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Fluid Mechanics Through Problems

R.J. Garde

Pro Vice-chancellor Indira Gandhi National Open University New Delhi, India (Formerly, Professor of Hydraulic Engineering University of Roorkee Roorkee, India)

JOHN WILEY & SONS

New York

Chichester

Brisbane

Toronto

Singapore

Contents

Preface

v

I.

Properties of Fluids

 

1

1.1 Introduction /

 

1.2 Mass Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume,

 
 

Relative Density, Pressure

2

 

1.3 Viscosity 2

 

1.4 Bulk Modulus of Elasticity 4

 

1.5 Gas Laws 4

 

1.6 Surface Tension and Capillarity 5

 

1.7 Flow Regimes 6

 

Illustrative Examples

7

Problems

75

Descriptive Questions

18

II.

Kinematics of Fluid Flow

 

21

2.1 Velocity 21

 

2.2 Types of Flow

22

2.3 Stream Lines, Path Lines, Streak Lines

22

2.4 Continuity Equation

22

 

2.5 Acceleration 23

 

2.6 Rotation, Vorticity, Circulation

24

2.7 Velocity Potential and Stream Function

26

2.8 Flow-Net 27

 

2.9 Relaxation Method for Drawing Flow-net

28

Illustrative Examples

29

Problems

46

Descriptive Questions

53

III.

Equations of Motion and Energy Theorem

 

57

viii

Contents

3.2 Integration of Euler's Equation of Motion Along a

Stream Line

58

3.3 Physical Meaning of Terms in Eq. (3.4. a) and Applications 59

3.4 Energy Equation with Heat Transfer 60

 

Illustrative Examples

60

Problems

78

Descriptive Questions

82

IV.

Fluid Statics

85

4.1 Fluid Pressure 85

 

4.2 Pressure Variation in Static Compressible Fluid 85

 

4.3 Manometers 86

 

4.4 Forces on Immersed Plane Surfaces 87

 

4.5 Total Force on Immersed Curved Surfaces 88

4.6 Floating Bodies 89

 

4.7 Stability of Floating and Submerged Bodies 89

 

4.8 Fluid Mass Subjected to Uniform Acceleration 91

4.9 Stresses in Pipes Due to Internal Pressure

92

 

Illustrative Examples

92

Problems

118

Descriptive Questions

129

V.

Applications of Bernoulli's Equation

 

131

5.1 Introduction 131

 

5.2 Pressure Distribution in Irrotational Flow

131

 

5.3 Hydraulic Grade Line and Total Energy Line

132

5.4 Cavitation 132

 

5.5 Flow Through Small and Large Orifices

132

 

5.6 Flow Through Mouthpieces

134

 

5.7 Two and Three Dimensional Orifices and Flow

 

Measuring Devices in Pipes

755

 

5.8 Weirs 137

 

5.9 Flow Under a Sluice Gate

141

 

Illustrative Examples

142

Problems

161

Descriptive Questions

167

VI.

Momentum Equation and Its Applications

 

169

6.1 Linear Momentum Equation 169

6.2 Momentum Correction Factor ß 170

6.3 Applications 171

6.4 Angular Momentum 171

 

Contents

ix

 

Illustrative Examples

172

Problems

200

Descriptive Questions

210

VII.

Dimensional Analysis and Similitude

 

212

7.1 Dimensional Analysis

212

 

7.2 Buckingham's « Theorem

212

7.3 Variables in Fluid Mechanics

212

7.4 Procedures of Dimensional Analysis

214

7.5 Similitude 214

 

7.6 Important Dimensionless Parameters

215

7.7 Model Scales

216

Illustrative Examples

217

Problems

239

Descriptive Questions

245

VIII.

Laminar Flow

 

249

8.1 Introduction 249

 

8.2 Navier-Stokes' Equations 249

 

8.3 Hagen-Poiseuille's Equation for Laminar Flow in Pipes 251

 

8.4 Stokes' Law for Fall Velocity 252

 

8.5 Darcy'sLaw 254

 

8.6 Fluidization 254

8.7 Viscometers 255

8.8 Lubrication Mechanics 255

 

8.9 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 255

 

Illustrative Examples

256

Problems

282

Descriptive Questions

288

IX.

Boundary Layer Theory

 

291

9.1

Introduction 291

 

9.2

Boundary Layer Definitions and Characteristics 292

 

9.3

Laminar Boundary Layer 293

 

9.4

Turbulent Boundary Layer 294

 

9.5

Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough Surfaces 296

 

9.6

Application of Momentum Equation 296

 

9.7

Establishment of Flow in Pipes 297

 

9.8

Separation and Its Control 298

Illustrative Examples

299

Problems

318

Descriptive Questions

321

X.

Turbulent Flow

 

324

10.1 Characteristics of Turbulent Flow

324

x

Contents

10.2

Turbulent Shear 326

10.3

Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow 327

10.4

Friction Factor Variation in Smooth and Rough Pipes 328

10.5 Friction Factors for Commercial Pipes 330

10.6 Noncircular Conduits 332

10.7 Aging of Pipes 332

 

Illustrative Examples

332

Problems

350

Descriptive Questions

353

XI.

Problems in Pipe Flow

 

355

11.1

Introduction 355

 

11.2

Sudden Expansions and Diffusers

355

11.3

Contractions and Contracting Transitions 357

 

11.4

Flow in Pipe Bends 358

11.5

Loss Coefficients for Pipe Fittings 360

11.6

Equivalent Length of Pipe 361

11.7

Siphons 361

11.8

Pipe Flow Problems 362

 

11.9

Parallel Pipes 363

11.10

Branching Pipes

364

11.11

Pipe Net-Works

366

Illustrative Examples

367

Problems

394

Descriptive Questions

403

XII. Forces on Immersed Bodies

 

407

12.1 Introduction 407

12.2 Deformation Drag, Friction Drag, Form Drag 408

12.3 Variation of C D with Re 409

12.4 Effects of Free Surface and Compressibility on Drag 415

12.5 Lift 417

Illustrative Examples

420

Problems

439

Descriptive Questions

444

XIII. Open Channel Flow

447

13.2 Steady Uniform Flow

13.3 Most Efficient Channel Section 450

13.4 Specific Energy and Specific Force 450

13.5 Brink Depth, Broad Crested Weirs, Contracting Transitions 451

13.1 Some Definitions

447

447

 

Contents

xi

 

13.6 Hydraulic Jump 455

 

13.7 Flow in a Bend 456

13.8 Gradually Varied Flow 457

 

13.9 Surges and Gravity Waves

459

Illustrative Examples

461

Problems

507

Descriptive Questions

5i7

XIV.

Compressible Flow

 

520

14.1 Effects of Compressibility 520

 

14.2 Perfect Gas Relationships 520

14.3 Internal Energy, Entropy and Enthalpy 521

14.4 Propagation of Elastic Wave and Flow Classification 522

14.5 Equations of Motion for One Dimensional Steady Compressible Flows 523

 

14.6 Normal Shock Waves 524

 

14.7 Stagnation Pressure in Compressible Fluids 525

 

14.8 Flow through Nozzles, Orifices, Venturimeters 525

Illustrative Examples

527

Problems

541

Descriptive Questions

544

XV.

Pumps

547

15.1

Introduction 547

 

15.2

Pump Classification 547

 

15.3

Reciprocating Pumps 548

15.4

Air Vessels 550

 

15.5

Rotodynamic Pumps 551

 

15.6

Velocity Diagram 554

15.7

Specified Speed 555

 

15.8

Pump Intakes and Sumps 556

 

15-9

Miscellaneous 556

Illustr-attve-Examples 557

 

Problems

575

 

Descriptive Questions

579

XVI.

Turbines

581

16.1 Introduction 581

16.2 Impulse Turbines: Pelton Wheel 581

16.3 Reaction Turbines 584

16.4 Francis Turbine

586

16.5 Kaplan Turbine

588

16.6 Selection of Turbines 590

Illustrative Examples

590

Problems

606

Descriptive Questions

610

xii

Contents

 

XVII.

Unsteady Flows

 

612

17.1

Types of Unsteady Flows 612

 

17.2

Equation of Motion 612

 

17.2

Propagation of Pressure Wave, Water Hammer 613

 

17.4

Surges in Open Channels 616

 

17.5

Oscillations in U-Tube and Surge Tanks 676

17.6

Non-Periodic Flows 618

 

Illustrative Examples

619

Problems

635

Descriptive Questions

638

APPENDIX

 

APPENDIX

A.

Properties of Some Common Fluids at 20°C and

 
 

Atmospheric Pressure

640

APPBNDIX

B.

Properties of Water at Different Temperatures

641

APPENDIX

C.

Properties of Air at Different Temperatures and at

 
 

Atmospheric Pressure

643

APPENDIX

D.

Properties of Common Gases at 273.16 K. and at

 
 

Atmospheric Pressure

644

APPENDIX

E.

Properties of Standard Atmosphere

645

 

APPENDIX

F.

646

 
 

Properties of Areas Notations 649 Greek Notations

654

 

Index

655