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STATISTICS

And their importance to Social Science

4 out of 5 dentists recommend Crest

Condoms are effective 94% of the time

Women make 75 cents to every dollar a man makes when

There is an 80% chance that in a room full of 30 people

Outline

What is Statistics?

What are the stages of Social Science Research?

Define and identify

1. Hypothesis: Null & Alternative

2. Population and Sample

3. Research methods (types of studies)

4. Sampling techniques

5. Individuals and variables

a) Continuous and discrete variables

b) Independent and Dependent Variables

c) Quantitative and qualitative variables

d) Levels of measurement

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in life-satisfaction

Statistics Definition

Statistics is the study of how to

collect, organize, analyze and

interpret numerical information

from data

SCIENCE RESEARCH

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To answer interesting questions you

force you to use numbers because they

are a form of data and are vital to the

research process.

example

What is the relationship between a

satisfaction?

1. Hypothesis

2. Research Method

3. Sampling techniques

4. Collect and Organize Data

5. Analyze Data

6. Interpret and communicate

results

Statistics

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1. Hypothesis

1. Hypothesis

Based off research question:

Null Hypothesis: Ho

Alternative Hypothesis: H1

Ho: (There is no relationship) People who

life satisfaction than those who do not

use facebook.

than those who do not use facebook.

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Example

O The Genetics and IVF Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

supposedly increases the chances of a couple having

a baby girl. In a preliminary test, researchers located

14 couples who wanted baby girls. After using the

MicrosSort technique, 13 of them had girls and one

couple had a boy. After obtaining these results, we

have two possible conclusions.

effective?

chance)

to have baby girls, as claimed by Genetics and

IVF Institute)

What if

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Examples (Workbook)

1.

2.

miss

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Population: All facebook users

vs

Sample: Group of students who use facebook

EXAMPLES (Workbook)

OThe participants in a study of a new cholesterol

drug.

O All consumers of non-alcoholic beverages.

O Elementary school children.

O The 30 stocks reported as a part of the Dow

a. Parameter vs. Statistic

A parameter is a numerical measure that describes

an aspect of a POPULATION

Data on all facebook users

A statistic is a numerical measure, calculated from a

sample, that describes an aspect of the SAMPLE.

Data on just some of facebook users

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b. Descriptive Vs. Inferential Statistics

Descriptive: involves methods of organizing, picturing

and summarizing information from samples or

populations

Inferential: involves methods of using from a sample

to draw conclusions regarding a population

Descriptive statistics

Descriptive or Inferential?

EXAMPLES (Workbook)

Due to an ice storm last January, it is expected that

by 35% this year.

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Review questions

1. Our data come from ________, but we really care most

about ________.

A) theories; mathematical models

B) samples; populations

C) populations; samples

D) subjective methods; objective methods

A questionnaire is distributed assessing attitudes and the

males and the females are compared. Is this an example

of descriptive or inferential statistics?

3. Research Methods

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3. Research Methods

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Census

Sample Survey

Observational Study

Experiment

Simulation

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EXAMPLES

1.The effects of wind shear on airplanes during both

programs that mimic actual flight.

2.A study of all league football scores attained through

to determine whether field goals account for more

scoring events than touchdowns.

3.An Australian study included 588 men and women.

protection factor of 17; half got an inactive cream.

After 7 months, those using the sunscreen with the sun

protection had fewer new precancerous skin lesions.

4. Sampling Techniques

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4. Sampling Techniques

Random vs Non Random Sampling

Types
of
sampling

1. Simple Random Sampling

2. Stratified Sampling

3. Systematic Sampling

4. Cluster Sampling

5. Convenience Sampling

O1. Number all members of the population

sequentially.

population members.

selected.

Example

65321 85623 10204 50218 20321 22315

8532

Find 5 random numbers between 1 and 40 beginning at

row 1, column 2

31, 02, 04, 21, 03

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Types
of
sampling

1.
Simple
Random
sampling

Types
of
sampling

2.

Stratified Sampling

Types
of
sampling

3. Systematic Sampling

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Types
of
sampling

3. Systematic Sampling

1. Calculate the Sampling interval:

sampling interval

3. Repeatedly add sampling interval to select

subsequent participants

Example

O

2,700employees. The personnel manager decides to ask

the employees for suggestions on how to improve their

workplace. It would take too long to survey everyone, so

the manager chooses to systematically sample 300 of the

employees.

a) What would be the sampling interval?

b)

If the number 8 was your first randomly drawn

number, what would be the first 5 numbers of

your sample?

Types
of
sampling

4. Cluster Sampling:

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Types
of
sampling

4. Cluster Sampling:

i. Divide the entire population into preexisting segments or clusters. The clusters

are often geographic.

ii. Make a random selection of clusters.

iii. Include every member of each cluster in

the sample.

*easily confused with stratified

Types
of
sampling

5. Convenience Sampling

Create a sample by using data from

population members that are readily

available.

O Canadas Hospital Management (CHM) team wants

past year to obtain patient satisfaction profiles.

Which method did they use?

days or less, 3-7 days). Drew simple random

samples from each group.

O2. Obtained list of patients discharged from all CHM

random-number table to obtain a sample.

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continued

O3. Randomly selected some CHM hospitals from each

patients on the discharge lists of the selected

hospitals.

discharged.

O5. The CHM teach instructed each facility to survey

results.

Variables:

Height

Age

Weight

Gender

Nationality

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Classification of variables

a)Quantitative and qualitative variables

b)Continuous and discrete variables

c)Independent and Dependent Variables

d)Levels of measurement

Classification of variables

a) Qualitative and Quantitative Variables

Qualitative : Consists of names or labels that

are not numbers representing counts or

measurements

Quantitative: Consists of numbers

representing counts or measurements

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a) Quantitative vs Qualitative

EXAMPLES

1. Height

2. Age

3. Weight

4. Gender

5. Nationality

Classification of variables

b) Discrete vs Continuous

Discrete Variables: Cant take a finite number

of values within an interval (usually obtained

by counting)

Continuous Variables: Can take any value in

an interval (usually obtained by measuring).

a) Discrete vs Continuous

EXAMPLES

1. Number of computers own by each household

2. The time it takes to run a mile

3. Shoe size

4. Foot length

5. The number of heads you get after flipping a

coin

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Classification of variables

b) Independent and Dependent Variables

Independent Variable: CAUSE

What investigators manipulate

Dependent Variable: EFFECT

What investigators measure

b) Independent vs Dependent

EXAMPLES

Rodrigo thinks that female gerbils can run faster than

male gerbils. He places 6 males in hamster wheels

and measures their speeds. He then repeats this

experiment with 6 females.

A researcher wants to see if playing music helps

children to sleep.

Independent vs dependent

Does beta-carotene protect against cancer? Beta-

against cancer. However, a study published in the Journal

of the National Cancer Institute suggests this is false. The

study was conducted with 39,000 women aged 45 and up.

These women were randomly assigned to receive a betacarotene supplement or a placebo, and their health was

studied over their lifetime. Cancer rates for women taking

the beta-carotene supplement did not differ systematically

from the cancer rates of those women taking the placebo.

What is the IV?

What is the DV?

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right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous.

Athletic ability was measured on a 12-point scale.

Check all that apply. The variable athletic ability is:

Discrete

Qualitative

Continuous

Quantitative

A dependent variable

An independent variable

Classification of variables

d) Levels of Measurement

1.

2.

3.

4.

Nominal Level

Ordinal Level

Interval Level

Ratio Level

d) Levels of Measurement

Nominal Level: Data consists of names, labels or

scheme

Example: Feminine or Masculine.

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d) Levels of Measurement

be determined or are meaningless.

Example: Teaching evaluation surveys with options such as:

Never (0) Rarely (1) Sometimes (3) Frequently (4) Always (5)

d) Levels of Measurement

(What is a natural zero? Some scales of measurement

have a natural zero and some do not.)

Interval Level: Applies to data that can be arranged in

meaningful, but measurement ratios do not make any

sense. (no natural zero)

construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio

variable. (natural zero)

Bicycle models:

1 = road, 2 = touring, 3 = recumbent

Cost expressed in Euros, e.g. 38

Year in school

1= elementary, 2 = high school, 3 = cegep, 4 = university

Number of questions asked during a class lecture

Sensory categories on a likert-type attitude scale

1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neutral, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly

disagree

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use?

I want to assess how much pain someone is in on a scale

from 1 to 10.

I want to know what meal people prefer; breakfast, lunch,

or dinner.

I am interested in studying reaction time.

I ask the participants to indicate the time of day they

clock.

WRAP-UP exercise 1

In a situation can you state/identify

Population

Sample

The independent variable

Dependent variable (s)

Unit of observation or individual

Research method

Null hypothesis

Alternative hypothesis

WRAP-UP exercise 1

A social scientist was interested in whether the

amount of time premature infants are touched is

related to their health in terms of weight. A group of

30 premature infants was observed for a period of two

months and the amount of time per day they were

touched was recorded. Their weights were also

recorded

22

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WRAP-UP exercise 2

Handout

23

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