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Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology 00.200.02 Kat.-Nr. 199 90
Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology 00.200.02 Kat.-Nr. 199 90

Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology

00.200.02

Kat.-Nr. 199 90

Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology 00.200.02 Kat.-Nr. 199 90

Preface

Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum, a member of the globally active industrial Oerlikon Group of companies has developed into the world market leader in the area of vacuum technology. In this leading position, we recognize that our customers around the world count on Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum to deliver technical superiority and maximum value for all our products and services. Today, Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum is strengthening that well-deserved reputation by offering a wide array of vacuum pumps and aftermarket services to meet your needs.

This brochure is meant to provide an easy to read overview covering the entire range of vacuum technology and is inde- pendent of the current Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum product portfolio. The presented product diagrams and data are pro- vided to help promote a more comprehensive understanding of vacuum technology and are not offered as an implied war- ranty. Content has been enhanced through the addition of new topic areas with an emphasis on physical principles affecting vacuum technology.

To us, partnership-like customer relationships are a funda- mental component of our corporate culture as well as the continued investments we are making in research and development for our next generation of innovative vacuum technology products. In the course of our over 150 year-long corporate history, Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum developed a comprehensive understanding of process and application know-how in the field of vacuum technology. Jointly with our partner customers, we plan to continue our efforts to open up further markets, implement new ideas and develop pioneer- ing products.

Cologne, June 2007

Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology

Preface

Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology

revised and compiled by Dr. Walter Umrath with contributions from

Dr. Hermann Adam †, Alfred Bolz, Hermann Boy, Heinz Dohmen, Karl Gogol, Dr. Wolfgang Jorisch, Walter Mönning, Dr. Hans-Jürgen Mundinger, Hans-Dieter Otten, Willi Scheer, Helmut Seiger, Dr. Wolfgang Schwarz, Klaus Stepputat, Dieter Urban, Heinz-Josef Wirtzfeld, Heinz-Joachim Zenker

Table of Contents

1.

Vacuum physics Quantities, their symbols,

 

2.2

Choice of pumping process

 

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.60

units of measure and definitions

 

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.9

2.2.1

Survey of the most usual pumping processes

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.60

1.1

Basic terms and concepts in vacuum technology

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.9

2.2.2

Pumping of gases (dry processes)

 

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.62

1.2

Atmospheric air

 

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.13

2.2.3

Pumping of gases and vapors (wet processes)

 

.62

1.3

Gas laws and

models

 

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.13

2.2.4

Drying processes

 

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.64

1.3.1

Continuum theory

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.13

2.2.5

Production of an oil-free (hydrocarbon-free) vacuum

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.65

1.3.2

Kinetic gas theory

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.13

2.2.6

Ultrahigh vacuum working Techniques

 

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.65

1.4

The pressure ranges in vacuum technology and

 

2.3

Evacuation of a vacuum chamber and determination of

 

their characterization

 

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14

pump sizes

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.66

1.5

Types of flow and conductance

 

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.15

2.3.1

Evacuation of a vacuum chamber

 

1.5.1

Types of flow

 

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.15

(without additional sources of gas or vapor)

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.66

1.5.2

Calculating conductance values

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.16

2.3.1.1

Evacuation of a chamber in the rough vacuum region

 

.67

1.5.3

Conductance for piping and openings

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.16

2.3.1.2

Evacuation of a chamber in the high vacuum region

 

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.68

1.5.4

Conductance values for other elements

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.18

2.3.1.3

Evacuation of a chamber in the medium vacuum region

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.68

 

2.3.2

Determination of a suitable backing pump

 

.69

2.

Vacuum Generation

 

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.19

2.3.3

Determination of pump-down time from nomograms

 

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.70

2.1

Vacuum pumps: A survey

 

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.19

2.3.4

Evacuation of a chamber where gases and

 

2.1.1

Oscillation displacement vacuum pumps

 

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.20

vapors are evolved

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.71

2.1.1.1

Diaphragm pumps

 

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.20

2.3.5

Selection of pumps for drying processes

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.71

2.1.2

Liquid sealed rotary displacement pumps

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.20

2.3.6

Flanges and their seals

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.73

2.1.2.1

Liquid ring pumps

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.20

2.3.7

Choice of suitable valves

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.73

2.1.2.2

Oil sealed rotary displacement pumps

 

.21

2.3.8

Gas locks and seal-off fittings

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.75

2.1.2.2.1

Rotary vane pumps

 

(TRIVAC A, TRIVAC B, TRIVAC E, SOGEVAC)

 

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.21

3.

Vacuum measurement, monitoring, control

 

2.1.2.2.2

Rotary plunger pumps (E Pumps)

 

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.23

and regulation

 

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.76

2.1.2.2.3

Trochoid pumps

 

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.24

3.1

Fundamentals of low-pressure measurement

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.76

2.1.2.2.4

The

gas

ballast

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.24

3.2

Vacuum gauges with pressure reading that is independent

 

2.1.3

Dry compressing rotary displacement pumps

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.27

of the type of gas

 

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.77

2.1.3.1

Roots pumps

 

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.27

3.2.1

Bourdon vacuum gauges

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.77

2.1.3.2

Claw pumps

 

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.31

3.2.2

Diaphragm vacuum gauges

 

.77

2.1.3.2.1

Claw pumps with internal compression for the

 

3.2.2.1

Capsule vacuum gauges

 

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.77

semiconductor industry (“DRYVAC Series”)

 

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.33

3.2.2.2

DIAVAC diaphragm vacuum gauge

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.78

2.1.3.2.2

Claw pump without internal compression for chemistry

 

3.2.2.3

Precision diaphragm vacuum gauges

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.78

applications (“ALL·ex”)

 

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.35

3.2.2.4

Capacitance diaphragm gauges

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.78

2.1.4

Accessories for oil-sealed rotary displacement pumps

 

.38

3.2.3

Liquid-filled (mercury) vacuum gauges

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.79

2.1.5

Condensers

 

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.38

3.2.3.1

U-tube vacuum gauges

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.79

2.1.6

Fluid-entrainment pumps

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.40

3.2.3.2

Compression vacuum gauges (according to McLeod)

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.79

2.1.6.1

(Oil) Diffusion pumps

 

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.41

3.3

Vacuum gauges with gas-dependent pressure reading

 

.81

2.1.6.2

Oil vapor ejector pumps

 

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.43

3.3.1

Spinning rotor gauge (SRG) (VISCOVAC)

 

.81

2.1.6.3

Pump fluids

 

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.44

3.3.2

Thermal conductivity vacuum gauges

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.82

2.1.6.4

Pump fluid backstreaming and its suppression

 

3.3.3

Ionization vacuum gauges

 

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.83

(Vapor barriers, baffles)

 

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.44

3.3.3.1

Cold-cathode ionization vacuum gauges

 

2.1.6.5

Water jet pumps and steam ejectors

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.45

(Penning vacuum gauges)

 

.83

2.1.7

Turbomolecular pumps

 

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.46

3.3.3.2

Hot-cathode ionization vacuum gauges

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.84

2.1.8

Sorption pumps

 

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