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NEW SOUTH WALES

Mathematics Extension 2
Exercise 47/67
by James Coroneos
Coroneos*
1. Starting from the identity (cos +i sin )4 = cos 4+i sin 4, nd an expression
for cos 4 in terms of powers of cos . Write down an expression for sin 4 in
terms of sin , cos and hence determine a result for tan 4 in terms of tan .
2. Express cos 5 as a polynomial in cos , and obtain a similar expression for
sin 5 as a polynomial in sin .
(a) Solve the equation cos 5 = 1 for 0 < 2, and hence show that the
roots of the equation 16x5 20x3 + 5x 1 = 0 are x = cos 2r
5 for r =

2
1

1
0, 1, 2, 3, 4. Hence prove that cos 5 cos 5 = 4 and cos 5 cos 2
5 = 2.
(b) Solve the equation cos 5 = 0 for 0 < 2, and hence show that
for
the roots of the equation 16x4 20x2 + 5 = 0 are x = cos (2r+1)
10

3
r = 0, 1, 3, 4. Determine the exact value for cos 10 cos 10 and

+ cos2 3
cos2 10
10 .
(c) Solve the equation sin 5 = 1 for 0 < 2, and hence show that the
,
roots of the equation 16x4 +16x3 4x2 4x+1 = 0 are x = sin (4r+1)
10

3
where r = 0, 2, 3, 4. Determine the exact value of sin 10 sin 10 .
(d) Show that x = sin r
5 for r = 1, 2 are the roots of the equation
5
4
2
16x 20x + 5 = 0, and prove that sin2 5 + sin2 2
5 = 4.

*Other resources by James Coroneos are available. Write to P.O. Box 25, Rose Bay, NSW,
2029, Australia, for a catalogue. Typeset by AMS-TEX.
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3. Prove that cos 7 = 64 cos7 112 cos5 + 56 cos3 7 cos


for r = 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 are the roots of
(i) Hence show that x = cos (2r+1)
14
4
2
the equation 64x6 112x
+
56x
7 = 0. Deduce that

3
5
7
2
2 5
cos 14 . cos 14 . cos 14 = 8 and cos 14 + cos2 3
14 + cos 14 = 4
(ii) Solve the equation cos 7 = 1 for 0 < 2, and hence show that
x = cos 2k
7 for k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are the roots of the equation
5
1
64x7 112x5 + 56x3 7x = 1. Deduce that cos 7 + cos 3
7 + cos 7 = 2
5
1
and cos 7 cos 3
7 cos 7 = 8 .
4. If z = cos + i sin , show that z + z 1 = 2 cos and z n + z n = 2 cos n.
Find corresponding expressions for z z 1 and z n z n .
(i) By expanding (z + z1 )4 , nd an expression for cos4 in the form
a
 cos 44 + b cos 2 + c. Check this result when = /4 and evaluate
cos d.
0
(ii) Use the expansion of (z z1 )5 to express sin5 in the form a sin 5 +
b sin 3 + c sin , and state the values of a, b, c.
5. Prove that cos6 =
 /2
cos6 d.
0

1
32 (cos 6

+ 6 cos 4 + 15 cos 2 + 10), and hence evaluate

6. Show that (1 + cos 2 + i sin 2)n = 2n cosn (cos n + i sin n); where n is
a positive integer. By considering the binomial 
expansion of (1 + z)n where
n
n
n
z = cos 2+i sin 2, show that 2 cos cos n = r=0 n Cr cos 2r, and hence
 /2
evaluate 0 cosn cos n d.

7. Prove that 1 cos i sin = 2 sin 2 {cos(


2 ) i sin( 2 )}. From the
cos + i sin and n is a positive
binomial expansion of (1 x)n where x =
n
rn
integer, show that 2n sinn 2 cos n(
)
=
r=0 (1) Cr cos r, and obtain
2
a similar expression for 2n sinn 2 sin n(
2 ).

8. Show that 1 cos 2 + i sin 2 = 2i sin (cos i sin ). Use the binomial
expansion of (1 cos 2 + i sin 2)2n , where n is an even positive integer, to
2n
prove
that 22n sin2n cos 2n = r=0 (1)r 2n Cr cos 2r, and hence evaluate
 2n
sin cos 2n d.
0
9. By substituting z = r(cos +i sin ) in the identity 1+z +z 2 + +z n + =
1
2
3
1z , where |z| < 1, prove that 1 + r cos + r cos 2 + r cos 3 + =
1r cos
r sin
2
3
12r cos +r 2 and r sin + r sin 2 + r sin 3 + = 12r cos +r 2 .
10. If C = 1+cos +cos 2+cos 3+ and S = sin +sin 2+sin 3+ . Show
1
1
1

that C + iS = 1cos i
sin , and hence prove that C = 2 and S = 2 cot 2 .

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11. If X = 1 + ab cos C + ( ab )n cos 2C + ( ab )3 cos 3C + and


Y = ab sin C + ( ab )2 sin 2C + ( ab )3 sin 3C + , where |a| < |b| show that
b(ba cos C+ia sin C)
X + iY = (ba
. If A, B, C are the angles and a, b, c the sides
cos C)2 +a2 sin2 C
of a triangle ABC, hence prove X = b cos A/c and Y = b sin A/c. {Hint: You
may assume in ABC that b = a cos C + c cos A.}
12. Express the complex number 1 + i in the form r(cos + i sin ), and hence
prove that (1 + i)n + (1 i)n = 2(2n/2 . cos n
4 ) where n is a positive integer. If
n
2
n
(1+x) = p0 +p1 x+p2 x + +pn x , prove that p0 p2 +p4 = 2n/2 cos n
4
and p1 p3 + p5 = 2n/2 sin n
4
13. If u = z + z1 , show that z 6 + z16 = u6 6u4 + 9u2 2. Hence prove that
1 + cos 12 = 2(32 cos6 48 cos4 + 18 cos2 1)2 .
6
4
7
14. By using de Moivres theorem, prove that sin
sin = 64 sin + 112 sin
7
56 sin2 + 7. Show that 8 cos cos 2 cos 3 1 = sin
sin , and nd all the angles
between 0 and 2 for which cos cos 2 cos 3 = 14 .

15. Use de Moivres theorem to obtain an expression for tan 5 in terms of tan .
4
2
Show that tan r
5 , r = 1, 2 arethe roots of the equation t 10t + 5 = 0
5 and tan2 5 + tan2 2
and deduce that tan 5 tan 2
5 =
5 = 10.
16. Use de Moivres theorem to obtain expressions for cos 6, sin 6 in terms of
sin and cos .
2
+15t4 t6
(i) Prove that cot 6 = 115t
2t(310t2 +3t4 ) where t denotes tan .
(ii) Give all the roots of cos 6 = 0 for 0 < 2, and hence nd the

2
2 5
value of tan 12
tan 5
12 and tan 12 + tan 12 .
17. By expanding (cos + i sin )6 in 2 dierent ways, express cos 6 in a series of
powers of cos . Find the roots of cos 6 = 0 and hence prove that cos 6 =

32(cos2 cos2 12
)(cos2 12 )(cos2 cos2 5
12 )
18. Establish the following results, where n is any positive integer greater than
1: (i) (cot + i)n (cot i)n = 2i sin n/ sinn
(ii) the roots of the equation (x + i)n = (x i)n = 0 are
(n1)
3
.
cot n , cot 2
n , cot n , . . . , cot
n
(iii) (x + i)n (x i)n = 2i{n C1 xn1 n C3 xn3 + n C5 xn5 }
2 3
2 (n1)
= (n1)(n2)
{Use the
(iv) cot2 n + cot2 2
n + cot n + + cot
n
3
results in (ii), (iii).}