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COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING

MATERIAL

Sector:

AUTOMOTIVE
Qualification:

Automotive Servicing NC II
Unit of Competency:

Service Clutch System


Module Title:

SERVICING CLUTCH SYSTEM


Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority
East Service Road, South Superhighway, Taguig, Metro Manila

NATIONAL CERTIFICATE LEVEL 2


QUALIFICATION LEVEL

COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS


No.

Unit of Competency

Module Title

Code

1.
2.
3.

Service Starting System


Service Charging System
Service Engine Mechanical
System

ALT723307
ALT723308
ALT723309a
ALT723309b
ALT723309c
ALT723309d
ALT723309e

4.

Service Clutch System

5.

Service Differential and Front Axle

6.

Service Manual Steering System

7.

Overhaul Manual Transmission

Servicing Starting System


Servicing Charging System
Servicing Cooling System
Servicing Lubricating System
Servicing Gasoline Fuel System
Servicing Air Induction System
Servicing Diesel Fuel Injector
Servicing Clutch System
Servicing Differential and Front
Axle
Servicing Manual Steering
System
Pulling-out, Disassembling and
Checking Manual Transmission
Assembling and Testing Manual
Transmission
Identifying and Explaining
Hydraulic Brake System
Operations and Functions
Servicing Brakes
Overhauling Brake Systems
Servicing Suspension System

8.

9.

Service Brake System

Service Suspension System

ALT723310
ALT723311
ALT723312
ALT723313a
ALT723313b
ALT723314a

ALT723314b
ALT723314c
ALT723315

HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


Welcome to the module Servicing Clutch System. This module contains training
materials and activities for you to complete.
The unit of competency "Service Clutch System" contains knowledge, skills and attitudes
required for Automotive Servicing. It is one of the specialized modules at National Certificate
level (NC II).
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each
learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are Information Sheets and
Resources Sheets (Reference Materials for further reading to help you better understand the
required activities). Follow these activities on your own and answer the self-check at the end of
each learning outcome. You may remove a blank answer sheet at the end of each module (or
get one from your facilitator/trainer) to write your answers for each self-check. If you have
questions, dont hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)


You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this learner's
guide because you have:
been working for some time
already completed training in this area.
If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a particular skill or skills,
talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so you don't have to do the same training
again. If you have a qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it
to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and relevant to the unit/s of competency
they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the
currency of your skills, discuss this with your trainer.
At the end of this module is a Learners Diary. Use this diary to record important dates, jobs
undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you in providing further details to your
trainer or assessor. A Record of Achievement is also provided for your trainer to complete
once you complete the module.
This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in Servicing Clutch
System. This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this
particular trade independently and at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from
your instructor.

Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the Training of this unit.
Read through the module carefully. It is divided into sections, which cover all the skills,
and knowledge you need to successfully complete this module.

Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section. Read
information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested references are included to
supplement the materials provided in this module.

Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He/she is there to
support you and show you the correct way to do things.

Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to consider when you are
completing activities and it is important that you listen and take notes.

You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice on the job. Make
sure you practice your new skills during regular work shifts. This way you will improve
both your speed and memory and also your confidence.

Talk to more experience workmates and ask for their guidance.

Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your own progress.

When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the activities outlined in this
module.

As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on your progress. Your
trainer keeps feedback/ pre-assessment reports for this reason. When you have
successfully completed each element, ask your trainer to mark on the reports that you
are ready for assessment.

When you have completed this module (or several modules), and feel confident that you
have had sufficient practice, your trainer will arrange an appointment with registered
assessor to assess you. The results of your assessment will be recorded in your
competency Achievement Record.

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Introduction :
This module contains the "know" and "do" units in servicing and repairing clutch system.
It particularly involve procedures in diagnosing clutch failure/problem, pulling out and mounting
clutch component parts, dismantling/installing clutch mechanism, performing clutch part failure
analysis, setting/adjusting clutch system components, and bleeding hydraulic clutch system.
This module consists of (7) leaning outcomes (LOs) that contain learning activities for
both knowledge and skills supported with information sheet, job/operation sheet and self-check.
Before attempting the manual exercises, see to it that you have already read and understand
the information/operation sheet and answer correctly the self-check provided in every LOs.
Lastly, upon completion of this module, you have to undergo the assessment
administered by your instructor. A certificate of completion (COC) will be given to you as a proof
that you met the standard requirements for this module. The assessment could be made using
different methods, as prescribed in the competency standard.
Learning Outcomes : At the end of this module you will able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Diagnose clutch failure/problem


Pull out and mount clutch component parts
Dismantle/install clutch mechanism
Overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism
Perform clutch part failure analysis
Set/adjust clutch system components
Bleed clutch hydraulic system

Assessment Criteria:
1. Diagnose clutch failure/problem
1.1 Clutch should engage/disengage engine and transmission smoothly
1.2 Work is completed in accordance with company standard operating procedure
and manufacturers specification, manuals using specified tools and equipment
2. Pull out and mount clutch component parts
2.1 Dismounting procedure follows repair manual
2.2 Bolt tightened following correct torque, sequence and pattern
2.3 Work is completed without causing damage to vehicle or workplace property and
equipment
3.

Dismantle/Install Clutch mechanism


3.1 Similar parts accurately tagged/marked
3.2 Damage parts replaced as per repair manual (pressure plate, clutch disc,
release bearing, pilot bearing)
3.3 Installation procedure as per manufacturer specification
3.4 Work completed without causing damage to any workplace property or vehicle

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

4. Overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism


4.1 Worn out rubber cups and O ring & replaced as per prescribed procedures
4.2 Master cylinder scored
4.3 Value checked for damage
4.4 Replacement of Hydraulic clutch mechanism as per repair manual
4.5 Master cylinder, slave, booster tested as per procedure.
5. Perform clutch failure analysis
5.1 Failure identified accurately and corresponding repair recommended
6. Set/Adjust clutch system component
6.1 Clutch pedal free play set as manufacturer specifications
6.2 Clutch finger height adjusted as per standard
6.3 Special service tools used according to manufacturers manual instructions
7. Bleeding clutch hydraulic system
7.1 Checking of fluid leakage, level and air lack as per manufacturers manual
7.2 Bleeding procedure as per manufacturer instruction/specifications
7.3 Work completed without causing damage to any workshop property or vehicle.
Pre-requisite :
1.

NC I certification

2.

Before you tackle this module you must complete first the module in Performing
Under Chassis Preventive Maintenance

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #1 :

Diagnose clutch failure/problem

Assessment Criteria :
1.

Clutch should engage/disengage engine and transmission smoothly

2.

Work in diagnosing clutch failure/problem is completed in accordance with company


standard operating procedure and manufacturer specification, manuals using
specified tools and equipment

Resources :
1.

Light duty vehicle

2.

Hydraulic lifer

3.

Manual/references

4.

Clean rag

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 1 : Diagnose clutch failure/problem
Learning Activities
1. Information on clutch
Read information on clutches:
a. Purpose of the clutch
b. Location of the clutch
c. Construction of the clutch
d. Operation of the clutch
e. Clutch linkage
f. Friction disk
g. Types of clutch
h. Diaphragm spring clutch
i. Centrifugal clutch
j. Hydraulic clutch
k. Clutch safety switch
2. Reading and interpreting clutch
trouble diagnosis chart
Read clutch trouble diagnosis chart
and detailed explanations of the
trouble causes and corrections
3. Diagnosing clutch system
a. Ask your instructor for the tools
and equipment to use on actual
trouble diagnosis.
b. Diagnose clutch trouble by
following clutch diagnosis chart.
c. Recommend check or correction
to diagnosed troubles.
After doing activity 1 to 3 be sure to
answer self check No. 1

Code No.

ALT723310

Special Instructions

See Information Sheet #1, page 25 in the


resource pack.

See information sheet on clutch trouble chart


Instructional vehicle
Set of tools

See information sheet from 2-1 to 2-13

Answer self-check No. 1

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

Self-check
No.1

UC
Module
LO No. 1

Service clutch system


Servicing clutch system
Diagnosing clutch failure/problem

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Was clutch pedal checked if it touches the floor board?


2. Was clutch checked if it slips when engaged?
3. Was clutch checked if it spins or drags while being engaged?
4. Was Clutch checked if it chatters or grabs while being engaged?
5. Was clutch checked for related vibration?
6. Was clutch checked for noise on clutch area?
7. Was clutch checked for pedal pulsation?

All items should receive a "YES" response.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #2 :

Pull out and mount clutch component parts

Assessment Criteria :
1.

Dismounting procedure follows repair manual

2.

Bolt tightened following correct torque, sequence and pattern

3.

Work is completed without causing damage to vehicle or workplace property and


equipment

Resources :
1.

Light duty vehicle

2.

Hydraulic lifter/mechanical lifter

3.

Support stand

4.

Transmission jack

5.

Basic hand tools

6.

Manuals/references

7.

Clean rag

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 2 : Pull out and mount clutch component parts
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

1. Preparing tools and equipment needed

Set of tools and equipment

See Operation Sheet


Clutch Unit and Release Mechanism
4-1 to 4-3

a. Mount clutch component parts by


following procedures.

See Operation Sheet


4-1 to 4-3

After doing activity 1 to 3, answer self-check


No.2

See Self-Check No. 2

a. Ask your instructor for the tools and


equipment you will use in pulling out
and mounting clutch component parts.
2. Pulling out clutch component parts
a. Pull out clutch component parts by
following the procedure.
3. Mounting clutch assembly

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

Self-check
No. 2

UC
Module
LO No. 2

Service clutch system


Servicing clutch system
Pulling out and mounting component parts

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Was dismounting and mounting of clutch component parts followed


repair manual?
2. Were bolts tightened by following the correct torque, sequence and
pattern?
3. Were right tools used for the job?
4. Were hydraulic fluids and special tools are handled with precaution?
5. Were personal safety procedures applied?
6. Were work completed without causing damage to any workplace
property or vehicle?

All items should receive a "YES" response.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #3 :

Dismounting/installing clutch mechanism

Assessment Criteria :
1.

Similar parts accurately tagged/marked

2.

Damage parts replaced as per repair manual (pressure plate, clutch disc, release
bearing, pilot bearing)

3.

Installation procedure as per manufacturer specification

4.

Work completed without causing damage to any workplace property or vehicle

Resources :
1.

Light duty vehicle

2.

Hydraulic lifter/mechanical lifter

3.

Support stand

4.

Transmission jack

5.

Basic hand tools

6.

Manuals/references

7.

Clean rag

8.

Replacement parts

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 3 : Dismounting/installing clutch mechanism
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

1. Preparing service manual tools and


equipment needed
a. Ask your instructor for the tools and
equipment you will use in dismantling
and installing clutch mechanism.

Set of tools
Equipment
Service manual

See Operation Sheet


No. 4-1

See Operation Sheet


No. 4-2

See Operation Sheet


No. 4-3

See self-check No. 3

2. Dismantling clutch mechanism


a. Read procedures and follow the
procedures in dismantling clutch
mechanism
3. Replace damage parts
a. Check and inspect parts
b. Replace damage parts
4. Installing clutch mechanism
a. Read procedures and follow
procedures in installing clutch
mechanism.
After doing activity 1 to 4 answer self-check
No.3

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

10

Self-check
No. 3

UC
Module
LO No. 3

Service and repair clutch system


Servicing and repairing clutch system
Dismantling/installing clutch mechanism

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Were similar parts accurately tagged/marked?


2. Were damage parts replaced as per repair manual ?
3. Was clutch mechanism dismantled/installed as per repair manual?
4. Were the right tools used for the job?
5. Were personal safety procedures applied?
6. Was work completed causing damage to any workplace property or
vehicle?

All items should receive a "YES" response.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

11

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #4 :

Overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism

Assessment Criteria :
1. Worn out rubber cups and O ring & replaced as per prescribed procedures
2. Master cylinder scored
3. Value checked for damage
4. Replacement of Hydraulic clutch mechanism as per repair manual
5. Master cylinder, slave, booster tested as per procedure.
Resources :
1. Light duty vehicle
2. Basic hand tools
3. Manuals/references
4. Clean rag
5. Replacement parts

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

12

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 4 : Overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

1. Disassembling hydraulic clutch


mechanism
a. Read procedures in disassembling
hydraulic clutch mechanism.
b. Ask your instructor for the tools and
equipment you will use in
disassembling hydraulic clutch
mechanism.
c. Disassemble hydraulic clutch
mechanism by following the
procedure.
d. Observe safety precautions in
disassembling hydraulic clutch
mechanism.

See Operation Sheet


Nos. 5-1, 5-2, 6-1, 6-2
See Set of tools
Light duty vehicle

2. Checking hydraulic clutch parts


a. After disassembling hydraulic clutch
mechanism, clean and inspect parts
by following the procedures.
3. Replacing damaged parts
a. After checking hydraulic clutch parts,
replace all defective parts by following
the procedure.

See Operation Sheet


Nos. 5-3, 6-3

a. Assemble hydraulic clutch mechanism


parts by following the procedures in
the service and repair manual.

See Operation Sheet


Nos. 5-3, 6-3
Replacement parts

b. Fill clutch master cylinder with fluid


and bleed before installing.

See Operation Sheet


Nos. 5-4, 6-4

See self-check No. 4

4. Assembling hydraulic clutch mechanism.

After doing activity 1 to 4 answer self-check


No. 4

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

13

Self-check
No. 4

UC
Module
LO No. 4

Service clutch system


Servicing clutch system
Overhauling hydraulic clutch mechanism

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Were worn out rubber cups and O-ring replaced as per prescribed
procedures?
2. Was master cylinder scored?
3. Was valve checked for damage?
4. Were replacements of hydraulic clutch mechanism as per
repair manual?
5. Were master cylinder, slave, booster tested as per procedure?

All items should receive a "YES" respon se.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

14

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #5 :

Perform clutch failure analysis

Assessment Criteria :
1.

Failure identified accurately and corresponding repair recommended

Resources :
1.

Light duty vehicle

2.

Basic hand tools

3.

Manuals/references

4.

Clean rag

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

15

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 5 : Perform clutch failure analysis
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

1. Reading and understanding different clutch


failure.
a. Read and interpret clutch trouble
diagnosis chart.
b. Read clutch trouble shooting.

See Information Sheet


Nos. 2-1 to 2-13

See your data on LO 1

See clutch trouble diagnosing chart


Make Data on your findings

See your Data on trouble diagnosis

See trouble and diagnosis chart

See self-check No. 5

2. Verify symptom of clutch failure


a. With the data gathered in diagnosing
clutch trouble in LO # 1 verify the trouble
or complain.
3. Identify clutch failure and possible causes
of failure.
a. Identify the trouble and possible cause
of failure.
b. Make a data on the trouble and causes
of failure.
4. Confirm clutch failure and recommend
corresponding repair.
a. By using your data gathered, make a
confirmation on the trouble/failure.
b. Make a recommendation for a
corresponding repair.
After doing activity 1 to 3, answer self-check
No.5

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

16

Self-check
No. 5

UC
Module
LO No. 5

Service clutch system


Servicing clutch system
Performing clutch failure analysis

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Was clutch failure analysis performed?


2. Were failure identified accurately and corresponding repair
recommended?
3. Were safety procedures observed?
4. Were personal safety procedures applied?
5. Was work completed without causing damage to any workplace
property or vehicle?

All items should receive a "YES" response.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

17

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #6 :

Set/Adjust clutch system component

Assessment Criteria :
1.

Clutch pedal free play set as manufacturer specifications

2.

Clutch finger height adjusted as per standard

3.

Special service tools used according to manufacturers manual instructions

Resources :
1.

Light duty vehicle

2.

Special service tools

3.

Basic hand tools

4.

Manuals/references

5.

Clean rag

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

18

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 6 : Set/Adjust clutch system component
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

1. Adjust clutch finger height

Set of tools
Equipment
Manuals
See Operation Sheet
No. 4-3

a. Prepare the tools and equipment


needed.
b. Adjust clutch pedal free play by
following the procedures on the
service manual.

See Operation Sheet


Nos. 4-3, 9-1, 9-2

After doing activity 1 to 3, answer self-check


No.6

See self-check No. 6

a. Prepare tools and equipment needed.


b. Adjust clutch finger height by following
procedures on service manual.
2. Adjust clutch pedal free play

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

19

Self-check
No. 6

UC
Module
LO No. 6

Service clutch system


Servicing clutch system
Setting/adjusting clutch system components

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Was clutch pedal free play set as per manufacture's specificatio n?


2. Was clutch finger height adjusted as per standard ?
3. Were special service tools used according to manufactures manual
instructions?
4. Was safety procedures observed?
5. Were personal safety procedures applied?
6. Was work completed without causing damage to workplace property
or vehicle?

All items should receive a "YES" response.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

20

Qualification

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Service Clutch System

Module Title

Servicing Clutch System

Learning Outcome #7 :

Bleeding clutch hydraulic system

Assessment Criteria :
1.

Checking of fluid leakage, level and air lack as per manufacturers manual

2.

Bleeding procedure as per manufacturer instruction/specifications

3.

Work completed without causing damage to any workshop property or vehicle

Resources :
1.

Light duty vehicle

2.

Basic hand tools

3.

Manuals/references

4.

Clean rag

5.

Brake fluid

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

21

LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning Outcome # 7 : Bleeding clutch hydraulic system
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

1. Preparing tools supplies and equipment


needed.
a. Ask your instructor for the tools,
supplies and equipment you will use in
bleeding hydraulic system.

Set of tools
Equipment
Supplies

See Operation Sheet


7-1

See self-check No. 7

2. Bleeding hydraulic system as per original


equipment manufacturer.
b. Read the procedures in bleeding
hydraulic brake system.
c. Bleed the hydraulic clutch system by
following the procedures in the service
and repair manual.
After doing activity 1 and 2 answer self-check
No.7.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

22

Self-check
No. 7

UC
Module
LO No. 7

Service clutch system


Servicing clutch system
Bleeding clutch hydraulic system

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. Were checking of fluid leakage, level, and air lack as per


manufacturers manual?
2. Was bleeding Procedure as per manufacturers instruction/
specification?
3. Were safety procedures in handling brake fluid observed ?
4. Was work completed without causing damage to any workplace
property or vehicle?

All items should receive a "YES" respon se.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

23

RESOURCE PACK
Servicing Clutch System
Automotive Servicing NC II

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

24

INFORMATION SHEET
1. CLUTCHES

INTRODUCTION
This module discusses the purpose, construction, operation, trouble diagnosis, removal,
overhaul, adjustment, reassemble and installation of clutches used on passenger cars. The
clutch is located in the power train, between the engine and the transmission (Fig. 1-1).

Fig. 1-1. Location of clutch in the power train

1-1 PURPOSE OFTHE CLUTCH


The clutch is used on cars with transmission that are shifted by hand, it allows the driver to
engage the engine to, or disengage the engine from, the transmission. The driver operates the
clutch with a foot pedal, which is linked to the clutch (Fig. 1-2). When the clutch is applied, the
power from the engine can flow through the clutch and enter the transmission. When the clutch
is released by the drivers foot pressure, the engine is disengaging from the transmission. Then
no power can flow through. It is necessary to interrupt the flow of power-to disengage the
engine-in order to shift the gears.

Fig. 1-2 Sectional view of clutch, with the linkage to the clutch pedal.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

25

1-2 LOCATION OF THE CLUTCH


The clutch is located just behind the engine, between the engine and the transmission (Fig.
1.1). Figure 1.3 shows the parts of one type of clutch. When the parts are assembled, the
flywheel is bolted to the crankshaft. The friction disk is mounted on the end of the transmission
shaft, which sticks through the clutch housing. The pressure- plate-and-cover assembly is
bolted to the flywheel. Then, the other parts are installed (1-3). All parts are enclosed by the
clutch housing, which is a protective cover. The clutch linkage pivots on the clutch housing; the
housing also serve as part of the transmission housing.

Fig. 1-3 Disassembled view of clutch and flywheel assembly

1-3 CONSTRUCTION OF THE CLUTCH


There are different kinds of clutches. We
start by looking at one of the most common
types, the coil-spring clutch.. This clutch has
a series of coil springs set in a circle. Figures
1-2 and 1-4 show sectional and cutaway
views of this clutch. Figure 1-5 shows this
type of clutch disassembled, without the
flywheel or the transmission shaft. The
friction disk (or driven plate) is about a foot in
diameter, and it is mounted on the
transmission input shaft. The disk has splines
on the input shaft (see Fig.1-4). This splines
consist of two sets of teeth. The internal teeth
in the hub of the friction disk match the
external teeth on the shaft. When the friction
disk is driven, it turns the transmission input
shaft. The end of the transmission input shaft
rides in a pilot bushing in the crankshaft (see
Fig.1-6).
Code No.

ALT723310

Fig. 1-4 Partial cut away view of a typical clutch

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

26

The clutch also has a pressure-plate assembly, which includes a series of coil springs.
The pressure-plate-and-cover assembly is attached to the engine flywheel (Fig.1-3). The
springs provide the pressure to hold the friction disk against the flywheel. Then, when the
flywheel turns, the pressure plate and the friction disk also turn. However, when the clutch is
released, the spring pressure is relieved so that the friction disk and the flywheel can rotate
separately.

Fig. 1-5 Disassembled view of a nine-spring clutch and flywheel.

Fig. 1-6 Sectional view of the clutch in the engage position (at left). Major clutch parts
are shown to the right.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

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1-4 OPERATION OF THE CLUTCH


Lets look at the operation of the coil-spring clutch. Figure 1-6 shows, at the left, a
sectional view of the clutch. The major parts are shown disassembled at the right; nine springs
are used, although only three are shown. Now look at the view ate the left. Note that the springs
are held between the clutch cover and the pressure plate. In the condition shown in Fig.1-6, the
springs are clam[ping the friction disk (driven plate) tightly between the flywheel and the
pressure plate (at the right in Fig.1-7 As we mentioned, this forces the friction disk to rotate with
the flywheel. In other words, the clutch is engaged.

Fig. 1-7. Basic clutch elements, showing clutch action. Left, clutch released. Pressure
plate and friction disk have moved away from flywheel. Right, clutch applied. Pressure
plate is clamping friction disk to flywheel so all have to rotate together.

Fig. 1-8. Sectional view of the clutch in the release position (at left). Major parts are
shown in the right.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

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Now look at what happens when the driver operates the clutch pedal to disengage, or
release, the clutch (Fig. 1-8). When the clutch is released, the linkage from the pedal forces
the release bearing inward (to the left in Fig.1-8). Note that the release bearing is also called
the throwout bearing. We will get to the linkage to the linkage in 1-5. First lets see what
happens when the release bearing is forced to the left.

Fig. 1-9. The two limiting positions of the pressure plate and release lever.

As the release bearing moves to the left, It pushes against the inner end of three release
levers (also called release fingers).The release levers are pivoted on eye-bolts, as shown in
Figs. 1-2, 1-4, and 1-8. when the inner ends of the release levers are pushed in by the release
bearing, the outer end are moved to the right. This motion is carried by struts to the pressure
plate (Fig.1-9). The pressure plate is thus moved to the right (in Fig. 1-8), and the springs are
compressed. With the spring pressure off the friction disk, space appears between the disk, the
flywheel, and pressure plate (at the left in Fig. 1-7). Now the clutch is released, and the flywheel
can rotate without sending power through the friction disk.
Releasing the clutch pedal takes the pressure of the release bearing. The spring push the
pressure plate to the left (in Fig. 1-6). The friction disk is again clamped tightly between the
flywheel and the pressure plate (at the right in Fig. 1-7). The friction disk must again rotate with
the flywheel. In other words, the clutch is engaged.
Note that there must be some free play in the linkage system. That is, the clutch pedal
must move an inch or so before all the play in the linkage is taken up and the release bearing
comes up against the release levers. Without this free play, the release bearing would be riding
on the end of the release levers. This would cause rapid wear of the bearing and release levers.
1-5 CLUTCH LINKAGE
The clutch linkage carries the movement of the clutch pedal to release bearing. A variety of
clutch linkages are used. One of the simplest arrangements is shown in Fig. 1-2. Here, pushing
down on the clutch pedal pushes the linkage, as shown by the arrows. This action causes the
clutch fork to pivot and force the release (throwout) bearing in (at the left in Fig. 1-2); a typical
clutch-fork assembly, with the release (throwout) bearing, is shown in Fig.1-10. Note that the
clutch fork has a spring-held dust seal to prevent dust from entering the clutch.
On the linkage for the coil spring clutch shown on previous illustrations, there is an over
-center spring, as shown in Fig. 1-11. The purpose of the over center spring is to reduce the
Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

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pedal pressure required in the final stages of declutching. Note that, in the illustrations of the
coil-spring clutch, the coil springs have to be compressed to produce declutching. This requires
an increasing amount of pressure to reach the fully declutched position. The over center
spring is arranged so that, as the lever to which it is attached pivots upward, the spring tension
is applied to the clutch-pedal lever. That is the over-center spring helps, in the final stages of
declutching, to take up the coil-spring pressure.
The linkage for the diaphragm-spring clutch (Info Sheet No. 8) does not require an overcenter spring. This is because no great increase in pedal pressure is require to complete
declutching.

Fig.1-10. Clutch-fork assembly with release (throwout) bearing.

Fig. 1-11. One clutch-pedal-and-linkage arrangement

Code No.

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Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

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1-6 FRICTION DISK


The friction disk, or driven plate, is shown partly cut away in fig 1-12. It consists of a hub
and a plate, with facings attached to the plate. The friction disk has cushion springs and
dampening springs. The cushion springs are attached to the springs. When the clutch is
engaged, the springs compress slightly to take up the shock of engagement. The dampening
springs are spiral springs set in a circle around the hub. The hub is driven through these
springs. They help to smooth out the power pulses from the engine so that the power flow to the
transmission is smooth.
Note that there are grooves in both sides of the friction-disk facings. These grooves
prevent the facings from sticking to the flywheel face and pressure plate when the clutch is
released. The grooves break any vacuum that might form and cause the facings to stick to the
flywheel or pressure plate.

Fig. 1-12 Friction disk, or driven plate. Facings and drive washer have been cut away to
show springs

1-7 TYPES OF CLUTCHES


We have already described the nine-spring clutch (illustrated in figs.1-4 to 1-9). Now lets
look at other types of clutches.
A three-coil spring clutch is shown in Fig. 1-13. It works the same way as the nine-spring
clutch. There are also the diaphragm-spring clutch, the centrifugal clutch, and the hydraulic
clutch.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

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Fig.1-13. Exploded view of a three spring clutch

Fig. 1-14. Flat-finger diaphragm-spring clutch in sectional view, from the top.

1-8 DIAPHRAGM-SPRING CLUTCH


The
diaphragm-spring
is
shown
disassembled in Fig. 1-2. When the release
bearing is forced inward against these fingers,
the entire diaphragm dishes inward. This
action is somewhat like the flexing action of
the bottom of an oil can. The movement lifts
the pressure plate away from the friction disk.
Fig. 1-15 and 1-16 shows the two positions of
the diaphragm spring and the clutch parts.

Code No.

ALT723310

Fig. 1-15. Diaphragm-spring clutch in the engage


position.

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

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32

There is another model of


diaphragm-spring clutch in which the
tapering fingers are bent outward. This
clutch operates in the manner,
however. The diaphragm-spring clutch
also comes in a two-friction-disk
design. The purpose of adding a
second friction disk is to permit the
clutch to carry heavier loads. This
clutch is used in trucks and some
cars.

Fig. 1-16. Diaphragm-spring, clutch in the release position.

1- 9 CENTRIFUGAL CLUTCH
Some clutches have a centrifugal mechanism to increase clutch-holding power at higher
speeds. As the clutch speed increase, weights on the clutch-release levers are forced outward
by centrifugal force. With this arrangement, fairly light coil pressure springs can be used, so that
the clutch operates without too much foot pressure. But at the same time, the centrifugal effect
produce higher pressure against the friction disk with increasing speed. This provides the extra
holding power the clutch needs at higher speeds.
Figure 1-17 shows one arrangement.
The release levers have weights on their
outer ends. As centrifugal force acts on the
weights, the lever press down tightly against
pressure plate. This adds to the coil - spring
force holding the friction disk locked
between the pressure plate and the
flywheel. Figure 1-5 shows a somewhat
different arrangement. Here, the centrifugal
effect acts on the roller that are placed
under the release levers. This centrifugal
effect wedges the roller between the cover
and pressure plate to produce the increased
pressure on the pressure plate.
Fig.1-17. Cutaway view of centrifugal clutch

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

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1-10 HYDRAULIC CLUTCH


The hydraulic clutch is used in vehicles
in which the clutch is located far from the
foot pedal. Instead of trying to install a
complicated linkage between the clutch
pedal and the clutch, car manufacturer use a
hydraulic device. Figure 1-18 shows the
clutch, the hydraulic cylinders, and the
clutch pedal. The arrangement is also used
on heavy-duty clutches with high clutchspring pressure. High clutch-spring pressure
means high clutch-pedal pressure .The
hydraulic clutch can be used to reduce the
amount of pedal pressure needed.

Fig. 1-18. Hydraulic operated, coil spring clutch

Now lets see how the hydraulic clutch works. When the driver pushes down on the clutch
pedal, a push rod is forced down into a master cylinder. As the push rod moves down into the
master cylinder, the rod forces a piston down into the cylinder. This action puts pressure on the
fluid in the cylinder, and some of the fluid is forced out. The fluid flows through a tube and into a
servo cylinder at the clutch. The servo cylinder also has a piston. The fluid, flowing into the
servo cylinder from the master cylinder, forces the piston in the servo cylinder to move release
lever, thus releasing the clutch.
1-11 CLUTCH SAFETY SWITCH
Late-model cars have a clutch safety switch that prevents starting if the clutch is engaged.
That is, the clutch pedal must be depressed at the same time that the ignition switch is turned to
START. The movement of the clutch pedal closes the safety switch so that the circuit to the
starting motor can be completed. The purpose of the switch is to prevent starting with the
transmission in gear and the clutch engaged. If this happened, the engine might start and the
car might move before the driver was ready for it. And that could lead to accidents.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

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2. CLUTCH TROUBLE SHOOTING


2-1 CLUTCH TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART
COMPLAINT
1. Clutch slips while
engaging

2. Clutch chatters
grabs when
engaging

POSSIBLE CAUSES
a. Binding or incorrectly adjusted
linkage
b. Broken engine mount
c. Internal damage or out of adjustment
or

3. Clutch spins or
drags when
disengaged
4. Clutch noises

5. Clutch pedal
pulsation

6. Rapid friction-diskfacing wear

7. Clutch pedal stiff

8. Hydraulic-clutch
troubles

Code No.

ALT723310

a.
b.
c.
d.

Binding linkage
Broken engine mount
Misaligned clutch housing
Internal problems: disk hub binding
on shaft; grease or oil on facing;
loose facing

a. Linkage out of adjustment


b. Broken engine mount
c. Internal problems: worn facing; weak
springs; oil or grease on facings;
incorrect lever adjustment
a. Worn disk hub or shaft
b. Misalignment

c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Worn throwout bearings


Worn pilot bearing in crankshaft
Linkage pilots need lubrication
Release levers rubbing
Worn out or weak retracting springs
(diaphragm)
a. Misalignment

b. Flywheel not seated or warped


c. Release levers out of adjustment
d. Warped disk or pressure plate

CHECK OR CORRECTION
Lubricate, adjust; check for
broken return spring
Replace
Remove clutch for service
Lubricate, adjust
Replace
Realign or replace
Free disk hub on shaft;
replace disk, pressure-plate
assembly
Readjust
Replace
Replace disk, pressure-plate
assembly; adjust levers.

b. Crack in flywheel or pressure-plate


faces
c. Internal problems: weak spring; oil on
facing; release lever out of
adjustment
d. Linkage binding or out of adjustment
a. Binding in linkage
b. Pedal shaft binding on floor-board
seal
c. Over-center spring out of adjustment
or broken

Replace
Align transmission and clutch
with engine
Replace
Replace
Lubricate
Adjust
Replace
Align transmission and clutch
with engine
Seat flywheel on flange or
replace
Adjust
Replace
Avoid riding clutch, speed
shifts, popping clutch
Replace

Replace parts; adjust levers

Lubricate; adjust

Lubricate, adjust
Free up seat, lubricate

Adjust, replace

a.

Hydraulic clutches can have


any of the troubles listed in
the chart.Also, if the
hydraulic system is not
working, gear clash and
shifting troubles will result.

a. Driver abuse

Gear clashing, trouble shifting into


and out of mesh.

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

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35

2-2 CLUTCH SLIPS WHILE ENGAGED


This is extremely hard on the clutch facing and mating surfaces on the flywheel and
pressure plate. The slipping clutch generates considerable heat. The clutch facings wear
rapidly and may char and burn. The flywheel face and pressure plate wear. They may groove,
crack, and score. The heat in the pressure plate can cause the springs to lose their tension,
and makes this situation worse.
Clutch slipping is very noticeable during acceleration, especially on a standing start or in
low gear. A rough test for clutch slipping can be made by starting the engine, setting the hard
brake, and shifting to high gear. Then slowly release the clutch while accelerating the engine
slowly. If the clutch is in good condition, it should hold so that the engine stalls immediately
after clutch engagement is completed. The dynamo meter can also be used to detect a slipping
clutch. Connect a tachometer to read engine RPM. Run the vehicle at intermediate speed at
part throttle. Note the engine RPM and speedometer reading. Then push the accelerator all the
way down, using the tachometer to load the engine while opening the throttle. Any increase in
engine RPM at the same vehicle speed is clutch slippage.
Several conditions can cause clutch slippage. The linkage may not be correctly adjusted.
If the correct adjustment reduces pedal lash too much, the throwout bearing may be up against
the release fingers even with a fully released pedal. This can take up part of the spring
pressure, as the pressure plate is not locking the friction disk to the flywheel. The remedy here
is to readjust the linkage.
Binding linkage or broken return spring may prevent full return of the linkage to the engage
position. Replace the spring if it is broken. Lubricate the linkage. Much of the clutch linkage is
pivoted in nylon or neoprene bushing. These should be lubricated with silicone spray, not with
oil.
NOTE: If the linkage is not at fault, the slippage could be caused by a broken engine
mount. This could allow the engine to shift enough to replace the mount.
If none of the above is causing slipping, then the clutch should be removed for service.
Conditions in the clutch that could cause slipping include worn friction -disk facings, weak
pressure-plate or diaphragm spring, oil or grease on the facing, or incorrectly adjusted release
levers.
The recommendation of most manufacturers is to replace the disk and pressure-plate
assembly if there is internal wear or damage, or weak springs. Pressure -plate assemblies can
be rebuilt, but this is a job for the clutch rebuilding shop
NOTE: One clue to a slipping clutch is metal and facing material in the clutch housing.
This can be detected by removing the inspection cover from under the clutch and flywheel.
CAUTION: If the clutch disk and pressure- plate assembly are replaced, the flywheel
should be carefully inspected for damage-wear, cracks, grooves, and checks. Any of
these, if well advanced, will require replacement of the flywheel. Putting a new disk facing
against a damaged flywheel will lead to rapid facing wear.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

36

2-3 CLUTCH CHATTERS OR GRABS WHEN ENGAGING


This trouble is most likely inside the clutch. The clutch will require removal for service or
replacement. Before this is done, however, check the clutch linkage to make sure it is not binding. If it
binds, it could release suddenly to throw the clutch into quick engagement, with a resulting heavy jerk.
A broken engine mount can also cause the problem. The engine is free to move
excessively, and this can cause the clutch to grab or chatter when engaging. The remedy is to
replace the mount.
Inside the clutch, the trouble could be due to oil or grease on the disk facings or to glazed
or loose facings. It could also be due to binding of the friction-disk hub on the clutch shaft. This
latter condition requires cleaning of the splines in the hub and on the shaft, and lubrication of
the splines.
NOTE: Clutch chatter` after removal and installation of an engine may be caused by
misaligned clutch housing. Some clutch housing have small shims that could be lost
during engine or clutch housing removal. These shims must be replaced in the same
positions to assure housing alignment. It is also possible for dirt to get between the clutch
housing and cylinder block, or either could be nicked or burred. Any of these could throw
off the housing alignment.
Other clutch problem-glazed or loose facings oil or grease on the facings-require disk and
pressure-plate replacement.
2.4 CLUTCH SPINS OR DRAGS WHEN DISENGAGED
The clutch friction disk spins briefly after disengagement, when the transmission is neutral.
This normal spinning should not be confused with dragging clutch. When the clutch drags the
friction disk is not being fully released from the flywheel or pressure plate as the clutch pedal is
depressed. Therefore, the friction disk continues to rotate with or to rub against the flywheel or
pressure plate. The common complaint of the driver is that he has trouble shifting the
automobile into gear without clashing; the dragging disk keeps the transmission rotating.
The first thing to check with this condition is the pedal-linkage adjustment. If there is
excessive pedal lash, or free travel, even full movement of the pedal will not release the clutch
fully. If making a linkage adjustment does not correct the problem, then the trouble is in the
clutch.
Internal clutch troubles could be due to a warped friction disk or pressure plate or loose
friction-disk facing. One cause of loose friction-disk is abuse of the clutch. This includes
"popping" the clutch for a quick getaway (letting the clutch out suddenly with the engine turning
at high rpm), slipping the clutch for drag-strip starts, and increasing engine power output
("souping up" the engine)
The release levers may not be correctly adjusted so they do not fully disengage the clutch.
Also, the friction-disk hub may be binding on the clutch shaft. This condition is corrected by
cleaning and lubricating the splines.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

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2-5 CLUTCH NOISES


Clutch noises are usually most noticeable when the engine is idling. To determine the
cause, note whether the noise is heard when the clutch is engaged, when it is disengaged, or
during pedal movement to engage or disengage the clutch.
Noises while the pedal is in motion are probably due to dry or dirty linkage pivot points.
Clean and lubricate them as already noted in 2-2.
Noises heard in neutral, but that disappear when the pedal is depressed, are transmission
noises. (This could also be due to a dry or worn pilot bushing in the crankshaft.) They are
usually rough bearing sounds. The cause is worn transmission bearings, sometimes caused by
clutch -popping and shifting gears too fast. These throw an extra load on the transmission
bearings, as well as on gears.
Noises that come from the clutch when engaged could be due to a friction-disk hub that is
loose on the clutch shaft. This would require replacement of the disk or clutch shaft, or perhaps
both if both are excessively worn. Friction-disk dampener springs that are broken or weak will
cause noise. This requires replacement of the complete disk. Misalignment of the engine and
the transmission will cause a backward-and-forward movement of the friction disk on the clutch
shaft. The alignment must be corrected.
Noises that come from the clutch when it is disengaged could be due to a clutch throwout
bearing that is worn, is binding or has lost its lubricant. Such a bearing squeals when the clutch
pedal is depressed and the bearing comes into operation. The bearing should be lubricated or
replaced. If the release levers are not properly adjusted, they rub against the friction-disk hub
when the clutch pedal is depressed. The release levers should be readjusted. If the pilot
bearing in the crankshaft is worn or lacks lubricant, it produces a high-pitched whine when the
transmission is in gear, the clutch is disengaged, and the car is stationary. Under these
conditions, the clutch shaft, which is piloted in the bearing in the crankshaft, is stationary, but
the crankshaft and bearing are turning. The bearing should be lubricated or replaced.
In the diaphragm-spring clutch, worn or weak retracting springs will cause a rattling noise
when the clutch is disengaged and the engine is idling. Eliminate by replacing the spring without
removing the clutch from the engine.
2-6 CLUTCH-PEDAL PULSATION
Clutch-pedal pulsation is noticeable when a slight pressure is applied to the clutch pedal
with the engine running. The pulsation's can be felt by the foot as a series of slight pedal
movements. As pedal pressure is increased, the pulsation's cease. This condition often
indicates trouble that must be corrected before serious damage to the clutch results. One
possible cause is misalignment of the engine and transmission. If the two are not in line, the
friction disk or other clutch parts move back and forth with every revolution. The result is rapid
wear of clutch parts. Correction is to detach the transmission, remove the clutch, and the check
the housing alignment with the engine and crankshaft. At the same time, the flywheel can be
checked for wobble. A flywheel can be checked for wobble. A flywheel that is not seated on the
crankshaft flange will also produce clutch-pedal pulsations. A flywheel that is not seated on the
crankshaft flange should be removed and remounted to make sure that it seats evenly.
If the clutch housing is distorted or shifted so that alignment between the engine and the
transmission has been lost, it is sometimes possible to restore alignment. This is done by
Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

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installing shims between the housing and the engine block and between the housing and
transmission case. Otherwise, a new clutch housing will be required.
NOTE: These cause of clutch-pedal pulsation-housing misalignment, bent flywheel,
flywheel not seated on the crankshaft flange-are not conditions that would usually arise
during normal operation. They would most likely result from faulty reassembly after a
service job.
Another cause of clutch-pedal pulsations is uneven release-lever adjustment (so that
release levers do not meet the throwout bearing and pressure plate together). Still another is a
warped friction disk or pressure plate. Release levers of the adjustable type should be
readjusted. A warped friction disk must be replaced. If the pressure plate is out of line because
of a distorted clutch cover, the cover sometimes can be straightened to re store alignment.
2-7 RAPID WEAR OF FRICTION-DISK FACINGS
Rapid wear of the friction-disk facings is caused by slippage between the facings and the
flywheel or pressure plate. Thus, if the driver has the habit of "riding" the clutch ( that is, if he
keeps his foot resting on the clutch), part of the pressure-plate spring pressure will be taken up
so that slipping may take place. Likewise, frequent use of clutch, incorrect clutching and
declutching, over loading the clutch, and slow clutch release increase clutch-facing wear.
Speed, or "snap" gear shifting, increase engine output ("souping up"), and drag-strip starts
shorten clutch life. Also, the installation of wide over size tires increases the clutch load.(Some
manufacturers will not warranty the clutch if oversize tires are installed.)
Rapid facing wear after installation of a new friction disk can be cause by heat check and
cracks in the flywheel and pressure-plate faces. The sharp edges act like tiny knives. They
shave of a little of the facing during its engagement. This is the reason we mentioned, in 2-2,
that when the friction disk is replaced, the pressure-plate assembly should also be replaced. In
addition, the flywheel face should be inspected, and if it, is damage, the flywheel should be
replaced
Several conditions in the clutch can cause rapid friction-disk dust facing wear. For
example, weak or broken pressure springs will cause slippage and facing wear. In this case,
this spring must be replaced, if the pressure-plate or friction disk is warped or out of line, it must
be replaced or, realignment must be reestablished. In addition, improper pedal-linkage
adjustment or binding of the linkage may prevent full spring pressure from being applied to the
friction disk. Whit less than full spring pressure, slippage and wear may take place. The linkage
must be readjusted and lubricated at all points of friction.
2-8 STIFF CLUTCH PEDAL
A stiff clutch pedal, or a pedal that is hard to depress, is likely to result from lack of
lubricant in the clutch linkage, from binding of the clutch-pedal shaft in the floor board seal, or
from misaligned linkage parts that are binding. In addition, the over center-spring (on car so
equipped) may be out of adjustment or broken. Also, if the clutch pedal has been bent so that it
rubs on the floor board, it may not operate easily. To remedy in each of these cases is obvious.
Parts must be realigned, lubricated or adjusted as necessary.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

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2-9 CLUTCH LINKAGE ADJUSTMENT


Clutch-pedal-linkage adjustment may be required from time to time to compensate for
friction-disk-facing wear. The linkage also requires periodic lubrication. The adjustment must
provide the proper amount of free clutch-pedal travel (also called pedal lash). The free pedal is
the pedal movement before the throw out bearing comes up against the clutch-release lever.
After this occurs, there is a definite increase in the amount of pressure required to actuate the
release levers and disengage the clutch. If the pedal lash is too great, the clutch may not
release fully. This could cause clutch spinning during disengagement 2-4. If the pedal lash is
too small, the clutch may not engage fully 2-2. This could cause rapid friction-disk-facing wear.
Methods of adjustment vary in different cars. Refer to the manufacture's shop manual for details
and specification.
2-10 CLUTCH REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT
Variations in construction and design require that different removal and replacement
procedures be used on different cars. First, the transmission must be removed. Then the
clutch housing pan or flywheel lower cover must be removed, and the clutch linkage detached.
Finally, the clutch can be detach from the flywheel and removed.
2-11 CLUTCH OVERHAUL
No general instructions that would apply to all types of clutch can be given. Whenever a
clutch is to disassembled, serviced, reassembled, and adjusted, refer to shop manual
describing these procedures.
NOTE: If the trouble is located in the clutch itself, replacement of the complete clutch
assembly is recommended by most manufacturers' shop manuals. At one time, these
shop manual carried instructions on the disassembly and repair of clutches. But now,
complete replacement is the way to go. Some clutch specialize in rebuilding clutches.
2-12 HYDRAULIC-CLUTCH TROUBLES
The hydraulic clutch (1-10) can display any of the troubles previously discussed, plus
several in the hydraulic system. These special troubles include gear clashing and difficult in
shifting into or out of gear. The cause is usually loss of fluid in the hydraulic system. This
prevents the hydraulic system from completely declutching for gear shifting. The hydraulic
system is checked and serviced in the same way as the hydraulic system in hydraulic brakes.
Leaks may be located in the master cylinder or servo cylinder, or in the line or connections
between the two.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

40

2-13 INSPECTING AND SERVICING CLUTCH PARTS


The various parts can be checked as follows after the clutch is removed from the vehicle.
1. Use compressed air to blow dust out of the clutch housing. Check for oil leakage through
the engine rear main bearing oil seal and the transmission drive pinion seal. If leakage is
noted, replace the seal.
2. Check the friction face of the flywheel for uniform appearance and for cracks, grooving, and
uneven wear. If there is uneven wear, check the flywheel runout with a dial indicator. A
warped or otherwise damage flywheel should be replaced.
3. Check the bushing in the end of the crankshaft. Replace if it is worn.
4. Check the journal on the end of transmission input (clutch) shaft for wear. Replace if it is
worn.
5. Handle the disk with care. Do not touch the facings Any trace of oil or grease will cause
clutch slippage and rapid facing wear. Replace the disk if the facing show evidence of oil or
grease, wear to within 0.015 inch (0.381 mm) of the rivet heads, or in the facing are lose.
The disk should also be replaced if there is other damage-worn splines, loose rivets,
evidence of heat, etc.
6. Wipe the pressure-plate face with solvent. Check the face for flatness with a straightedge.
Check the face for burned, cracked, grooved and ridged areas.
NOTE: If the friction disk is replaced, then as a rule the pressure plate assembly should
also be replaced.
7. Check the condition of the release levers. The inner ends should have a uniform wear
pattern.
8. Test the cover for flatness on a surface plate.
9. If any of the pressure-plate parts are not up to specifications, replace the assembly. Also
replace the friction disk.
10. Examine the throwout bearing. The bearing should turn freely when held in the hand under
a light thrust load. There should be no noise. The bearing should turn smoothly, without
roughness. Note the condition of the face where the release lever touch. Replace the
bearing if it is not in good condition.
CAUTION: Never clean the bearing in solvent or degreasing compound. It is prelubricated
and sealed, and such cleaning would remove the lubricant and ruin the bearing.
11. Check the fork for wear on throwout-bearing attachments or other damage. On reassembly,
be sure that the dust seal or cover is in good condition to prevent dirt from entering.
NOTE: Steam cleaning can cause clutch trouble. Steam may enter and condense on the
facing of the friction disk, pressure plate, and flywheel. The disk facing will absorb moisture.
If the car is allowed to stand for a while with the facing wet, they may adhere to either the
flywheel or the pressure plate. This means the clutch would not disengage. To prevent this
from happening, start the engine immediately after steam cleaning. Slip the clutch in order
to heat up and dry off the facings.
Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

41

OPERATION SHEETS
3. CLUTCH TROUBLE/FAILURE
3-1 CLUTCH SLIPPING
1. Insufficient clutch free play travel: Check and adjust the free play travel to specification.
2. Worn driven plate facing: Check and renew the clutch driven plate..
3. Weak or broken pressure plate diaphragm spring: Check and renew the clutch pressure
plate.
4. Worn or scored flywheel face: Check and renew or machine the flywheel.
5. Worn or scored pressure plate face: Check and renew the pressure plate assembly.
6. Oil soaked driven plate facings: Renew the clutch driven plate. Locate and rectify the oil leak
NOTE: In most cases clutch slippage
is first indicated by a marked
increase in the engine speed, for no
apparent reason, when driving up a
steep hill.
The clutch condition can be positively
identified as follows: With the
handbrake firmly applied and the
wheels choked, place the transaxle in
top gear and with the engine speed
at approximately 1500 rpm, slowly
release the clutch pedal. Clutch
slippage is evident if the engine does
not stall. Carry out the test as quickly
as possible to prevent any further
clutch damage. Ensure that the
clutch pedal free travel is correct
before carrying out this test.

Fig. 3-1 Renew the clutch driven plate if the friction plate
material is worn to within 0.3 mm of the rivets.

3-2 CLUTCH WILL NOT DISENGAGE


1. Excessive clutch pedal free travel: Check and adjust the free travel to Specifications.
2. Air in the hydraulic system: Check the hydraulic system for fluid leaks and bleed the system.
3. Low fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir: Replenish the fluid in the master cylinder
reservoir and bleed the system. Check the hydraulic system for leaks.
4. Clutch slave cylinder piston sticking and not having full travel in the cylinder: Check and
overhaul the slave cylinder.
5. Leaking master cylinder or slave cylinder piston seals: Overhaul the master cylinder or slave
as necessary.
6. Faulty clutch release mechanism: Check and repair the release mechanism.
Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

42

7. Clutch driven plate distorted: Renew the driven plate.


8. Driven plate hub tight on the input shaft splines: Check and renew the driven plate or the
input shaft.
NOTE: If reverse gear can be selected without any sign of gear clash when the
engine is idling, this is a good indication that the clutch is disengaging.
If the clutch will not disengage, in most cases it is due to air in the hydraulic system
or excessive clutch pedal free travel. Check the interior floor covering behind the
clutch pedal for master cylinder fluid leaks. Ensure that all adjustments are correct
and bleed the hydraulic system before removing the clutch for inspection.
3.3 CLUTCH SHUDDER
1. Oil on the driven plate facings: Check and
renew the clutch driven plate. Locate and
rectify the oil leak.
2. Scored pressure plate or flywheel face:
Check and renew the pressure plate and/or
the flywheel.
3. Loose and broken engine mounting: Check
and renew the engine mounting as
necessary.
4. Loose or damage driven plate hub: Check
and renew the clutch driven plate.

Fig. 3-2. Check all engine mountings for


deterioration and looseness.

5. Loose drive plate facings: Renew the


clutch drive plate.
6. Cracked pressure plate face: Renew the
clutch pressure plate assembly.
NOTE: Clutch shudder is usually most evident when reversing up an incline.
As loose or damage engine mounting are a case of clutch shudder, thoroughly check the
engine mounting hardware for damage or looseness before removing the clutch for
inspection.
3-4 CLUTCH GRABS
1. Loose and broken engine mountings: Tighten or renew the engine mounting as necessary.
2. Oil on the driven plate facings: Check and renew the driven plate. Locate and rectify the oil
leak.
3. Cracked pressure plate face: Renew the clutch pressure plate assembly.
NOTE: Thoroughly check the engine mounting rubbers and mounting hardware for damage
or looseness before removing the clutch for inspection.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

43

3-5 CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING NOISE


1. Dry or seized bearing: Check and renew the release bearing.
2. Damaged pressure plate diaphragm spring: Check and renew the clutch pressure plate
assembly.
NOTE: Push the release lever towards the
slave cylinder, with the engine running, to
check for release bearing noise. If the noise
causes, the release bearing is faulty. If the
noise is still evident, the gearbox input shaft
bearing may be faulty.

Fig. 3-3 Check the diaphragm spring fingers for


scoring and damage.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

44

4. CLUTCH UNIT AND RELEASE MECHANISM


4-1 TO REMOVE CLUTCH UNIT
1. Remove the transaxle.
2. Suitably mark the pressure plate cover in relation to the flywheel to ensure replacement to
the original position.
3. Progressively loosen and remove the
pressure plate retaining bolts, working in
a diagonal sequence across the
assembly.
4. Remove the pressure plate and driven
plate assemblies from the flywheel noting
the installation direction of the driven
plate hub.
5. Remove the release lever and bearing
assembly as one unit from the transaxle
clutch housing by pulling on the release
lever adjacent to the pivot to release the
retaining clip.
6. Slide the release bearing from the lever.
7. If necessary, remove the rubber dust
excluder from the clutch housing.

Fig 4-1. Clutch release mechanism

4-2 TO CHECK AND INSPECT CLUTCH SYSTEM


1. Check the drive plate facing for wear, glazing or oil contamination. Renew the driven plate if
the facings are oil soaked, highly glazed or worn to within 0.3 mm of the rivet heads. If the
facings are contaminated with oil the source of the leak must be located and rectified.
2. If the driven plate is serviceable do not allow any cleaning solvent, grease or oil to
contaminate the plate facings.
3. Mount the driven plate between centers and check the runout using a dial gauge. Renew the
driven plate if the exceeds 0.8mm.
4. Check the driven plate for worn splines and
loose or damaged hub cushion springs. If
necessary, renew the driven plate.
5. Check the pressure plate assembly for
wear on the diaphragm spring fingers,
cracked diaphragm spring and a distorted
cover. Check the pressure plate face for
wear, scoring, heat cracks or burn marks.
Minor scoring or burn marks should be
corrected with sandpaper. If necessary,
renew the pressure plate assembly.
Fig. 4-2. Flywheel, driven plate and pressure plate

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

45

6. Check the flywheel for heat cracks, burn marks or scoring. Minor scoring or burn marks
should be corrected with sandpaper. If necessary, renew the pressure plate assembly.
7. Using a dial gauge, check the flywheel face runout. If the flywheel is scored or the runout
exceeds 0.1mm, renew the flywheel
8. Rotate the release bearing by hand and check that no roughness, wear and lack of
lubrication is evident. Do not wash the bearing in solvent as the internal lubricant will be
washed away.
9. Check the release lever, retaining clip, dust excluder and pivot for cracks, wear, bend and
damage. Renew the unserviceable parts as necessary.

Fig.4-3. Dismantled clutch release components

4-3 TO INSTALL THE CLUTCH AND ASSOCIATED PARTS


1. Sparingly lubricate the release lever contact surfaces, the release bearing contact surfaces
and transaxle input shaft splines with molybdenum disulfide lithium base grease. Slide the
driven plate onto the transaxle primary shaft and remove the excess grease.
2. Install the release bearing to the release lever ensuring that the spring clip is correctly
installed.
3. Ensure that the release lever retaining clip is installed in the release lever and install the
lever and bearing assembly to the transaxle. Position the lever over the pivot and press on
the lever firmly until the retaining clip is forced over the head of the pivot. Check the release
lever and bearing for smooth, free operation.
4. Install the dust excluder to the clutch housing.
5. Install the driven plate to the flywheel in the direction noted on removal ensuring that the
raised section of the driven plate is facing away from the flywheel. Using a clutch aligning
tool, align the center of the driven plate with the crankshaft. Alternatively, use a 16mm
diameter round section of wood or metal approximately 150 mm in length.
6. Install the pressure plate to the flywheel. If the original pressure is being installed, that the
mating marks are aligned.
7. Install and tighten the pressure plate retaining bolts progressively and evenly in a diagonal
sequence to the specified torque ensuring that the bolts adjacent to the locating dowels are
tightened first. Withdraw the aligning tool.
10. Install the transaxle to the vehicle as described in the Manual Transaxle section.
11. Check and adjust the clutch pedal height and free travel as described later in this section.
12. Road test the vehicle and check for correct clutch operation.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

46

5. MASTER CYLINDER
5-1 TO REMOVE AND INSTALL MASTER CYLINDER
1. Working inside the vehicle, remove the screws retaining the lower dash panel to the
dashboard below the steering column.
2. While supporting the lower dash panel, disconnect the wiring from the radio/cassette
speaker and the instrument cluster rheostat. Disconnect the ventilation duct and rest the
lower dash panel on the floor with the bonnet cable still connected.
3. Remove the clip, clevis pin and washer retaining the master cylinder push rod to the clutch
pedal.
4. Remove the master cylinder mounting nuts.
5. Disconnect the hydraulic pipe from the clutch master cylinder. Plug the pipe to prevent the
entry of dirt.
6. Withdraw the master cylinder to the vehicle ensuring that clutch fluid is not spilt on the
vehicle painted surfaces.

Fig. 5-1 Location of the master cylinder.

NOTE: on some model, it will be necessary to loosen the brake booster retaining nuts
sufficiently to allow the clutch master cylinder to be maneuvered clear of the brake booster.
Installation is a reversal of the removal procedure with attention to the following points:
1. Tighten the hydraulic pipe union and the mounting nuts to the specified torque.
2. Where applicable, tighten the brake booster retaining nuts to the specified torque specified
in the brake section.
3. Bleed the clutch hydraulic system as described later in this section.
4. Road test the vehicle and check for correct clutch operation. If necessary, check and adjust
the clutch pedal height and free travel as described later in this section.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

47

5-2 TO DISMANTLE MASTER CYLINDER


1. With the master cylinder removed as previously described, drain and discard the fluid from
the master cylinder reservoir.
2. On models manufactured prior to September 1989, remove the bolt that retains the reservoir
to the master cylinder.
3. On models manufactured from September 1989,drive out the roll pin that retains the
reservoir to the master cylinder using a pin punch and withdraw the reservoir from the
master cylinder. Discard the grommet.
4. Remove the rubber boot from the master cylinder. Depress the pushrod into the master
cylinder bore, remove the retaining snap ring and withdraw the pushrod and washer.
5. Tap the end of the cylinder on a piece of timber and remove the piston and spring in the
master cylinder bore. Alternatively, low air pressure maybe carefully applied to the hydraulic
pipe aperture, using a wad cloth to cover the end of the bore in case the piston ejects with
force.

Fig. 5-2 Clutch master cylinder components.

5-3 TO CLEAN AND INSPECT MASTER CYLINDER


1. Thoroughly clean the master cylinder components and the inside of the cylinder with
methylated spirits. Do not use petrol or other mineral spirits. Dry the components with
compressed air if available.
2. Inspect the cylinder bore for pitting, damage or wear. Renew the master cylinder assembly if
pitting or wear is evident.
3. Inspect the piston for wear and return springs for breakage and loss of tension. Renew as
necessary.
4. Check the pushrod for wear and damage. Clean any sediment which may have
accumulated in the bottom of the reservoir.
NOTE: the seals should not be removed from the piston assembly. If the condition of the
seals or the piston is suspect, it is advisable to install a genuine repair kit which contains a
preassembled piston and other components necessary to perform a thorough overhaul and
ensure long service from the unit.
Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

48

5-4 TO ASSEMBLE MASTER CYLINDER


NOTE: if the seals have been removed from the piston, ensure that new seals are installed
with the clip facing towards the return spring.
1. Lightly smear the piston contact surfaces with lithium soap base glycol grease.
2. Install the return spring to the piston and install the piston to the cylinder bore ensuring that
the lip of the seal are not turned back on installation.
3. Install the push rod and washer and, while depressing the push rod, install the snap ring to
the groove in the end of cylinder bore. Push the cylinder boot unto the cylinder.
4. Ensure that the piston returns fully and contacts the snap ring. Check that the operation of
the piston is smooth.
5. Using a new grommet where applicable, install the reservoir to the cylinder.
6. Install the reservoir retaining bolt or roll pin. The roll pin should protrude 1.5- 3.5mm from
each side of the reservoir. Pour a small quantity of brake fluid into the reservoir and, pump
the piston into the bore until fluid emerges from the hydraulic pipe aperture.
7. Install the master cylinder to the vehicle as previously described.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

49

6. SLAVE CYLINDERS
6-1 TO REMOVE AND INSTALL CLUTCH SLAVE
1. Disconnect the hydraulic pipe from the slave cylinder. Plug the pipe to prevent the entry of dirt and the loss of
fluid.
2. Remove the bolts retaining the slave cylinder the trasaxle and withdraw the slave cylinder from the vehicle.

Fig. 6-1. Location of the clutch slave cylinder. Top radiator hose removed.
Installation is just the reverse of the removal procedure with attention to the following points:
1. Tighten the hydraulic pipe union and the mounting bolts to the specified torque.
2. Bleed the hydraulic system as prescribed later in this section.
3. Road test the vehicle and check for correct operation.
6-2 TO DISMANTLE CLUTCH SLAVE CYLINDER
1. With the slave cylinder removed
as previously described, remove
the rubber dust boot and push
rod from the end of the slave
cylinder.
2. Tap the end of the cylinder on a
piece of lumber and remove the
piston and spring from the
cylinder bore. Alternatively, low
air pressure may be carefully
applied to the hydraulic pipe
aperture, using a wad of cloth to
cover the end of the bore in case
the piston ejects with force.

Fig. 6-2 Clutch slave cylinder components.

3. If necessary, remove the bleeder valve from the cylinder body.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

50

6-3

TO CLEAN AND INSPECT SLAVE CYLINDER

1. Thoroughly clean the slave cylinder components and the cylinder bore with methylated
spirits. Do not use petrol or other mineral spirit.
2. Inspect the cylinder bore for pitting, damage or wear. Renew the cylinder assembly if pitting
or wear is evident.
3. Inspect the piston for wear and the spring for breakage and lose of tension. Renew as
necessary.
4. Inspect the needle valve for blockage. Clear or renew as necessary.
NOTE: The seals should not be removed from the piston assembly. If the condition of the
seal or the piston is suspect, It is advisable to install a genuine kit which contains a
preassembled piston and other components necessary to perform a thorough overhaul and
ensure long service from the unit.
6-3 TO ASSEMBLE SLAVE CYLINDER
NOTE: If the seal has been removed from the piston, ensure that new seal is installed with
the front seal lip toward the push rod end of the piston and the rear seal lip towards the
spring.
1. Lightly smear the piston and seals with lithium soap base glycol grease.
2. Install the spring to the cylinder bore with the larger end of the spring entering first.
3. Install the piston to the cylinder bore ensuring that the lip of the seals are not turned back on
installation. Push the piston fully into the cylinder.
4. Install the pushrod to the rubber boot ensuring that the end of the boot correctly locates in
the pushrod groove.
5. Install the boot and pushrod to the slave cylinder ensuring that the end of the boot correctly
locates in the slave cylinder groove.
6. If removed, install the bleeder valve to the cylinder body.
7. Install the slave cylinder to the vehicle as previously described and bleed the hydraulic
system as described later in this section.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

51

7. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
7-1

TO BLEED HYDRAULIC CLUTCH SYSTEM

1. Ensure hydraulic cylinder is maintained at least three quarters full during the following
operations.
2. Remove the rubber cap from the slave cylinder bleeder valve and attach a transparent hose
to the bleeder. Immerse the open end of the hose in a container partially filled with clean
brake fluid.
3. Have an instant slowly pump the clutch pedal several times and hold the pedal down.
4. Open the bleeder valve to allow the fluid and air to flow into the container. Close the bleeder
valve when all fluid and air stops flowing from the hose and slowly release the clutch pedal.
5. Repeat operations (3) and (4) until a clear stream of fluid, void of air bubbles flows into the
jar.
6. Remove the hose, install the rubber cap to the bleeder and check the operation of the
clutch. If

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

52

8. CLUTCH PEDAL
8-1 TO REMOVE AND INSTALL CLUTCH PEDAL
1. Working inside the vehicle, remove the
screws retaining the right hand side lower
dash panel to the dashboard below the
steering column.
2. While supporting the lower dash panel,
disconnect
the
wiring
from
the
radio/cassette speaker and the instrument
cluster rheostat. Disconnect the ventilation
duct and rest the lower dash panel on the
floor with the bonnet cable still connected.
3. Disconnect the clutch pedal return spring.
4. Remove the clutch clevis pin and washer
retaining the master cylinder pushrod to the
clutch pedal.
5. Remove pivot nut and bolt and widraw the
clutch pedal, sleeve and bushes.
6. Inspect the pivot bolt and bushes for wear
and damage. Check the pedal for crack
and wear in the pivot bush bore. Renew
the required parts as necessary.

Fig. 8-1 Clutch pedal components.

Installation is the reversal of the removal procedure with attention to the following points:
1. Lubricate the pivot bush and the pivot bolt with multipurpose grease.
2. Tighten the pivot bolt and nut to the specified torque.
3. Check the clutch pedal height and free travel as describe later in this section.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

53

9. CLUTCH ADJUSTMENT
9-1 TO ADJUST CLUTCH PEDAL HEIGHT
1. Fold back the carpet below the clutch pedal
to expose the asphalt sheet covering the
floor panel.
2. Measure the distance from the center of
the pedal pad and floor panel as shown in
the illustration.
3. If the distance is not within specifications,
adjust the pedal stop bolt until the pedal
height is correct. Check the pedal free
travel.

Fig. 9-1 Clutch pedal height and free travel


measuring points.
A = 5-15 mm, B = 139 mm.

9.2 TO ADJUST CLUTCH PEDAL FREE TRAVEL


1. Position a ruler to the side of the clutch pedal with the edge resting on the floor panel.
2. Depress the pedal lightly by hand until resistance from the master cylinder piston is felt and
measure the pedal free travel on the ruler as shown in the illustration. Compare the free
travel to specifications.
3. If necessary, loosen the pushrod locknut and lengthen or shorten the pushrod as necessary
until the specified free travel is obtained. Tighten the locknut securely.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

54

WRITTEN TEST
DIRECTIONS:
The Purpose of this test is to find out if you know how to service and repair clutch system
of an automobile. The test contains 15 multiple-choice questions. Circle the letter on the answer
sheet for each question. DO NOT write on this test, 100% mastery is required.
1. Another name for clutch shaft:
A. Input shaft
B. Output shaft
C. Disk shaft
D. Pressure plate shaft
2. A mechanism in the power train that engage and disengage the engine power to the
transmission:
A. Clutch
B. Transmission
C. Propeller shaft
D. Differential
3. A protective cover that houses the clutch pressure plate assembly:
A. Clutch fork
B. Clutch disk
C. Clutch pressure plate
D. Clutch housing
4. A mechanism that carries the movement of the clutch pedal to the release bearing:
A. Clutch fork
B. Clutch linkage
C. Throw-out bearing
D. Clutch housing
5. It disengage the pressure plate from the friction lining causing the clutch plate to disengage
with the flywheel:
A. Clutch fork
B. Clutch linkage
C. Throw-out bearing
D. Clutch linkage
6. The mechanism that holds the throw-out bearing or release bearing and is pivoted at the
hub:
A. Clutch pressure plate
B. Clutch disk
C. Clutch fork
D. Clutch linkage
7. A series of coil springs/fingers or diaphragm and smooth pressure plate which presses
flywheel against the clutch disk or drive plate:
A. Clutch pressure plate
B. Clutch disk
C. Clutch fork
D. Throw-out bearing
Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

55

8. It consist of cushion spring, damper spring and asbestos lining, riveted or bonded:
A. Clutch linkage
B. Output shaft
C. Release bearing
D. Clutch disk
9. Other name for release bearing:
A. Throw-out bearing
B. Push bearing
C. Insert bearing
D. Ball bearing
10. It consist of a round shaft of steel with a series fingers pointing toward the center and they
are lighter, cheaper and reduce pedal pressure:
A. Hydraulic clutch
B. Cable type clutch
C. Coil spring clutch
D. Diaphragm spring clutch
11. It has a series of coil spring set in a circle and the friction disk is about a foot in diameter and
is mounted on the transmission input shaft:
A. Cable type clutch
B. Hydraulic clutch
C. Diaphragm spring clutch
D. Coil spring clutch
12. In hydraulic clutch system:
A. Pushes fork
B. Pushes fork backward
C. Pushes steady
D. Pushes forward
13. The lubricant used in clutch disk spline is:
A. Gear oil
B. Grease
C. Fluid
D. Motor oil
14. The clutch disk is placed between the:
A. Transmission and flywheel
B. Flywheel and bell housing
C. Flywheel and pressure plate
D. Pressure plate and bell housing
15. In a cable linkage clutch mechanism:
A. Pull fork forward
B. Pull steady
C. Push backward
D. Pull fork backward

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

56

ANSWERS KEY TO WRITTEN TEST


1.

Input shaft

2.

Clutch

3.

Clutch housing

4.

Clutch linkage

5.

Throw-out bearing

6.

Clutch fork

7.

Clutch pressure plate

8.

Clutch disk

9.

Throw-out bearing

10. Diaphragm spring


11. Coil spring clutch
12. Pushes fork backward
13. Grease
14. Flywheel and pressure plate
15. Pull fork forward

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

57

ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
EVIDENCE PLAN
Competency
Standard:

Automotive Servicing NC II

Unit of
Competenc
y:

Service Clutch System

Question/Interview

Demonstration

Ways in which evidence will be collected:


[tick the column]

3. Dismantle/install clutch mechanism

4. Overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism


5. Perform clutch parts failure analysis

6. Set/adjust clutch system component

7. Bleed clutch hydraulic system

The evidence must show that the candidate


1. Diagnose clutch failure problem
2. Pull out and mount clutch component parts

NOTE: *Critical aspects of competency


Clutch should disengage/engage engine power to transmission smoothly.

Prepared
by:

Date:

Checked by:

Date:

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

58

DEMONSTRATION
Candidate name:
Assessor name:
Unit of competency:

Service Clutch System

Competency standards:

Automotive Servicing NC II

Date of assessment:
Time of assessment:
Instructions for demonstration
Prepare the tools and equipment needed, and have the demonstration in servicing and
repairing clutch system.
Materials and equipment
1. Set of tools

2. Light duty vehicle

3. Support stand

4. Transmission jack

5. Hydraulic lifter

6. Manuals

7. Replacement parts

8. Special service tools

9. Clean rag

OBSERVATION

to show if evidence is
demonstrated

During the demonstration of skills, did the candidate:

Yes

No

N/A

1. Diagnosed clutch failure/problem?


2. Pulled out and mounted clutch component parts?
3. Dismantled/installed clutch mechanism?
4. Overhauled hydraulic clutch mechanism?
5. Performed clutch part failure analysis?
6. Set/adjusted clutch system components?
7. Bleed clutch hydraulic system?

The candidates demonstration was:


Satisfactory

Code No.

ALT723310

Not Satisfactory

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

59

Demonstration [continued]
QUESTIONS

Satisfactory
response

The candidate should answer the following questions:

Yes

No

1. How did you diagnose the clutch failure/problem?


2. How did you pulled out and mount clutch component parts?
3. How did you dismantled and installed clutch mechanism?
4. How did you perform clutch part failure analysis?
5. How did you set and adjusted clutch system components?
6. How did you overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism?
7. Hoe did you bleed hydraulic clutch system?

The candidates underpinning knowledge was:


Satisfactory
Not Satisfactory

Feedback to candidate:

The candidates overall performance was:


Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Candidate signature:

Date:

Assessor signature:

Date:

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

60

QUESTIONING / INTERVIEW
Candidate name:
Unit of competency:

Service Clutch System

Competency
standards

Automotive Servicing NC II

Oral/interview questions

Satisfactory
response
Yes

No

1. State at least 3 common failures/problems of clutch?


2. What is the purpose of the clutch? (Acceptable answer refer to
Information Sheet No.1)
3. How does the clutch engage and disengage engine and
transmission? (Acceptable answer refer to Information Sheet
No.1)
4. What are the types of clutched? (Acceptable answer refer to
Information Sheet No.1)
5. How does air bubbles affects the hydraulic system? (Acceptable
answer refer to Clutch trouble shooting chart)

The candidates underpinning knowledge was:


Satisfactory

Not satisfactory

Assessor
Signature

Date

Feedback to candidate:

Acceptable answers are:


1. Clutch slips while engaging
2. Clutch chatters or grabs
3. Clutch noisy
Assessor signature:

Code No.

ALT723310

Date:

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

61

PERFORMANCE TEST
Learner's Name

Date

Competency: Service Clutch System


1st
Directions
CALL INSTRUCTOR, ask instructor to
assess your performance in the following
critical task and performance criteria
below
You will be rated based on the overall
evaluation on the right side.

Test Attempt
2nd
3rd

OVERALL EVALUATION
Level
PERFORMANCE LEVELS
Achieved
4 - Can perform this skill without supervision and
with initiative and adaptability to problem situations.
3 - Can perform this skill satisfactorily without
assistance or supervision.
2 - Can perform this skill satisfactorily but requires
some assistance and/or supervision.
1 - Can perform parts of this skill satisfactorily, but
requires considerable assistance and/or supervision.
Instructor will initial level achieved.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
For acceptable achievement, all items should receive a "Yes" or "N/A"
response.
1. Clutch should engage/disengage engine and transmission smoothly

Yes

No

N/A

2. Work in diagnosing clutch failure/problem is completed in accordance with


company standard operating procedure and manufacturer specification,
manuals using specified tools and equipment
3. Dismantling procedures followed repair manual
4. Bolt tightened following correct torque, sequence and pattern
5. Similar parts accurately tagged/marked
6. Damage parts replaced as per repair manual (pressure plate, clutch disk,
release bearing, pilot bearing)
7. Installation procedures as per manufacturer specification
8. Worn out rubber cups and O-ring are replaced as per prescribed procedures
9. Master cylinder scored
10. Valve checked for damage
11. Replacement for hydraulic clutch mechanism as per repair manual
12. Master cylinder, slave, booster tested as per procedure
13. Failure identified accurately and corresponding repair recommended
14. Clutch pedal free play set as manufacturer specification
15. Clutch finger height as per standard
16. Special service tools used according to manufacturer manual instruction
17. Checking of fluid leakage, level and air lack as per manufacturers manual
18. Bleeding procedure as per manufacturer instruction/specification
19. Work completed without causing damage to workshop property or vehicle

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

62

Learners diary
DIARY NOTES
Record important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you in providing further
details to an Assessor.
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Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

63

Record of Achievement
Servicing Clutch System
LO

1: Diagnose clutch failure/problem

Performance Criteria:
1. Clutch should engage/disengage engine and transmission smoothly
2. Work is completed in accordance with company standard operating procedure and
manufacturers specification, manuals using specified tools and equipment.
Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.


Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

64

LO

2: Pull out and mount clutch component parts

Performance Criteria:

1. Dismounting procedure follows repair manual


2. Bolt tightened following correct torque, sequence and pattern
3. Work is completed without causing damage to vehicle or workplace property and equipment
Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.


Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

65

LO

3: Dismantle/Install Clutch mechanism

Performance Criteria:

1. Similar parts accurately tagged/marked


2. Damage parts replaced as per repair manual (pressure plate, clutch disc, release bearing, pilot
bearing)
3. Installation procedure as per manufacturer specification
4. Work completed without causing damage to any workplace property or vehicle
Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.
Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

66

LO

4: Overhaul hydraulic clutch mechanism

Performance Criteria:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Worn out rubber cups and O ring & replaced as per prescribed procedures
Master cylinder scored
Value checked for damage
Replacement of Hydraulic clutch mechanism as per repair manual
Master cylinder, slave, booster tested as per procedure.

Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.
Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

67

LO

5: Perform clutch failure analysis

Performance Criteria:

1. Failure identified accurately and corresponding repair recommended


Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.
Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

68

LO : Set/Adjust clutch system component


Performance Criteria:

1. Clutch pedal free play set as manufacturer specifications


2. Clutch finger height adjusted as per standard
3. Special service tools used according to manufacturers manual instructions
Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.
Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

69

LO : Bleeding clutch hydraulic system


Performance Criteria:

1. Checking of fluid leakage, level and air lack as per manufacturers manual
2. Bleeding procedure as per manufacturer instruction/specifications
3. Work completed without causing damage to any workshop property or vehicle.
Comments:
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Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.
Learner signature:.........................................................................
Trainer signature:...........................................................................
Date:..............................................................................................

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

70

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Clutch - The mechanism in the power train that connects the engine crankshaft to or
disconnect it from the transmission and thus the remainder of the power train.
Flywheel - The rotating metal wheel attached to the crankshaft which help even out the power
surges from the power stroke and also serve as part of the clutch and engine
cranking system.
Friction - The resistance to motion between two bodies in contact with each other.
Friction disk - A flat disk, faced on both sides with friction materials and splined to the clutch
shaft. It is positioned between the clutch pressure plate and the engine flywheel.
Also called clutch disk and driven plate.
Master cylinder - The liquid-filled cylinder in the hydraulic braking system or clutch where
hydraulic pressure is developed by depression of a foot pedal.
Overruning clutch drive - A type of clutch drive which will transmit rotary motion in one
direction only; when rotary motion attempt to pass through in the other direction,
the driving member overruns and does not pass the motion to the other member.
Widely used as the drive mechanism for starting motor.
Centrifugal type clutch - this type has centrifugal weight that increase the clamping force of
the springs as engine speed increases. The clutch utilizes fairly light coil pressure
springs to operates it without too much foot pressure.
Stiff clutch pedal - a pedal that is hard to depress.
Spline - Slot or groove cut in shaft or bore; a splined shaft on to which a hub, wheel, gear etc.,
which matching splines in its bore is assembled so that the two must turn
together.
Throw-out bearing - The bearing that can be moved into the release levers by clutch-pedal
action so as to cause declutching, or a disconnection between the engine
crankshaft and power train.
Diaphragm Spring Clutch - is a round sheet of steel with a series of fingers pointing toward
the center.
Clutch fork - is the mechanism that holds the throw-out bearing or release bearing and is
pivoted at the clutch hub.
Clutch housing - is a protective cover that houses the clutch pressure plate assembly and
forms parts of the transmission assembly.
Clutch linkage - or mechanism carries the movement of the clutch pedal to the release
bearing.
Coil spring clutch - it has a series of coil springs set in a circle. The friction disc( or driven
plate ) is about a foot in diameter and is mounted on the transmission input shaft.
The splines has two sets of teeth, the internal teeth and the external teeth.
Engage - connect power from engine to transmission and to rear wheels.
Disengage - disconnect power from engine to transmission and to rear wheels.
Pressure plate - The part of the clutch which exert pressure against the friction disk; it is
mounted on and rotates with the flywheel.

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

71

Code No.

ALT723310

Servicing Clutch System

Date: Developed Date: Revised


July 1, 2008
June 4, 2004

Page #

72