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com

www.elsevier.com/locate/optlastec

a literature review

A.P. Mackwooda , R.C. Craferb;

a Physics

b Abington

Consultants, 78 High Street, Great Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AE, UK

Received 24 November 2003; received in revised form 23 February 2004; accepted 24 February 2004

Abstract

The main emphasis of this review is on thermal modelling and prediction of laser welding in metals. However as similar techniques

are employed to model conventional welding processes such as arc, resistance and friction, as well as related processes such as alloying,

cladding and surface hardening, part of this review is given over to the modelling of these processes where appropriate. The time frame

of the review is up to the year 2002.

? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Modelling; Simulation; Laser welding; Welding; Surface treatment; Literature review

1. Introduction

The source material for this review is taken from a Doctoral Thesis entitled Numerical Simulations of Thermal

Processes and Welding by one of the authors (A.P.M),

submitted to the University of Essex, UK, in January

2003. References are therefore included up to the year

2002. One principal outcome of this doctoral work is a

=exible thermal modelling code named TS4D 1 (Thermal Simulation in 4 Dimensions, there being 3 spatial

dimensions + time). It is the culmination of modelling expertise at Essex University over a period of more than a

decade by the team supervised by Professors Phiroze Kapadia and John Dowden. TS4D can handle multiple sources

in both surface and volume format, surface sinks, multiple

material workpieces, a variety of surface cooling mechanisms, and produces both steady state and time-dependent

predictions.

Although the main emphasis of this review is on prediction of laser welding in metals, similar techniques

are employed to model conventional welding processes

such as arc, resistance and friction, as well as alloying,

cladding and surface hardening. Indeed modellers in one

E-mail address: roger@abingtonconsultants.co.uk (R.C. Crafer).

1 Details of TS4D can be found on the Abington Consultants website

abingtonconsultants.co.uk.

0030-3992/$ - see front matter ? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.optlastec.2004.02.017

of this review is given over to related processes where

appropriate.

Laser keyhole welding is often referred to as a high energy density or power beam technique. The fact that absorption of a laser beam increases with temperature has enabled

the use of the laser beam as a practical heat source for welding. For a CO2 laser, the absorptivity of carbon steel [1]

varies from 4% at room temperature to more than 30% at

melting temperature and reaches about 90% at vaporising

temperature.

For all laser welding irrespective of the type of laser

employed, energy is absorbed at the surface of the metal

in a layer only a few nanometres thick by a process known

as Fresnel Absorption. If the intensity is high enough,

vaporisation occurs with some of the metal electrons becoming free (ionisation). These free electrons then absorb

energy directly from the beam by a process known as inverse Bremsstrahlung. This results in higher temperatures,

increased ionisation and increased absorption leading to

vaporisation of the surface which forms a small depression

in the workpiece. As the depression deepens, a keyhole

forms and the laser light is scattered repeatedly within

it, so that Fresnel Absorption occurs at the keyhole walls

too, thus increasing the coupling of laser energy into the

workpiece. As the keyhole develops, the power of the

source can now be absorbed at greater depths, not just at

100

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

also occurs in the plasma vapour within the keyhole that

can emerge as a plume which can obstruct or defocus the

beam (especially with CO2 lasers). However, the plume

can also radiate energy back to the specimen. While the

laser energy is applied, surface tension and gravitational

forces have the eKect of closing the keyhole whereas vapour

pressure and ablation help keep it open. Laser welding is

usually realised at speeds much higher than conventional

processes.

All the references discussed in this review are based on

solutions of the heat conduction equation. The analytical solutions on which most models have been based are described

in Conduction of Heat in Solids by Carslaw and Jaeger [2].

This contains a collection of solutions for most simple geometries and shapes of heat source, both steady state and

time-dependent. Readers interested in the mathematics and

solution methods are referred to this work.

2. Basic analytic solutions

2.1. Moving point source in a medium of in=nite thickness

Rosenthal [3] published one of the earliest analytic solutions applicable to welding. He considered a point source

incident on, and moving relative to, an inDnite material. His

solution simulates surface melt runs relating to conduction

welding. The solution can be rendered Dnite in depth and

width (assuming the source moves along the length of the

material) by using the method of images. Since he did not

account for the Dnite area of a real source, it is inaccurate

in the region where the point source is incident.

2.2. Moving line source in an in=nite or semi-in=nite

material

Rosenthal also derived the solution for an inDnite line

source extending through the depth of the material, its axis

perpendicular to the top and bottom surfaces. This 2-D solution simulates full penetration welding of sheets of any thickness and can also be applied to conduction, or nonfully penetrating welding of thicker sheets provided the length scale

(the thermal diKusivity divided by the processing speed) is

large enough. For aluminium this value is 6 mm and for

steel it is 0:6 mm. A recurring problem with such point

and line source models is that they lead to inDnite temperatures at the source.

With these solutions, Rosenthal produced an approximate single formula capable of predicting the time and rate

of cooling for a wide variety of thicknesses of steel, and

for ranges of temperature and welding conditions. For both

high- and low-processing speeds, Swift-Hook and Gick [4]

approximated Rosenthals solution and predicted that the

proportion of power needed to cause melting as a function

of the incident power reaches a maximum of 48%.

obtained a solution due to a cylindrical beam by integrating the line source solution over the area of a circle from

which they were able to evaluate the cut speed (i.e. translation speed) as a function of the incident power per unit

thickness. They found that the eNciency of the cutting process could be maximised for a certain power density and cut

speed, depending on the jet diameter. Their results, other

than in a few cases, were quite diKerent from those found

experimentally, but fared no worse than the listed results of

other authors.

A review of mathematical models of laser cutting of steels

has been presented by ONeill and Steen [6].

2.3. Continuous Gaussian surface source in an in=nite

solid

By integrating point and line source solutions over an area

it is possible to calculate the heating from top-hat, Gaussian

and cylindrical sources, etc. Lax [7] studied the steady-state

temperature distribution due to a stationary Gaussian beam

in a semi-inDnite cylindrical medium, while Nissim et al. [8]

presented a 3-D solution for a moving elliptical Gaussian

heat source. For the case of silicon and gallium arsenide they

also incorporated formulae for a varying thermal conductivity. Their model was generalised by a numerical algorithm

by Moody and Hendel [9].

Miyazaki and Giedt [10] solved the heat conduction equation for a cylindrical molten region having an elliptical

cross-section.

Davis et al. [11] considered laser transformation hardening of En8 steel under the in=uence of a Gaussian surface

source. Ignoring surface melting and also the heat of transition required to convert pearlite to austenite, they calculated

the depth at which hardening occurs and an estimation of

the power required.

2.4. Moving hypersurface line source for a medium of

semi-in=nite thickness

In order to avoid the inDnite temperatures produced by

a point source or line source, Ashby and ShercliK [12],

with reference to transformation hardening, derived a solution (as a development of the AshbyEasterling hyper

point source model [13] for high processing speeds, by

representing the heat input as a Dnite line source situated

above and parallel to the surface with its axis lying along

the width of the specimen. Since it was not Dnite along the

direction of motion, it was positioned above the surface to

avoid the inDnite temperatures generated where the beam

impinges. They also derived the beam energy required to

cause melting.

2.5. Combined moving point/line sources

The point and line source solutions of Rosenthal can

simulate simple conduction welding and keyhole welding,

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

respectively. However, a typical keyhole weld is usually accompanied by a distinct nail head appearance at the top.

A line source model (where the source extends throughout the entire thickness of the domain) can only lead to a

parallel-sided weld of inDnite extent (i.e. a 2-D solution)

while a point source leads to a weld of roughly hemispherical shape.

Steen et al. [14] combined the point and line source to

model more eKectively a keyhole weld. This idea enabled the

estimation of the power actually absorbed by the weld. The

position of the point source could be variedon or within

the metal. Here the line source represents absorption down

the keyhole and the point source represents the plasma radiation from the plume. It was suggested that the melt width

in the lower part of the weld is directly proportional to the

strength of the line source. As this model assumes an inDnitely thick specimen, it is inappropriate for thin workpieces.

2.6. Extensions of the point/line source models

Akhter et al. [15], extended the solution of Steen et al.

[14] by producing a point and line source model for a

medium of Dnite thickness using the method of images. A

number of point sources were combined with a line source,

the strength of which varied with depth. This enabled more

realistic-looking melt cross-sections. The model was applied

to laser lap-welding of thin sheets of zinc-coated steel. Since

absorption of the laser beam often exhibits a local maximum at the interface of the two sheets, an additional point

source was used at this boundary. However, they were still

unable to model accurately the wine glass appearance of

some welds.

Hamoudi and Ducharme [16] produced a steady-state

welding model based on the point and line source model

of Steen et al. [14] with which they studied a series of

experimental welds in steel under the in=uence of helium

shielding gas. By varying the point and line source strengths

they matched the melt cross-sections as closely as possible

to those of experiment, determining the absorbed power.

They showed that the strength of the line source increases

with processing speed, including a sharp rise when the weld

penetration ceases to be full. In some cases the point source

strength was very small, indicating the eNciency of helium

as a shielding gas.

Another point and line source model was that of Lankalapalli et al. [17]. The keyhole was represented by a Dnite line

source whose strength varies with depth. They showed that

the temperature on the bottom surface of the workpiece is a

consistent indicator of penetration depth.

Postaciouglu et al. [18] produced a solution for the temperature Deld outside the melt pool using a spheroidal coordinate system, approximating the molten region as a half

prolate spheroid.

Kaplan [19], accounting for the fact that the keyhole

is not straight but curved, integrated point sources of an

101

material, rather than along a straight vertical line.

2.7. Periodic moving point and line source solutions for a

medium of semi-in=nite thickness

Dowden et al. [20] constructed analytic solutions for

the temperature Deld in workpieces of inDnite area and

semi-inDnite thickness, under the in=uence of periodic point

and line sources. Their solution generalises the solutions of

Steen et al. [14] and Akhter et al. [15] for workpieces of

semi-inDnite and Dnite thickness, respectively.

2.8. The Stefan problem

Simple solutions of the heat conduction equation ignore

latent heat and utilise constant material properties. Analytic

solutions taking latent heat into account are not straightforward. The Drst published discussion related to phase change

was that by Stefan [21], regarding a study on the thickness

of polar ice. As a result, the solving of the problem with latent heat taken into account is often referred to as the Stefan

problem.

If phase change is considered to take place at a speciDc

temperature (as in the case of pure metals), this can be modelled by considering the solid and liquid as separate regions

coupled via moving boundary conditions. The material properties now take on separate values in the solid and molten

regions. Alternatively, the enthalpy formulation of the heat

conduction equation can be solved which enables an inDnite

speciDc heat (eKected as a zero diKusivity) spanning the enthalpy change between solid and liquid. This method is only

soluble (other than in one dimension) by numerical means.

However, the abrupt change in speciDc heat can hinder convergence. Fortunately, alloys exhibit a range of temperature

over which melting occurs and providing the melting range

is not too small, convergence is not usually a problem. In

this case melting is represented as an increase in the speciDc

heat (which remains Dnite) over a range of temperature.

Very few applications of heat =ow in welding with the

inclusion of latent heat eKects have been reported in an analytic manner owing to their complexity. Analytic solutions

include Neumanns solution [2] and those of Tao [22], Frederick and Greif [23] and Kasuya and Shimoda [24].

Mackenzie and Robertson [25] produced a transient

1-D Dnite-diKerence (FD) code, incorporating a novel

semi-implicit moving mesh method, to solve the enthalpy

formulation of the heat conduction equation to allow for

phase changes. The convection term of the heat conduction equation was treated explicitly with the remaining terms treated implicitly hence allowing for a larger

time-increment. They used an adaptive moving mesh which

is updated every time-step. The authors present examples

of a spot welding process (using a high electric current as

heat source) and a simulation of the freezing of water.

102

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

enthalpy method for solving nonlinear phase change heat

transfer for arbitrary 3-D geometries (e.g. freezing and thawing of food). They incorporated all nonlinearities caused by

temperature-dependent material properties in a functional

relationship between the volumetric speciDc enthalpy and

the KirchhoK function, hence ensuring that the peak of the

speciDc heat and the abrupt change in thermal conductivity

are not missed.

Nedjar [27] used an iteration scheme for the steady-state,

and a Dnite-diKerence scheme for the transient problem, in

taking account of phase change. The algorithm used is applicable for phase changes which take place either over a

temperature range or at a given temperature.

3. Numerical solutions

3.1. Standard heat transfer solutions

During the last two decades many of the existing weld

processes have been simulated by numerical methods, especially Dnite-element [28]. Other methods such as FD [29] are

simpler to use and understand, and Patankar, using a combination of FD and FE methods, produced the Dnite-volume

(FV) method [28].

Welding and heat treatment are complex processes involving the interaction of thermal, mechanical, electrical

and metallurgical phenomena. As a result most numerical

solutions neglect a number of eKects. One of the Drst numerical solutions of heat transfer for laser materials processing was due to Mazumder and Steen [30] who produced a 3-D model using FD techniques and a relaxation

procedure in solving the heat conduction equation. They

assumed a Gaussian heat source, a workpiece of inDnite

length, 100% absorption of power at temperatures in excess

of the boiling point, radiative heat losses and also convective heat losses due to the shielding gas =ow. Their model

was modiDed by Chande and Mazumder [31] who took

into account temperature-dependent material properties, radiative and convective heat losses and the latent heat of

phase change via an increased speciDc heat over a melting/solidifying temperature range.

Lim and Chan [32] used the boundary element method

(BEM) to model deep penetration welding. In the solid region, heat transfer was simulated by BEM; lubrication theory was applied to the liquid region and non-equilibrium vaporisation and gas dynamics were modelled by a 1-D model,

the solutions in each region being combined via boundary

conditions.

Dowden and Kapadia [33] produced a formula for the

question of what was the thickest workpiece that could be

reliably welded with full penetration occurring at all times.

They assumed a beam of uniform intensity and a keyhole

diameter which was three times greater on the top surface than on the bottom surface. Results from their formula

agreed well with experimental data for input powers of 1,

studied a curved keyhole wall and found that it made little

diKerence to their results.

Norman et al. [34] by using the same model and procedure as Hamoudi and Ducharme [16], calculated the temperature Deld, the thermal gradients and the growth rates in

a series of welds in 2090 aluminium alloy. From these data

they determined cooling rates and macroscopic grain structure along the weld centerline. They found fair agreement

between dendrite secondary arm spacings measured by experiment and those predicted using the thermal model.

Mohanty and Mazumder [35] produced a 3-D numerical

keyhole welding simulation model complete with graphical user interface and visualisation modules. The model is

based on the balancing of surface forces and energy at the

liquid/vapour and solid/liquid interfaces.

Semak et al. [36] produced a laser welding model based

on a hydrodynamic physical model of lasermaterial interaction including the eKect of evaporation recoil pressure and

convection on melt =ow. Their simulations show that convective heat transfer induced by recoil pressure, is significant at intensities corresponding to laser welding, cutting,

and drilling due to melt ejection. They also showed that motion in the molten zone outwards from the beam results in a

secondary temperature maximum. In a related publication,

Semak et al. [37] conDrmed that maximum penetration was

dependent on the speciDc location of the beam focus, the

latter being positioned above or below the surface of the

metal depending on whether there is strong or weak beam

absorption in the keyhole plasma.

3.2. Welding dissimilar metals

Joining dissimilar metals is very diNcult, especially when

the thermal conductivity of each is substantially diKerent

(e.g. copper and steel), since this aKects absorption of laser

light. Generally speaking, in order to weld two dissimilar

metals, mutual solubility is required [38]. In some cases a

third metal which is soluble with the other two is needed

to produce a successful joint, for example copper and steel

can be welded by the inclusion of a nickel alloy which is

soluble with both of them. If the thermal expansion coefDcients of dissimilar metals diKer greatly, there will be internal stresses set up in the intermetallic zone during any

temperature change of the weldment.

Chung and Wei [39] produced a fully implicit staggered

time-dependent FD method [28] to investigate electron beam

or laser welding of dissimilar metals. They obtained velocity

and temperature Delds at the maximum melt cross-section

as functions of the dimensionless surface tension coeNcient,

which compared favourably with experimental results. They

used a nonlinear mesh which was Dner under the heat source,

the discretisation equations solved by a line-by-line scheme

applied to the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) [28].

The continuity and momentum equations were solved by the

SIMPLE [28] procedure.

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

Phanikumar et al. [40] studying the laser welding of dissimilar metals, attempted modelling the welding of copper

and nickel. A pressure-based FV technique was employed

which involves phase change (using the enthalpy-porosity

technique [41,42]), convection in the melt pool, melting and

mixing. The dissimilar metal properties were handled using

appropriate mixture theories.

3.3. Multipass welding

Reed and Bhadeshia [43] constructed a partly analytic

partly numerical model to describe the thermal cycles occurring in multipass welds by using a matrix approach where

each element of the discretised workpiece is associated with

one element of a multidimensional matrix.

Lindgren et al. [44] produced a computer code to simulate

multipass butt welding. Since adding Dller wire increases

the volume of the workpiece, each pass either needs a reconstruction of the grid where new elements are added, or

it requires quiet elements which is more time-consuming.

The authors discuss the relative merits of both inactive and

quiet approaches and produce results for both methods. Although both methods gave similar results they could not

be compared with experimental results due to a number of

problems. Pulsed laser welding allows very low heat input

to the metal resulting in low distortion and enabling welding of heat-sensitive parts. Due to very rapid heating and

cooling, a continuous melt pool is not a feature and the role

of convection in pulsed laser welding is therefore minimal.

Frewin and Scott [45] produced a time-dependent 3-D

model of heat =ow during pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding,

using the FE code ANSYS. 2 Convective =ow in the melt

pool was ignored. Making use of temperature-dependent

material properties and experimentally measured beam

cross-sections, their model calculated transient temperature

cross-sections along with the dimensions of the fusion and

heat aKected zones. They found that the fusion and heat

aKected zones generated by their code were extremely close

to those produced experimentally, provided they assumed

a Gaussian energy distribution, but varied signiDcantly if a

top-hat distribution was used instead.

3.4. Melt pool models/thermocapillary >ow

The existence of =uid =ow and convection and their effects were Drst discussed in the 1950s [46]. Convection can

be regarded as the single most important factor in=uencing

the geometry of the melt pool leading to a change in pool

shape, the aspect ratio and the production of surface ripples. Furthermore it can cause various defects such as variable penetration, porosity and lack of fusion. As convection

2

ANSYS is a commercial software package that solves for the combined eKects of multiple forces, accurately modelling combined behaviours

resulting from multiphysics interactions. The software also features advanced nonlinear material simulation.

103

melt pool.

Natural convection or buoyancy results from the change

in density of the molten =uid as it changes temperature.

It is more signiDcant in a large basin than in a small volume such as a typical melt pool as shown by Yokoya and

Matsunawa [47,48]. Surface tension induced convection,

also known as thermocapillary =ow or Marangoni =ow, is

caused by surface temperature gradients resulting in shear

stress and induced =uid motion [49,50]. These forces are

generally far larger than natural convection/gravity induced

forces and tend to dominate the =ow process causing intense

mixing and hence the possibility of surface alloying taking

place. Convection in the melt pool aKects a large number of

laser processes such as melt quenching, alloying and welding. Hence a knowledge of melt dynamics is important for

the understanding of laser processing. However, Matsunawa

[51] observes that in arc welding, experiments have shown

no evidence that Marangoni =ow is predominant. He also

suggests that although the surface tension gradient in laser

melted pools is greater than that in arc pools due to the higher

temperatures, surface contamination is signiDcantly less, so

that Marangoni =ow is not signiDcant in either case. In a

deep keyhole, the exposed liquid surfaces are at or close to

the vaporising temperature, so that the eKect of the surface

tension gradient is minimal. In this case =ow is likely to be

caused by a diKerence in the evaporation rates in the region

close to the beam, resulting in =uid =ow from the front to

the back of the keyhole.

In addition to convective heat transport, the temperature

distribution is aKected by boundary conditions for absorption due to surface deformation. As well as internal forces

such as temperature-dependent surface tension, buoyancy

and ablation pressure, melt =ow is also driven by external

forces such as the =ow of shielding gas and the supply of

powder or Dller wire.

Numerical methods can be used to solve for the conservation of mass, energy, momentum and vorticity in the molten

region, producing =ow velocities and in the more advanced

programs, surface waves.

With respect to experimental results displaying uniform

solute redistribution during laser surface alloying, Chande

et al. [49] suggested that this could be described by an eKective large diKusivity if molecular diKusion was assumed as

the governing mechanism. An eKective value of 106 cm2 =s

was suggested (aluminium for example has a diKusivity of

1 cm2 =s), indicating the large role played by =uid =ow in

the melt pool.

The transient 2-D FE model of Chan et al. [52] solved

the NavierStokes equations for the Marangoni driven =ow

within the melt pool. They considered a body of Dnite thickness but inDnite in area, irradiated by a rectangular source

of constant power distribution. The momentum and energy

equations were coupled through the surface boundary condition and the liquid/solid interface was a time-dependent

moving boundary. Heat losses due to radiation were

104

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

along the z-direction (parallel to the beam axis), the surface tension depends linearly on temperature, the thermal

properties of the liquid and solid phases are considered

constant, the thermal conductivity is the same in liquid and

solid phases, latent heat of melting is neglected, and the

molten pool is considered =at. Their model calculated the

melt pool size and predicted that the cooling rate at the

edge of the pool is higher than at the bottom of the pool

below the centerline. It also predicted that the recirculating

velocity is one or two orders of magnitude higher than that

of the processing speed.

Their calculations suggest that the melt pool rotates approximately Dve times before solidifying. The model does

not take account of internal turbulence required to explain

the mixing action and has diNculty in describing the formation of waves.

The 3-D FD =ow model of Chande and Mazumder [53]

simulates laser welding by means of a point-successive overrelaxation scheme. The model incorporates keyholing with

the radiation penetrating the specimen being absorbed according to the BeerLambert law. The specimen was assumed inDnite in length but of Dnite width. They found that

increasing the thermal conductivity can have a signiDcant

eKect on the shape of the melt pool and that the decrease in

melt pool depth may additionally explain why materials of

high thermal conductivity are hard to weld.

Dowden et al. [54] considered the =ow around the keyhole and its temperature during cw laser welding by means

of four computational models for low PReclet Numbers. The

Drst model assumed a viscosity which was constant and the

second, one which depended linearly on temperature. The

third model considered the liquid region divided into a viscous cooler part and an inviscid hotter part whereas the

fourth model assumed a wholly inviscid region. Surface tension and thermocapillary =ow eKects were neglected. Each

of the models displayed a downstream displacement of the

solidliquid boundary which was in agreement with experimental observations.

In a subsequent publication, the authors followed this up

[55] with a 2-D steady-state model which calculated the temperature and =ow distribution in an inDnite workpiece outside of a circular keyhole whose boundary is at the vaporising temperature. The latent heat of phase change was accounted for and a constant viscosity assumed. They elected

for a viscosity independent of temperature using the results

from their paper [54]. Having reformulated the problem in

a form suitable for solution by the isotherm migration technique, they solved it using the method of lines 3 [56]. For

low-processing speeds, results from their model were in very

3

a system of partial diKerential equations in two or more independent

variables into a system of ordinary diKerential equations in one of these

variables. The method of lines can be used to solve every type of PDE as

well as ODEs apart from those of eigenvalue type. However, the domain

of the independent variable must be a topological rectangle.

[54], but deviated somewhat for higher processing speeds.

Prakash et al. [57] proposed a Dxed-grid numerical

methodology to account for phase change during welding

and took into account convection in the melt pool in two

dimensions. The governing equations were solved for the

net velocity i.e. the combined eKect of convective velocity and the material inlet velocity (equal in magnitude but

opposite in sign to the welding velocity).

Chan et al. [58] developed a 3-D numerical axisymmetric

model of =uid =ow and heat-transfer as an extension of their

1984 model [52]. Since the scanning velocity is small compared to the recirculating velocity, an asymptotic solution

was sought. By splitting the velocity Deld into a scanning velocity and a recirculating velocity, the governing equations

can be written in a form where there are two convective

termsone for the scanning velocity and one for the recirculating velocity. Non-dimensional forms of the governing

equations are derived, from which four dimensionless parameters are obtained: the Marangoni number, the Prandtl

number, the dimensionless melting temperature and the radiation factor. A Gaussian beam was assumed. A standard

alternating direction implicit (ADI) [28] iteration method is

employed to solve the governing equations. As with their

previous model [52], conduction and thermocapillary =ow

in the z-direction are neglected and only the surface tension

is considered dependent on temperature, being assumed linear. Phase change is neglected and the thermal conductivity

is considered the same for both liquid and solid. The surface of the melt pool is assumed =at with the xy plane

semi-inDnite. They found that the surface tension gradient

can set up a recirculating =ow within the melt pool, resulting

in an increase of up to 150% in the aspect ratio (width/depth)

when compared with pure conduction.

The same authors [59] developed a 3-D perturbation

model of thermocapillary =ow within the molten region

during laser surface heating. The basic solution corresponds

to the stationary axisymmetric case, and the perturbation model was based on a small scanning velocity. The

advantage of a perturbation solution is that 3-D =ow is

modelled by two sets of 2-D equations, which are easier to solve. The equations were solved by an FD ADI

method and a staggered grid. Again they assumed a linear

temperature-dependent surface tension. Graphical output

includes =ow Delds, particle trajectories, a 3-D plot of the

solidliquid interface and melt pool cross-sections obtained

for diKerent Prandtl numbers (the ratio of momentum to

thermal diKusivity), showing the melt pool becoming wider

and shallower as convection increases. They found that a

particle recirculates many times before re-solidifying, implying that the solute is well mixed. They also showed that

a positive surface tension coeNcient leads to a reverse of

the circulating =ow leading to deeper penetration.

The phenomenon of humping has been investigated by

Matsunawa [6062], Beck et al. [63] and Gratzke et al. [64].

For high-speed laser welding, Beck et al. considered =ow in

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

the melt pool and solved a set of diKerential equations involving the heat conduction equation, an equation describing

the incompressibility condition together with the Navier

Stokes equation (to describe the viscous motion of the

molten material). Neglecting phase change, the diKerential

equations were converted to their dimensionless form and

solved numerically with FE methods. Diagrams of streamlines, velocity contours and temperature and pressure contours are shown. The molten material produces a long thin

jet behind the keyhole resulting in high pressure at the rear

end of the melt pool. The authors of the paper suggest that it

is this pressure which is responsible for the phenomenon of

humping (opposite of undercut) during fast laser welding.

Gratzke et al. [64] investigated humping in arc and laser

welding. Their theoretical model calculated the processing

speed needed for humping to occur and rejected the in=uence

of Marangoni convection but instead applied Rayleighs theory of instability of a free liquid cylinder due to surface

tension.

Lambrakos et al. [65] calculated the time-dependent

temperature and =uid velocity Deld for deep penetration

welding. The deposition of the power from the beam is

represented by time-dependent boundary conditions on the

equations of momentum and energy transfer. The boundary conditions are speciDed at each time-step on a surface

which changes with time. The model includes the eKect of

the surface tension gradient on the surface of the =uid and

the eKect of the buoyancy force. The coupled equations

of energy, momentum transfer and continuity, combined

with the time-dependent boundary conditions representing

the keyhole and the moving boundaries of the workpiece,

are solved using a speciDc implementation of the SIMPLE

[28] algorithm. With this model they were able to gauge

the relative in=uences of the electromagnetic force, surface

tension and the buoyancy force on =uid convection in the

melt pool. Their results demonstrate that =uid convection

in the melt pool is in=uenced far more by the stirring action

due to the keyhole vapour/liquid interface than by surface

tension.

Kar and Mazumder [66] produced a mathematical model

of laser keyhole welding to predict the depth and diameter of the keyhole, the surface velocity, the temperature

distribution and the melt pool shape. They considered

the forces generated at the liquidvapour interface due

to the surface tension gradient and also the energy balance at the liquidvapour and solidliquid interfaces.

They concluded that before the keyhole forms, the velocity Deld is large in the radial and azimuthal directions but thereafter it changes to a radially and axially

dominant Deld.

Including =ow in the melt pool, Kroos et al. [67] calculated the collapse time of the keyhole when the laser power

is suddenly shut down during stationary welding. They

assumed that the recoil pressure from ablating particles balances the surface tension at the keyhole wall. The keyhole

collapse time then determines the minimum required

105

keyhole can oscillate with frequencies of several hundred

Hz under typical conditions.

Mazumder et al. [68] produced a comprehensive review

of the mathematical modelling of a number of laser materials processes, discussing the transport phenomena, boundary

conditions, governing equations, solution techniques, applicability and limitations of each process.

3.5. Keyhole models

As well as being the source of energy conducted into

the metal, the keyhole also acts as an obstacle to the liquid

region upstream of it, in=uencing the ultimate molten zone

geometry. Modelling =ow in the keyhole (in addition to

modelling =ow in the melt pool) has been carried out by a

number of authors. The subject is now duly discussed.

Andrews and Atthey [69] used a perturbation expansion

to Dnd the motion and position of the evaporating boundary for a stationary workpiece undergoing deep penetration

welding. Klemens [70], considering the steady-state situation, showed that the transport of material from the front to

the back of the keyhole is mainly due to =ow of the liquid

around it rather than transported in the vapour across it.

Given that the keyhole is maintained by a balance of the

forces closing it (hydrostatic pressure and surface tension)

and those keeping it open (gas pressure), Klemens argued

that since pressure is a function of depth, the keyhole radius must also be so. Dividing the keyhole into an inner

region of constant absorption, conDned within a critical

radius, the temperature of this boundary being at the critical temperature and, assuming that heat =ows radially, he

derived a formula for this critical radius as a function of

the keyhole radius, the vaporising temperature, the power

absorbed per unit length of the keyhole and the critical

temperature.

Andrews and Atthey [71] modelled the steady-state keyhole welding process and obtained keyhole cross-sections

taking into account gravity, both with and without the

inclusion of surface tension and assuming atmospheric

pressure in the cavity. They assumed that all the incident

power was used in evaporating the surface, i.e. that no heat

was required to raise the temperature of the material to its

boiling point. They found that when the surface tension

was included, the penetration depth reduced by up to a

factor of three. They also found that the penetration depth

(in the absence of surface tension) was proportional to the

beam power divided by the beam radius for deep holes and

proportional to the beam power divided by the beam area

for shallow holes. Dowden et al. [72], whose work is an

extension of Andrews and Atthey [71] and Klemens [70],

constructed a general model of the liquid and vapour motion in the keyhole. They investigated how the area of the

keyhole varies with depth and the parameters on which it depends. Their results gave keyhole shapes plausible for open

keyholes.

106

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

The pressure gradient arising in the liquid region surrounding the keyhole results in =ow parallel to the axis of

the laser. Postaciouglu et al. [73] calculated this velocity

of =ow, as well as the volume =ow rate, in modelling the

bulging in the liquid region at the mouth of the keyhole.

An estimate of the elevation or depression of the surface of

the weld and the shape of the surface cross-section is also

discussed.

SchuTocker [74] produced a model of deep penetration

welding in which the shape of the keyhole was interpolated

from the calculated temperature distribution. The keyhole

is kept open by a balance between the vapour pressure inside it (estimated from the ClausiusClapeyron equation)

and the hydrostatic pressure tending to close it. Dowden et

al. [75] produced a simple time-dependent model which describes the vapour =ow parallel to the axis of the keyhole

for medium processing speeds and also the possible presence of shock waves at the end of the keyhole. The authors

concluded that as the translation speed is increased, the laser

coupling eNciency becomes progressively more dominated

by direct absorption at the keyhole walls.

Kar et al. [76] developed a 2-D axisymmetric model of

material damage caused by melting and vaporisation during pulsed laser welding by taking into account multiple

re=ections of the laser beam at the keyhole wall. Both

solidliquid and liquidvapour interfaces were modelled

by applying the Stefan condition at various positions on

the interface. The whole problem was formulated using

the energy conservation equation and solved numerically

by the RungeKutta method [69]. They concluded that as

the laser intensity increases, the depth and cylindricity of

the cavity increase, whereas the recast layer thickness decreases, with multiple re=ections exaggerating the eKects.

They also found that liquid =ow had little eKect on cavity

depth and recast layer thickness, and that the dependence of

the cavity depth on the gross laser intensity was nonlinear

when multiple re=ections are taken into account, but linear

otherwise.

Ducharme et al. [77] produced a steady-state FD code

to compute the temperature distribution in and around the

hot plasma during laser processing with argon assist gas.

The refractive index of the plasma along with the relevant

gas properties vary with temperature. Equations are derived

relating the curved paths of the light rays to the temperature

gradients in the plasma with the attenuation of the laser

light calculated along these paths. The authors showed that

variations in the electron density due to iron vapour in the

plume cause spatial variations in the refractive index, giving

rise to thermal defocusing of the incident laser light well

before the critical density is achieved.

Considering a laser beam of Gaussian distribution, Metzbower [78] calculated the size and temperature of both the

keyhole and melt pool taking into account evaporation and

assuming that a minimum laser power density is required to

generate a keyhole. To study the mechanism of heat transfer

inside the keyhole, Tix and Simon [79] studied the transport

vapour formed in the keyhole.

Ducharme et al. employed a cylindrical coordinate system

in producing integrated keyhole and melt pool models of the

cw welding of thin and thick sheets. In the Drst of these [80],

an analytic expression was formulated for the temperature

distribution outside the keyhole with the heat conduction

equation being solved by means of an FD model for the

distribution inside it. By assuming that the melt pool size

and shape are constant for all depths, a simple 2-D solution

was enabled. Predictions of the surface dimensions of the

keyhole compared favourably with those determined with a

high-speed video camera. Their model was extended to allow for the simulation of the welding of thick sheets [81]. By

considering a series of point sources of varying strength, the

generation of a 3-D temperature distribution was obtained

by superposition of much simpler solutions. Variation of the

properties of the plasma with temperature were taken into

account. Returning to the welding of thin metal sheets, the

model was extended in a diKerent way [82]. This time the

in=uence of diKerent shielding gases on diKerent materials

was modelled, again taking into account the temperature

variation of the properties of both the plasma and the degree

of ionisation, by applying the Saha equation [83]. By matching the melt pool lengths calculated by the model to those of

experiment, they were able to calculate the shape of the melt

pool and keyhole. Their results were in close agreement with

experiment.

Clucas et al. [84] produced an FV model to solve for the

=ow in the keyhole during laser welding. They assumed that

the keyhole is kept open by the balance of the ablation and

hydrodynamic pressure against the surface tension force.

The motion of gas in the keyhole was modelled by the

NavierStokes equation, and they considered three diKerent

keyhole geometries. The velocity of the ablating vapour

was calculated by applying a pressure balance relation on

the keyhole wall. They assumed a uniform temperature distribution in the keyhole along with incompressible gas =ow,

and neglected the diKusion of the shielding gas into the

keyhole.

Klein et al. [85] introduced an analytic expression for

the excess pressure in the keyhole due to gas =ow, and

also considered the oscillations in the axial and azimuthal

directions as well as the radial direction. Solana and Negro

[86] constructed an axisymmetric model to analyse keyhole

cross-sections and intensity distributions as a function of

depth for both Gaussian and top-hat distributions of the

laser beam. They took account of the eKects of inverse

Bremsstrahlung and the eKect of multiple re=ections in

the keyhole in order to model more accurately the Fresnel

absorption process. Instead of Dxing the keyhole geometry, the keyhole wall is considered to be a free boundary

whose shape changes after each iteration of the numerical process. They concluded that inverse Bremsstrahlung

radiation has the eKect of producing wider, but less deep,

keyholes.

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

Solana and OcaUna [87] determined the full 3-D melt pool

and keyhole geometry by setting the appropriate energy and

pressure balances. The energy balance takes into account

heat conduction, ablation losses and evaporation eKects at

the open surfaces of the keyhole as well as Fresnel absorption and inverse Bremsstrahlung, the keyhole being kept

open as a result of the balance between the ablation pressure

and the surface tension pressure. A time-dependent model

of the behaviour of the front keyhole wall during high translation speed laser welding was constructed by Matsunawa

and Semak [88]. This model was developed assuming that

(i) only the front part of the keyhole wall is exposed to the

high-intensity laser beam, (ii) recoil pressure exceeds surface tension, and (iii) propagation of the keyhole wall is

due to melt expulsion similar to that of laser drilling. Their

work shows that the keyhole wall velocity component parallel to the translation velocity can be greater than, equal to,

or less than the beam translation speed, and when higher,

the formation of humps on the keyhole are observed.

Kapadia et al. [89] produced two stochastic models to

describe the keyhole. The Drst model includes instabilities

and considers the formation of a partially penetrating keyhole under the action of a cw laser. The energy absorption

in the material is simpliDed so that it occurs exclusively in

instability events with each event moving a Dxed quantity of

energy per unit time from the incident laser beam power at

the top of the keyhole. In the second model the laser power

was absorbed in the keyhole both continuously as well as at

speciDc instability events.

Fabbro and Chouf [90,91] produced a model which studied the keyhole geometry as a function of the main operating parameters such as the processing speed, laser incident

intensity and material being welded. The model is based

on a drilling speed (i.e. the speed with which the keyhole

deepens) which when combined with the processing speed,

causes the inclination of the front keyhole wall. A stationary analytic model and a dynamic numerical model (which

takes into account a ray-tracing technique) enables the complete keyhole geometry to be determined by taking into account multiple re=ections inside the keyhole along with a

description of the closure process of the rear keyhole wall.

Pastor et al. [92] discuss the development of models in

order to study the eKect of positive and negative defocusing

on keyhole shape and weld temperature distribution during

laser keyhole welding.

3.6. Reviews

A review of analytic formulations and numerical models relating to deep penetration welding has been given by

Kapadia and Dowden [93]. Dowden and Kapadia [94] presented a further review of analytic solutions of the laser keyhole welding process by point and line sources. Lindgren

reviewed the modelling of welding by Dnite-element methods. His review is split into three parts [9597]. A comprehensive treatment by Dowden of the mathematics of thermal

107

found in [98].

4. Arc welding

The term arc welding comprises a group of welding processes which fuse metals by heating them with an arc, with

or without the application of pressure, and with or without

the use of Dller wire. Arc welding processes account for

about 80% or more of todays welding. Arc processes include MIG, MAG, TIG, gravity arc, plasma arc, shielded

arc, submerged arc and plasma arc. Two common processes

are TIG and MIG. TIG welding, also known as GTAW, is

a process which fuses metals by heating them with an arc

between a tungsten electrode and the workpiece. Shielding

is obtained from a gas or gas mixture. Pressure and Dller

wire may or may not be used. The positive electrode does

not melt and hence gas tungsten arc welding can be autogenous or non-autogenous if a Dller wire is employed. MIG

welding, also known as GMAW, diKers from TIG in that

the positive electrode is consumable and hence welding under MIG is non-autogenous. Again many authors have modelled the processes involved. Compared to laser conduction

welding, arc welding is aKected by an extra source of heat

ohmic heating due to the electric current.

The majority of arc welding is carried out on thick materials which require preparation in terms of cutting out a

section around the joint which is then welded with the use of

Dller wire. For the interested reader, numerical simulations

of MIG welding are described in references [99118].

In order to simulate the =ow and heat transfer associated

with autogenous arc welding processes, Eraslan et al. [119]

developed a completely transient 3-D computational model

(WELDER code) [120] Non-autogenous welding is considered in [121]. Surface tension curvature, Marangoni =ow,

the electromagnetic and buoyancy force eKects are all accounted for, with the momentum equations containing the

MHD force terms. The model can be applied to complex

shapes and inclined workpieces and has the ability to vary

the value of the gravitational force. The model allows for

actual deformation of the molten metal surfaces by considering the surface as a principal solution variable, allowing

for, amongst other things, the simulation of surface rippling

and surface gravity wave phenomena which can partially explain the experimentally observed pulsating behaviour of

melt pools. The publication contains many =ow diagrams,

both on the top surface and on xz planes, both for developing and fully penetrated melt pools, and for combinations of

the above eKects. Their results show that the surface tension

curvature has a marked eKect on melt pool shape and that

it should be considered in conjunction with the Marangoni

shear eKect.

For the interested reader, numerical simulations of TIG

welding are described in references [122146] other arc

welding publications are listed in [147156].

108

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

5.1. Induction heating

Induction heating takes place when an electrically conducting object is placed in a varying magnetic Deld. Induction heating is due to hysteresis and eddy-current losses

and there is no contact between the workpiece and the heat

source. It is quicker at bringing iron alloys to their austenitising temperature than other forms of heat treatment. Some

publications contributing to the investigation of induction

heating are [157159].

5.2. Transformation/surface hardening

Transformation hardening is ideally performed by a laser

since distortion is minimal when compared with =ame and

arc processes or induction heating. Transformation hardening requires a quench which is performed eKectively by

the bulk metal in laser processes. Transformation hardening improves the wear resistance and also, under certain

conditions, the fatigue strength. Since the heat from a laser

passes into the surface and is not generated internally as

with induction heating, thermal distortion is low and depth

of hardening can be performed on very thin layers. In these

processes, no melting or keyholing is allowed and hence

power densities must be low. However, this means that the

natural re=ectivity is high and hence absorbent coatings are

often used.

Steen and Courtney [160] found that the surface hardening of certain steels is possible through a martensitic

structure produced by rapid cooling from an elevated temperature, provided the laser power, beam diameter and processing speed are kept within certain limits. They developed

an analytic expression for the depth of hardening and found

that it was closely related to the power divided by the square

root of the product of the beam diameter and processing

speed.

In the context of surface hardening, Bokota and Iskierka

[161] adopted the method of integrating Greens function over the considered region to predict the transient

temperature Deld during laser heat treatment, the method

having been originally proposed by Maier et al. [162].

They considered a rectangular element inDnite in the direction of motion of the heat source but Dnite in the other

dimensions.

Fuhrmann and Homberg [163] put forward a model

to simulate the surface hardening of steel and hence the

solidsolid phase transitions. The latent heats of phase

change were taken care of with a nonlinear energy balance equation coupled with a system of ODEs for the

volume fractions of the occurring phases. In a subsequent

paper, Fuhrmann et al. [158] incorporated Maxwells equations in order to consider the induction hardening of steel:

induction-heating heat transfer solidsolidphase

transitions. It consists of a reduced set of Maxwells equations, the heat transfer equation, and a system of ODEs for

the volume fractions of the occurring phases.

5.3. Surface/heat treatment

Singh and Mazumdar [164] described a time-dependent

3-D heat =ow model to estimate thermal Delds associated

with various heat treatment processes (e.g. heating above

critical temperatures, air cooling, water quenching operations, etc.). An appropriate coordinate system was chosen

in order to carry out numerical calculations for a wide range

of geometries (e.g. slab, parallelepiped, cylinder).

Gu et al. [165] constructed a 3-D model to calculate the

transient temperature Deld and the phase transformation

depth obtained in a Dnite workpiece during laser surface

treatment, allowing for the temperature dependence of the

material properties and taking into account convective and

radiative heat losses. Experimental results for the laser

hardening of a zirconium alloy agreed well with results

from their model. Rana et al. [166] incorporated an FD

implicit splitting method [167] in a model to estimate the

time-dependent temperature distribution in a Dnite-sized

sample during laser heat treatment. The discretised equations were solved using the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm

(TDMA) [28]. The heat source was assumed to have a Gaussian distribution and the thermal diKusivity was assumed

constant. Yilbas [168], using an explicit scheme, produced a

3-D solution to predict the Drst and second law eNciencies

and the entropy generation number [169] during laser heat

treatment.

Crafer and Mackwood [170] presented a fast 2-D

steady-state analytic model (where the temperature is independent of the lateral coordinate) for the temperature

distribution during surface treatment carried out by a moving source. The laser beam intensity is represented as a

number of parallel contiguous strips extending across the

entire width of the specimen and constituting a rectangular

source. The model is applicable to cases where the lateral

size of the workpiece is the same as the breadth of the raster

scan. The model has the ability to build tailored source

distributions and produces very quick solutions. The same

authors have since extended the approach with a 3-D model

with no restrictions on the lateral size of the beam or on the

lateral size of the specimen 4 .

Mazumder [171] gives a comprehensive review of laser

heat treatment and Tosto [172] reviews analytic and numerical laser surface treatment models.

5.4. Electron beam processes

Electron beam welding (EBW) is a high energy density

fusion welding process similar in its eKect to laser keyhole

4

package from Abington Consultants, see footnote 1.

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

thermal source which can join materials of up to 300 mm in

one pass without leading to signiDcant distortion. Thermally

sensitive materials can also be joined. On impacting with

the material, the energy of the electrons is converted to thermal energy with an eNciency of close to 100%. Most EBW

is performed in a vacuum otherwise most of the electrons

would fail to reach their target. In addition, the vacuum ensures good beam propagation and focusing. When focused

to areas of about 0:25 mm in diameter, power densities as

high as 107 W=cm2 can be achieved. At this intensity, part

of the molten material is vaporised leading to a portion

of the liquid being pushed sideways. The electron beam

drills a small hole that penetrates deep into the specimen,

creating a keyhole. The most noticeable feature of EBW is

its ability to produce a single pass, deep penetration weld

while maintaining a very low overall heat input. However,

the process is susceptible to beam wander (due to the electric and magnetic Delds) and produces hazardous X-rays

requiring the vacuum chamber to be walled with thick steel

or lead.

Electron beam melt cross-sections resemble those created by laser keyhole welding, although exhibiting less of a

wine-glass appearance, and can be modelled by an array of

point and line sources in a similar manner to laser-produced

welds.

A few authors have constructed models of the electron

beam process. A 2-D transient model was developed by

Dufrene et al. [173] to predict temperature, metallurgical

properties, stresses and strains. Semak et al. [174] simulated the dominant dynamical processes in modelling the

transient behaviour of the front keyhole wall, taking into

account the latent heat of phase change and using a set of

values for the density, speciDc heat and thermal conductivity in the solid phase and another set in the liquid phase.

They assumed that the keyhole propagation was dominated

by evaporation-recoil-driven melt expulsion from the beam

interaction zone. Their results were consistent with experimental observations of metal welding, metal cutting and

ice welding. Hemmer et al. [175] developed a 3-D FE code

capable of predicting penetration depths and microstructure

evolution of the HAZ, and validated their model against thermocouple data and optical microscope measurements. They

applied their model to the welding of tubular joints.

5.5. Solid-state welding processes

A well-known form of solid-state welding is that of friction welding. During friction welding no melting is involved.

The energy required to join the metals comes from direct

conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy at the

interface of the metal surfaces without the need for additional energy or heat from other sources. It is essentially a

solid phase forging process with any molten ejecta being a

by-product.

109

Friction stir welding is another solid-state process. Conceived in 1991, a cylindrical shouldered tool with a proDled

probe is rotated and pushed into the two pieces of metal being joined. The friction created by the rotating tool softens,

but does not melt the workpieces. The softened material is

transferred from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the

tool which is then forged by the contact of the tool shoulder

and pin proDle. This has been heralded by some as the most

remarkable joining process invented in the 1990s.

Metals can also be welded without melting by a further

solid-phase welding technique known as cold pressure welding [176].

Benzsak et al. [177] and Fu and Duan [178] have constructed models of the friction welding process and Chao and

Qi [179] and Grong and Midling [180] produced a model

relating to friction stir welding.

5.6. Resistance welding

Resistance welding is a process in which the application

of pressure along with resistance heating of the workpieces

produces coalescence of metals at the interface between the

two parts to be joined. Spot, seam and butt welding can all

be carried out using this process. In all resistance welding

processes the metal is heated locally until molten and then

allowed to cool, resulting in a weld nugget. The electric

current is produced by electrodes made of copper, due to

its high thermal conductivity, which ensures that the heat

is generated in the workpieces rather than in the electrodes.

Resistance welding is commonly used in the automobile

industry for its high eNciency and excellent quality control.

The interested reader is referred to references [181188].

5.7. Surface alloying/cladding

Surface alloying with a laser is similar to laser surface

melting with the exception that another material is incorporated into the melt pool. Laser surface alloying, studied

by Chande and Mazumder [189], also has similarities with

surface cladding, which if performed with excess power,

can result in surface alloying. (In cladding operations, one

material in liquid form is placed on top of another to form a

sound interfacial bond without diluting the cladding metal

with substrate material). Surface alloying and cladding

when performed by a laser, require minimal post-process

re-machining of the surface.

5.8. Microstructure models

The following publications relate to microstructure models [190198].

5.9. Residual stresses and deformations in welds

Thermal stress arises from restrained thermal expansion.

When welding, very large temperatures are produced in and

around the molten region which reduce quickly with

110

A.P. Mackwood, R.C. Crafer / Optics & Laser Technology 37 (2005) 99 115

ambient temperature, induces stresses in the structure which

remain after the material has cooled. These are known as

residual stresses. In the absence of restraint the material

will instead distort and exhibit a reduced stress. Distortion

and residual stresses can cause signiDcant problems in the

welding of large structures and lead to cracking and fracture

problems. Preheating of joints can be eKective in reducing the cooling rate of the weld, hence reducing distortion

and residual stresses. Post-welding heat treatment can also

be used, which relieves internal stresses and controls the

microstructure of the weld.

Finite-element is the dominant numerical method for the

simulating heat treatment and predicting distortion and residual stresses. Often commercial FE programs are used where

routines for phase transformation are implemented.

A number of publications, [199218] describe models

used to determine residual stress and deformation, and Rohde and Jeppsson [218] presented a literature review of heat

treatment simulations tackling phase transformation, residual stress and distortion.

In order to model residual stress and deformation, the

domain representing the metal specimen must be able

to change its shape and volume rather than be represented as a non-deformable weld surface. In addition,

temperature-dependent material properties such as plasticity

are required.

=ow of viscoelastic liquids.

Finally, Viswanathan and Gandy [227] have reviewed

literature on weld repair of CrMo steel piping.

References

Anthony and Cline [219] studied surface rippling induced by surface tension gradients during laser surface

melting and alloying and concluded that if the laser beam

sweep velocity exceeds a critical velocity, the liquid does

not have suNcient time to form ripples. Wang et al. [220]

produced a 2-D FE model to consider quenching problems involving non-isothermal phase changes, allowing for

temperature-dependent material properties. They applied

their model to the quenching of steel cylinders and an aluminium connector. Lind et al. [221,222] calculated the heat

transfer during cross-=ow quenching of a cylinder.

Garwood et al. [223] used a =uid dynamical computer

code to predict the =uid =ow distribution in an agitated

quench tank during heat treatment of superalloy forgings.

Olafsson et al. [224] used the thermodynamical computer

program ThermoCalc to predict thermal resistivities in heat

treated alloys. With the use of Matthiessens rule [225], they

determined the solubility of elements in commercial alloys

from which the resistivity was predicted.

Amberg et al. [226] developed a toolbox for a commercial maths package which can be used to generate complete

FE codes in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions from a symbolic speciDcation of the mathematical problem which enables the user

to model phase change, =uid =ow and heat transfer in material processes. The authors have used their toolbox to create

Mackerle [228] has compiled a list of over 800 published

papers dealing with FE methods related to general and speciDc modelling of welding processes, the in=uence of geometrical parameters, heat transfer and =uid =ow, residual

stresses and deformations, fracture mechanics, fatigue, destructive and nondestructive evaluation of weldments and

cracks, and the welding of tubular joints, pipes, pressure

vessels, plates and other structures/components.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Dnancial support of Technology Group 04 (Materials and Structures)

of the MOD Corporate Research Programme in the United

Kingdom.

Grateful thanks are also due to Drs. J.W. Brooks of QinetiQ and S.J. Williams of BAe Systems for advice and guidance, and to Professors P.D. Kapadia, J.M. Dowden and S.P.

Smith of The University of Essex for academic support and

supervision.

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[3] Rosenthal D. The theory of moving sources of heat and its

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[4] Swift-Hook DT, Gick AEF. Penetration welding with lasers. Weld

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[5] Bunting KA, CornDeld G. Toward a general theory of cutting: a

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[6] ONeill W, Steen W. Review of mathematical models of laser

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