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# 8/13/2012

Descriptive statistics
A parameter is a piece of information about the
entire population. A statistic is our best guess
for the parameter using only a sample.

Descriptive Measures
Central Tendency measures. They are
computed to give a center around which the
measurements in the data are distributed.

## Variation or Variability measures. They

describe data spread or how far away the
measurements are from the center.

## Relative Standing measures. They describe

the relative position of specific measurements in the
data.

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## Measures of Central Tendency

Mean:
Sum of all measurements divided by the number
of measurements.
Median:
A number such that at most half of the
measurements are below it and at most half of the
measurements are above it.
Mode:
The most frequent measurement in the data.

Mean

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Example of Mean
Measurements
x

Deviation
x - mean

-1

-3

-2

-4

40

MEAN = 40/10 = 4
Notice that the sum of the
deviations is 0.
Notice that every single
observation intervenes in
the computation of the
mean.

Median

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Example of Median
Measurements Measurements
Ranked
x
x
3
0
5
1
5
2
1
3
7
4
2
5
6
5
7
6
0
7
4
7
40
40

Median: (4+5)/2 =
4.5
Notice that only the
two central values are
used in the
computation.
The median is not
sensible to extreme
values

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Example of Mode
Measurements
x
3
5
5
1
7
2
6
7
0
4

## In this case the data have

two modes:
5 and 7
Both measurements are
repeated twice

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Variance

xi x

n 1

Example of Variance
Variance = 54/9 = 6
Measurements Deviations
x
3
5
5
1
7
2
6
7
0
4
40

x - mean
-1
1
1
-3
3
-2
2
3
-4
0
0

Square of
deviations
1
1
1
9
9
4
4
9
16
0
54

It is a measure of
Notice that the larger the
deviations (positive or
negative) the larger the
variance

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x x

s s2

n 1

## Measures of Location and Spread

Discrete Outcomes
Population

Sample

Measures of Location
Mean

x
n

Median

## Middle observation once all observations are ranked;

average of two middle if the number of observations is even

Mode

## Most often occurring value

Variance

x x

s2

Standard Deviation
Range

Max Min

n 1

x x

s s2

n 1

Max - Min

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Example-Calculation
Data Set 1
1
3
5
7
9

Data Set 2
1
2
5
8
9

## Data Set 3 Data Set 4

3
1
5
1
7
8
9
12
11
13

Mean
Median
Mode
Variance
St. Dev.
Range

Example-Calculation

Mean
Median
Mode
Variance
St. Dev.
Range

Data Set 1
1
3
5
7
9

Data Set 2
1
2
5
8
9

5
5
#N/A
10
3.162
8

5
5
#N/A
12.5
3.536
8

3
1
5
1
7
8
9
12
11
13

7
7
#N/A
10
3.162
8

7
8
1
33.5
5.788
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## Some statistical rules

applied to Variance
What happens to mean, variance and
standard deviation if we add subtract multiply
or divide each number by a constant?

## The new data has the same

So if you add a constant C to each
Xi, then

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## Example temperature conversions to get

from Fahrenheit to Celsius use

## So we will convert each of the

temperatures from farenheit to Celsius
remember

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## Which value is father from the mean, 27F

or -1c? Since these values are in different
units, we need a standardized way to
compare them.

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## What happens to mean, variance and

standard deviation if we add subtract
multiply or divide each number by a
constant?

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