravitational potential energy?
4. The centers of two 15.0-kilogram spheres are separated by 3.00 meters. The
magnitude of the gravitational force between the two spheres is approximately.
5. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between two 5.0-kilogram masses
separated by a distance of 5.0 meters?
6. The gravitational force of attraction between Earth and the Sun is 3.52 x 1022 newtons.
Calculate the mass of the Sun if the average distance from the earth and sun is 1.496 x
1011m and mass of the earth is 5.98x1024 kg.

Questions 7 through 9 refer to the following:


The net force on a planet is due primarily to the other planets and the Sun. By taking into
account all the forces acting on a planet, investigators calculated the orbit of each planet. A
small discrepancy between the calculated orbit and the observed orbit of the planet Uranus
was noted. It appeared that the sum of the forces on Uranus did not equal its mass times its
acceleration, unless there was another force on the planet that was not included in the
calculation. Assuming that this force was exerted by an unobserved planet, two scientists
working independently calculated where this unknown planet must be in order to account for
the discrepancy. Astronomers pointed their telescopes in the predicted direction and found the
planet we now call Neptune.

7. What fundamental force is the author referring to in this reading passage as a force
between planets?
8. The diagram below represents Neptune, Uranus, and the Sun in a straight line.
Neptune is 1.63 x 1012 meters from Uranus.

Calculate the magnitude of the interplanetary force of attraction between Uranus and
Neptune at this point. [Show all work,)

9. The diagram below represents two satellites of equal mass, A and B, in circular orbits
around a planet.

Compared the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction between satellite A and the
planet and the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction between satellite B and the
planet.
10. A 2.0-kilogram object is falling freely near Earth's surface. What is the magnitude of
the gravitational force that Earth exerts on the object?
11. A man of mass 70 kg climbed a mountain of vertical height 1200 m. Calculate the
gaining gravitational potential energy assuming g = 10 N/kg.
12. A rock climber climbs up a rock face, as shown in the figure below.

(a) To climb the rock face, the climber must do work. Which force must the climber work
against as he climbs?
(b) What other quantity, as well as the force you mentioned, must be known in order to find
the work done by the climber?
(c) One climber weighs 1000 N and another weighs 800 N. They both take the same time to
climb the cliff.
(i) Which one has done the most work?
(ii) Which one has the greater power rating?
(d) When the first climber reaches the top, he has more gravitational potential energy than he
had at the bottom.
(i) What form of energy, stored in his body, was used to give him this extra
gravitational potential energy?
(ii) Where did he get this energy from?
(iii) Other than increasing gravitational potential energy on the way up, how else was
energy in his body used? State one way.