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Chap.

3 Semiconductors

Chap.3 Semiconductors
i) Introduction
Silicon is Semiconductor and is the base material for Integrated Circuits

Figure A.2 Conceptual illustration of a step-and-repeat reduction technique to


facilitate the mass production of integrated circuits.

i) Introduction
Silicon is Semiconductor and is the base material for Integrated Circuits

Figure A.1 Photolithography using positive or negative photoresist.

i) Introduction
Silicon is Semiconductor and is the base material for Integrated Circuits

Figure A.5 A modern twin-well CMOS process flow with shallow trench isolation
(STI).

CMOS Inverter LAYOUT

Figure A.14 A CMOS inverter schematic and its layout.

CMOS IC Layout and Device Cross-section

LAYOUT :

Cross-sectional
View:

Interactive animated applet for Nwell process for CMOS Inverter:


http://jas.eng.buffalo.edu/education/fab/invFab/index.html

ii) Physical Operation of Diodes

PN Junction Diode
Anode

Cathode

Outermost = 4 es

Outermost
= 8 es

sketch in 2D

Sketch in 3D

3.1 Intrinsic Silicon

T=0K

Intrinsic = chemically pure material


w/o any impurities.

At T > 0 K, a small fraction of covalent bonds are


broken. A broken covalent bond means that an
electron, originally placed in the bond, is now
broken off from the bond and is set FREE to
move around in the Si solid mobile Electron &
Hole are generated.

T=300K
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3.1 Intrinsic Silicon


n = electron concentration
p = hole concentration
n = p = ni = intrinsic carrier concentration
ni= 1.5x1010 cm-3 at T=300K, is a function of Temperature
= B T3/2 exp(-Eg/2kT)
where, B=material-dep. constant=7.3x1015 cm-3K-3/2 for silicon
Eg = Si bandgap energy = 1.12 eV for Si
k = Boltzmans const = 8.62x10-5 eV/K
Question) Find the intrinsic carrier density ni for silicon at T=100K and 400K
Answer) Assume that Eg is indept. of Temperature (which is approximately true)
T=100K:
ni = B T3/2 exp(-Eg/2kT)
ni = 7.3x1015 (100)3/2 exp[-1.12/(2*8.62x10-5*100)] = 7.3E18*e-64.965= 4.46x10-10 cm-3
T=400K:
ni=7.3x1015*(400)3/2*exp[-1.12/(2*8.62x10-5*400)]=5.84E19*e-16.24= 5.16x1012 cm-3
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3.2 Doped Semiconductor: Extrinsic, n-type or p-type


n-type

Donor

p-type

Acceptor

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3.2 Doped Semiconductor: Extrinsic, n-type or p-type


n-type

n-type
Donor

p-type

p-type
Acceptor
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3.2 Doped Semiconductor: Extrinsic, n-type or p-type


n-type: The donor impurity concentration ND dominates the intrinsic carrier concentration ni.
ND >> ni.
majority carrier n ND
Ex) n-type Si doped to ND=1017cm-3, has n=1017 cm-3.

p-type: The acceptor impurity concentration NA dominates the intrinsic carrier concentration ni.
NA >> ni.
majority carrier p NA
Ex) p-type Si doped to NA=3x1015cm-3, has p=3x1015 cm-3.

Under thermal equilibrium, the product of n and p is constant, independent of type or doping
concentration:
np = ni2
Majority carrier density = doping level. Minority density = ni2/[majority density]
Ex) n-type doped to ND=1016 cm-3. Find n and p ?
Ans) n=1016 cm-3; p=ni2/n = (1.5x1010 cm-3)2/1016cm-3 = 2.25x104 cm-3.

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P 3.3) For silicon doped with Boron concentration NA=5x1018/cm3,


find the hole and electron concentration at T=300 K. (cf. Table3.1)

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(A) Energy Bands of Solid State Materials [not in textbook]


E
N
E
R
G
Y

23/cm3) many states in the band


Only
a
few
Electrons
occupy
the
(~2x10
Conduction Band:

Band Gap: There are no energy states


Only a few states are vacant (Holes) in an otherwise
Valence Band:
fully occupied band of (~2x1023/cm3) many states.
Energy Band Diagram
Impurity Levels
CB
Gap
VB

Metal = band gap is zero, or the CB and VB overlap


Semiconductor = Band gap is 0.1 eV to 4 or 5 eV
Insulator = Band gap is greater than 5 eV

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(C) Silicon Carrier Statistics


- Intrinsic silicon

Energy Band picture

Real Space picture

VB

n = p = ni

ni = intrinsic carrier conc.


= 1.5x1010/cm3 at Room Temperature 300K

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(C) Silicon Carrier Statistics

ND = Donor Impurity Concentration


NA = Acceptor Impurity Concentration

- Extrinsic silicon

n-type:

Donor Impurity

n=ND

(majority carrier)
minority holes
p=ni2/ND

Mass-Action Law: np=ni2


n=ni2/NA
minority electrons

p-type:

p=NA

gap

Acceptor Impurity

(majority carrier)

Energy Band

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Ex.3.29 ni vs. Temperature

(C) Silicon Carrier Statistics

k=8.62E-5 eV/K

5.9E7 cm-3

Ex.3.30 Extrinsic Si: n & p vs. Temperature

(5.9E7)2
0.035

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3.3 Current Flow Diffusion and Drift

I
I
wire

Silicon Device
P-type

Drift of
Holes
Diffusion
of Electrons

N-type

I
wire

Drift of
Electrons
Diffusion
of Holes

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3.3 Current Flow Diffusion and Drift


Diffusion : When carriers are non-uniformly distributed,
, then there is natural
tendency toward a uniform distribution. This causes a net flow of carriers
from the higher concentration (region) to the lower concentration (region ).
Diffusion current density:
Where, q = 1.6x10-19 Coul = electron charge
Dn, Dp = diffusion coefficient of electron, hole

(electron)
(n)
(electron)

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3.3 Current Flow Diffusion and Drift


Diffusion : When carriers are non-uniformly distributed,
, then there is natural
tendency toward a uniform distribution. This natural tendency causes net flow of carrier
from higher concentration (region) to the lower concentration (region ).
Diffusion current density:
Where, q = 1.6x10-19 Coul = electron charge
Dn, Dp = diffusion coefficient of electron, hole
Drift : carrier transport caused by the Electric Field
Drift current density:

Where, E = electric field [V/cm];


mn, mp=mobility of electron, hole [cm2/Vs];
And electron drift speed [cm/s]= mn E

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3.3 Current Flow Diffusion and Drift


Diffusion : When carriers are non-uniformly distributed,
, then there is natural
tendency toward a uniform distribution. This natural tendency causes net flow of carrier
from higher concentration (region) to the lower concentration (region ).
Diffusion current density:
Where, q = 1.6x10-19 Coul = electron charge
Dn, Dp = diffusion coefficient of electron, hole
Drift : carrier transport caused by the Electric Field
Drift current density:

Where, E = electric field [V/cm];


mn, mp=mobility of electron, hole [cm2/Vs];
The electron drift speed [cm/s]= mn E
Total Drift Current

D & m are related via Einsteins Relation

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Ex.3.32, Resistivity of intrinsic and extrinsic Si

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P 3.10) Holes are being steadily injected into a region of n-type silicon. In the steady state,
Find the density of (hole diffusion) current for the excess-hole concentration profile shown
below. Here, pn0=hole concentration in thermal-equilibrium, ND=1016/cm3, ni=1.5x1010/cm3,
Dp=12 cm2/s, and W=50nm.

P 3.11) Both carrier mobility and diffusivity decrease as the doping concentration increases.
In the table below, use Einstein relation to find the diffusivity Dn and Dp. DIY
Doping Con(cm-3) mn(cm2/Vs)
mp(cm2/Vs)
Dn(cm2/s)
Dp(cm2/s)
Intrinsic
1350
480
1016
1200
400
1017
750
260
1018
380
160
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PN Junction Diode

VP

P-type
P-Si Si

VP

N-type Si

Anode

VN

VN

Cathode

Forward Bias:

VP

> VN

Reverse Bias :

VP

< VN

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3.4 PN Junction under Open-Circuit Condition

Built-in Potential :
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3.4 PN Junction under Open-Circuit Condition

Total Depletion Width Wdep

Space-charge neutrality:
x
xp xn

qNA xp = qND xn
Total negative charge = Total positive charge

Wdep
Solve the above TWO eqs for xn and xp
depl width of n-side

Built-in Potential :

depl width of p-side


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Exercise 3.32 (5th ed)

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P 3.15) In a pn junction for which NA >> ND, and the depletion layer exists mostly on the
shallowly doped side with W=0.2mm, find V0 if ND=1016/cm3. Also calculate QJ for the
case A=10 mm2. (cf. Table 3.1 below)

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3.5 PN Junction with an Applied Voltage


- Reverse Bias
The Reverse Saturation Current IS
The reverse bias VD = -VR raises the
Potential barrier from VO to VO+VR.

Junction Capacitance CJ
Under a varying reverse bias voltage, it acts like a variable capacitor.
The capacitance comes from the depletion region dielectric.

In general,

Where,
m=junction grading coefficient
m= 1/2 = abrupt grading
m= 1/3 = linear grading

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P 3.13) Acceptor conc NA=1017/cm3 and donor conc ND=1016/cm3. Find built-in voltage (V0)
depletion width(W), its extents into n- and p-regions(xn, xp), when junction terminals are left open
Calculate charge stored in either side of junction for A=100mm2. (P 3. 17) If 3-V reverse bias is
applied, find W and QJ. (P 3.24) Find CJ0 and CJ at VR=3 V.

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Junction Capacitance Ex. 3.33

=3.25x10-8 F/cm2

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3.5 PN Junction under Applied Voltage -- Forward Bias


More diffusion current than drift current

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Forward bias: current and diffusion capacitance


The excess electrons in the p-side survive tn seconds on average, before disappearing via
recombination with holes. Therefore, the excess electron charge in the p-side:
Excess electron charge in p-side =
Likewise,

Excess hole charge in n-side =

Total Excess charge is

tT = Transit Time

Capacitance due to total diffusion charge is

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Exercise forward bias: current and diffusion capacitance

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3.5 PN Junction under Applied Voltage -- Diode Current


Recall Conduction by Diffusion

Diffusion current

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3.5 PN Junction under Applied Voltage -- Diode Current


At this point (-xp), all electron current
is by diffusion

At this point (xn), all hole current is


by diffusion

Same story as for


Electron in p-side
Away from x=-xp, the Electron
Diffusion current is less (than at xp),
Difference is the Hole Drift current.

excess
Holes

excess
Electron

P-type Si, neutral


P-Si region

N-type Si, neutral region

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3.5 PN Junction under Applied Voltage -- Diode Current

Where,
tp= lifetime of excess hole
At x=xn, the hole diffusion current is

At x=-xp, the electron diffusion current is .

Therefore, the total forward diode current is


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Ex.3.34 forward bias: current and diffusion capacitance


Exercise 3.34) A diode has NA=1017cm-3, ND=1016cm-3, ni=1.5x1010cm-3, Lp=5 um,
Ln=10 um, A=2,500 um2, Dp(in n-side)=10 cm2/Vs, and Dn(in p-side)=18 cm2/Vs. The
Diode is forward biased and conducting a current I=0.1 mA. Calculate (a) Is; (b) the
diode forward voltage V; (c) the component of the current I due to hole injection and
that due to electron injection across the junction; (d) tn and tp; (e) the excess hole charge
in the n-region Qp, and the excess electron charge in the p-region Qn, and hence the total
excess minority charge Q, as well as the transit time tT; and (f) the diffusion capacitance.

To rephrase the question ..

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Ex.3.34 forward bias: current and diffusion capacitance

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