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PVT Express analytical flow diagram.

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted oil viscosities with measured laboratory oil viscosities.

Monophasic sample

PVT Express Viscosity Prediction versus Measured Laboratory Viscosity Data

Saturation pressure determination at


bottomhole temperature

Laboratory measured viscosities


PVT Express viscosities

Flash to
atmospheric conditions
Gas

Viscosity

Liquid

GOR
GC analysis
Molecular
composition

Reservoir fluid
molecular composition

GC analysis

Density

Molecular
composition

Viscosity

Pressure
PVT Expert
prediction
Physical sample
Physical measurement
Calculated data

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted formation volume factors (FvF) with measured laboratory formation
volume factors.

Physical properties
predictions
REPORT

PVT Express FvF Prediction versus Measured Laboratory FvF Data


Measured Fluid Properties

Oil formation
volume factor

Laboratory FvF
PVT Express FvF
Pressure

Case history
The PVT Express system has been tested
in the worlds harshest environments,
from the Middle East deserts to offshore
Newfoundland, providing early PVT data
for critical wellsite decisions.
In a well offshore Newfoundland,
hydrocarbon samples were vital in characterizing the reservoir fluid and as input
for the formulation of field development
plans. It was critical that uncontaminated
samples be recovered without undergoing
phase changes. In addition, the measured
fluid properties of the recovered MDT
samples were to be compared with
known properties of samples collected
from the exploratory well. If the fluid
properties were similar, a costly well-testing program could be avoided.
The PVT Express system delivered two
complete PVT studies within hours of
recovering the MDT samples at the surface. These results matched the known
PVT properties from the exploratory well.
Running a full well test was deemed
unnecessary, which saved a significant

amount of money.
In another well in Oman, the objectives
were to ensure representative gas condensate bottomhole samples were collected
during a well test and to monitor surface
gas and liquid composition to achieve stabilized flow.
The first set of bottomhole gas condensate samples analyzed in the PVT Express
laboratory exhibited a measured dewpoint close to the flowing bottomhole
pressure, indicating the samples were
nonrepresentative. Consequently, the well
was produced on a lower choke, and a
second set of bottomhole samples was
collected. The dewpoint measured on
this set of bottomhole samples was well
below the flowing bottomhole pressure,
indicating the well was producing
monophasically into the wellbore and representative bottomhole samples were
being recovered. Two gas condensate constant-volume-depletion PVT studies were
completed at the wellsite using the PVT
Express system in addition to 15 surface
sample compositional studies.

Black Oil

Gas Condensate

Bubblepoint pressure
Live oil compressibility
Fluid density at bubblepoint pressure
Flash GOR
Stock tank oil density (API gravity)
Flash gas composition (C12+)
Stock tank oil composition (C36+)
Reservoir fluid composition (C36+)
Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)
Stock tank oil molecular mass
Reservoir oil molecular mass
Reservoir oil viscosity
(not standard equipmentoptional)

Dewpoint pressure
Fluid density at dewpoint pressure
Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)
Flash GOR
Condensate density (API gravity)
Flash gas composition (C12+)
Stock tank oil composition (C36+)
Reservoir fluid composition (C36+)
Z factor at dewpoint pressure
Stock tank liquid molecular mass
Reservoir fluid molecular mass

Predicted PVT Properties


Constant composition expansion
at reservoir temperature
-Oil compressibility
-Oil relative volume
Differential liberation at
reservoir temperature
-Oil formation volume factor
-Solution GOR
-Oil density
-Oil viscosity
-Produced gas gravity (molar mass)
-Produced gas Z factor
Separator test at specified
separator pressure and temperature
-Oil formation volume factor
-Separator shrinkage factor
-Tank, separator, and total GOR
-Separator oil density
-Stock tank oil density (API gravity)
Based on industry standards

www.slb.com/oilfield
SMP-5916

Schlumberger

June 2003

*Mark of Schlumberger

Constant composition expansion


at reservoir temperature
-Single- and two-phase relative volume
-Single- and two-phase fluid compressibility
-Retrograde liquid deposit
Constant volume depletion at
reservoir temperature
-Cumulative produced fluid to depletion
-Single- and two-phase fluid Z factor
-Retrograde liquid deposit
-Produced gas gravity (molar mass)

PVT Express
Delivering early fluid
analysis data

Applications

Pressure-volume-temperature
(PVT) data collection for projects in which early delivery of
results is critical

Projects in locations in which


access to PVT laboratories is
limited by geographical location
and/or local shipping regulations

Validation of sample quality during wireline formation testing,


drillstem testing, or production
testing operations

Compositional monitoring of
separator gas or reservoir fluid
samples, providing information
to optimize gas condensate fluid
sampling

Benefits

Eliminates risks associated with


operation and transportation of
mercury PVT laboratory equipment

Allows rapid mobilization to any


geographic location

Delivers PVT results within 8


hours

Enables informed decisions


during logging and well-testing
operations

Delivers high-quality PVT data on


a complete range of hydrocarbon
fluids (heavy oil to gas condensate)

Reduces sample shipping and


storage costs

Advanced mobile fluid analysis service


The Schlumberger PVT Express* service is
based on a revolutionary hardware and software platform that can deliver comprehensive fluid analysis data in a matter of hours.
This system has many advantages over
traditional PVT equipment and services. The
utilization of mercury-free technology eliminates the inherent health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risks associated with the
use and transportation of mercury. Modular,
rugged construction facilitates transportation by road, sea, and air to any geographic
location, including a local operations base
or the wellsite itself. The mobility and flexibility of the PVT Express system allow
results to be delivered in hours rather than
weeks or months, in part because of the
elimination of long sample transportation
wait times.
This system has applications in exploration, development, and production environments. Acquiring sample quality data
and measuring reservoir fluid properties
during wireline formation testing operations
mean our customers do not have to wait
weeks or months to determine if the objectives of the sampling operation were
achieved. Analysis at the wellsite enables
decisions about additional wireline formation testing or drillstem testing operations.
Similarly, during drillstem testing operations
the PVT Express service can be used to
ensure that representative samples have
been collected before leaving the well.

Fluid properties generated by the service


can be used to set up the PhaseWatcher*
multiphase well production monitoring
equipment and to generate data for production optimization strategies.
With the current emphasis on fast-track
field development, having swift results is
critical. Utilizing the PVT Express service
at the wellsite or a local support base can
overcome the problem of data delivery
delays.

PVT Express delivers early fluid property results from openhole, cased hole, or surface samples. Data quality
is assured by a global network of fluid analysis centers.

Hardware
Using a conventional or single-phase sample
collected by the MDT* Modular Formation
Dynamics Tester or the CHDT* Cased Hole
Dynamics Tester, the PVT Express system
employs advanced technology to measure
some properties and predict others.
The PVT Express system features a highpressure PVT cell that measures the saturation pressure of the reservoir fluid at
reservoir temperature. Accurate measurement of bubblepoint and dewpoint pressure
is made possible by optical signal technology that measures the first bubble of gas liberated from oil and the first traces of
condensable liquid in a gas during constant
temperature expansion from reservoir pressure.
An additional advantage of the PVT
Express high-pressure cell is the ability to
produce a comprehensive fluid analysis
report with less than 50 cm3 of single-phase

A PVT Express specialist completes a reservoir fluid flash analysis. Laboratory equipment shown includes a PVT cell,
a temperature-controlled gas/oil ratio (GOR) liquid trap, an atmospheric liquid densitometer, and a viscometer.

Features

Measurement techniques based


on proven PVT laboratory procedures

Very small volume of sample


required for full PVT study (less
than 50 cm3)

reservoir fluid. This is significantly less


volume than traditional mercury PVT
equipment requires.

Included fiber-optic sensor to


measure saturation pressure of
gas condensates and volatile oils

Modular, rugged construction


for transportation by road, sea,
or air.

Patented helium ionization


detector used in dual gas
chromatograph (GC) [gas C12+,
liquid C36+]

Advanced hardware and software technology that provides


accurate measured and predicted PVT data

Accurate testing for oil-base


mud contamination in samples
collected with wireline formation test tools

A proprietary dual chromatograph (oil


and gas), featuring patented helium ionization detectors, is used to deliver compositional data. Flame ionization
detectors typically utilize hydrogen gas.
Helium ionization technology eliminates
the requirement to use hydrogen, thus
enhancing the safety and mobility of the
service.
All data measured by the high-pressure
cell are displayed and stored in real time
by a digital interface module. In addition
to interpreting and reporting the measured data, this interface module also links
to the Schlumberger PVT Expert* prediction model.

Software

Data quality management process

The PVT Expert system is an operatorindependent, multidimensional prediction


model that delivers instant and reliable
volumetric phase behavior fluid properties from a specific set of measured data.
In contrast to equation-of-state prediction
models, the PVT Expert system is ideally
suited to wellsite operations, requiring no
time-consuming tuning operations. In
addition to providing rapid fluid analysis
data, this prediction model includes a
quality assurance tool that provides
instant evaluation of the quality of the
fluid property predictions.

To ensure the quality of the data reported


by the PVT Express service, it will be supported by Schlumberger fluid analysis
experts strategically located in a global
network of fluid analysis centers and laboratories. An integral and key feature of
the PVT Express service is the data quality-control service provided by our analysis experts. Customized to suit the
specific needs of the project, the quality
control service will range from real-time
support of wellsite operations to review
of the report before delivery to the customer.

POCKET

Applications

Pressure-volume-temperature
(PVT) data collection for projects in which early delivery of
results is critical

Projects in locations in which


access to PVT laboratories is
limited by geographical location
and/or local shipping regulations

Validation of sample quality during wireline formation testing,


drillstem testing, or production
testing operations

Compositional monitoring of
separator gas or reservoir fluid
samples, providing information
to optimize gas condensate fluid
sampling

Benefits

Eliminates risks associated with


operation and transportation of
mercury PVT laboratory equipment

Allows rapid mobilization to any


geographic location

Delivers PVT results within 8


hours

Enables informed decisions


during logging and well-testing
operations

Delivers high-quality PVT data on


a complete range of hydrocarbon
fluids (heavy oil to gas condensate)

Reduces sample shipping and


storage costs

Advanced mobile fluid analysis service


The Schlumberger PVT Express* service is
based on a revolutionary hardware and software platform that can deliver comprehensive fluid analysis data in a matter of hours.
This system has many advantages over
traditional PVT equipment and services. The
utilization of mercury-free technology eliminates the inherent health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risks associated with the
use and transportation of mercury. Modular,
rugged construction facilitates transportation by road, sea, and air to any geographic
location, including a local operations base
or the wellsite itself. The mobility and flexibility of the PVT Express system allow
results to be delivered in hours rather than
weeks or months, in part because of the
elimination of long sample transportation
wait times.
This system has applications in exploration, development, and production environments. Acquiring sample quality data
and measuring reservoir fluid properties
during wireline formation testing operations
mean our customers do not have to wait
weeks or months to determine if the objectives of the sampling operation were
achieved. Analysis at the wellsite enables
decisions about additional wireline formation testing or drillstem testing operations.
Similarly, during drillstem testing operations
the PVT Express service can be used to
ensure that representative samples have
been collected before leaving the well.

Fluid properties generated by the service


can be used to set up the PhaseWatcher*
multiphase well production monitoring
equipment and to generate data for production optimization strategies.
With the current emphasis on fast-track
field development, having swift results is
critical. Utilizing the PVT Express service
at the wellsite or a local support base can
overcome the problem of data delivery
delays.

PVT Express delivers early fluid property results from openhole, cased hole, or surface samples. Data quality
is assured by a global network of fluid analysis centers.

Hardware
Using a conventional or single-phase sample
collected by the MDT* Modular Formation
Dynamics Tester or the CHDT* Cased Hole
Dynamics Tester, the PVT Express system
employs advanced technology to measure
some properties and predict others.
The PVT Express system features a highpressure PVT cell that measures the saturation pressure of the reservoir fluid at
reservoir temperature. Accurate measurement of bubblepoint and dewpoint pressure
is made possible by optical signal technology that measures the first bubble of gas liberated from oil and the first traces of
condensable liquid in a gas during constant
temperature expansion from reservoir pressure.
An additional advantage of the PVT
Express high-pressure cell is the ability to
produce a comprehensive fluid analysis
report with less than 50 cm3 of single-phase

A PVT Express specialist completes a reservoir fluid flash analysis. Laboratory equipment shown includes a PVT cell,
a temperature-controlled gas/oil ratio (GOR) liquid trap, an atmospheric liquid densitometer, and a viscometer.

Features

Measurement techniques based


on proven PVT laboratory procedures

Very small volume of sample


required for full PVT study (less
than 50 cm3)

reservoir fluid. This is significantly less


volume than traditional mercury PVT
equipment requires.

Included fiber-optic sensor to


measure saturation pressure of
gas condensates and volatile oils

Modular, rugged construction


for transportation by road, sea,
or air.

Patented helium ionization


detector used in dual gas
chromatograph (GC) [gas C12+,
liquid C36+]

Advanced hardware and software technology that provides


accurate measured and predicted PVT data

Accurate testing for oil-base


mud contamination in samples
collected with wireline formation test tools

A proprietary dual chromatograph (oil


and gas), featuring patented helium ionization detectors, is used to deliver compositional data. Flame ionization
detectors typically utilize hydrogen gas.
Helium ionization technology eliminates
the requirement to use hydrogen, thus
enhancing the safety and mobility of the
service.
All data measured by the high-pressure
cell are displayed and stored in real time
by a digital interface module. In addition
to interpreting and reporting the measured data, this interface module also links
to the Schlumberger PVT Expert* prediction model.

Software

Data quality management process

The PVT Expert system is an operatorindependent, multidimensional prediction


model that delivers instant and reliable
volumetric phase behavior fluid properties from a specific set of measured data.
In contrast to equation-of-state prediction
models, the PVT Expert system is ideally
suited to wellsite operations, requiring no
time-consuming tuning operations. In
addition to providing rapid fluid analysis
data, this prediction model includes a
quality assurance tool that provides
instant evaluation of the quality of the
fluid property predictions.

To ensure the quality of the data reported


by the PVT Express service, it will be supported by Schlumberger fluid analysis
experts strategically located in a global
network of fluid analysis centers and laboratories. An integral and key feature of
the PVT Express service is the data quality-control service provided by our analysis experts. Customized to suit the
specific needs of the project, the quality
control service will range from real-time
support of wellsite operations to review
of the report before delivery to the customer.

POCKET

PVT Express analytical flow diagram.

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted oil viscosities with measured laboratory oil viscosities.

Monophasic sample

PVT Express Viscosity Prediction versus Measured Laboratory Viscosity Data

Saturation pressure determination at


bottomhole temperature

Laboratory measured viscosities


PVT Express viscosities

Flash to
atmospheric conditions
Gas

Viscosity

Liquid

GOR
GC analysis
Molecular
composition

Reservoir fluid
molecular composition

GC analysis

Density

Molecular
composition

Viscosity

Pressure
PVT Expert
prediction
Physical sample
Physical measurement
Calculated data

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted formation volume factors (FvF) with measured laboratory formation
volume factors.

Physical properties
predictions
REPORT

PVT Express FvF Prediction versus Measured Laboratory FvF Data


Measured Fluid Properties

Oil formation
volume factor

Laboratory FvF
PVT Express FvF
Pressure

Case history
The PVT Express system has been tested
in the worlds harshest environments,
from the Middle East deserts to offshore
Newfoundland, providing early PVT data
for critical wellsite decisions.
In a well offshore Newfoundland,
hydrocarbon samples were vital in characterizing the reservoir fluid and as input
for the formulation of field development
plans. It was critical that uncontaminated
samples be recovered without undergoing
phase changes. In addition, the measured
fluid properties of the recovered MDT
samples were to be compared with
known properties of samples collected
from the exploratory well. If the fluid
properties were similar, a costly well-testing program could be avoided.
The PVT Express system delivered two
complete PVT studies within hours of
recovering the MDT samples at the surface. These results matched the known
PVT properties from the exploratory well.
Running a full well test was deemed
unnecessary, which saved a significant

amount of money.
In another well in Oman, the objectives
were to ensure representative gas condensate bottomhole samples were collected
during a well test and to monitor surface
gas and liquid composition to achieve stabilized flow.
The first set of bottomhole gas condensate samples analyzed in the PVT Express
laboratory exhibited a measured dewpoint close to the flowing bottomhole
pressure, indicating the samples were
nonrepresentative. Consequently, the well
was produced on a lower choke, and a
second set of bottomhole samples was
collected. The dewpoint measured on
this set of bottomhole samples was well
below the flowing bottomhole pressure,
indicating the well was producing
monophasically into the wellbore and representative bottomhole samples were
being recovered. Two gas condensate constant-volume-depletion PVT studies were
completed at the wellsite using the PVT
Express system in addition to 15 surface
sample compositional studies.

Black Oil

Gas Condensate

Bubblepoint pressure
Live oil compressibility
Fluid density at bubblepoint pressure
Flash GOR
Stock tank oil density (API gravity)
Flash gas composition (C12+)
Stock tank oil composition (C36+)
Reservoir fluid composition (C36+)
Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)
Stock tank oil molecular mass
Reservoir oil molecular mass
Reservoir oil viscosity
(not standard equipmentoptional)

Dewpoint pressure
Fluid density at dewpoint pressure
Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)
Flash GOR
Condensate density (API gravity)
Flash gas composition (C12+)
Stock tank oil composition (C36+)
Reservoir fluid composition (C36+)
Z factor at dewpoint pressure
Stock tank liquid molecular mass
Reservoir fluid molecular mass

Predicted PVT Properties


Constant composition expansion
at reservoir temperature
-Oil compressibility
-Oil relative volume
Differential liberation at
reservoir temperature
-Oil formation volume factor
-Solution GOR
-Oil density
-Oil viscosity
-Produced gas gravity (molar mass)
-Produced gas Z factor
Separator test at specified
separator pressure and temperature
-Oil formation volume factor
-Separator shrinkage factor
-Tank, separator, and total GOR
-Separator oil density
-Stock tank oil density (API gravity)
Based on industry standards

www.slb.com/oilfield
SMP-5916

Schlumberger

June 2003

*Mark of Schlumberger

Constant composition expansion


at reservoir temperature
-Single- and two-phase relative volume
-Single- and two-phase fluid compressibility
-Retrograde liquid deposit
Constant volume depletion at
reservoir temperature
-Cumulative produced fluid to depletion
-Single- and two-phase fluid Z factor
-Retrograde liquid deposit
-Produced gas gravity (molar mass)

PVT Express
Delivering early fluid
analysis data

PVT Express analytical flow diagram.

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted oil viscosities with measured laboratory oil viscosities.

Monophasic sample

PVT Express Viscosity Prediction versus Measured Laboratory Viscosity Data

Saturation pressure determination at


bottomhole temperature

Laboratory measured viscosities


PVT Express viscosities

Flash to
atmospheric conditions
Gas

Viscosity

Liquid

GOR
GC analysis
Molecular
composition

Reservoir fluid
molecular composition

GC analysis

Density

Molecular
composition

Viscosity

Pressure
PVT Expert
prediction
Physical sample
Physical measurement
Calculated data

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted formation volume factors (FvF) with measured laboratory formation
volume factors.

Physical properties
predictions
REPORT

PVT Express FvF Prediction versus Measured Laboratory FvF Data


Measured Fluid Properties

Oil formation
volume factor

Laboratory FvF
PVT Express FvF
Pressure

Case history
The PVT Express system has been tested
in the worlds harshest environments,
from the Middle East deserts to offshore
Newfoundland, providing early PVT data
for critical wellsite decisions.
In a well offshore Newfoundland,
hydrocarbon samples were vital in characterizing the reservoir fluid and as input
for the formulation of field development
plans. It was critical that uncontaminated
samples be recovered without undergoing
phase changes. In addition, the measured
fluid properties of the recovered MDT
samples were to be compared with
known properties of samples collected
from the exploratory well. If the fluid
properties were similar, a costly well-testing program could be avoided.
The PVT Express system delivered two
complete PVT studies within hours of
recovering the MDT samples at the surface. These results matched the known
PVT properties from the exploratory well.
Running a full well test was deemed
unnecessary, which saved a significant

amount of money.
In another well in Oman, the objectives
were to ensure representative gas condensate bottomhole samples were collected
during a well test and to monitor surface
gas and liquid composition to achieve stabilized flow.
The first set of bottomhole gas condensate samples analyzed in the PVT Express
laboratory exhibited a measured dewpoint close to the flowing bottomhole
pressure, indicating the samples were
nonrepresentative. Consequently, the well
was produced on a lower choke, and a
second set of bottomhole samples was
collected. The dewpoint measured on
this set of bottomhole samples was well
below the flowing bottomhole pressure,
indicating the well was producing
monophasically into the wellbore and representative bottomhole samples were
being recovered. Two gas condensate constant-volume-depletion PVT studies were
completed at the wellsite using the PVT
Express system in addition to 15 surface
sample compositional studies.

Black Oil

Gas Condensate

Bubblepoint pressure
Live oil compressibility
Fluid density at bubblepoint pressure
Flash GOR
Stock tank oil density (API gravity)
Flash gas composition (C12+)
Stock tank oil composition (C36+)
Reservoir fluid composition (C36+)
Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)
Stock tank oil molecular mass
Reservoir oil molecular mass
Reservoir oil viscosity
(not standard equipmentoptional)

Dewpoint pressure
Fluid density at dewpoint pressure
Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)
Flash GOR
Condensate density (API gravity)
Flash gas composition (C12+)
Stock tank oil composition (C36+)
Reservoir fluid composition (C36+)
Z factor at dewpoint pressure
Stock tank liquid molecular mass
Reservoir fluid molecular mass

Predicted PVT Properties


Constant composition expansion
at reservoir temperature
-Oil compressibility
-Oil relative volume
Differential liberation at
reservoir temperature
-Oil formation volume factor
-Solution GOR
-Oil density
-Oil viscosity
-Produced gas gravity (molar mass)
-Produced gas Z factor
Separator test at specified
separator pressure and temperature
-Oil formation volume factor
-Separator shrinkage factor
-Tank, separator, and total GOR
-Separator oil density
-Stock tank oil density (API gravity)
Based on industry standards

www.slb.com/oilfield
SMP-5916

Schlumberger

June 2003

*Mark of Schlumberger

Constant composition expansion


at reservoir temperature
-Single- and two-phase relative volume
-Single- and two-phase fluid compressibility
-Retrograde liquid deposit
Constant volume depletion at
reservoir temperature
-Cumulative produced fluid to depletion
-Single- and two-phase fluid Z factor
-Retrograde liquid deposit
-Produced gas gravity (molar mass)

PVT Express
Delivering early fluid
analysis data