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STATISTICS
And their importance to Social Science

Who has heard the following?


4 out of 5 dentists recommend Crest
Condoms are effective 94% of the time
Women make 75 cents to every dollar a man makes when

working at the same job


There is an 80% chance that in a room full of 30 people

that at least two people will share the same birthday

Outline
What is Statistics?
What are the stages of Social Science Research?
Define and identify
1. Hypothesis: Null & Alternative
2. Population and Sample
3. Research methods (types of studies)
4. Sampling techniques
5. Individuals and variables
a) Continuous and discrete variables
b) Independent and Dependent Variables
c) Quantitative and qualitative variables
d) Levels of measurement

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Facebook use predicts decrease


in life-satisfaction

Statistics Definition
Statistics is the study of how to
collect, organize, analyze and
interpret numerical information
from data

THE STAGES OF SOCIAL


SCIENCE RESEARCH

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It all starts with a question


To answer interesting questions you

need data. Your statistics lecturer will


force you to use numbers because they
are a form of data and are vital to the
research process.

Research Question - Facebook study


example
What is the relationship between a

persons facebook use and life


satisfaction?

Social Science Research Involves:

1. Hypothesis
2. Research Method
3. Sampling techniques
4. Collect and Organize Data
5. Analyze Data
6. Interpret and communicate
results

Statistics

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1. Hypothesis

1. Hypothesis
Based off research question:
Null Hypothesis: Ho
Alternative Hypothesis: H1

1. Facebook study example


Ho: (There is no relationship) People who

use facebook do not show a difference in


life satisfaction than those who do not
use facebook.

H1: (There IS a relationship) People who

use facebook have lower life satisfaction


than those who do not use facebook.

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Example
O The Genetics and IVF Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

developed a technique called MicroSort, which


supposedly increases the chances of a couple having
a baby girl. In a preliminary test, researchers located
14 couples who wanted baby girls. After using the
MicrosSort technique, 13 of them had girls and one
couple had a boy. After obtaining these results, we
have two possible conclusions.

Research Question: Is the MicroSort technique

effective?

Ho: The MicroSort technique is not effective (the

results of 13 girls in 14 births occurred by


chance)

H1: The MicroSort technique is effective

(couples who use the technique are more likely


to have baby girls, as claimed by Genetics and
IVF Institute)

What if

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Examples (Workbook)

1.

Childrens IQ and eating oily fish

2.

Students grades and the number of classes they


miss

2. Population and Sample

2. Population and Sample

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2. Facebook study example


Population: All facebook users
vs
Sample: Group of students who use facebook

2. Population Vs. Sample


EXAMPLES (Workbook)
OThe participants in a study of a new cholesterol

drug.
O All consumers of non-alcoholic beverages.
O Elementary school children.
O The 30 stocks reported as a part of the Dow

Jones Industrial Average.

2. Population Vs. Sample


a. Parameter vs. Statistic
A parameter is a numerical measure that describes
an aspect of a POPULATION
Data on all facebook users
A statistic is a numerical measure, calculated from a
sample, that describes an aspect of the SAMPLE.
Data on just some of facebook users

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2. Population Vs. Sample


b. Descriptive Vs. Inferential Statistics
Descriptive: involves methods of organizing, picturing
and summarizing information from samples or
populations
Inferential: involves methods of using from a sample
to draw conclusions regarding a population

Descriptive statistics

Descriptive or Inferential?
EXAMPLES (Workbook)
Due to an ice storm last January, it is expected that

the production of apples in Quebec will be reduced


by 35% this year.

Twenty seven percent of rats in an experiment

learned to complete a maze successfully in five trials

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How many siblings do you have?

Review questions
1. Our data come from ________, but we really care most

about ________.
A) theories; mathematical models
B) samples; populations
C) populations; samples
D) subjective methods; objective methods

2. A teacher wishes to know whether the males in his/her

class have more conservative attitudes than the females.


A questionnaire is distributed assessing attitudes and the
males and the females are compared. Is this an example
of descriptive or inferential statistics?

3. Research Methods

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3. Research Methods

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Census
Sample Survey
Observational Study
Experiment
Simulation

3. Research Methods - Observation

3. Research Methods - Experiment

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3. Research Methods - Simulation

EXAMPLES
1.The effects of wind shear on airplanes during both

landing and take-off were studied by using computer


programs that mimic actual flight.
2.A study of all league football scores attained through

touchdowns and field goals was conducted by the NFL


to determine whether field goals account for more
scoring events than touchdowns.
3.An Australian study included 588 men and women.

Half got a skin cream containing a sunscreen with a sun


protection factor of 17; half got an inactive cream.
After 7 months, those using the sunscreen with the sun
protection had fewer new precancerous skin lesions.

4. Sampling Techniques

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4. Sampling Techniques
Random vs Non Random Sampling
Types of sampling
1. Simple Random Sampling
2. Stratified Sampling
3. Systematic Sampling
4. Cluster Sampling
5. Convenience Sampling

How to draw a Random Sample


O1. Number all members of the population

sequentially.

O 2. Use a table, calculator, or computer to select

random numbers from the numbers assigned to the


population members.

O 3. Create the sample by using population members

with numbers corresponding to those randomly


selected.

Example
65321 85623 10204 50218 20321 22315
8532

91972 39800 45670 20510 10451

92012 59826 35456 79289 91483 29754


Find 5 random numbers between 1 and 40 beginning at

row 1, column 2
31, 02, 04, 21, 03

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Types of sampling
1. Simple Random sampling

Types of sampling
2.

Stratified Sampling

Divide the population into groups (strata) and select

a random sample from each group.

Types of sampling
3. Systematic Sampling

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Types of sampling
3. Systematic Sampling
1. Calculate the Sampling interval:

2. Select a random start between 1 and the


sampling interval
3. Repeatedly add sampling interval to select
subsequent participants

Example
O

Assume that a local clothing manufacturer has


2,700employees. The personnel manager decides to ask
the employees for suggestions on how to improve their
workplace. It would take too long to survey everyone, so
the manager chooses to systematically sample 300 of the
employees.
a) What would be the sampling interval?
b)
If the number 8 was your first randomly drawn
number, what would be the first 5 numbers of
your sample?

Types of sampling
4. Cluster Sampling:

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Types of sampling
4. Cluster Sampling:
i. Divide the entire population into preexisting segments or clusters. The clusters
are often geographic.
ii. Make a random selection of clusters.
iii. Include every member of each cluster in
the sample.
*easily confused with stratified

Types of sampling
5. Convenience Sampling
Create a sample by using data from
population members that are readily
available.

Type of sampling method?


O Canadas Hospital Management (CHM) team wants

to survey patients discharged from hospitals in the


past year to obtain patient satisfaction profiles.
Which method did they use?

O1. Obtained a list of patients from all CHM hospitals,

divided the patients according to length of stay (2


days or less, 3-7 days). Drew simple random
samples from each group.
O2. Obtained list of patients discharged from all CHM

hospitals and numbered the patients. Then used a


random-number table to obtain a sample.

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continued
O3. Randomly selected some CHM hospitals from each

geographic region and then included all the


patients on the discharge lists of the selected
hospitals.

O4. At the beginning of the year, the CHM team

instructed each facility to survey every 500th patient


discharged.
O5. The CHM teach instructed each facility to survey

10 discharged patents this week and send them the


results.

5. Individuals Vs. Variables

5. Individuals Vs. Variables


Variables:
Height
Age
Weight
Gender
Nationality

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5. Individuals Vs. Variables


Classification of variables
a)Quantitative and qualitative variables
b)Continuous and discrete variables
c)Independent and Dependent Variables
d)Levels of measurement

Classification of variables
a) Qualitative and Quantitative Variables
Qualitative : Consists of names or labels that
are not numbers representing counts or
measurements
Quantitative: Consists of numbers
representing counts or measurements

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a) Quantitative vs Qualitative
EXAMPLES
1. Height
2. Age
3. Weight
4. Gender
5. Nationality

Classification of variables
b) Discrete vs Continuous
Discrete Variables: Cant take a finite number
of values within an interval (usually obtained
by counting)
Continuous Variables: Can take any value in
an interval (usually obtained by measuring).

a) Discrete vs Continuous
EXAMPLES
1. Number of computers own by each household
2. The time it takes to run a mile
3. Shoe size
4. Foot length
5. The number of heads you get after flipping a
coin

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Classification of variables
b) Independent and Dependent Variables
Independent Variable: CAUSE
What investigators manipulate
Dependent Variable: EFFECT
What investigators measure

b) Independent vs Dependent
EXAMPLES
Rodrigo thinks that female gerbils can run faster than
male gerbils. He places 6 males in hamster wheels
and measures their speeds. He then repeats this
experiment with 6 females.
A researcher wants to see if playing music helps
children to sleep.

Independent vs dependent
Does beta-carotene protect against cancer? Beta-

carotene supplements have been thought to protect


against cancer. However, a study published in the Journal
of the National Cancer Institute suggests this is false. The
study was conducted with 39,000 women aged 45 and up.
These women were randomly assigned to receive a betacarotene supplement or a placebo, and their health was
studied over their lifetime. Cancer rates for women taking
the beta-carotene supplement did not differ systematically
from the cancer rates of those women taking the placebo.
What is the IV?
What is the DV?

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In a study of the effect of handedness on athletic

ability, participants were divided into three groups:


right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous.
Athletic ability was measured on a 12-point scale.
Check all that apply. The variable athletic ability is:
Discrete
Qualitative
Continuous
Quantitative
A dependent variable
An independent variable

Classification of variables
d) Levels of Measurement
1.
2.
3.
4.

Nominal Level
Ordinal Level
Interval Level
Ratio Level

d) Levels of Measurement
Nominal Level: Data consists of names, labels or

categories. The data cannot be arranged in an ordering


scheme
Example: Feminine or Masculine.

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d) Levels of Measurement

Ordinal Level Applies to data that can be arranged in

order. However, differences between data value cannot


be determined or are meaningless.
Example: Teaching evaluation surveys with options such as:

Never (0) Rarely (1) Sometimes (3) Frequently (4) Always (5)

d) Levels of Measurement
(What is a natural zero? Some scales of measurement
have a natural zero and some do not.)
Interval Level: Applies to data that can be arranged in

order. In addition, differences between data values are


meaningful, but measurement ratios do not make any
sense. (no natural zero)

Ratio Level: in ratio measurement there is always an

absolute zero that is meaningful. This means that you can


construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio
variable. (natural zero)

What type of measurement is this?


Bicycle models:
1 = road, 2 = touring, 3 = recumbent
Cost expressed in Euros, e.g. 38
Year in school
1= elementary, 2 = high school, 3 = cegep, 4 = university
Number of questions asked during a class lecture
Sensory categories on a likert-type attitude scale
1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neutral, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly
disagree

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What scale of measurement should I


use?
I want to assess how much pain someone is in on a scale

from 1 to 10.
I want to know what meal people prefer; breakfast, lunch,

or dinner.
I am interested in studying reaction time.
I ask the participants to indicate the time of day they

responded to my questionnaire using an analog 12-hour


clock.

WRAP-UP exercise 1
In a situation can you state/identify
Population
Sample
The independent variable
Dependent variable (s)
Unit of observation or individual
Research method
Null hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis

WRAP-UP exercise 1
A social scientist was interested in whether the
amount of time premature infants are touched is
related to their health in terms of weight. A group of
30 premature infants was observed for a period of two
months and the amount of time per day they were
touched was recorded. Their weights were also
recorded

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WRAP-UP exercise 2
Handout

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