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October, 2016

It is, in fact, nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled

the holy curiosity of inquiry. Albert Einstein

In order to positively impact student achievement, the Math

Standards must be not just adopted but implemented.

Adopting

a set of standards represents the beginning, not the

end, of the process. The intent of the Standards is to add a

deeper level of inquiry to math class: making the ability to

describe how you arrived at a solution as important as

memorizing the facts. Teachers must make children partners

in the acquisition of knowledge, helping them to see that

math isnt only or even mainly about right answers, its

about exploration and discovery, and the sort of critical

thinking and problem-solving required in the real world.

Adopting the standards implies there is a goal to have a set

of standards that will impact what happens in the classroom.

Unfortunately, there are too many examples of adoption of

the Mathematics Standards but what is actually being taught

and learned in classrooms. bears little resemblance to the

intent of the standards.

practices that are essential for mathematical thinking. If a

student is able to model a problem, they can make some

picture (visual representation) of the problem, reason out a

process to solve the problem, and use the picture to help

communicate and explain their process clearly to someone

else. If the student has a wrong procedure or struggles with

the problem, then they have the opportunity to persevere

through the process..

methods. (CCSSM p 5). Curriculum is WHAT is taught, WHEN it

is taught, and HOW it is taught. The Standards define WHAT

all students are expected to know and be able to do, but not

the when or the how. The WHEN is defined by a SCOPE AND

SEQUENCE. Scope is defined as a list of the math concepts

taught at a grade level/course, and Sequence is defined as

the logical and developmentally-appropriate progression of

standards within a grade. This is important because not only

are the standards coherent across the grades, there is

coherence within the grade. The HOW is the differentiation

and creative ways teachers present and teach to provide

development of the Common Core Mathematics Standards was

informed by international benchmarking and began with

research-based learning progressions detailing what is known

about how students mathematical knowledge, skills, and

understanding develop over time. The content of mathematics

has not changed. Rather, the Mathematics Standards call for

three instructional shifts.

The graveyards of educational reform are littered with

only those concepts that are emphasized in the standards

(critical areas) so that students can gain strong foundational

conceptual understanding, a high degree of procedural skill

and fluency, and the ability to apply the mathematics they

superficially implemented, and consequently pronounced

ineffective. (Lewis, 2000, p. 33)

classroom. The second shift, COHERENCE arises from

mathematical connections. Some of the connections in the

standards knit topics together at a single grade level. Most

connections are vertical, as the standards support a

progression of increasing knowledge, skill, and sophistication

across the grades. Finally, RIGOR requires that conceptual

understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application be

approached with equal intensity.

that requires a thoughtful, thorough approach to planning and

implementation. The overarching message of the Standards is

that effective teaching is the nonnegotiable core that

ensures that all students learn mathematics at high levels and

that such teaching requires a range of actions at the school

gap between the adoption of standards and their actions

required for successful implementation.

figure it out on their own. Teachers like professionals in all

other practice based professions, must constantly focus on

refining their craft in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Job-embedded professional learning experiences and contentspecific feedback to effectively implement standards-aligned

instructional strategies in their classrooms should be common

place.

bring the central reform ideas to life are often particularly likely to be

implemented in unpredictable ways and look little like what was

originally intended.(WestEd.)

Understanding the expectations of the Standards is critical for

all stakeholders, not just classroom teachers! When that

understanding is missing, it is very easy to say, been there,

done that! Successful implementation depends on how well we

listen to lessons learned from the field.

is that many teachers are not comfortable teaching math that

professional learning and evaluation frameworks, must be

aligned with each other and clearly connected with goals

established in the standards. Focusing on only one component,

such as instruction, will inevitably fail. With these cohesive

and reinforced systems in place, implementation is not seen as

just one more thing to do, but rather as central to all

aspects of their work, and instructional leaders will be able

tomore accurately determine whats really working.

such as teaching through problem solving and using the

textbook as a resource only, not as the main teaching tool.

Teachers are being asked to teach in ways that they

themselves may not have experienced or seen in classroom

situations. Its difficult for many to teach differently from the

they experienced. Many teachers admit they learned math by

practice and drill, not by problem solving. So how does one

move from being the sage on the stage to being the guide on

the side; from practicing procedures to rich problem

solving; from the sit and get to the three part lesson?

formative assessment practices that monitor student

comprehension within lessons and use that data to inform and

adjust instruction not just preparing students for a test.

Over two decades ago, after they had studied Japans teaching

system and its method of embedded professional learning,

Stigler and Hiebert introduced Lesson Study to America. In

their study of math teaching in the United States, An

American Way of Teaching , they describe it as just learning

terms and practicing procedures. In contrast to this

prescriptive approach to mathematics, teachers in Japan would

ask students to come up with their own procedures for solving

problems. A typical class began with the teacher posing a

complex thought-provoking problem; Students engaged in

productive struggle with the problem; Students discovered

ways to solve the problem; Various students would present

their ideas and solutions to the class; The class would discuss

the solutions and the teacher would guide the discussions. The

teacher summarized the class solution; and students practiced

similar problems. They also noted a characteristic teaching

practice was to engage teachers in planning, teaching, and

its clear that successful implementation requires teachers to

apply proven strategies that are aligned to the standards. It is

essential for instructional leaders to evaluate the quality and

efficacy of instruction, its equally if not more important to

focus on student actions and evidence of learning

particularly the higher thinking and reasoning called for by

the Standards. The Mathematical Practices must be evident in

every math classroom.

steep learning curve. Research from Leveraging the Common

Core to Support College and Career Readiness, showed that

teachers receive a lot of information about what the

standards are, and very little about how to teach with them.

Additionally, data from The Center for Public Educations

Teaching the Teachers report showed that most mathematics

professional development is still a "spray and pray" two-day

institute (or similar) on the standards. Teachers attend

workshops where they might get great new ideas about

teaching. But when they get back to their classrooms and try

to put those ideas into practice, all kinds of questions come up.

And the expert who led the workshop isnt there to help.

Often, theres no one to turn to for help. Teachers deserve

looking for ways to deepen their students understanding of

and enthusiasm for math. Many have discovered an adaptation

of Lesson Study is a vehicle for improving students math

experiences and providing a deeper understanding of the

required shifts. Lesson Study places the power to change

instruction in the hands of those participating. It is more than

teachers planning together and observing each other: it is a

way of developing a deep understanding of the content, the

math practices, and lesson structure.

The model starts with teachers identifying their learning target(s), the content and math practices; The second step is to consider

how their success will be recognized. Subsequent steps involved planning the lesson together, identifying best practices, teaching

the lesson with others observing, and then coming together to review the lesson and student learning.

As one teacher recently wrote: Im more aware of my practice now. Every time I plan a lesson, I think about the representations

and visuals I can use to address the diversity in my class. I reflect on my practice all the time. I think about the problems I give

to them, I anticipate their questions and answers. I think about how I give instructions, where I stand in the room, and what

gestures I use.

In their 1999 book, The Teaching Gap, Stigler and Hiebert stated The premise behind lesson study is simple: if you want to improve

teaching, the most effective place to do it is in the context of a classroom lesson. They also noted that, rather than reform, the

aim of lesson study is to produce small, incremental improvements over long periods of time and however long the process there

remains an unrelenting focus on student learning.

Implementing the standards is critical and has the potential to provide students access to a coherent curriculum and instruction,

pedagogical strategies, that support the mathematical progress of all students. When implemented with fidelity, we have seen that

lesson study can be a powerful data-driven, job-embedded model of professional development that supports the continuous

improvement of instruction and increases personal and shared accountability for raising student achievement.

Lewis, C. (2000, April 28). Lesson Study: The core of Japanese professional development. Invited Address to the Special Interest Group on Research

in Mathematics Education, American Educational Research Association Meetings, New Orleans. Retrieved 18 March 2011 from www.csudh.edu/math/

syoshinobu/107web/aera2000.pdf

Perry, R. R., Finkelstein, N. D., Seago, N., Heredia, A., Sobolew-Shubin, S., & Carroll, C. (2015). Taking Stock of Common Core Math Implementation:

Supporting Teachers to Shift Instruction: Insights from the Math in Common 2015 Baseline Survey of Teachers and Administrators. San Francisco,

CA: WestEd.

Erma

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