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Trigonometric Formula Sheet

Definition of the Trig Functions

Unit Circle Definition


Assume can be any angle.

Right Triangle Definition


Assume that:
0 < < 2 or 0 < < 90

y
(x, y)
1

hypotenuse
opposite

adjacent
opp
hyp
adj
cos =
hyp
opp
tan =
adj
sin =

hyp
opp
hyp
sec =
adj
adj
cot =
opp

y
1
x
cos =
1
y
tan =
x

csc =

sin =

1
y
1
sec =
x
x
cot =
y

csc =

Domains of the Trig Functions


sin ,

(, )

csc ,

cos ,

(, )

sec ,

tan ,

1
, where n Z
6= n +
2


cot ,

6= n, where n Z


1
6= n +
, where n Z
2
6= n, where n Z

Ranges of the Trig Functions


1 sin 1
1 cos 1
tan

csc 1 and csc 1


sec 1 and sec 1
cot

Periods of the Trig Functions


The period of a function is the number, T, such that f ( +T ) = f ( ) .
So, if is a fixed number and is any angle we have the following periods.
2

2
sec() T =

cot() T =

2
cos() T =

tan() T =

csc() T =

sin() T =

Identities and Formulas


Tangent and Cotangent Identities
tan =

sin
cos

cot =

Half Angle Formulas


r
1 cos(2)
sin =
2
r
1 + cos(2)
cos =
2
s
1 cos(2)
tan =
1 + cos(2)

cos
sin

Reciprocal Identities
1
csc
1
cos =
sec
1
tan =
cot
sin =

1
sin
1
sec =
cos
1
cot =
tan

csc =

Sum and Difference Formulas


sin( ) = sin cos cos sin

Pythagorean Identities
2

cos( ) = cos cos sin sin

sin + cos = 1
tan2 + 1 = sec2

tan( ) =

1 + cot2 = csc2

Product to Sum Formulas

Even and Odd Formulas


sin() = sin
cos() = cos
tan() = tan

1
sin sin = [cos( ) cos( + )]
2
1
cos cos = [cos( ) + cos( + )]
2
1
sin cos = [sin( + ) + sin( )]
2
1
cos sin = [sin( + ) sin( )]
2

csc() = csc
sec() = sec
cot() = cot

Periodic Formulas
If n is an integer
sin( + 2n) = sin
cos( + 2n) = cos
tan( + n) = tan

csc( + 2n) = csc


sec( + 2n) = sec
cot( + n) = cot

Sum to Product Formulas






+

sin + sin = 2 sin


cos
2
2




+

sin sin = 2 cos


sin
2
2




+

cos + cos = 2 cos


cos
2
2




+

cos cos = 2 sin


sin
2
2

Double Angle Formulas


sin(2) = 2 sin cos
cos(2) = cos2 sin2
= 2 cos2 1
= 1 2 sin2
tan(2) =

tan tan
1 tan tan

2 tan
1 tan2

Cofunction Formulas




Degrees to Radians Formulas
sin
= cos
cos
= sin
2
2
If x is an angle in degrees and t is an angle in




radians then:
csc
= sec
sec
= csc
2
2





t
x
180 t
=

t
=
and
x
=
tan

=
cot

cot

= tan
180
x
180

2
2

Unit Circle
(0, 1)

( 12 ,
(

3
)
2

( 12 ,

3
)
2

2
2
,
)
2
2

60 , 3

120 , 2
3

2
2
,
)
2
2

3 1
, )
2 2

30 , 6

150 , 5
6

(1, 0)

45 , 4

135 , 3
4

3 1
, )
2 2

90 , 2

180 ,
0 , 2

210 , 7
6
(

3
, 12 )
2

330 , 11
6

225 , 5
4
240 , 4
3

2
, 22 )
2

300 , 5
3
(

( 12 ,

3
)
2

270 , 3
2

( 12 ,

(0, 1)
F or any ordered pair on the unit circle (x, y) : cos = x and sin = y

Example
cos ( 7
6)

315 , 7
4

23

1
sin ( 7
6 ) = 2

3
)
2

3
, 21 )
2

2
2
,

)
2
2

(1, 0)

Inverse Trig Functions


Definition

Inverse Properties
These properties hold for x in the domain and in
the range

= sin1 (x) is equivalent to x = sin


= cos1 (x) is equivalent to x = cos
= tan1 (x) is equivalent to x = tan

Domain and Range


Function

Domain

Range

= sin1 (x)

1 x 1

= cos (x)
1

= tan (x)

sin1 (sin()) =

cos(cos1 (x)) = x

cos1 (cos()) =

tan(tan1 (x)) = x

tan1 (tan()) =

Other Notations

2
2

sin1 (x) = arcsin(x)

1 x 1

sin(sin1 (x)) = x

cos1 (x) = arccos(x)

<<
2
2

tan1 (x) = arctan(x)

Law of Sines, Cosines, and Tangents

Law of Sines

Law of Tangents
tan 12 ( )
ab
=
a+b
tan 12 ( + )

sin
sin
sin
=
=
a
b
c
Law of Cosines

tan 12 ( )
bc
=
b+c
tan 12 ( + )

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos
b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos

tan 12 ( )
ac
=
a+c
tan 21 ( + )

c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos

Complex Numbers
i=

a = i a, a 0

i2 = 1

i3 = i

i4 = 1

(a + bi)(a bi) = a2 + b2

a2 + b2 Complex Modulus

(a + bi) + (c + di) = a + c + (b + d)i

|a + bi| =

(a + bi) (c + di) = a c + (b d)i

(a + bi) = a bi Complex Conjugate

(a + bi)(c + di) = ac bd + (ad + bc)i

(a + bi)(a + bi) = |a + bi|2

DeMoivres Theorem
Let z = r(cos + i sin ), and let n be a positive integer.
Then:
z n = rn (cos n + i sin n).
Example: Let z = 1 i, find z 6 .
Solution: First write z in polar form.
p

(1)2 + (1)2 = 2
 
1

1
= arg(z) = tan
=
1
4
 
  
Polar Form: z = 2 cos
+ i sin
4
4
r=

Applying DeMoivres Theorem gives :


 6  



6
z =
2
cos 6
+ i sin 6
4
4
 



3
3
= 23 cos
+ i sin
2
2
= 8(0 + i(1))
= 8i

Finding the nth roots of a number using DeMoivres Theorem


Example: Find all the complex fourth roots of 4. That is, find all the complex solutions of
x4 = 4.

We are asked to find all complex fourth roots of 4.


These are all the solutions (including the complex values) of the equation x4 = 4.
For any positive integer n , a nonzero complex number z has exactly n distinct nth roots.
More specifically, if z is written in the trigonometric form r(cos + i sin ), the nth roots of
z are given by the following formula.

 



360 k
360 k
+
+
+ i sin
, f or k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n 1.
() r cos
n
n
n
n
1
n

Remember from the previous example we need to write 4 in trigonometric


  form by using:
p
b
r = (a)2 + (b)2
.
and
= arg(z) = tan1
a

So we have the complex number a + ib = 4 + i0.


Therefore a = 4 and b = 0

p
(4)2 + (0)2= 
4 and
0
= arg(z) = tan1
=0
4
Finally our trigonometric form is 4 = 4(cos 0 + i sin 0 )
So r =

Using the formula () above with n = 4, we can find the fourth roots of 4(cos 0 + i sin 0 )
 




1
0
360 0
360 0
0
For k = 0, 4 4 cos
+
+
+ i sin
= 2 (cos(0 ) + i sin(0 )) = 2
4
4
4
4
 




1
0
360 1
0
360 1
4
For k = 1, 4 cos
+
+ i sin
+
= 2 (cos(90 ) + i sin(90 )) = 2i
4
4
4
4
 




1
0
360 2
0
360 2
For k = 2, 4 4 cos
+
+ i sin
+
= 2 (cos(180 ) + i sin(180 )) = 2
4
4
4
4
 




1
0
360 3
0
360 3
For k = 3, 4 4 cos
+
+ i sin
+
= 2 (cos(270 ) + i sin(270 )) = 2i
4
4
4
4
Thus all of the complex roots of x4 = 4 are:

2, 2i, 2, 2i .

Formulas for the Conic Sections

Circle
StandardF orm : (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2
W here (h, k) = center and r = radius

Ellipse
Standard F orm f or Horizontal M ajor Axis :
(x h)2 (y k)2
+
=1
a2
b2
Standard F orm f or V ertical M ajor Axis :
(x h)2 (y k)2
+
=1
b2
a2
Where (h, k)= center
2a=length of major axis
2b=length of minor axis
(0 < b < a)
Foci can be found by using c2 = a2 b2
Where c= foci length

More Conic Sections


Hyperbola
Standard F orm f or Horizontal T ransverse Axis :
(x h)2 (y k)2

=1
a2
b2
Standard F orm f or V ertical T ransverse Axis :
(y k)2 (x h)2

=1
a2
b2
Where (h, k)= center
a=distance between center and either vertex
Foci can be found by using b2 = c2 a2
Where c is the distance between
center and either focus. (b > 0)

Parabola
Vertical axis: y = a(x h)2 + k
Horizontal axis: x = a(y k)2 + h
Where (h, k)= vertex
a=scaling factor

f (x)

f (x) = sin(x)
1

3
2

2
2
1
2

2
3

3
4

5
6

7
6

5
4

4
3

3
2

5
3

7
4

11
6

4
3

3
2

5
3

7
4

11
6

12

2
2

23

-1

5
2
=
Example : sin
4
2

f (x)

f (x) = cos(x)
1

3
2

2
2
1
2

2
3

3
4

5
6

7
6

5
4

12

2
2

23

-1

7
3
=
Example : cos
6
2

f (x)

f (x) = tan x

3
3

3
2
5
6 4 3

3 4 6

3
3

10

2
3

3
4

5
6