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GATE 1993

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Time Allowed: 3 Hour Maximum Marks: 200
Marks.
Instructions:

SECTION A: 80 Marks

SECTION B: 120

For full credit, answer all questions. 2. There will be no negative marking.

Useful Data:
R (Universal gas constant) = 8.314 J/mole K.
g (Acceleration due to gravity) = 9.81 m/s2.
1.
(a).

Choose the right answer(s):


(i).
A bio-degradable detergent is one which,
(A). is manufactured using biotechnology.
(B).
contains straight chain alkyl benzene.

(C).
(D).
microorganisms.
(ii).

containers.
(iii).

2..

contains branch chain alkyl benzene.


is easily decomposed by
(1)

Hydrogenation of edible oils is done to,


(A). decrease the number of unsaturated bond.
(B). lower the melting point of oil.
(C). increase the thermal conductivity of oil.
(D). enable the oil to be packed in tin
(1)
Absorption towers are operated under conditions of,
(A). low pressure, high temperature.
(B). high pressure, high temperature.
(C). high pressure, low temperature.
(D). low pressure, low temperature.

(1)

Choose the correct answer:


(a).
1000 kg of a solution containing 50% by weight of a salt dissolved in it is
cooled. 400 kg of anhydrous salt is separated out. The solubility of the salt at
the lower temperature is kg/100 kg of water is,
(A). 80;
(B). 50;
(C). 40;

(D).
(b).

3.

20

(2)

Methane is completely burned with air. The possible volume percent of


carbon dioxide (on dry basis) in the flue gases is,
(A). 11.7
(B). 21.0
(C). 44.0
(D). 28.0
(2)

Choose the correct answer:


(a).
For a centrifugal pump the positively suction head is defined as,
(A). hvs + hps
(B). hvd + hpd
(C). hvs + hps = Ps
(D). hvd + hpd = Pd

hvs = velocity head at suction.


hvd = velocity head at discharge.
hps = pressure head at suction.
hpd = pressure head at discharge.
Ps = vapor pressure of liquid at suction temperature.
Pd = vapor pressure of liquid at discharge temperature.
(b).

Match the following:

The shear stress vs. velocity gradient characteristics is shown in Fig..


(I).
- (A). Newtonian.
(II).
- (B). Dilatant.
(III).
- (C). Bingham plastic.

(2)

(IV).

- (D). Pseudo

plastic.
(2)
4.
(a).
Match the following:
(I).
Gyratory crusher.
- (A). Shear force.
(II). Hammer mill.
- (B). Attrition.
(III). Buhrstone mill. - (C). Compression force.
(IV). Fluid energy mill.
- (D). Impact.

(2)

(b).

For separating particles of different densities, the differential settling method uses a
liquid sorting medium of density.
(A). intermediate between those of the light and the heavy once.
(B). less than that of either one.
(C). greater than that of either one.
(D). of any arbitrary
value.
(2)

(c).

At very low r.p.m (NRe less than 5), the power required for agitation is proportional
to,
(A). D;
(B).
D2
(C). D3
(D). D5
where D is the diameter of the
impellor.
(2)

5.
(a).

A hot horizontal plate is exposed to air by keeping,


(A). the hot surface facing up.
(B). the hot surface facing down.
Heat transfer to the ambient air is primarily by natural convection. In which of the
above cases, is the heat transfer coefficient higher and why? Answer in three or four
lines.(2)

(b).

Choose the correct answer:


(i).

Saturated steam is condensed as a film on a vertical plate of height 50 cm. If


the local heat transfer coefficient at a distance of 50 cm from the top is 7200
W/m2 C, the average heat transfer coefficient over the entire plate in W/m2 C
is,

(A).
(B).
(C).
(D).

5400;
9600;
7200;
14400

(1)

(ii).
The capacity of a multiple-effect evaporator when compared with a single
effect evaporator both operating with significant boiling point rise at the same
terminal temperatures and surface area in each effect equal to surface area of singleeffect evaporator.
(A). Decrease
(B).
Increase
(C). Remains the same
6.
(a).

(i).
(ii).

(1)

What is the significance of reflux in distillation operation? Explain in one or


two sentences.
(1)
Choose the correct answer:
In distillation under minimum reflux conditions, number of theoretical stages
would be:
(A). One
(B). Minimum
(C).
Infinite
(D). None of these.

(b).

What relationship does any point on an operating time for absorption in a packed
column ,
represent?
(2)

(c).

Associate the following dimensionless groups, heat transfer, mass transfer and
momentum transfer,
(A). Sherwood number;
(B). Prandtl number;
(C). Nusselt number;
(D). Schmidt
number.
(2)

7.
(a).

(i).

The temperature dependence of chemical reaction rater in general can


be written as,

(1)

K = KoTm exp(-E/RT)
What is the value of m from collision theory, transition state theory
and from Arrhenius
law?
(1)
(ii).

(b).

Choose the correct answer:


For multiple reactions,
2A R
2R S
The number of moles of S present when the number of moles of A and R is 0.3
and 0.5 respectively (initially 2 moles of A are only present) is,
(A). 0.125;
(B). 0.175;
(C).
(D).

(c).

8. (a).

Every two minutes one reactor volume of feed is being treated at


specified conditions in a continuous reactor. What is the space
velocity? (1)

0.535;
0.350.

Sketch (rough diagram) exit age distribution, E (t) and cumulative age
distribution function, F (t) for plug flow and perfectly mixed flow vessels and
indicate the mean residence time and the maximum values of E (t) and F (t) in
each case. (2).
Match the
following:
(I).
Bimetallic Thermometer.
(II). Thermocouple.
(B).
(III). Thermister
(IV). Optical Pyrometer

(b).

(2)

(2)
(A).
Electrical Resistance Sensor.
Thermal Expansion Sensor.
(C).
Radiation Temperature Sensor.
(D).
Thermoelectric Sensor.

State whether the following statements are True or False:


(i).
On-off controller is a special case of proportional controller with large
(ii).

bandwidth.
Routh test can not be used for determining stability of a controller
system with dead time.

(iii).
(iv).

9.

The output response of linear system to sinusoidal input is sinusoidal


at all times.
Cascade control is used for processes involving one measured variable
and more than one manipulated variable.
(2)

Fill in the blanks:


(2)
(a).
The important stresses induced in the shell of tall vertical vessels are,
(A). __________________;
(B).
(C).
(D).
(b).

10.

__________________;
__________________;
__________________

The tensile stresses resulting from internal pressure are,


(i).
_____________ expressed as ____________ and
(ii).
_____________ expressed as
____________.
(2)

Fill in the blanks:


(a).
A cylindrical shell under external pressure tends to ___________ as a
result of external radial pressure. The external pressure at which
buckling occurs depends upon ______________, _____________ and
__________ when the length of the shell is less than the critical
length
.(2)
(b).

Match the
following:
(I).
Gasket.
(II).
Anchor bolts.
(III0. Skirt.
(IV). Guy wire.

11.

(2)
- (A).
- (B).
- (C).
- (D).

External support.
Flange joints.
Foundation.
Base support.

Explain in not more than three to four lines.


(a).
In the manufacture of Sulphuric acid why is absorption of SO3 done in
concentrated Sulphuric acid and not in water.
(1)
(b).

A dilute solution (20%) of Nitric acid has to be concentrated to 80%.


How is this done in industry and
why?
(2)

(c).

A dilute solution of glycerin contains a soluble calcium salt as


impurity. Why is the removal of calcium essential before concentration
of this solution? How can this removal be
accomplished?
(2)

12.
Iron pyrites (FeS2 ) is burned with air in 100% excess of that required
to oxidize all iron to Fe2O3 and all sulphur to sulphur dioxide.
Calculate the composition of exit gases, if 80% of sulphur is oxidized
to sulphur trioxide and the rest to sulphur dioxide. All iron is oxidized
to Fe2O3 (5)
13.
(a).

Water flows through 30 mm i.d pipe at atmospheric pressure. Pitot


tube measures the velocity of water at the center of pipe as shown in
the Fig.. The pressure difference between the impact tube and the static
tube is 20 cm of carbon tetrachloride (density: 1600 kg/m3). Calculate
the volumetric flow rate thorough the pipe in cubic meter per hour.
Velocity of water is 1 cP.

(5)
(b).

A piece of wood floats of an interface between layers of oil and water


as shown in Fig.19 (b). the specific gravity of wood and oil are 0.95and
0.75 respectively. Determine the volume fraction of wood in the water

layer.
(5)
14.
A constant pressure filtration test gave data that can fit an expression,
(t = seconds, V = liters ).
If the resistance of filter medium is assumed unaffected with pressure
drop and the compressibility coefficient of the filter cake is 0.3. what
will be the time taken for the collection of 3.5 litres of filtrates at a
filtration pressure twice that used in the
test?
(5)
15.
(a).

(i).

A solid cube of side 30 cm at an initial temperature of 1000 K is kept


in vacuum at absolute zero temperature. Calculate the time required to
cool it to 500 K. The material has the following properties,
Density = 2700 kg/m3.
Specific heat = 0.9 kJ/kg. K.
Emissitivity = 0.1.
The Stefan-Boltzman constant, = 5.669 x
103 W/m2 K4.
(3)

(ii).

In a counter-current heat exchanger which has been in service for


quite some time, due to formation of scale, the heat transfer rate is
reduced to 85% of its original value based on clean surface. Assuming
that the terminal temperatures of fluids are same in both cases and the
effective heat transfer area does not change appreciably due to scale

formation determine the overall fouling factor if clean overall heat


transfer coefficient is 500
W/m2 K.
(2)
(b).

A pipe is 20 mm inner diameter and 30 mm outer diameter is insulated


with 35 mm thick insulation. Temperature of the bare pipe is 200 C.
The thermal conductivity of the insulating material is 0.15 W/m C and
the convective heat transfer coefficient of outside air is 3 W/m2 C. The
surface temperature is 30 C. The heat transfer resistance of the metal
pipe can be neglected.
(5)
(i).
Comment with reasoning about the heat transfer rates with and
without insulation.
(ii).
If the same insulating material is used, what is the minimum
thickness above which there is a reduction in heat loss as compared to
the bare pipe?
(iii).
For optimum design, what conductivity of insulating material
do you suggest for the conditions given in the problem?

16.
(a).

Oxygen is diffusing in a mixture of oxygen-nitrogen at 1 std. atm,


25 C. Concentration of oxygen at planes 2 mm apart is 10 and 20volume % respectively. Nitrogen is non-diffusing.
(5)
(i).

Derive the appropriate expression to calculate the flux of

oxygen. Define units of each term clearly.

(b).

(ii).
Calculate the flux of oxygen. Diffusivity of oxygen in nitrogen
= 1.89 x 10-5 m2 s-1.
The equilibrium water absorbed by a certain silica gel in contact with
moist air varies linearly with the humidity of air,
Y = 3.4435 x 10-2 X
Where, X = kg water absorbed /kg of dry gel, Y = humidity of air, kg
moisture /kg dry air.
0.5 kg of silica gel containing 5% (dry basis) absorbed water is placed
in a collapsible vessel in which there are 10 m3 of moist air particle

pressure of water being 15 mm Hg. The total pressure and temperature


are kept at 1 std. atm. 25 C respectively.
(5)
(i).
What is the amount of water picked up from the moist air in
the vessel by the silica gel?
(ii).
What is the final particle pressure of water vapor in the vessel?
17.
A mineral containing 20% elemental sulphur is to be leached with hot gas oil
in which sulphur is soluble to the extent of 10 parts in 100 parts of oil
by weight. The oil is recycled over the batch of ground mineral till no
farther dissolution of sulphur takes place. On drainage, the solid
minerals retain the solution to the extent of one-tenth the weight of
undissolved solid (sulphur and gauge). No preferential absorption takes
place. Calculate the equilibrium compositions and quantities of the
solid and liquid phases if 50 kg of oil is used for leaching 100 kg of
fresh mineral.(5)
18.
(a).

The irreversible gas-phase reaction A 3B will be carried out


isothermally. The reaction is zero order, the initial concentration of A
is 2 mol/lit and the system contains 40% inert. The specific reaction
gas constant is 0.10 mol/lit-min. Calculate the time required to achieve
80% conversion in a constant pressure batch
reactor.
(5)

(b).

At present a first order, isothermal, liquid phase reaction is being


conducted in a cascade of two equal sized mixed flow reactors to
obtain 95% conversion. If a plug flow reactor of the same total volume
replaces this system, what is the increase in the production rate for the
same
conversion?
(5)

19.
The observe rate using a cube of 2 cm catalyst pellet is 10-8 mol/s.cm3 pellet,
calculate the value of first order reaction rate constant. The effective
diffusivity is 0.01 cm2/s

(5)

20
(a).

A first order reaction A B is taking place in CSTR fed with A at


concentration CAF which remain uncharged. There are likely to be

some deviations in feed rate (F) of A. Derive linearised transfer


function between concentration of A in the outlet and feed rate of A
assuming that volume V of reacting mixture remains
uncharged.
(5)
(b).

A closed loop feedback control system consists of a second order


process,

and a proportional controller (GC (s) = KC ). The roots of


characteristics equation of the closed loop system are 2 and 1 in
absence of controller and roots are 1.5 0.5i when KC = 4.
(5)
(i).

Determine Kp, 1, 2.

(ii).
Determine limits on KC so that the response of the system to a
step input is non-oscillatory.