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An Icelandic Primer

With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary


By Henry Sweet, M.A.

This book has been modified slightly from the original to make the paradigm references clear. The original was the second edition, published by Oxford at the
Clarendon Press, 1895.
The original page images1 were scanned in by Sean Crist2 . They were then OCRed
and reformatted for Project Gutenberg into text, HTML, and TEX by Ben Crowder3 . Other versions of the text may be found at the current homepage for the
6
!
primer4 or through Project Gutenberg5 . Special thanks to Jonas Oster
for providing the Omega TP code to fix nondisplaying characters.

http://www.ling.upenn.edu/ kurisuto/germanic/oi sweet about.html


kurisuto@unagi.cis.upenn.edu
3
crowderb@blankslate.net
4
http://www.blankslate.net/lang/etexts.php
5
http://www.gutenberg.net/
6
d97ost@dtek.chalmers.se
2

Preface
The want of a short and easy introduction to the study of Icelandic has been
felt for a long timein fact, from the very beginning of that study in England. The
Icelandic Reader, edited by Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell, in the Clarendon Press
Series, is a most valuable book, which ought to be in the hands of every student;
but it still leaves room for an elementary primer. As the engagements of the editors
of the Reader would have made it impossible for them to undertake such a work
for some years to come, they raised no objections to my proposal to undertake it
myself. Meanwhile, I found the task was a more formidable one than I had anticipated, and accordingly, before definitely committing myself to it, I made one final
attempt to induce Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell to take it o my hands; but they
very kindly encouraged me to proceed with it; and as I myself thought that an Icelandic primer, on the lines of my Anglo-Saxon one, might perhaps be the means of
inducing some students of Old English to take up Icelandic as well, I determined
to go on.
In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere strictly to that adopted
in the Reader, for the editors have themselves deviated from it in their Corpus Poeticum Boreale, in the way of separating o! from o" , etc. My own principle has been
to deviate as little as possible from the traditional spelling followed in normalized texts. There is, indeed, no practical gain for the beginner in writing t#me for
t#mi, discarding , etc., although these changes certainly bring us nearer the oldest
MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in scientific works. The essential thing for
the beginner is to have regular forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far as
possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective distinctions of the MSS.
supplemented by diacritics. I have not hesitated to substitute (") for () as the mark
of length; the latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusivelyin Icelandic as
well as in Old English and Old Irishto represent the actual accents of the MSS.
In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to Noreens Altisl"andische Grammatik, which is by far the best Icelandic grammar that has yet
iii

iv

An Icelandic Primer

appearedat least from that narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and concentrates itself on phonology and inflections.
The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and representative as possible.
With such a language, and such a master of it as Snorri to choose from, this combination is not dicult to realise. The beginner is indeed to be envied who makes
his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales of the North, told in an
absolutely perfect style. As the death of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader
only from the longer recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the
shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this book. The story of
Auun is not only a beautiful one in itself, but, together with the preceding piece,
gives a vivid idea of the Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the foundation of their whole political system. As the Reader does not include poetry (except
incidentally), I have added one of the finest of the Eddaic poems, which is at the
same time freest from obscurity and corruptionthe song of Thors quest of his
hammer.
In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very inconvenient Scandinavian arrangement, which puts , , , right at the end of the alphabet.
I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the texts and the
glossary from Wimmers Oldnordisk Lsebog, which I consider to be, on the whole,
the best reading-book that exists in any language. So excellent is Wimmers selection of texts, that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in nearly
every case.
In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book makes no pretension to originality of any kind. If it contributes towards restoring to Englishmen
that precious heritagethe old language and literature of Icelandwhich our miserably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them of, it will have
fulfilled its purpose.
HENRY SWEET.
London,
February, 1886

Contents
I Grammar

Pronunciation
1.1 Vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3
3
6

Phonology
2.1 Vowels . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Mutation . . .
2.1.2 Fracture . . . .
2.1.3 Gradation . . .
2.1.4 Other changes .
2.2 Consonants . . . . . .

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7
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9

Inflections
3.1 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Strong Masculines
3.1.2 Strong Neuters . .
3.1.3 Strong Feminines .
3.1.4 Weak Masculines .
3.1.5 Weak Neuters . . .
3.1.6 Weak Feminines .
3.2 Adjectives . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Strong Adjectives .
3.2.2 Weak Adjectives .
3.3 Comparison . . . . . . . .
3.4 Numerals . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Pronouns . . . . . . . . .

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11
11
12
14
15
16
17
17
18
18
19
21
21
24

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vi

An Icelandic Primer
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24
24
26
26
27
28
28
29
30
30
30
36
42
42

4 Composition
4.1 Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47
47
47
47

5 Syntax
5.1 Concord . . . . .
5.2 Cases . . . . . .
5.3 Adjectives . . . .
5.3.1 Pronouns
5.3.2 Verbs . .

49
49
49
50
50
50

3.6

3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
3.5.7
Verbs
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
3.6.6

Personal . . . . . .
Possessive . . . . .
Demonstrative . .
Definite . . . . . .
Relative . . . . . .
Interrogative . . .
Indefinite . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
Active . . . . . . .
Middle . . . . . .
Strong Verbs . . .
Weak Verbs . . . .
Strong-Weak Verbs
Anomalous Verbs .

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II Texts

53

6 Thor

55

!
7 Thor and Ugaraloki

57

8 Balder

65

9 The Death of Balder

67

10 H!einn and Ho" gni

71

CONTENTS

vii

11 The Death of Olaf Tryggvason

73

12 Auun

83

13 rymskvia

89

14 Notes
14.1 Thor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"
14.2 Thor and Utgaraloki
. . . . .
14.3 Balder . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4 The Death of Balder . . . . . .
14.5 H"einn and Ho# gni . . . . . . .
14.6 The Death of Olaf Tryggvason
14.7 Auun . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8 rymskvia . . . . . . . . . .

95
95
95
97
97
97
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98
98

III Glossary
IV

Proper Names

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99
171

Part I
Grammar

Chapter 1
Pronunciation
1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period, between 1200 and
1350.
2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the addition of and
, and of the modified letters e! , o! , , which last is in this book written o" , o!" .

1.1 Vowels
3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old English. Long vowels were often marked by (). In this book long vowels are regularly marked by
(")1 . See Table 1.1 for the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and
key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.).
4. The unaccented i in systir, etc. (which is generally written e in the MSS.)
probably had the sound of y in pity, which is really between i and e. The unacc. u
in f#oru (they went), etc. (which is generally written o in the MSS.) probably had
the sound of oo in good.
Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of close and open, as shown in Table 1.2.

1.2 Consonants
5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced really double,
as in Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to drink) must be pronounced like the kc in
1

Note that the longs of e! , o" are written , , respectively.

An Icelandic Primer

a
a"
e
e" a
e#

i
"
o
o"
o#
o!

o#!
u
u"
y
y"
au
ei
ey

as in mann (G.)

father

e$ t$e (F.)
...

men

there

fini (F.)
...

beau (F.)
...

not

peu (F.)
...

peur (F.)

sou (F.)
...

tu (F.)
...

haus (G.)
=
e# + i
=
e# + y

halda (hold)
r"a (advice)
gekk (went)
l"et (let pret.)
me# nn (men)
sr (sea)
mikill (great)
l"till (little)
or (word)
t"ok (look)
ho# nd (hand)
k!omr (comes)
fra (bring)
g!o# ra (make)
upp (up)
h"us (house)
systir (sister)
l"ysa (shine)
lauss (loose)
bein (bone)
leysa (loosen)

Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its


sound is that of the corresponding short vowel lengthened.

Table 1.1

close: e e"
open: e#

o o"
o#

Table 1.2

o!
o#!

1.2 Consonants

bookcase, while the k in dre! ki (dragon) is single, as in booking. When final (or
followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long, as in munn (mouth
acc.), hamarr (hammer nom.), steinn (stone nom.), distinguished from mun (will
vb.), and the accusatives hamar, stein.
6. k and g had a more front (palatal) sound before the front vowels e, e! , i, o" , o!" ,
y, and their longs, as also before j, as in ke! nna (known), keyra (drive), g"o! ra (make),
liggja (lie).
7. kkj, ggj were probably pronounced simply as double front kk, gg, the j not
being pronounced separately.
8. f had initially the sound of our f, medially and finally that of v, as in gefa
(give), gaf (gave), except of course in such combinations as ft, where it had the
sound of f.
9. g was a stopped (back or frontguttural or palatal) cons. initially and in the
combination ng, the two gs in ganga (go) being pronounced as in go. It had the
open sound of G. g in sagen medially before the back vowels a, o, o! , u, and all
conss. except j, and finally:saga (tale), do! gum (with days); sagi (he said); lag
(he lay). Before the front vowels and j it had the sound of G. g in liegen, or nearly
that of j (our y), as in se! gir (says), se! gja (to say).
10. Before voiceless conss. (t, s) g seems to have been pronounced k, as in sagt
(said), dags (days).
11. The g was always sounded in the combination ng, as in single, not as in
singer.
12. h was sounded before j in such words as hjarta (heart) much as in E. hue (=
hj"u). hl, hn, hr, hv probably represented voiceless l, n, r, w respectively, hv being
identical with E. wh: hlaupa (leap), hn#ga (bend), hringr (ring), hvat (what).
13. j is not distinguished from i in the MSS. It had the sound of E. y in young:
jo! r (earth), se! tja (to set).
14. p in pt probably had the sound of f: lopt (air).
15. r was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch.
16. s was always sharp.
17. v (which was sometimes written u and w) had the sound of E. w: vel (well),
ho! ggva (hew).
18. z had the sound of ts: be! ztr (best).
19. and were used promiscuously in the older MSS., the very oldest using
almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic is written initially to express the sound
of E. hard th, medially and finally to express that of soft th; as there can be no
doubt that this usage corresponds with the old pronunciation, it is retained in this

An Icelandic Primer

book: ing (parliament), fair (father), vi (against). In such combinations as p


the must of course be pronounced .

1.3 Stress
20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable.

Chapter 2
Phonology
2.1 Vowels
21. The vowels are related to one another in dierent ways, the most important
of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture (brechung), and gradation (ablaut).

2.1.1 Mutation
22. The following changes are i-mutations (caused by an older i or j following,
which has generally been dropped)1 :
a (o" )...e" : mann (man acc.), me! nn (men); ho! nd (hand), he! ndr (hands).
a! ... : m#al (speech), mla (speak).
e (ja, jo" )...i : verr (worth), vira (estimate).
u (o)...y : fullr (full), fylla (to fill); lopt (air), lypta (lift).
u...
! y! : br#un (eyebrow), pl. br#ynn.
o... o# : koma (to come), k"omr (comes).
o! ... : f#or (went), fra (bring).
au...ey : lauss (loose), leysa (loosen).
ju! (j!o)... y! : sj#ukr (sick), s#yki (sickness); lj#osta (strike), l#ystr (strikes).
23. The change of a into e! is sometimes the result of a following k, g, or ng,
as in de! gi dat. sg. of dagr (day), te! kinn (taken), ge! nginn (gone), inf. taka, ganga.
i appears instead of e, and u instead of o before a nasal followed by another cons.:
cp. binda (to bind), bundinn (bound) with bresta (burst) ptc. prt. brostinn.
1

Many of the is which appear in derivative and inflectional syllables are late weakenings of a
and other vowels, as in bani (death) = Old English bana; these do not cause mutation.

An Icelandic Primer

24. There is also a u-mutation, caused by a following u, which has often been
dropped:
a...o" : dagr (day) dat. pl. do! gum; land (land) pl. lo! nd.
25. Unaccented o! becomes u, as in sumur pl. of sumar (summer), ko! lluu (they
called), infin. kalla.

2.1.2 Fracture
26. The only vowel that is aected by fracture is e: when followed by original
a it becomes ja, when followed by original u it becomes jo! , as in jarar gen. of
jo! r (earth)2 . When followed by original i, the e is, of course, mutated to i, as in
skildir plur. nom. of skjo! ldr (shield), gen. skjaldar.

2.1.3 Gradation
27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows:
a... o! : fara (go) pret. f#or, whence by mut. fra (bring).
e (i, ja)...a...u (o) : bresta (burst), prt. brast, prt. pl. brustu, ptc. prt.
brostinn; finna (find), fundinn (found ptc.), fundr (meeting).
e...a... a! ...o : stela (steal), prt. stal, prt. pl. st#alu, ptc. prt. stolinn.
e...a... a! ...e : gefa (give), gaf (he gave), g#afu (they gave), gefinn (given),
gjo! f (gift), u-fracture of gef-, gfa (luck) mut. of g#af-.
!...ei...i : sk#na (shine), skein (he shone), skinu (they shone). so# l-skin
(sunshine).
ju! (j"o)...au...u...o : lju# ga (tell a lie), prt. laug, prt. pl. lugu, ptc. prt.
loginn. lygi (lie sbst.) mut. of lug-. skjo# ta (shoot), skj#otr (swift), skotinn (shot
ptc.), skot (shot subst.).

2.1.4 Other changes


28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: #a (then), n#u (now).
29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long accented vowels: cp. ganga (to go) with f#a (to get), the dat. plurals knj#am (knees) with h#usum
(houses).
30. Vowels are often lengthened before l + cons.: h#alfr (half adj.), f#olk (people); cp. f#olginn (hidden) with brostinn (burst ptc.).
2

Cp. German erde.

2.2 Consonants

2.2 Consonants
31. v is dropped before o and u: vaxa (to grow), prt. o# x, vinna (to win), unninn
(won ptc.), svelta (to starve), soltinn (starved, hungry).
Final r is often assimilated to a preceding cons.
32. *-lr, *-nr, *-sr always become -ll, -nn, -ss after a long vowel or diphthong,
as in st#oll (chair nom.), acc. st#ol, steinn (stone nom.), acc. stein, v#ss (wise masc.
nom. sg.), v#s fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables, as in the masc. sg. nominatives
mikill (great), fem. mikil, borinn (carried), fem. borin, y# miss (various) fem. y# mis.
33. Words in which l, n, r, s are preceded by a cons. drop the r entirely, as in the
masc. nominatives jarl (earl), hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), urs (giant), lax (salmon).
34. If l and n are preceded by a short accented vowel, the r is generally kept,
as in stelr (steals), vinr, (friend), sr becoming ss, as elsewhere.
35. r is kept after ll, and generally after nn, as in the masc. nom. allr (all), and
in bre! nnr (burns).
36. z often stands for s as well as ts, as in #er ykkizk (ye seem) = *ykki-sk,
Vest-firzkr (belonging to the West Firths) = -*firskr (fo! rr, firth).
37. Inflectional t is generally doubled after a long accented vowel: f a# r (few)
neut. f#att (cp. allr all, neut. allt), s#a (I saw), s#att thou sawest.

Chapter 3
Inflections
3.1 Nouns
38. Gender. There are three genders in Icelandicmasculine, feminine, and
neuter. The gender is partly natural, partly grammatical, generally agreeing with
the gender in Old English. Compound words follow the gender of their last element.
39. Strong and Weak. All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom. sg. and in
most of the other cases as well. Most strong nouns end in a cons. in the nom. sg.
40. Cases. There are four casesnominative, accusative, dative, genitive. All
nouns (except a few contractions) have the gen. pl. in -a (fiska, of fishes), and the
dat. pl. in -um (fiskum). All strong masculines (fiskr) and some strong feminines
(br#ur, bride) take r1 in the nom. sg. Most strong feminines show the bare root in
the nom. sg. with u-mutation, if possible (#ast, favour, fo! r, journey). The nom. pl. of
all strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in r (fiskar, a# stir). The acc. pl. of fem. nouns
is the same as the nom. pl. (#astir). The acc. pl. of masc. strong nouns always ends
in a vowel (fiska). The plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same as the sing. nom.
and acc., except that in the plur. nom. and acc. they take u-mutation, if possible
(h#us, houses, lo! nd, lands).
41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the acc. plur.
1

Subject, of course, to the assimilations described above.

11

12

An Icelandic Primer

3.1.1 Strong Masculines


(1) a-plurals
Singular
Nom. fisk-r (fish)
Acc. fisk
Dat. fisk-i
Gen. fisk-s

Plural
fisk-ar
fisk-a
fisk-um
fisk-a

Table 3.1

42. See Table 3.1. So also heimr (home, world); konungr (king); o# rr (Thor),
acc. #or, gen. #ors; steinn (stone), acc. stein, gen. steins, pl. nom. steinar; hrafn
(raven), acc. hrafn, pl. nom. hrafnar; urs (giant), acc. gen. urs, pl. nom. ursar.
43. Dissyllables in -r, -l, -n generally throw out the preceding vowel before
a vowel-inflection: hamarr (hammer), dat. hamri; jo! tunn (giant), pl. nom. jo! tnar.
ke! till (kettle) and lykill (key) show unmutated vowels in the contracted forms, as
in the acc. plur. katla, lukla.
44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar in the gen. sing., especially proper names,
such as H#akon, gen. H#akonar.
45. Some nouns add v before vowels: sr (sea), gen. svar.
46. The dat. sometimes drops the i: s (sea), o# r. dagr (day) mutates its vowel
in the dat. de! gi.
47. Nouns in -ir keep the i in the sing., and drop it in the plur., as shown in
Table 3.2.
Singular
Nom. he# lli-r (cave)
Acc. he# lli
Dat. he# lli
Gen. he# lli-s

Plural
he# ll-ar
he# ll-a
he# ll-um
he# ll-a

Table 3.2

48. So also a number of proper names, such as Skr#ymir, o# rir.


(2) i-plurals
49. See Table 3.3. So also gripr (precious thing), salr (hall).

3.1 Nouns

13
Singular
sta-r (place)
sta
sta
sta-ar

Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Plural
sta-ir
sta-i
sto# -um
sta-a

Table 3.3

50. ge! str (guest) takes -i in the dat. sg., and -s in the gen. sg.
51. Those ending in g or k (together with some others) insert j before a and u:
be! kkr (bench), be! kk, be! kk, be! kkjar; be! kkir, be! kki, be! kkjum, be! kkja. So also me! rgr
(marrow), stre! ngr (string).
(3) u-plurals

Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
skjo# ld-r (shield)
skjo# ld
skild-i
skjald-ar

Plural
skild-ir
skjo# ld-u
skjo# ld-um
skjald-a

Table 3.4

52. See Table 3.4. So also vo! ndr (twig), vo! llr (plain), vir (wood). a# ss (god)
has plur. nom. sir, acc. a# su. sonr (son) has dat. sg. syni, plur. nom. synir. It regularly drops its r of the nom. in such compounds as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi).
(4) r-plurals

Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
f"ot-r (foot)
f"ot
ft-i
f"ot-ar

Plural
ft-r
ft-r
f"ot-um
f"ot-a

Table 3.5

54. See Table 3.5. So also br#oir (brother), pl. brr.

14

An Icelandic Primer

55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pl., following the
weak class in the sg., as shown in Table 3.6.
Singular
Nom. b"ondi (yeoman)
Acc. b"onda
Dat. b"onda
Gen. b"onda

Plural
bndr
bndr
b"ondum
b"onda

Table 3.6

56. So also frndi (kinsman), pl. frndr.

3.1.2 Strong Neuters


Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
skip (ship)
skip
skip-i
skip-s

Plural
skip
skip
skip-um
skip-a

Table 3.7

57. See Table 3.7. So also or (word), land (land) pl. lo! nd, sumar (summer)
pl. sumur ( 25).
58. me! n (necklace), kyn (race), grey (dog) insert j before a and u: greyjum.
ho! gg (stroke) inserts v before a vowel: ho! ggvi. kn#e (knee), kn#e, kn#e, kn#es; kn#e,
kn#e, kj#am, knj#a. So also tr#e (tree).
59. f#e (money) is contracted: gen. $#ar, dat. f#e.
Singular
Nom. kvi (poem)
Acc. kvi
Dat. kvi
Gen. kvi-s

Plural
kvi
kvi
kvum
kva

Table 3.8

60. See Table 3.8. So also kli (cloth). Those in k insert j before a and u:
me! rki (mark), me! rkjum, me! rkja. So also r#ki (sovereignty).

3.1 Nouns

15

3.1.3 Strong Feminines


(1) ar-plurals

Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
gjo# f (gift)
gjo# f
gjo# f
gjaf-ar

Plural
gjaf-ar
gjaf-ar
gjo# f-um
gjaf-a

Table 3.9

61. See Table 3.9. So also mo! n (mane), gjo! r (girdle), a# r (oar).
62. a# (river) contracts: a# , a# , a# , a# r; a# r, a# r, a# m, a# .
63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.: ke! rling (old woman), ke! rling, ke! rlingu, ke! rlingar;
ke! rlingar, ke! rlingar, ke! rlingum, ke! rlinga. So also laug (bath).
64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or i) insert j in inflection: ey (island), ey,
eyju, eyjar; eyjar, eyjar, eyjum, eyja. So also Frigg, He! l. mr (maid), mey, meyju,
meyjar; meyjar, meyjar, meyjum, meyja.
65. See Table 3.10.
Singular
Nom. hei-r (heath)
Acc. hei-i
Dat. hei-i
Gen. hei-ar

Plural
hei-ar
hei-ar
hei-um
hei-a

Table 3.10

(2) ir-plurals
66. See Table 3.11. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (arrangement), ho! fn (harbour) pl. hafnir, and the majority of strong feminines.
67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: s#ol (sun), s#ol, s#olu, s#olar; s#olir, s#olir, s#olum,
s#ola. So also jo! r (earth), stund (period of time).
68. One noun has r in the nom. sg., following heir in the sg.: br u# r (bride),
br#ui, br#ui, br#uar; br#uir, br#uir, br#uum, br#ua.

16

An Icelandic Primer
Singular
Nom. t"
Acc. t"
Dat. t"
Gen. t"-ar

Plural
t"-ir
t"-ir
t"-um
t"-a

Table 3.11

(3) r-plurals
Singular
Nom. b"ok (book)
Acc. b"ok
Dat. b"ok
Gen. b"ok-ar

Plural
bk-r
bk-r
b"ok-um
b"ok-a

Table 3.12

69. See Table 3.12. So also n#att (night) pl. ntr, b#ot (compensation) pl. btr,
to! nn (tooth) gen. tannar pl. te! nnr.
70. ho! nd (hand) pl. he! ndr has dat. sg. he! ndi.
71. k#yr (cow) has acc. ku# , pl. k#yr.
72. br#un (eyebrow) assimilates the r of the pl.: br#ynn.
Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
m"oir (mother)
m"our
m"our
m"our

Plural
mr
mr
mrum
mra

Table 3.13

73. See Table 3.13. So also d#ottir (daughter) pl. dtr; systir (sister) pl. systr.

3.1.4 Weak Masculines


74. See Table 3.14. So also m#ani (moon), f#elagi (companion).
75. ho! fingi (chief) and some others insert j in inflection: ho! fingja, ho! fingjar,
ho! fingjum.

3.1 Nouns

17
Singular
Nom. bog-i (bow)
Acc. bog-a
Dat. bog-a
Gen. bog-a

Plural
bog-ar
bog-a
bog-um
bog-a

Table 3.14

76. l#e (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is lj#a.


77. oxi (ox) has pl. o" xn.
78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the sg.

3.1.5 Weak Neuters


Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
hjart-a (heart)
hjart-a
hjart-a
hjart-a

Plural
hjo# rt-u
hjo# rt-u
hjo# rt-um
hjart-na

Table 3.15

79. See Table 3.15. So also auga (eye).

3.1.6 Weak Feminines


Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Singular
tung-a (tongue)
tung-u
tung-u
tung-u

Plural
tung-ur
tung-ur
tung-um
tung-na

Table 3.16

80. See Table 3.16. So also stjarna (star) pl. stjo! rnur, kirkja (church), gen.
plurals stjarna, kirkna.
81. See Table 3.17. So also gle! i (joy) and many abstract nouns.
82. lygi (falsehood) has pl. lygar; so also g"o! rsimi (precious thing).

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An Icelandic Primer
Sg. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

e# lli (old age)


e# lli
e# lli
e# lli

Table 3.17

3.2 Adjectives
83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with
partly dierent endings, together with strong and weak forms.

3.2.1 Strong Adjectives


Masc.
Sg. Nom. ung-r (young)
Acc. ung-an
Dat. ung-um
Gen. ung-s
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

ung-ir
ung-a
ung-um
ung-ra

Neut.
ung-t
ung-t
ung-u
ung-s

Fem.
ung
ung-a
ung-ri
ung-rar

ung
ung-ar
ung
ung-ar
ung-um ung-um
ung-ra
ung-ra

Table 3.18

84. See Table 3.18. So also fagr (fair), fem. fo! gr, neut. fagrt.
85. Some insert j before a and u: n#yr (new), n#yjum, n#yjan.
86. Some insert v before a vowel: h#ar (high), h#avan, d"okkr (dark), d"okkvir,
kykr (alive), kykvir.
87. The t of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: n#ytt, h#att. Monosyllables
in , dd, tt form their neut. in -tt: breir (broad), breitt; leiddr (led), leitt. g o# r
(good) has neut. gott. sannr (true) has neut. satt. In unaccented syllables or if a
cons. precedes, tt is shortened to t: kallar (called), kallat; blindr (blind), blint,
harr (hard), hart, fastr (firm), fast.
88. l and n assimilate a following r: gamall (old), fem. go! mul, fem. acc. gamla,
# (beautiful), gen. pl. vnna.
dat. gamalli. vnn

3.2 Adjectives

19
Masc.
Sg. Nom. mikill (great)
Acc. mikinn
Dat. miklum
Gen. mikils
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

miklir
mikla
miklum
mikilla

Neut.
mikit
mikit
miklu
mikils

Fem.
mikil
mikla
mikilli
mikillar

mikil
mikil
miklum
mikilla

miklar
miklar
miklum
mikilla

Table 3.19

89. See Table 3.19. So also l#till (little).


90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in the neut., and -inn in the masc. sg. acc.:
t#ginn (distinguished), t#git, t#ginn, pl. t#gn#r. So also kominn (come).
91. See Table 3.20.
Masc.
Sg. Nom. annarr (other)
Acc. annan
Dat. o# rum
Gen. annars
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

arir
ara
o# rum
annarra

Neut.
annat
annat
o# ru
annars

Fem.
o# nnur
ara
annarri
annarrar

o# nnur
o# nnur
o# rum
annarra

arar
arar
o# rum
annarra

Table 3.20

3.2.2 Weak Adjectives


92. See Table 3.21. So also fagri, h#avi, mikli, etc.
93. See Table 3.22. So also all comparatives, such as meiri (greater), and pres.
partic. when used as adjectives, such as gefandi (giving), dat. pl. gefo! ndum.

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An Icelandic Primer

Sg. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
ung-i
ung-a
ung-a
ung-a

Neut.
ung-a
ung-a
ung-a
ung-a

Fem.
ung-a
ung-u
ung-u
ung-u

Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

ung-u
ung-u
ung-u
ung-u

ung-u
ung-u
ung-u
ung-u

ung-u
ung-u
ung-u
ung-u

Table 3.21

Masc.
Sg. Nom. yngri (younger)
Acc. yngra
Dat. yngra
Gen. yngra
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

yngri
yngri
yngrum
yngri
Table 3.22

Neut.
yngra
yngra
yngra
yngra

Fem.
yngri
yngri
yngri
yngri

yngri
yngri
yngrum
yngri

yngri
yngri
yngrum
yngri

3.3 Comparison

21

3.3 Comparison
94. (1) with -ari, -astr: r#kr (powerful), r#kari, r#kastr; go! fugr (distinguished),
go! fgari, go! fgastr.
95. (2) with -ri, -str and mutation: langr (long), le! ngri, le! ngstr; st o# rr (big),
strri, strstr; ungr (young), yngri, yngstr.
96. The adjectives in Table 3.23 are irregular.
gamall (old)
g"or (good)
illr (bad)
l"till (little)
margr (many)
mikill (great)

e# llri
be# tri
ve# rri
minni
fleiri
meiri

e# lztr
be# ztr
ve# rstr
minstr
flestr
mestr

Table 3.23

3.4 Numerals
97. See Table 3.24 and Table 3.25.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Cardinal
einn (one)
tveir
r"r
&"orir
fimm
sex
sjau
a" tta
n"u
t"u
ellifu
t"olf
rett"an

Ordinal
fyrstr (first)
annarr
rii
&"ori
fimmti
s"etti
sjaundi
a" tti
n"undi
t"undi
ellifti
t"olfti
rett"andi

Table 3.24

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An Icelandic Primer

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
30.
100.
110.
120.
1200.

Cardinal
&"ort"an
fimmt"an
sext"an
sjaut"an
a" tj"an
n"tj"an
tuttugu
einn ok tuttugu, etc.
r"r tigir, etc.
t"u tigir
ellifu tigir
hundra
"usund
Table 3.25

98. einn is declined like other adjectives. See Table 3.26.


Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
einn
einn
einum
eins

Neut.
eitt
eitt
einu
eins

Fem.
ein
eina
einni
einnar

Table 3.26

It also has a pl. einir, einar, ein; gen. einna, etc. in the sense of some.
99. The next three show various irregularities. See Table 3.27.
100. Similarly b#air (both). See Table 3.28.
101. See Table 3.29.
102. See Table 3.30.
103. The others are indeclinable up to r#r tigir, etc.; the tigir being declined
regularly as a plural strong u-masculine tigir, tigu, tigum, tiga.
104. hundra is a strong neut.: tvau hundru (240), tveim hundruum, etc. It
governs the gen. (as also does u# sund): fimm hundru g#olfa, five (six) hundred
chambers.
105. #usund is a strong ir-feminine: tvr u# sundir (2400).
106. hundra and u# sund are rarely = 100 and 1000.

3.4 Numerals

23

Masc.
Nom. tveir
Acc. tv"a
Dat. tveim
Gen. tve# ggja

Neut.
tvau
tvau
tveim
tve# ggja

Fem.
tvr
tvr
tveim
tve# ggja

Table 3.27

Masc.
Nom. b"air
Acc. b"aa
Dat. b"aum
Gen. be# ggja

Neut. Fem.
bi
b"aar
bi
b"aar
b"aum b"aum
be# ggja be# ggja

Table 3.28

Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
r"r
rj"a
rim
riggja

Neut.
rj"u
rj"u
rim
riggja

Fem.
rj"ar
rj"ar
rim
riggja

Table 3.29

Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
&"orir
&"ora
&"orum
&ogurra

Neut.
&ogur
&ogur
&"orum
&ogurra

Table 3.30

Fem.
&"orar
&"orar
&"orum
&ogurra

24

An Icelandic Primer

107. Of the ordinals fyrstr and annarr ( 91) are strong, the others weak adjectives. rii inserts a j: rija, etc.

3.5 Pronouns
3.5.1 Personal
108. See Table 3.31 and Table 3.32.
Sg. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

ek (I)
mik
m"er
m"n

"u (thou)
ik
"er
"n

sik (oneself)
s"er
s"n

Dual Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

vit
okkr
okkr
okkar

it
ykkr
ykkr
ykkar

sik
s"er
s"n

v"er (we)
oss
oss
v"ar

"er (ye)
yr
yr
yar

sik (oneselves)
s"er
s"n

Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Table 3.31

109. ek was often suxed to its verb, especially in poetry, being sometimes
added twice over: mtta-k (I might), s#a-k-a-k (I saw not; a=not). So also u# :
er-tu (art thou), skalt-u (shalt thou) = *skalt-tu.

3.5.2 Possessive
110. See Table 3.33. So also inn (thy), sinn (his, etc., reflexive).
111. v#arr, v#art, v#ar (our) is regular: acc. masc. v#arn, masc. plur. v#arir, v#ara,
v#arum, v#arra, etc.
112. See Table 3.34. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr (your two).
113. hans (his), ess (its), he! nnar (her), and eira (their) are indeclinable.

3.5 Pronouns

25
Masc.
Sg. Nom. hann (he)
Acc. hann
Dat. honum
Gen. hans
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

eir (they)
"a
eim
eira

Neut.
at (it)
at
v"
ess

Fem.
hon (she)
hana
he# nni
he# nnar

au
au
eim
eira

r
r
eim
eira

Table 3.32

Sg. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
minn (my)
minn
m"num
m"ns

Neut.
mitt
mitt
m"nu
m"ns

Fem.
m"n
m"na
minni
minnar

Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

m"nir
m"na
m"num
minna

m"n
m"n
m"num
minna

m"nar
m"nar
m"num
minna

Table 3.33

Masc.
Sg. Nom. yarr (your)
Acc. yarn
Dat. yrum
Gen. yars
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

yrir
yra
yrum
yarra
Table 3.34

Neut.
yart
yart
yru
yars

Fem.
yur
yra
yarri
yarrar

yur
yur
yrum
yarra

yrar
yrar
yrum
yarra

26

An Icelandic Primer

3.5.3 Demonstrative
114. See Table 3.35.
Sg. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
s"a (that)
ann
eim
ess

Neut. Fem.
at
s"u
at
"a
v"
eiri
ess
eirar

Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

eir
"a
eim
eira

au
au
eim
eira

r
r
eim
eira

Table 3.35

115. hinn, hitt, hin (that) is inflected like minn (except that its vowel is short
throughout): acc. masc. hinn, plur. masc. hinir, hina, hinum, hinna.
116. See Table 3.36.
Masc.
Sg. Nom. essi (this)
Acc. enna
Dat. essum
Gen. essa
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

essir
essa
essum
essa

Neut.
etta
etta
essu
essa

Fem.
essi
essa
essi
essar

essi
essar
essi
essar
essum essum
essa
essa

Table 3.36

3.5.4 Definite
117. The prefixed definite article is declined as shown in Table 3.37.
118. When suxed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short (un-accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the

3.5 Pronouns

27
Masc.
Sg. Nom. inn
Acc. inn
Dat. inum
Gen. ins
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

inir
ina
inum
inna

Neut.
it
it
inu
ins

Fem.
in
ina
inni
innar

in
in
inum
inna

inar
inar
inum
inna

Table 3.37

eye), but keeps it after a long vowel, as in a# -in (the river), tr#e-it (the tree). The dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere; not, however, after the
-ar, -r, of the gen. sg., nor in me! nninir (men, nom.), me! nn-ina (men, acc.). The -m
of the dat. pl. is dropped before the suxed -num. See Table 3.38 and Table 3.39.

Sg. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

Masc.
fiskr-inn
fisk-inn
fiski-num
fisks-ins

Neut.
skip-it
skip-it
skipi-nu
skips-ins

Fem.
gjo# f-in
gjo# f-ina
gjo# f-inni
gjafar-innar

Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

fiskar-nir
fiska-na
fisku-num
fiska-nna

skip-in
skip-in
skipu-num
skipa-nna

gjafar-nar
gjafar-nar
gjo# fu-num
gjafa-nna

Table 3.38

3.5.5 Relative
119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable er, often preceded by s a# :
s#a er = he who, who, su# er who fem.

28

An Icelandic Primer
Masc.
Sg. Nom. bogi-nn
Acc. boga-nn
Dat. boga-num
Gen. boga-ns
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

bogar-nir
boga-na
bogu-num
boga-nna

Neut.
auga-t
auga-t
auga-nu
auga-ns

Fem.
tunga-n
tungu-na
tungu-nni
tungu-nnar

augu-n
augu-n
augu-num
augna-nna

tungur-nar
tungur-nar
tungnu-num
tungna-nna

Table 3.39

3.5.6 Interrogative
120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess, dat. hv#, which last is chiefly used as an
adverb = why.
121. See Table 3.40.
Masc.
Sg. Nom. hv"arr (which of two)
Acc. hv"arn
Dat. hv"arum
Gen. hv"ars
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

hv"arir
hv"ara
hv"arum
hv"arra

Neut.
hv"art
hv"art
hv"aru
hv"ars

Fem.
hv"ar
hv"ara
hv"arri
hv"arrar

hv"ar
hv"ar
hv"arum
hv"arra

hv"arar
hv"arar
hv"arum
hv"arra

Table 3.40

122. See Table 3.41.

3.5.7 Indefinite
123. einn-hve! rr, eitthve! rt, einhve! r (some one) keeps an invariable ein- in the
other cases, the second element being inflected as above.
124. sumr (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective.

3.6 Verbs

29
Masc.
Sg. Nom. hve# rr (which, who)
Acc. hve# rn
Dat. hve# rjum
Gen. hve# rs
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

hve# rir
hve# rja
hve# rjum
hve# rra

Neut.
hve# rt
hve# rt
hve# rju
hve# rs

Fem.
hve# r
hve# rja
hve# rri
hve# rrar

hve# r
hve# rjar
hve# r
hve# rjar
hve# rjum hve# rjum
hve# rra
hve# rra
Table 3.41

125. See Table 3.42.


Masc.
Sg. Nom. nakkvarr (some)
Acc. nakkvarn
Dat. no# kkurum
Gen. nakkvars
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

nakkvarir
nakkvara
no# kkurum
nakkvarra

Neut.
nakkvat
nakkvat
no# kkuru
nakkvars

Fem.
no# kkur
nakkvara
nakkvarri
nakkvarrar

no# kkur
no# kkur
no# kkurum
nakkvarra

nakkvarar
nakkvarar
no# kkurum
nakkvarra

Table 3.42

126. See Table 3.43.


127. In hv#ar-tve! ggja (each of the two, both) the first element is declined as
above, the second is left unchanged.

3.6 Verbs
128. There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. Strong verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by adding (d, t).
129. The of the 2 pl. is dropt before it (ye two) and #er (ye): gefi #er, g#afu
it.

30

An Icelandic Primer
Masc.
Neut.
Sg. Nom. engi (none, no) ekki
Acc. engan
ekki
Dat. engum
engu
Gen. engis
engis
Pl. Nom.
Acc.
Dat.
Gen.

engir
enga
engum
engra

Fem.
engi
enga
engri
engrar

engi
engar
engi
engar
engum engum
engra
engra

Table 3.43

130. There is a middle voice, which ends in -mk in the 1 pers. sg. and pl., the
rest of the verb being formed by adding sk to the active endings, r being dropt, the
resulting ts, s being written z ( 36): kvezk (active kver says), u fekkzk (fekkt
gottest).
131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb gefa (give), which will
show those endings which are common to all verbs:

3.6.1 Active
See Table 3.44.

3.6.2 Middle
See Table 3.45.

3.6.3 Strong Verbs


132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally has a dierent
vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of the middle voice always has the
vowel of the pl. pret.: g#afumk. The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic.
plur. mutated: skaut (he shot), skutu (they shot), skyti (he might shoot). But there
is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: hljo# pi, inf. hlaupa (leap).
133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three persons: ek sk#yt,
#u sk#ytr, hann sk#ytr, infin. skj#ota (shoot). e however is not mutated: ek gef, u#

3.6 Verbs

31

Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. gef
gef-a
2. gef-r
gef-ir
3. gef-r
gef-i
pl. 1. gef-um
2. gef-i
3. gef-a
Preterite sg. 1. gaf
2. gaf-t
3. gaf
pl. 1. g"af-um
2. g"af-u
3. g"af-u

gef-im
gef-i
gef-i
gf-a
gf-ir
gf-i
gf-im
gf-i
gf-i

Imperative sg. 2 gef; pl. 1 gef-um, 2 gef-i.


Participle pres. gef-andi; pret. gef-inn.
Infin. gefa.
Table 3.44

32

An Icelandic Primer

Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. gef-umk
gef-umk
2. gef-sk
gef-isk
3. gef-sk
gef-isk
pl. 1. gef-umk
2. gef-izk
3. gef-ask

gef-imk
gef-izk
gef-isk

Preterite sg. 1. g"af-umk


2. gaf-zk
3. gaf-sk

gf-umk
gf-isk
gf-isk

pl. 1. g"af-umk
2. g"af-uzk
3. g"af-usk

gf-imk
gf-izk
gf-isk

Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pl. 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk.


Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret. gef-izk neut.
Infin. gef-ask.
Table 3.45

3.6 Verbs

33

gefr. The inflectional r is liable to the same modifications as the r of nouns ( 32):
sk#nn, ve! x, infin. sk#na (shine), vaxa (grow).
134. Verbs in ld change the d into t in the 1, 3 sg. pret. indic. and in the imper.
sg.: helt (held), halt (hold!), infin. halda. nd becomes tt, and ng becomes kk under
the same conditions: binda (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt, gekk, imper. bitt, gakk.
135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long accented vowel: u#
s#att (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret. indic. ends in t or , the 2 sg. ends in zt: l#et (I
let), #u l#ezt, bau (I oered) u# bauzt.
136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the
characteristic vowels of their preterites.
I. Fall-conjugation
137. See Table 3.46.
Infin.
falla (fall)
l"ata (let)
r"aa (advise)
heita (call)
halda (hold)
ganga (go)
f"a (get)
auka (increase)
b"ua (dwell)
ho# ggva (hew)
hlaupa (leap)

Third Pres.
fe# llr
ltr
rr
heitr
he# ldr
ge# ngr
fr
eykr
b"yr
ho# ggr
hleypr

Prt. Sing.
fell
l"et
r"e
h"et
helt
gekk
fekk
j"ok
bj"o
hj"o
hlj"op

Prt. Pl.
fellu
l"etu
r"eu
h"etu
heldu
gengu
fengu
j"oku
bjoggu
hjoggu
hlj"opu

Ptc. Prt.
fallinn
l"atinn
r"ainn
heitinn
haldinn
ge# nginn
fe# nginn
aukinn
b"uinn
ho# ggvinn
hlaupinn

Table 3.46

138. The verbs in Table 3.47 have weak preterites in r.


Infin.
gr"oa (grow)
r"oa (row)
sn"ua (twist)

Third Pres.
grr
rr
sn"yr

Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.


gr!ori
gr!oru
gr"oinn
r!ori
r!oru
r"oinn
sn!ori
sn!oru
sn"uinn

Table 3.47

34

An Icelandic Primer

139. heita in the passive sense of to be named, called has a weak present: ek
heiti, #u heitir.
II. Shake-conjugation
140. See Table 3.48.
Infin.
fara (go)
grafa (dig)
hlaa (load)
vaxa (grow)
standa (stand)
aka (drive)
taka (take)
draga (draw)
fl"a (flay)
sl"a (strike)

Third Pres. Prt. Sing.


fe# rr
f"or
gre# fr
gr"of
hle# r
hl"o
ve# x
o" x
ste# ndr
st"o
e# kr
o" k
te# kr
t"ok
dre# gr
dr"o
flr
fl"o
slr
sl"o

Prt. Pl.
f"oru
gr"ofu
hl"ou
o" xu
st"ou
o" ku
t"oku
dr"ogu
fl"ogu
sl"ogu

Ptc. Prt.
farinn
grafinn
hlainn
vaxinn
stainn
e# kinn
te# kinn
dre# ginn
fle# ginn
sle# ginn

Table 3.48

141. The verbs in Table 3.49 have weak presents.


Infin.
he# &a (lift)
deyja (die)
hlja (laugh)

Third Pres.
he# fr
deyr
hlr

Prt. Sing.
h"of
d"o
hl"o

Prt. Pl.
h"ofu
d"o
hl"ogu

Ptc. Prt.
hafinn
d"ainn
hle# ginn

Table 3.49

III. Bind-conjugation
142. See Table 3.50.
143. The verbs in Table 3.51 have weak presents (which makes however no
dierence in their conjugation).
IV. Bear-conjugation
144. See Table 3.52.

3.6 Verbs

35

Infin.
bresta (burst)
hverfa (turn)
svelga (swallow)
vera (become)
skj"alfa (shake)
drekka (drink)
finna (find)
vinna (win)
binda (bind)
springa (spring)
stinga (pierce)
brega (pull)
s!okkva (sink)
st!okkva (spring)

Third Pres.
brestr
hverfr
svelgr
verr
skelfr
drekkr
finnr
vinnr
bindr
springr
stingr
bregr
s!okkr
st!okkr

Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl.


brast
brustu
hvarf
hurfu
svalg
sulgu
var
uru
skalf
skulfu
drakk
drukku
fann
fundu
vann
unnu
batt
bundu
sprakk
sprungu
stakk
stungu
br"a
brugu
so# kk
sukku
sto# kk
stukku

Ptc. Prt.
brostinn
horfinn
s"olginn
orinn
skolfinn
drukkinn
fundinn
unninn
bundinn
sprunginn
stunginn
bruginn
sokkinn
stokkinn

Table 3.50

Infin.
bre# nna (burn)
re# nna (run)

Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.


bre# nnr
brann
brunnu brunninn
re# nnr
rann
runnu
runninn
Table 3.51

Infin.
bera (carry)
nema (take)
fela (hide)
koma (come)
sofa (sleep)

Third Pres.
berr
nemr
felr
k!omr
s!ofr

Prt. Sing.
bar
nam
fal
kom
svaf

Table 3.52

Prt. Pl.
b"aru
n"amu
f"alu
kv"amu
sv"afu

Ptc. Prt.
borinn
numinn
f"olginn
kominn
sofinn

36

An Icelandic Primer

V. Give-conjugation
145. See Table 3.53.
Infin.
drepa (kill)
gefa (give)
kvea (say)
meta (estimate)
reka (drive)
eta (eat)
sj"a (see)

Third Pres.
drepr
gefr
kver
metr
rekr
etr
s"er2

Prt. Sing.
drap
gaf
kva
mat
rak
a" t
s"a

Prt. Pl.
dr"apu
g"afu
kv"au
m"atu
r"aku
a" tu
s"a3

Ptc. Prt.
drepinn
gefinn
kveinn
metinn
rekinn
etinn
s"enn

Prt. Pl.
b"au
s"atu
l"agum
"agu

Ptc. Prt.
beinn
setinn
leginn
eginn

Table 3.53

146. The verbs in Table 3.54 have weak presents.


Infin.
bija (ash)
sitja (sit)
liggja (lie)
iggja (receive)

Third Pres. Prt. Sing.


bir
ba
sitr
sat
liggr
l"a
iggr
"a
Table 3.54

VI. Shine-conjugation
147. See Table 3.55.
148. V"kja (see Table 3.56) has a weak present.
VII. Choose-conjugation
149. See Table 3.57.

3.6.4 Weak Verbs


150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs. All those of the first conjugation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form their pret. with (d, t): heyra

3.6 Verbs

37

Infin.
b"ta (bite)
dr"fa (drive)
gr"pa (grasp)
l"a (go)
l"ta (look)
r"a (ride)
s"ga (sink)
sl"ta (tear)
st"ga (advance)
b"a (wait)

Third Pres. Prt. Sing.


b"tr
beit
dr"fr
dreif
gr"pr
greip
l"r
lei
l"tr
leit
r"r
rei
s"gr
seig
sl"tr
sleit
st"gr
steig
b"r
bei

Prt. Pl.
bitu
drifu
gripu
liu
litu
riu
sigu
slitu
stigu
biu

Ptc. Prt.
bitinn
drifinn
gripinn
liinn
litinn
riinn
siginn
slitinn
stiginn
beinn

Table 3.55

Infin.
v"kja (move)

Third Pres.
v"kr

Prt. Sing.
veik

Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.


viku
vikinn

Table 3.56

Infin.
bj"oa (oer)
brj"ota (break)
flj"ota (float)
hlj"ota (receive)
kj"osa (choose)
nj"ota (enjoy)
skj"ota (shoot)
drj"upa (drop)
lj"uga (tell lies)
l"uka (close)
l"uta (bend)
flj"uga (fly)

Third Pres.
b"yr
br"ytr
fl"ytr
hl"ytr
k"yss
n"ytr
sk"ytr
dr"ypr
l"ygr
l"ykr
l"ytr
fl"ygr

Prt. Sing.
bau
braut
flaut
hlaut
kaus
naut
skaut
draup
laug
lauk
laut
fl"o

Table 3.57

Prt. Pl.
buu
brutu
flutu
hlutu
kusum
nutu
skutu
drupu
lugu
luku
lutu
flugu

Ptc. Prt.
boinn
brotinn
flotinn
hlotinn
kosinn
notinn
skotinn
dropinn
loginn
lokinn
lotinn
floginn

38

An Icelandic Primer

(hear), heyra. Those of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have unmutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have) hafa. Those of the third form their pret.
in -aa: kalla (call), kallaa.
I. Hear-conjugation
151. See Table 3.58 (active) and Table 3.59 (middle).
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. heyr-i
heyr-a
2. heyr-ir
heyr-ir
3. heyr-ir
heyr-i
pl. 1. heyr-um
2. heyr-i
3. heyr-a

heyr-im
heyr-i
heyr-i

Preterite sg. 1. heyr-a


2. heyr-ir
3. heyr-i

heyr-a
heyr-ir
heyr-i

pl. 1. heyr-um
2. heyr-u
3. heyr-u

heyr-im
heyr-i
heyr-i

Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pl. 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-i.


Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret. heyr-r.
Infin. heyr-a.
Table 3.58

A. Without vowel-change
152. The inflectional becomes d after long syllables ending in l or n: sigla
(sail), siglda; ne! fna (name), ne! fnda, ne! fndr.
153. - becomes dd: leia (lead), leidda.
154. after s and t becomes t: reisa (raise), reista; mta (meet), mtta. Also
in a few verbs in l, n: mla (speak), mlta; spe! nna (buckle), spe! nta.

3.6 Verbs

39

Indicative
Present sg. 1. heyr-umk
2. heyr-isk
3. heyr-isk
pl. 1.
2.
3.

heyr-umk
heyr-izk
heyr-ask

Subjunctive
heyr-umk
heyr-isk
heyr-isk
heyr-imk
heyr-izk
heyr-isk

Preterite sg. 1. heyr-umk heyr-umk


2. heyr-isk
heyr-isk
3. heyr-isk
heyr-isk
pl. 1.
2.
3.

heyr-umk heyr-imk
heyr-uzk heyr-izk
heyr-usk heyr-isk

Imper. sg. 2. heyr-sk; pl. 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk.


Partic. pres. heyr-andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut.
Infin. heyr-ask.
Table 3.59

40

An Icelandic Primer

155. After nd and pt it is dropped: se! nda (send), se! nda, se! ndr; lypta (lift),
lypta.
156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: dma (judge), dma; fra
(lead), fra; he! ra (harden), he! ra; hleypa (gallop), hleypa.
B. With vowel-change
157. All these verbs have j preceded by a short syllable (te# lja), or a long vowel
without any cons. after it (d"yja), or gg (le# ggja); the j being kept before a and u, as
in the pres. ind. of spyrja (ask): spyr, spyrr, spyrr; spyrjum, spyri, spyrja, pres.
subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja; they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spura,
spurr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. spyra, spyrir, etc. The ptc.
pret. often has an i before the . See Table 3.60.
be# rja (strike)
le# ggja (lay)
te# lja (tell)
ve# kja (wake)
flytja (remove)
d"yja (shake)

bara
laga
tala
vaka
flutta
d"ua

barr
lag(i)r
tal(i)r
vakr
fluttr
d"ur

Table 3.60

158. The verbs in Table 3.61 keep the mutated vowel throughout.
se# lja (sell)
se# tja (set)

se# lda se# ldr


se# tta se# ttr

Table 3.61

C.
159. The verbs in Table 3.62 are irregular.
160. The verb in Table 3.63 has an adj. for its partic. pret.

3.6 Verbs

41

skja (seek)
ykkja (seem)

s"otta s"ottr
"otta "ottr

Subj. pret. stta, tta.


Table 3.62

g!o# ra (make)

g!o# ra

g!o# rr.

Table 3.63

lifa (live)
una (be contented)
skorta (be wanting)
ola (endure)
ora (dare)
n"a (attain)

lifi
uni
skorti
oli
ori
n"ai

lifa
una
skorta
ola
ora
n"aa

lifat
unat
skort
olat
orat
n"ar, n"ait

saga
aga
hafa
keypta

sagr
agat
hafr
keyptr

Table 3.64

se# gja (say)


e# gja (be silent)
hafa (have)
kaupa (buy)

se# gi
e# gi
he# fi
kaupi
Table 3.65

42

An Icelandic Primer

II. Have-conjugation
161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of conj. I, except that
some of them have imperatives in -i: vaki, e! fi; uni. lifa, se! gja have imper. lif, se! g.
They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (yna). Their partic. pret. generally occurs
only in the neut.; sometimes the a is dropped. See Table 3.64.
162. The verbs in Table 3.65 show mutation.
163. The present indic. of the first three is shown in Table 3.66.
Sing. 1. he# fi
2, 3. he# fir

se# gi
se# gir

e# gi
e# gir

Plur. 1. ho# fum se# gjum e# gjum


2. hafi
se# gi
e# gi
3. hafa
se# gja
e# gja
Table 3.66

164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres. subj. hafa, hafir, hafi; hafim, hafi, hafi.
Pret. indic. hafa, hafir, hafi; ho! fdum, ho! fu, ho! fu. Pret. subj. he! fa, he! fir,
he! fi; he! fim, he! fi, he! fi. Imper. haf, ho! fum, hafi. Ptc. hafandi, hafr.
III. Call-conjugation
See Table 3.67 (active) and Table 3.68 (middle).
165. So also byrja (begin), he! rja (make war), vakna (awake).

3.6.5 Strong-Weak Verbs


166. The verbs in Table 3.69 have old strong preterites for their presents, from
which new weak preterites are formed.
167. Of these verbs munu and skulu have preterite infinitives: mundu, skyldu.

3.6.6 Anomalous Verbs


168. Vilja (will) in the present is shown in Table 3.70.
169. Vera (be) is shown in Table 3.71.

3.6 Verbs

43

Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. kall-a
kall-a
2. kall-ar
kall-ir
3. kall-ar
kall-i
pl. 1. ko# ll-um
2. kall-i
3. kall-a
Preterite sg. 1. kall-aa
2. kall-air
3. kall-ai
pl. 1. ko# ll-uum
2. ko# ll-uu
3. ko# ll-uu

kall-im
kall-i
kall-i
kall-aa
kall-air
kall-ai
kall-aim
kall-ai
kall-ai

Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur. 1. ko# ll-um, 2. kall-i.


Partic. pres. kall-andi; pret. kallar (neut. kallat).
Infin. kalla.
Table 3.67

44

An Icelandic Primer

Indicative
Present sg. 1. ko# ll-umk
2. kall-ask
3. kall-ask
pl. 1.
2.
3.

ko# ll-umk
kall-izk
kall-ask

Subjunctive
ko# ll-umk
kall-isk
kall-isk
kall-imk
kall-izk
kall-isk

Preterite sg. 1. ko# ll-uumk ko# ll-uumk


2. kall-aisk
kall-aisk
3. kall-aisk
kall-aisk
pl. 1.
2.
3.

ko# ll-uumk kall-aimk


ko# ll-uuzk kall-aizk
ko# ll-uusk kall-aisk

Imper. sing. 2. kall-ask; pl. 1. ko# ll-umk, 2. kall-izk.


Partic. pres. kall-andisk; pret. kall-azk neut.
Infin. kall-ask.
Table 3.68

Infin.
eiga (possess)
kunna (can)
mega (can)
muna (remember)
munu (will)
skulu (shall)
urfa (need)
unna (love)
vita (know)

Third Pres. Prt. Sing.


a"
eigu
kann
kunnu
m"a
megu
man
munu
mun
munu
skal
skulu
arf
urfu
ann
unnu
veit
vitu
Table 3.69

Prt. Pl.
a" tta
kunna
m"atta
muna
muna
skylda
urfta
unna
vissa

Ptc. Prt.
a" ttr
kunnat n.
m"att n.
munat n.

skyldr
urft n.
unnt n.
vitar

3.6 Verbs

45

Sing.
1. vil
2. vill
3. vill

Plur.
viljum
vili
vilja

Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda. Ptc. prt. viljat.


Table 3.70

Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. em
s"e
2. ert
s"er
3. er
s"e
pl. 1. erum
2. eru
3. eru
Preterite sg. 1. var
2. vart
3. var
pl. 1. v"arum
2. v"aru
3. v"aru

s"em
s"e
s"e
vra
vrir
vri
vrim
vri
vri

Imper. sg. ver; pl. veri. Ptc. prt. verit n.


Table 3.71

Chapter 4
Composition
170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic. Thus by the
side of skip-stj#orn (ship-steering) we find skips-brot (ships breaking, shipwreck),
skipa-he! rr (army of ships, fleet). Genitival composition often expresses possession, as in konungs-skip (kings ship).

4.1 Derivation
4.1.1 Prefixes
171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old English.
al- quite, very: al-b#uinn quite ready, al-snotr very clever.
all- all, very: all-valdr all-ruler, monarch, all-harr very hard, allst#orum very greatly.
and- against: and-lit countenance (lita, look), and-svar answer.
$o" l- many: $o! l-me! nni multitude (mar, man).
mis- mis-: mis-l#ka displease.
u! un-: u# -frir war (frir, peace), u# -happ misfortune (happ luck).

4.1.2 Endings
(a) Nouns
Personal
172. -ingr, -ingi, -ing: v#kingr pirate, ho! fingi chief, ke! rling old woman.
47

48

An Icelandic Primer
Abstract

173. -, fem. with mutation: fe! gr beauty (fagr, fair), fe! r journey (fara,
go), le! ng length (langr, long).
-ing, fem.: svipting pulling, v#king piracy, viring honour.
-leikr, masc.: kr-leikr aection (hrr, dear), skjo# t-leikr speed (skj#otr,
swift).
-an, -un, fem.: skipan arrangement, ske! mtun amusement.
(b) Adjectives
174. -ugr: r#augr sagacious, ru# ugr strong.
-!ottr: koll#ottr bald, o! nd#ottr fierce.
-lauss -less: f#e-lauss moneyless, o# tta-lauss without fear.
-ligr -ly: undr-ligr wonderful, sann-ligr probable (sannr, true).
-samr: l#kn-samr gracious, skyn-samr intelligent.
-verr -ward: ofan-verr upper.
(c) Verbs
175. -na: brotna be broken (brotinn, broken), hv#tna become white, vakna
awake. Used to form intransitive and inchoative verbs of the third conj.
(d) Adverbs
176. -liga -ly: undar-liga wonderfully, ste! rk-liga strongly (ste! rkr, strong).
-um, dat. pl.: st#orum greatly (st#orr, great).

Chapter 5
Syntax
177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has several peculiarities of its own.

5.1 Concord
178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: allir me! nn v#aru b#unir
all the men were ready, allir v#aru drepnir all were killed.
179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of dierent (natural or
grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: #a gekk hann upp, ok me honum
Loki (masc.), ok j#alfi (masc.), ok Ro! skva (fem.). #a er au (neut.) ho! fu l#tla hri
ge! ngit... he landed, and with him L., and ., and R. When they had walked for
some time...

5.2 Cases
180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very characteristic of Icelandic: whenever the direct object of a verb can be considered as the instrument of
the action expressed by the verb, it is put in the dative, as in kasta spj o# ti throw a
spear (lit. throw with a spear), hann helt hamarskaptinu he grasped the handle
of the hammer, heita v# promise that, j#ata v# agree to that.
49

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An Icelandic Primer

5.3 Adjectives
181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the definite article,
essi and other demonstratives. annarr (other) is always strong.
182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to denote part of it:
eiga h#alft d#yrit to have half of the animal, o! nnur au the rest of them, of mija
n#att in the middle of the night.

5.3.1 Pronouns
183. s#a is often put pleonastically before the definite article inn, both before
and after the subst.: s#a inn ungi mar that young man, hafit at it dju# pa the deep
sea.
184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or else einn, einnhve! rr
is used.
185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a dual pron. of
the first and second persons, or a plur. of the third person: it f#elagar, thou and
# with him and Aki.
"
thy companions, me eim Aka
Similarly ste! ndr #orr upp ok
eir f#elagar Thor and his companions get up.
186. The plurals v#er, #er are sometimes used instead of the singulars ek, u# ,
especially when a king is speaking or being spoken to.
187. sik and s#er are used in a strictly reflexive sense, referring back to the subject of the sentence, like se in Latin: orr bau honum til matar me s#er Thor
asked him to supper with him.

5.3.2 Verbs
188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active, and all those of
the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries skal (shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with
the infin. and ptc. pret., much as in modern English.
189. The historical present is much used, often alternating abruptly with the
preterite.
190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense: spara spare,
sparask spare oneself, reserve ones strength. (2) intransitively: bu# a prepare,
b#uask become ready, be ready; se! tja set, se! tjask sit down; s#yna show, s#ynask
appear, seem. (3) reciprocally: be! rja strike, be! rjask fight; hitta, find, hittask
meet. In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often emphasizing the
idea of energy or eort: koma come, komask make ones way.

5.3 Adjectives

51

191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in Icelandic: rak a#


storm (acc.) fyrir eim a storm was driven in their face.
192. The indef. one is expressed in the same way by the third pers. sg., and
this form of expression is often used when the subject is perfectly definite: ok
freista skal essar #r#ottar and this feat shall be tried (by you).
193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration is very com# ! nzkr mar,
mon: Haraldi konungi var sagt at ar var komit bjarnd#yri, ok a# Isle
King Harold was told that a bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it. The
direct narration is also used after at (that): hann svarar at ek skal r#a til He! ljar
he answers that he will ride to Hel.

Part II
Texts

53

Chapter 6
Thor
"
"orr er a" sanna framastr, s"a er kallar er Asa-"
orr ea
O
# ku-"orr; hann er ste# rkastr allra guanna ok manna.
Hann a" ar r"ki er r"u-vangar heita, en ho# ll hans heitir
Bilsk"rnir; " eim sal eru fimm hundru g"olfa ok &"orir tigir;
at er h"us mest, sv"a at me# nn hafa g!o# rt.
"orr a" hafra tv"a, er sv"a heita, Tann-gnj"ostr ok Tanngrisnir, ok rei "a er hann e# kr, en hafrarnir draga reiina;
v" er hann kallar O
# ku"orr. Hann a" ok rj"a kost-gripi.
Einn eira er hamarrinn Mjo# llnir, er hr"m-ursar ok bergrisar ke# nna, "a er hann k!omr a" lopt, ok er at eigi undarligt:
hann he# fir lamit margan haus a" fe# rum ea frndum eira.
Annan grip a" hann be# ztan, me# gin-gjarar; ok er hann
spe# nnir eim um sik, "a ve# x honum a" s-me# gin h"alfu. En
rija hlut a" hann ann er mikill gripr er ", at eru j"arngl"ofar; eira m"a hann eigi missa vi hamarskaptit. En
engi er sv"a fr"or at te# lja kunni o# ll st"or-virki hans.

55

Chapter 7
!
Thor and Ugaraloki
at er upp-haf essa m"als at O
# ku"orr f"or me hafra s"na
ok rei, ok me honum s"a a" ss er Loki er kallar; koma
eir at kveldi til eins b"onda ok f"a ar n"att-sta. En um
kveldit t"ok "orr hafra s"na, ok skar b"aa; e# ptir at v"aru
eir fle# gnir ok bornir til ke# tils; en er soit var, "a se# ttisk
"orr til n"att-verar ok eir lags-me# nn. "orr bau til matar
me s"er b"ondanum, ok konu hans, ok bo# rnum eira; sonr
b"onda h"et j"alfi, en Ro# skva d"ottir. "a lagi "orr hafrsto# kurnar utar fr"a eldinum, ok mlti at b"ondi ok heima-me# nn
hans skyldu kasta a" hafrsto# kurnar beinunum. j"alfi, sonr
b"onda, helt a" lr-le# gg hafrsins, ok spre# tti a" kn"fi s"num, ok
braut til me# rgjar. "orr dvalisk ar of n"attina; en " o" ttu
fyrir dag st"o hann upp, ok klddi sik, t"ok hamarinn
Mjo# llni ok br"a upp, ok v"gi hafrsto# kurnar; st"ou "a upp
hafrarnir, ok var "a annarr haltr e# ptra fti. at fann "orr,
ok tali at b"ondinn ea hans hj"on mundi eigi skynsamliga
hafa farit me beinum hafrsins: ke# nnir hann at brotinn var
lrle# ggrinn. Eigi arf langt fr"a v" at se# gja: vita me# gu at
allir hve# rsu hrddr b"ondinn mundi vera, er hann s"a at "orr
l"et s"ga br"ynnar ofan fyrir augun; en at er s"a augnanna,
"a hugisk hann falla mundu fyrir sj"oninni einni samt; hann
he# ri he# ndrnar at hamar-skaptinu sv"a at hv"tnuu kn"uarnir.
En b"ondinn g!o# ri sem v"an var, ok o# ll hj"onin: ko# lluu a" kafliga, b"au s"er friar, buu at fyrir kvmi alt at er au
a" ttu. En er hann s"a hrzlu eira, "a gekk af honum
57

58
m"orinn, ok sefaisk hann; ok t"ok af eim " stt bo# rn
eira, j"alfa ok Ro# sku, ok g!o# rusk au "a skyldir j"onustume# nn "ors, ok fylgja au honum jafnan s"an.
L"et hann ar e# ptir hafra, ok byrjai fe# rina austr "
Jo# tun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok "a f"or hann u" t yfir
hafit at it dj"upa; en er hann kom til lands, "a gekk hann
upp, ok me honum Loki, ok j"alfi, ok Ro# skva. "a er au
ho# fu l"tla hr" ge# ngit, var fyrir eim mo# rk st"or; gengu
au ann dag allan til myrkrs. j"alfi var allra manna
f"ot-hvatastr; hann bar k"yl "ors, en til vista var eigi gott.
"a er myrkt var orit, leituu eir s"er til n"attstaar, ok
fundu fyrir s"er sk"ala nakkvarn mjo# k mikinn, v"aru dyrr a"
e# nda, ok jafn-breiar sk"alanum; ar leituu eir s"er n"attb"ols. En of mija n"att var land-skj"alfti mikill, gekk jo# rin
undir eim skykkjum, ok skalf h"usit. "a st"o "orr upp, ok
h"et a" lagsme# nn s"na; ok leituusk fyrir, ok fundu af-h"us til
hgri handar i mijum sk"alanum, ok gengu annig; se# ttisk
"orr " dyrrin, en o# nnur au v"aru innar fr"a honum, ok v"aru
au hrdd, en "orr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugi at ve# rja
sik; "a heyru au ym mikinn ok gn"y. En er kom at
dagan, "a gekk "orr u" t, ok s"er hvar l"a mar skamt fr"a
honum " sk"oginum, ok var s"a eigi l"till; hann svaf, ok hraut
ste# rkliga. "a "ottisk "orr skiIja hvat l"atum verit hafi of
n"attina; hann spe# nnir sik me# gingjo# rum, ok o" x honum
a" sme# gin; en " v" vaknar mar s"a, ok st"o skj"ott upp; en
"a er sagt at "or var bilt einu sinni at sl"a hann me hamrinum; ok spuri hann at nafni, en s"a ne# fndisk Skr"ymir:
en eigi arf ek, sagi hann, at spyrja ik at nafni: ke# nni
"
ek at "u ert Asa"
orr; en hv"art he# fir "u dre# git a" braut hanzka
minn? Seildisk "a Skr"ymir til, ok t"ok upp hanzka sinn;
s"er "orr "a at at hafi hann haft of n"attina fyrir sk"ala, en
afh"usit at var umlungrinn hanzkans. Skr"ymir spuri ef
"orr vildi hafa fo# ru-neyti hans, en "orr j"atti v". "a t"ok
Skr"ymir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bj"osk til at eta do# gur,
en "orr " o# rum sta ok hans f"elagar. Skr"ymir bau "a at
eir le# gi mo# tu-neyti sitt, en "orr j"atti v"; "a batt Skr"ymir
nest eira alt " einn bagga, ok lagi a" bak s"er; hann gekk
fyrir of daginn, ok steig he# ldr st"orum, en s"an at kveldi

An Icelandic Primer

59
leitai Skr"ymir eim n"attstaar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli.
"a mlti Skr"ymir til "ors at hann vill le# ggjask nir at
sofna; en "er taki nest-baggann, ok b"ui til n"att-verar
yr. v" nst sofnar Skr"ymir, ok hraut fast; en "orr t"ok
nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en sv"a er at se# gja, sem u" -tr"uligt
mun ykkja, at engi kn"ut fekk hann leyst, ok engi a" lare# ndann hreyft, sv"a at "a vri lausari en a" r. Ok er hann
s"er at etta verk m"a eigi n"ytask, "a var hann reir, greip
"a hamarinn Mjo# llni tveim ho# ndum, ok steig fram o# rum
fti at ar er Skr"ymir l"a, ok l"ystr " ho# fu honum; en
Skr"ymir vaknar, ok spyrr hv"art laufs-bla nakkvat felli "
ho# fu honum, ea hv"art eir he# fi "a matazk, ok s"e b"unir
til re# kkna. "orr se# gir at eir munu "a sofa ganga. Ganga
au "a undir ara eik. Er at "er satt at se# gja, at ekki var
"a o" ttalaust at sofa. En at miri n"att "a heyrir "orr at
Skr"ymir hr"ytr, ok s!ofr fast, sv"a at dunar " sk"oginum. "a
ste# ndr hann upp, ok ge# ngr til hans, reiir hamarinn t"tt ok
hart, ok l"ystr ofan " mijan hvirfil honum; hann ke# nnir at
hamars-murinn s!okkr dj"upt " ho# fuit. En " v" bili vaknar
Skr"ymir, ok mlti: hvat er n"u? fell akarn nakkvat " ho# fu
m"er? ea hvat er t"tt um ik, "orr? En "orr gekk aptr
skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var "a n"yvaknar, sagi at "a
var mi n"att, ok enn vri m"al at sofa. "a hugsai "orr at,
ef hann kvmi sv"a " fri at sl"a hann it rija ho# gg, at aldri
skyldi hann sj"a sik s"an; liggr n"u ok gtir ef Skr"ymir
sofnai fast. En l"tlu fyrir dagan "a heyrir hann at Skr"ymir
mun sofnat hafa; ste# ndr "a upp, ok hleypr at honum, reiir
"a hamarinn af o# llu afli ok l"ystr a" unn-vangann ann er
upp vissi; s!okkr "a hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En Skr"ymir se# ttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok mlti: hv"art
munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja " tr"enu yfir m"er? mik grunai,
er ek vaknaa, at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli " ho# fu
m"er; hv"art vakir "u, "orr? M"al mun vera upp at standa
ok klask, en ekki eigu "er n"u langa lei fram til borgar"
innar er ko# llu er Ut-garr.
Heyrt he# fi ek at "er hafi
kvisat " milli yvar at ek vra ekki l"till mar ve# xti, en sj"a
"
skulu "er ar strri me# nn, er "er komi " Utgar.
N"u mun
ek r"aa yr heil-ri: l"ati "er eigi st"orliga yfir yr, ekki

60
"
munu hirme# nn Utgara-loka
vel ola v"l"kum ko# gursveinum ko# pur-yri; en at o# rum kosti hverfi aptr, ok
ann tla ek yr be# tra af at taka. En ef "er vili fram
fara, "a ste# fni "er " austr, en ek a" n"u norr lei til &alla
essa er n"u munu "er sj"a mega. Te# kr Skr"ymir nest-baggarm, ok kastar a" bak s"er, ok sn"yr ve# rs a" braut " sk"oginn
fr"a eim, ok er ess eigi getit at sirnir bi "a heila
hittask.
"orr f"or fram a" lei ok eir f"elagar, ok gekk fram til mis
dags; "a s"a eir borg standa a" vo# llum no# kkurum, ok se# ttu
hnakkann a" bak s"er aptr, a" r eir fengu s"et yfir upp; ganga
til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hliinu, ok lokin aptr.
"orr gekk a" grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er eir
reyttu at komask " borgina, "a smugu eir milli spalanna
ok k"omu sv"a inn; s"a "a ho# ll mikla, ok gengu annig; var
hurin opin; "a gengu eir inn, ok s"a ar marga me# nn
a" tv"a be# kki, ok flesta rit st"ora. v" nst koma eir fyrir
"
konunginn, Utgaraloka,
ok kvo# ddu hann, en hann leit seint
til eira, ok glotti um to# nn, ok mlti: seint er um langan
veg at spyrja t"inda, ea er annan veg en ek hygg, at essi
svein-stauli s"e O
# ku"orr? en meiri muntu vera en m"er l"zk
"u; ea hvat "r"otta er at er "er f"elagar ykkizk vera vi
b"unir? Engi skal h"er vera me oss s"a er eigi kunni nakkvars
konar list ea kunnandi um fram flesta me# nn. "a se# gir s"a
er s"ast gekk, er Loki heitir: kann ek "a "r"ott, er ek em
al-b"uinn at reyna, at engi er h"er s"a inni er skj"otara skal eta
"
mat sinn en ek. "a svarar Utgaraloki:
"r"ott er at, ef
"u e# fnir, ok freista skal "a essar "r"ottar; kallai utar a"
be# kkinn at s"a er Logi heitir skal ganga a" g"olf fram, ok freista
s"n " m"oti Loka. "a var te# kit trog eitt, ok borit inn a" hallarg"olfit, ok fylt af sl"atri; se# ttisk Loki at o# rum e# nda, en Logi
at o# rum, ok a" t hv"arr-tve# ggja sem t"ast, ok mttusk " miju
troginu; hafi "a Loki etit sl"atr alt af beinum, en Logi hafi
ok etit sl"atr alt ok beinin me, ok sv"a trogit; ok s"yndisk n"u
"
o# llum sem Loki he# fi l"atit leikinn. "a spyrr Utgaraloki
hvat s"a inn ungi mar kunni leika. En j"alfi se# gir at hann
mun freista at re# nna skei no# kkur vi einn-hve# rn ann er
"
"
Utgaraloki
fr til. Hann se# gir, Utgaraloki,
at etta er

An Icelandic Primer

61
g"o "r"ott, ok kallar ess meiri v"an at hann s"e vel at s"er
b"uinn of skj"otleikinn, ef hann skal essa "r"ott inna; en "o
"
ltr hann skj"ott essa skulu freista. Ste# ndr "a upp Utgaraloki, ok ge# ngr u" t, ok var ar gott skei at re# nna e# ptir sl"ettum
"
ve# lli. "a kallar Utgaraloki
til s"n sveinstaula nakkvarn, er
ne# fndr er Hugi, ok ba hann re# nna " ko# pp vi j"alfa. "a
taka eir it fyrsta skei, ok er Hugi v" framar at hann
"
sn"ysk aptr " m"oti honum at skeis e# nda. "a mlti Utgaraloki: urfa muntu, j"alfi, at le# ggja ik meir fram, ef "u
skalt vinna leikinn; en "o er at satt, at ekki hafa h"er komit
eir me# nn er m"er ykkja f"othvatari en sv"a. "a taka eir
aptr annat skei, ok "a er Hugi er kominn til skeis e# nda,
ok hann sn"ysk aptr, "a var langt k"olf-skot til j"alfa. "a
"
mlti Utgaraloki:
vel ykkir m"er j"alfi re# nna; en eigi
tr"ui ek honum n"u at hann vinni leikinn, en n"u mun reyna,
er eir re# nna it rija skeiit. "a taka eir e# nn skei; en
er Hugi er kominn til skeis e# nda ok sn"ysk aptr, ok er
j"alfi eigi "a kominn a" mitt skeiit; "a se# gja allir at reynt
"
er um enna leik. "a spyrr Utgaraloki
"or, hvat eira
"r"otta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir eim, sv"a
miklar so# gur sem me# nn hafa g!o# rt um st"orvirki hans. "a
mlti "orr at he# lzt vill hann at taka til, at reyta drykkju
"
vi einnhve# rn mann. Utgaraloki
se# gir at at m"a vel vera;
ok ge# ngr inn " ho# llina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, bir at
hann taki v"tis-horn at, er hirme# nn eru vanir at drekka af.
v" nst k!omr fram skutilsveinn me horninu, ok fr "or "
"
ho# nd. "a mlti Utgaraloki:
af horni essu ykkir "a
vel drukkit, ef " einum drykk ge# ngr af, en sumir me# nn
drekka af " tveim drykkjum, en engi er sv"a l"till drykkjumar, at eigi gangi af " rimr. "orr l"tr a" hornit, ok s"ynisk
ekki mikit, ok er "o he# ldr langt, en hann er mjo# k yrstr;
te# kr at drekka, ok svelgr allst"orum, ok hyggr at eigi skal
urfa at l"uta optar at sinni " hornit. En er hann raut
o! rindit, ok hann laut o" r horninu, ok s"er hvat lei drykkinum,
ok l"zk honum sv"a, sem all-l"till munr mun vera at n"u s"e
"
lgra " horninu en a" r. "a mlti Utgaraloki:
vel er
drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k tr"ua, ef m"er vri
"
sagt fr"a, at Asa"
orr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en

62

An Icelandic Primer

"o veit ek at "u munt vilja drekka af " o# rum drykk.


"orr svarar engu, se# tr hornit a" munn s"er, ok hyggr n"u at
hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok reytir a" drykkjuna, sem
honum vannsk til o! rindi, ok s"er e# nn at stikillinn hornsins
vill ekki upp sv"a mjo# k sem honum l"kar; ok er hann t"ok
hornit af munni s"er ok s"er, l"zk honum n"u sv"a, sem minna
hafi orrit en " inu fyrra sinni; er n"u gott beranda bor
"
a" horninu. "a mlti Utgaraloki:
hvat er n"u, "orr?
muntu n"u eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en "er mun
hagr a" vera? Sv"a l"zk m"er, ef "u skalt n"u drekka af horninu
inn rija drykkinn, sem essi mun mestr tlar; en ekki
muntu mega h"er me oss heita sv"a mikill mar sem sir
kalla ik, ef "u g!o# rir eigi meira af "er um ara leika en m"er
l"zk sem um enna mun vera. "a var "orr reir, se# tr
hornit a" munn s"er, ok drekkr sem a" kafligast m"a hann, ok
reytir sem le# ngst a" drykkinn; en er hann s"a " hornit, "a
hafi n"u he# lzt nakkvat munr a" fe# ngizk, ok "a b"yr hann upp
"
hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira. "a mlti Utgaraloki:
au-s"et er n"u at m"attr inn er ekki sv"a mikill sem v"er
hugum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika? Sj"a m"a n"u, at
ekki n"ytir "u h"er af. "orr svarar: freista m"a ek e# nn of
nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi m"er ykkja, "a er ek var
heima me a" sum, ef v"l"kir drykkir vri sv"a l"tlir kallair. En
"
hvat leik vili "er n"u bj"oa m"er? "a mlti Utgaraloki:
at
g!o# ra h"er ungir sveinar er l"tit mark mun at ykkja, at he# &a
upp af jo# ru ko# tt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at mla
"
v"l"kt vi Asa"
or, ef ek he# fa eigi s"et fyrr at "u ert miklu
minni fyrir "er en ek huga. v" nst hlj"op fram ko# ttr
einn gr"ar a" hallarg"olfit, ok he# ldr mikill; en "orr gekk til, ok
t"ok he# ndi sinni nir undir mijan kviinn, ok lypti upp, en
ko# ttrinn beygi ke# nginn, sv"a sem "orr r"etti upp ho# ndina; en
er "orr seildisk sv"a langt upp sem hann m"atti le# ngst, "a l"etti
ko# ttrinn einum fti, ok fr "orr eigi framit enna leik. "a
"
mlti Utgaraloki:
sv"a f"or essi leikr sem mik vari;
ko# ttrinn er he# ldr mikill, en "orr er l"agr ok l"till hj"a st"orme# nni v" sem h"er er me oss. "a mlti "orr: sv"a l"tinn
sem p"er kalli mik, "a gangi n"u til einnhve# rr, ok f"aisk vi
"
mik; n"u em ek reir. "a svarar Utgaraloki,
ok litask um

63
a" be# kkina, ok mlti: eigi s"e ek ann mann h"er inni, er
eigi mun l"til-ri " ykkja at f"ask vi ik; ok e# nn mlti
hann: sj"am fyrst, kalli m"er hingat ke# rlinguna, f"ostru m"na
E# lli, ok f"aisk "orr vi hana, ef hann vill; fe# lt he# fir hon "a
me# nn er m"er hafa litizk eigi u" -ste# rkligri en "orr er. v"
"
nst gekk " ho# llina ke# rling ein go# mul. "a mlti Utgar"
aloki, at hon skal taka fang vi Asa"or. Ekki er langt um.
at g!o# ra: sv"a f"or fang at at v" harara er "orr kn"uisk at
fanginu, v" fastara st"o hon; "a t"ok ke# rling at leita til
raga, ok var "orr "a lauss a" f"otum, ok v"aru r sviptingar all-harar, ok eigi le# ngi a" r en "orr fell a" kn"e o# rum
"
fti. "a gekk til Utgaraloki,
ba au htta fanginu, ok
sagi sv"a, at "orr mundi eigi urfa at bj"oa fleirum mo# nnum
"
fang " hans ho# ll; var "a ok liit a" n"att, v"sai Utgaraloki
"or ok eim f"elo# gum til stis, ok dve# ljask ar n"att-langt "
g"oum fagnai.
En at morgni, egar dagai, ste# ndr "orr upp ok eir
f"elagar, kla sik, ok eru b"unir braut at ganga. "a kom
"
ar Utgaraloki,
ok l"et se# tja eim bor; skorti "a eigi
g"oan fagna, mat ok drykk. En er eir hafa matazk, "a
"
sn"uask eir til fe# rar. Utgaraloki
fylgir eim u" t, ge# ngr
"
me eim braut o" r borginni; en at skilnai "a mlti Utgaraloki til "ors, ok spyrr hve# rnig honum ykkir fe# r s"n
orin, ea hv"art hann he# fir hitt r"kara mann nakkvarn en
sik. "orr svarar at eigi mun hann at se# gja, at eigi hafi
hann mikla u" -sm farit " eira vi-skiptum; en "o veit
ek at "er munu kalla mik l"tinn mann fyrir m"er, ok uni ek
"
v" illa. "a mlti Utgaraloki:
n"u skal se# gja "er it sanna,
er "u ert u" t kominn o" r borginniok ef ek lifi ok mega-k
r"aa, "a skaltu aldri optar " hana koma; ok at veit tr"ua
m"n, at aldri he# fir "u " hana komit, ef ek he# fa vitat a" r at
"u he# fir sv"a mikinn krapt me "er, ok "u hafir sv"a nr
haft oss mikilli u" -fru. En sj"on-hve# rfingar he# fi ek go#! rt "er,
sv"a at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann ik a" sk"oginum, kom ek til
fundar vi yr; ok "a er "u skyldir leysa nestbaggann, "a
hafa-k bundit me gres-j"arni, en "u fannt eigi hvar upp
skyldi l"uka. En v" nst laust "u mik me hamrinum rj"u
ho# gg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var "o sv"a mikit, at m"er

64
mundi e# ndask til bana, ef a" he# fi komit; en ar er "u s"att
hj"a ho# ll minni set-berg, ok ar s"att-u ofan " rj"a dala ferskeytta ok einn dj"upastan, at v"aru hamarspor in; setberginu br"a ek fyrir ho# ggin en eigi s"att "u at. Sv"a var ok of
leikana, er "er reyttu vi hirme# nn m"na. "a var at it
fyrsta, er Loki g!o# ri; hann var mjo# k soltinn, ok a" t t"tt; en
s"a er Logi h"et, at var villi-eldr, ok bre# ndi hann eigi seinna
sl"atrit en trogit. En er j"alfi reytti r"asina vi ann er
Hugi h"et, at var hugi minn, ok var j"alfa eigi vnt at
reyta skj"ot-fri vi hann. En er "u drakkt af horninu, ok
"otti "er seint l"a,en at veit tr"ua m"n, at "a var at
undr, er ek munda eigi tr"ua at vera mtti; annarr e# ndir
hornsins var u" t " hafi, en at s"attu eigi; en n"u, er "u k!omr
til svarins, "a mun-tu sj"a mega, hve# rn ur "u he# fir drukkit
a" snum. at eru n"u &o# rur kallaar. Ok e# nn mlti hann:
eigi "otti m"er hitt minna vera vert, er "u lyptir upp ke# ttinum, ok "er satt at se# gja, "a hrddusk allir eir er s"a,
er "u lyptir af jo# ru einum ftinum; en s"a ko# ttr var eigi
sem "er s"yndisk; at var Migars-ormr, er liggr um lo# nd
o# ll, ok vannsk honum varliga le# ngin til, at jo# rina tki
sporr ok ho# fu; ok sv"a langt seildisk "u upp at skamt var
"a til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er "u
fekkzk vi E# lli; fyrir v" at engi he# fir s"a orit, ok engi
mun vera, ef sv"a gamall er at e# lli b"r, at eigi komi e# llin
o# llum til falls. Ok er n"u at s"att at se# gja, at v"er munum
skiljask, ok mun "a be# tr hv"arratve# ggju handar at "er komi
eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun e# nn annat sinn ve# rja borg
m"na me v"l"kum v"elum ea o# rum, sv"a at ekki vald munu
"er a" m"er f"a. En er "orr heyri essa to# lu, greip hann til
hamarsins, ok bregr a" lopt; en er hann skal fram reia, "a
"
s"er hann ar hve# rgi Utgaraloka,
ok "a sn"ysk hann aptr til
borgarinnar, ok tlask "a fyrir at brj"ota borgina; "a s"er
hann ar vo# llu v"a ok fagra, en enga borg. Sn"ysk hann
"a aptr, ok fe# rr lei sina, til ess er hann kom aptr " r"uvanga.

An Icelandic Primer

Chapter 8
Balder
"
Annarr sonr Oins
er Baldr, ok er fr"a honum gott at
se# gja: hann er be# ztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er sv"a fagr
a" -litum ok bjartr sv"a at l"ysir af honum; ok eitt gras er sv"a
hv"tt at jafnat er til Baldrs br"ar, at er allra grasa hv"tast;
ok ar e# ptir m"attu marka hans fe# gr, bi a" h"ar ok a" l"ki;
hann er vitrastr a" sanna, ok fe# grstr talir ok l"knsamastr. En
s"u n"att"ura fylgir honum at engi m"a haldask d"omr hans.
Hann b"yr ar sem heitir Breia-blik, at er a" himni; " eim
sta m"a ekki vera u" -hreint, sv"a sem h"er se# gir:
Breiablik heita, ar er Baldr he# fir
s"er of g!o# rva sali;
" v" landi er ek liggja veit
fsta feikn-stafi.

65

Chapter 9
The Death of Balder
at er upphaf essar so# gu, at Baldr inn g"oa dreymi
drauma st"ora ok httliga um l"f sitt. En er hann sagi
a" sunum draumana, "a b"aru eir saman r"a s"n, ok var at
g!o# rt at beia gria Baldri fyrir alls konar h"aska; ok Frigg
t"ok svardaga til ess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, j"arn
ok alls konar m"almr, steinar, jo# rin, viirnir, s"ottirnar, d"yrin,
fuglarnir, eitr, ormar. En er etta var g!o# rt ok vitat, "a var
at ske# mtun Baldrs ok a" sanna at hann skyldi standa upp a"
ingum, en allir arir skyldu sumir skj"ota a" hann, sumir
ho# ggva til, sumir be# rja grj"oti. En hvat sem at var go#! rt,
sakai hann ekki, ok "otti etta o# llum mikill frami. En er
etta s"a Loki Laufeyjar-son, "a l"kai honum illa er Baldr
sakai ekki. Hann gekk til Fe# n-salar til Friggjar, ok br"a
s"er " konu l"ki; "a spyrr Frigg ef s"u kona vissi hvat sir
ho# fusk at a" inginu. Hon sagi at allir skutu at Baldri,
ok at, at hann sakai ekki. "a mlti Frigg: eigi munu
v"apn ea viir granda Baldri; eia he# fi ek e# git af o# llum
eim. "a spyrr konan: hafa allir hlutir eia unnit at eira
Baldri? "a svarar Frigg: ve# x viar-teinungr einn fyrir
vestan Val-ho# ll; s"a er Mistilteinn kallar; s"a "otti m"er ungr
at kre# &a eisins. v" nst hvarf konan a" braut; en Loki
t"ok Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til ings. En Ho# r st"o
utarliga " mannhringinum, v" at hann var blindr. "a mlti
Loki vi hann: hv" sk"ytr "u ekki at Baldri? Hann svarar:
v" at ek s"e eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok at annat, at ek em
67

68
vapnlauss. "a mlti Loki: g!o# r-u "o " l"king annarra,
manna, ok veit Baldri sm sem arir me# nn; ek mun v"sa
"er til, hvar hann ste# ndr; skj"ot at honum ve# ndi essum.
Ho# r t"ok Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilv"sun Loka;
flaug skotit " ge# gnum hann, ok fell hann daur til jarar; ok
he# fir at mest u" -happ verit unnit me goum ok mo# nnum.
"a er Baldr var fallinn, "a fellusk o# llum a" sum or-to# k, ok
sv"a he# ndr at taka til hans; ok s"a hve# rr til annars, ok v"aru
allir me einum hug til ess er unnit hafi verkit; en engi
m"atti he# fna: ar var sv"a mikill gria-star. En "a er
sirnir freistuu at mla, "a var hitt "o fyrr, at gr"atrinn
kom upp, sv"a at engi m"atti o# rum se# gja me orunum fr"a
"
s"num harmi. En Oinn
bar eim mun ve# rst enna skaa,
sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hve# rsu mikil af-taka ok missa
a" sunum var " fr"a-falli Baldrs. En er goin vitkuusk, "a
mlti Frigg ok spuri, hve# rr s"a vri me a" sum, er eignask
vildi allar a" stir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann r"a a" he# l-veg
ok freista ef hann f"ai fundit Baldr, ok bj"oa He# lju u" t-lausn,
"
ef hon vill l"ata fara Baldr heim " As-gar.
En s"a er ne# fndr
"
He# rm"or inn hvati, sonr Oins, er til eirar farar var. "a
"
var te# kinn Sleipnir, hestr Oins,
ok leiddr fram, ok steig
He# rm"or a" ann hest, ok hleypi braut.
En sirnir t"oku l"k Baldrs ok fluttu til svar. Hringhorni h"et skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann
vildu goin fram se# tja, ok g!o# ra ar a" b"al-fo# r Baldrs; en
skipit gekk hve# rgi fram. "a var se# nt " Jo# tunheima e# ptir
g"ygi eiri er Hyrrokin h"et; en er hon kom, ok rei vargi,
ok hafi ho# gg-orm at taumum, "a hlj"op hon af hestinum,
"
en Oinn
kallai til ber-se# rki &"ora at gta hestsins, ok fengu
eir eigi haldit, nema eir fe# ldi hann. "a gekk Hyrrokin a"
fram-stafn no# kkvans, ok hratt fram " fyrsta vi-bragi, sv"a
at eldr hraut o" r hlunnunum, ok lo# nd o# ll skulfu. "a var
"orr reir, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi "a brj"ota ho# fu
he# nnar, a" r en goin o# ll b"au he# nni friar. "a var borit
u" t a" skipit l"k Baldrs; ok er at s"a kona hans, Nanna, Neps
d"ottir, "a sprakk hon af harmi, ok d"o; var hon borin a"
b"alit, ok sle# git " eldi. "a st"o "orr at, ok v"gi b"alit me
Mjo# llni; en fyrir f"otum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, s"a er

An Icelandic Primer

69
Litr ne# fndr; en "orr spyrndi fti s"num a" hann, ok hratt
honum " eldinn, ok brann hann. En at essi bre# nnu s"otti
"
margs konar j"o: fyrst at se# gja fr"a Oni,
at me honum
f"or Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr o" k " ke# rru
me ge# lti eim er Gullin-bursti heitir ea Sl"rug-tanni; en
Heimdallr rei hesti eim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja
ko# ttum s"num. ar k!omr ok mikit f"olk hr"mursa, ok berg"
risar. Oinn
lagi a" b"alit gullhring ann er Draupnir
heitir; honum fylgi s"an s"u n"att"ura, at hina n"undu hve# rja
n"att drupu af honum a" tta gullhringar jafn-ho# fgir. Hestr
Baldrs var leiddr a" b"alit me o# llu reii.
En at er at se# gja fr"a He# rm"oi, at hann rei n"u ntr
d!okkva dala ok dj"upa, sv"a at hann s"a ekki, fyrr en hann
kom til a" rinnar Gjallar, ok rei a" Gjallar-br"una; hon er
o# k l"ysi-gulli. M"ogur er ne# fnd mr s"u er gtir br"uarinnar; hon spuri hann at nafni ea tt, ok sagi at hinn
fyrra dag riu um br"una fimm fylki daura manna; en eigi
dynr br"uin minnr undir einum "er, ok eigi he# fir "u lit daura
manna; hv" r"r "u h"er a" he# lveg? Hann svarar at ek
skal r"a til he# ljar at leita Baldrs, ea hv"art he# fir "u nakkvat
s"et Baldr a" he# lvegi? En hon sagi at Baldr hafi ar
riit um Gjallarbr"u; en nir ok norr liggr he# lvegr. "a
rei He# rm"or ar til er hann kom at he# l-grindum; "a steig
hann af hestinum, ok gyri hann fast, steig upp, ok keyri
hann sporum, en hestrinn hlj"op sv"a hart, ok yfir grindina, at
hann kom hve# rgi nr. "a rei He# rm"or heim til hallarinnar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn " ho# llina, s"a ar sitja "
o# ndvegi Baldr, br"our sinn; ok dvalisk He# rm"or ar um
n"attina. En at morgni "a beiddisk He# rm"or af He# lju at
Baldr skyldi r"a heim me honum, ok sagi hve# rsu mikill
gr"atr var me a" sum. En He# l sagi at at skyldi sv"a reyna,
hv"art Baldr var sv"a a" st-sll sem sagt er; ok ef allir hlutir "
heiminum, kykvir ok dauir, gr"ata hann, "a skal hann fara
til a" sa aptr, en haldask me He# lju, ef nakkvarr mllr vi,
ea vill eigi gr"ata. "a st"o He# rm"or upp, en Baldr leiir
"
hann u" t o" r ho# llinni, ok t"ok hringinn Draupni, ok se# ndi Oni
til minja, en Nanna se# ndi Frigg ripti ok e# nn fleiri gjafar,
Fullu fingr-gull. "a rei He# rm"or aptr lei s"na, ok kom "

70

An Icelandic Primer

"
Asgar,
ok sagi o# ll t"indi au er hann hafi s"et ok heyrt.
v" nst se# ndu sir um allan heim o! rind-reka, at bija
at Baldr vri gr"atinn o" r he# lju; en allir g!o# ru at, me# nninir,
ok kykvendin, ok jo# rin, ok steinarnir, ok tr"e, ok allr m"almr;
sv"a sem "u munt s"et hafa, at essir hlutir gr"ata, "a er eir
koma o" r frosti ok " hita. "a er se# ndi-me# nn f"oru heim, ok
ho# fu vel rekit s"n o! rindi, finna eir " he# lli no# kkurum hvar
g"ygr sat; hon ne# fndisk o# kk. eir bija hana gr"ata Baldr
o" r he# lju. Hon svarar:
o# kk mun gr"ata
urrum t"arum
Baldrs b"alfarar;
kyks n"e daus
naut-k-a-k karls sonar;
haldi He# l v" es he# fir!
En ess geta me# nn, at ar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son,
er flest he# fir ilt g!o# rt me a" sum.

Chapter 10
H!einn and Ho" gni
Konungr s"a er Ho# gni er ne# fndr a" tti d"ottur, er Hildr h"et.
Hana t"ok at he# r-fangi konungr s"a er H"einn h"et, Hjarrandason. "a var Ho# gni konungr farinn " konunga-ste#fnu; en er
hann spuri at he# rjat var " r"ki hans, ok d"ottir hans var "
braut te# kin, "a f"or hann me s"nu lii at leita H"eins, ok
spuri til hans at H"einn hafi siglt norr me landi. "a
er Ho# gni konungr kom " Noreg, spuri hann at H"einn
hafi siglt vestr um haf. "a siglir Ho# gni e# ptir honum allt
til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann kom ar sem heitir H"a-ey, "a
var ar fyrir H"einn me li sitt. "a f"or Hildr a" fund fo# ur
s"ns, ok bau honum me# n at stt af he# ndi H"eins, en " o# ru
ori sagi hon at H"einn vri b"uinn at be# rjask, ok tti
Ho# gni af honum engrar vgar v"an. Ho# gni sv"arar stirt
d"ottur sinni; en er hon hitti H"ein, sagi hon honum, at
Ho# gni vildi enga stt, ok ba hann b"uask til orrostu, ok
sv"a g!o# ra eir hv"arir-tve# ggju, ganga upp a" eyna, ok fylkja
liinu. "a kallar H"einn a" Ho# gna, m"ag sinn, ok bau
honum stt ok mikit gull at b"otum. "a svarar Ho# gni:
of s" bauzt-u etta, ef "u vill sttask, v" at n"u he# fi ek
dre# git D"ains-leif, er dvergarnir g!o# ru, er manns bani skal
vera, hve# rt sinn er be# rt er, ok aldri bilar " ho# ggvi, ok ekki
s"ar grr, ef ar skeinisk af. "a svarar H"einn: sveri
hlir "u ar, en eigi sigri; at kalla ek gott hve# rt er dr"ottinholt er. "a h"ofu eir orrostu "a er Hjaninga-v"g er kallat,
ok bo# rusk ann dag allan, ok at kveldi f"oru konungar til
71

72
skipa. En Hildr gekk of n"attina til valsins, ok vaki upp
me &o# lkyngi alla "a er dauir v"aru; ok annan dag gengu
konungarnir a" v"g-vo# llinn ok bo# rusk, ok sv"a allir eir er
fellu hinn fyrra daginn. F"or sv"a s"u orrosta hve# rn dag e# ptir
annan, at allir eir er fellu, ok o# ll v"apn au er l"agu a" v"gve# lli,
ok sv"a hl"far, uru at grj"oti. En er dagai, st"ou upp allir
dauir me# nn, ok bo# rusk, ok o# ll v"apn v"aru "a n"y. Sv"a er
sagt " kvum, at Hjaningar skulu sv"a b"a ragna-ro! krs.

An Icelandic Primer

Chapter 11
The Death of Olaf Tryggvason
Sveinn konungr tj"ugu-ske#gg a" tti Sigr"i hina st"or-r"au.
" afs konungs Tryggva-sonar;
Sigr"r var hinn mesti u" -vinr Ol"
" afr konungr hafi slitit einka-m"alum
ok fann at til saka at Ol"
vi hana, ok lostit hana " and-lit. Hon e# ggjai mjo# k Svein
" af konung Tryggvason, ok
konung til at halda orrostu vi Ol"
kom hon sv"a s"num for-to# lum at Sveinn konungr var fullkominn at g!o# ra etta r"a. Ok snimma um v"arit se# ndi
" afs
Sveinn konungr me# nn austr til Sv"-j"oar a" fund Ol"
konungs Sv"a-konungs, m"ags s"ns, ok Eir"ks jarls; ok l"et se# gja
" afr, Noregs konungr, hafi leiangr u" ti, ok tlai
eim at Ol"
at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands. Fylgi at or-se# nding
Dana-konungs, at eir Sv"akonungr ok Eir"kr jarl skyldi
he# r u" ti hafa, ok fara til m"ots vi Svein konung, skyldu
" af konung Tryggvaeir "a allir samt le# ggja til orrostu vi Ol"
" afr Sv"akonungr ok Eir"kr jarl v"aru essar
son. En Ol"
fe# rar al-b"unir, ok dr"ogu "a saman skipa-he# r mikinn af Sv"ave# ldi, fo# ru v" lii sur til Dan-markar ok kv"amu ar sv"a,
" afr konungr Tryggvason hafi a" r austr siglt. eir
at Ol"
Sv"akonungr ok Eir"kr jarl heldu til fundar vi Danakonung,
ok ho# fu "a allir saman u" -grynni he# rs.
Sveinn konungr, "a er hann hafi se# nt e# ptir he# rinum,
"a se# ndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at nj"osna um fe# r
" afs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra sv"a til, at fundr
Ol"
eira Sveins konungs mtti vera. Fe# rr "a Sigvaldi jarl
lei s"na, ok kom fram a" Vindlandi, f"or til J"omsborgar, ok
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" afs konungs Tryggvasonar. V"aru ar mikil


s"an a" fund Ol"
vin"attu-m"al eira a" meal, kom jarl s"er " hinn mesta krleik
" af konung. Astr"
" r kona jarls, d"ottir Burizleifs konungs,
vi Ol"
" afs konungs, ok var at mjo# k af hinum
var vinr mikill Ol"
"
fyrrum te# ngum, er Olafr
konungr hafi a" tt Geiru, systur
he# nnar. Sigvaldi jarl var mar vitr ok r"augr; en er hann
" af konung, "a dvali hann mjo# k
kom s"er " r"aa-ge# r vi Ol"
fe# rina hans austan at sigla, ok fann til ess mjo# k y" msa hluti.
" afs konungs l"et geysi illa, ok v"aru me# nn mjo# k
En li Ol"
heim-f"usir, er eir l"agu alb"unir, en ver byr-vn. Sigvaldi
jarl fekk nj"osn leyniliga af Danmo# rk, at "a var austan kominn
he# rr Sv"akonungs, ok Eir"kr jarl hafi "a ok b"uinn sinn he# r,
ok eir ho# fingjarnir mundu "a koma austr undir Vindland,
" afs konungs
ok eir ho# fu a" kveit, at eir mundu b"a Ol"
vi ey "a er Svo# lr heitir, sv"a at, at jarl skyldi sv"a til stilla
" af konung.
at eir mtti ar finna Ol"
"a kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Danakonungr he# fi he# r u" ti, ok g!o# risk br"att s"a kurr, at Sveinn
" af konung. En Sigvaldi
Danakonungr mundi vilja finna Ol"
jarl se# gir konungi: ekki er at r"a Sveins konungs at
le# ggja til bardaga vi ik me Dana-he# r einn saman, sv"a
mikinn he# r sem "er hafi. En ef yr er nakkvarr grunr a"
v", at u" -frir muni fyrir, "a skal ek fylgja yr me m"nu
lii, ok "otti at styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem J"oms-v"kingar
fylgu ho# fingjum; mun ek f"a "er ellifu skip vel skipu.
Konungr j"atti essu. Var "a l"tit ver ok hag-sttt; l"et
konungr "a leysa flotann, ok bl"asa til brott-lo# gu. Dr"ogu
me# nn "a segl s"n, ok gengu meira sm"a-skipin o# ll, ok sigldu
au undan a" haf u" t. En jarl sigldi nr konungs-skipinu,
ok kallai til eira, ba konung sigla e# ptir s"er: m"er er
kunnast, se# gir hann, hvar dj"upast er um eyja-sundin, en
"er munu ess urfa me au in st"oru skipin. Sigldi
"a jarl fyrir me s"num skipum. Hann hafi ellifu skip,
en konungr sigldi e# ptir honum me sinum st"or-skipum,
hafi hann ar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr he# rrinn sigldi
u" t a" hafit. En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at Svo# lr, "a
r!ori a" m"oti eim sk"uta ein. eir se# gja jarli at he# rr Danakonungs l"a ar " ho# fninni fyrir eim. "a l"et jarl hlaa

75
seglunum, ok r"oa eir inn undir eyna.
" afr Sv"akonungr ok Eir"kr
Sveinn Danakonungr ok Ol"
jarl v"aru ar "a me allan he# r sinn; "a var fagrt ver
ok bjart s"ol-skin. Gengu eir n"u upp a" h"olminn allir
ho# fingjar me miklar sveitir manna, ok s"a er skipin sigldu
u" t a" hafit mjo# k mo# rg saman. Ok n"u sj"a eir hvar siglir
eitt mikit skip ok glsiligt; "a mltu b"air konungarnir:
etta er mikit skip ok a" kafliga fagrt, etta mun vera Ormrinn
langi. Eir"kr jarl svarar ok se# gir: ekki er etta Ormr hinn
langi. Ok sv"a var sem hann sagi; etta skip a" tti Eindrii
af Gimsum. L"tlu s"ar s"a eir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu
meira en hit fyrra. "a mlti Sveinn konungr: hrddr er
" afr Tryggvason n"u, eigi orir hann at sigla me ho# fuin
Ol"
a" skipi s"nu. "a se# gir Eir"kr jarl: ekki er etta konungs
skip, ke# nni ek etta skip ok seglit, v" at stafat er seglit, at
a" Erlingr Skj"algsson; l"atum sigla "a, be# tra er oss skar ok
" afs konungs en etta skip ar sv"a b"uit. En
missa " flota Ol"
stundu s"ar s"a eir ok ke# ndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku
an annig at h"olmanum. "a s"a eir hvar sigldu rj"u skip,
ok var eitt mikit skip. Mlti "a Sveinn konungr, bir "a
ganga til skipa sinna, se# gir at ar fe# rr Ormrinn langi. Eir"kr
jarl mlti: mo# rg hafa eir o# nnur st"or skip ok glsilig en
Orm hinn langa, b"um e# nn. "a mltu mjo# k margir me# nn:
eigi vill Eir"kr jarl n"u be# rjask, ok he# fna fo# ur s"ns; etta
er sko# mm mikil, sv"a at spyrjask mun um o# ll lo# nd, ef v"er
" afr konungr sigli a"
liggjum h"er me jafn-miklu lii, en Ol"
hafit u" t h"er hj"a oss sj"alfum. En er eir ho# fu etta talat
um hr", "a s"a eir hvar sigldu &ogur skip, ok eitt af
eim var dre# ki all-mikill ok mjo# k gull-b"uinn. "a st"o upp
Sveinn konungr, ok mlti: h"att mun Ormrinn bera mik "
kveld, honum skal ek st"yra. "a mltu margir, at Ormrinn
var furu mikit skip ok fr"tt, ok rausn mikil at l"ata go#! ra
sl"kt skip. "a mlti Eir"kr jarl, sv"a at nakkvarir me# nn
" afr konungr he# fi ekki meira skip en etta,
heyru: "ott Ol"
"a mundi Sveinn konungr at aldri f"a af honum me einn
saman Danahe# r. Dreif "a f"olkit til skipanna, ok r"aku af
tjo# ldin, ok tluu at b"uask skj"otliga. En er ho# fingjar rddu
etta milli s"n, sem n"u er sagt, "a s"a eir, hvar sigldu rj"u

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An Icelandic Primer

skip all-mikil, ok &"ora s"ast, ok var at Ormrinn langi.


En au hin st"oru skip, er a" r ho# fu siglt, ok eir hugu
at Ormrinn vri, at var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit s"ara
Ormrinn skammi. En "a er eir s"a Orminn langa, ke# ndu
" afr
allir, ok mlti "a engi " m"ot, at ar mundi sigla Ol"
Tryggvason; gengu "a til skipanna, ok skipuu til atlo# gunnar. V"aru at einkam"al eira ho# fingja, Sveins konungs,
" afs konungs, Eir"ks jarls, at sinn rijung Noregs skyldi
Ol"
" af konung Tryggvason;
eignask hve# rr eira, ef eir fe# ldi Ol"
en s"a eira ho# fingja er fyrst gengi a" Orminn, skyldi eignask
alt at hlut-skipti er ar fengisk, ok hve# rr eira au skip
er sj"alfr hryi. Eir"kr jarl hafi bara einn geysi mikinn,
er hann var vanr at hafa " viking; ar var ske# gg a" ofanveru barinu hv"arutve# ggja, en nir fr"a j"arn-spo# ng ykk ok
sv"a brei sem barit, ok t"ok alt " s ofan.
"a er eir Sigvaldi jarl r!oru inn undir h"olminn, "a s"a
at eir orke# ll dyrill af Trananum ok arir skip-stj"ornar-me# nn, eir er me honum f"oru, at jarl sno! ri skipum
undir h"olmann; "a hl"ou eir ok seglum, ok ro! ru e# ptir
honum, ok ko# lluu til eira, spuru, hv" eir f"oru sv"a. Jarl
" afs konungs: ok er meiri v"an at
se# gir, at hann vill b"a Ol"
u" frir s"e fyrir oss. L"etu eir "a flj"ota skipin, ar til er
orke# ll ne# &a kom me Orminn skamma, ok au rj"u skip
er honum fylgu. Ok v"aru eim so# g hin so# mu t"indi;
hl"ou eir "a ok s"num seglum, ok l"etu flj"ota, ok biu
" afs konungs. En "a er konungrinn sigldi innan at h"olOl"
manum, "a r!ori allr he# rrinn u" t a" sundit fyrir "a. En er
eir s"a at, a b"au eir konunginn sigla lei s"na, en
le# ggja eigi til orrostu vi sv"a mikinn he# r. Konungr svarar
h"att, ok st"o upp " lyptingunni: l"ati ofan seglit, ekki skulu
m"nir me# nn hyggja a" fl"otta, ek he# fi aldri fl"yit " orrostu, r"ai
Gu fyrir l"fi m"nu, en aldri mun ek a" fl"otta le# ggja. Var sv"a
g!o# rt sem konungr mlti.
" afr konungr l"et bl"asa til sam-lo# gu o# llum skipum s"num.
Ol"
Var konungs skip " miju lii, en ar a" annat bor Ormrinn
skammi, en a" annat bor Traninn. En "a er eir t"oku
at te# ngja stafna a" Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma,
ok er konungr s"a at, kallai hann h"att, ba "a le# ggja

77
fram be# tr hit mikla skipit, ok l"ata at eigi aptast vera allra
" hinn raui: ef Orminn
skipa " he# rinum. "a svarar Ulfr
skal v" le# ngra fram le# ggja, sem hann er le# ngri en o# nnur
skip, "a mun a" -vint vera um so# xin " dag. Konungr se# gir:
eigi vissa ek at ek tta stafnb"uann bi rauan ok ragan.
" mlti: ve# r "u eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun
Ulfr
stafninn. Konungr helt a" boga, ok lagi o# r a" stre# ng, ok
"
" mlti: skj"ot annan veg, konungr " annig
sn!ori at Ulfi.
Ulfr
sem meiri er o# rfin; "er vinn ek at er ek vinn.
" afr konungr st"o " lyptingu a" Orminum, bar hann h"att
Ol"
mjo# k; hann hafi gyltan skjo# ld ok gull-roinn hj"alm; var
hann au-ke# ndr fr"a o# rum mo# nnum: hann hafi rauan
" afr konungr s"a at
kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En er Ol"
riluusk flotarnir, ok upp v"aru se# tt me# rki fyrir ho# fingjum,
"a spyrr hann: hve# rr er ho# fingi fyrir lii v" er ge# gnt
oss er? Honum var sagt at ar var Sveinn konungr
tj"uguske# gg me Danahe# r. Konungr svarar: ekki hrumk
v"er bleyur r, engi er hugr " Do# num. En hve# rr ho# fingi
fylgir eim me# rkjum er ar eru u" t "fr"a a" hgra veg? Honum
" afr konungr me Sv"a-he# r. Ol"
" afr
var sagt at ar var Ol"
konungr se# gir: be# tra vri Sv"um heima at sleikja um bl"otbolla s"na en ganga a" Orminn undir v"apn yur. En hve# rir
eigu au hin st"oru skip, er ar liggja u" t a" bak-bora Do# num?
ar er, se# gja eir Eir"kr jarl H"akonar-son. "a svarai
" afr konungr: hann mun ykkjask eiga vi oss skapligan
Ol"
fund, ok oss er v"an snarpligrar orrostu af v" lii; eir eru
Nor-me# nn, sem v"er erum.
S"an greia konungar at-r"or. Lagi Sveinn konungr
" afr konungr Snski
sitt skip m"oti Orminum langa, en Ol"
" afs konungs
lagi u" t fr"a, ok stakk sto# fnum at yzta skipi Ol"
Tryggvasonar, en o# rum megin Eir"kr jarl. T"oksk ar "a
ho# r orrosta. Sigvaldi jarl l"et skotta vi s"n skip, ok lagi
ekki til orrostu.
essi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-sk. Frambyggjar a" Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum
fru akkeri ok stafn-lj"a " skip Sveins konungs, en a" ttu
v"apnin at bera nir undir ftr s"er; hruu eir o# ll au skip
er eir fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok at li er

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An Icelandic Primer

undan komsk fl"yi a" o# nnur skip, ok ar nst lo# gu eir


" afr
fr"a o" r skot-m"ali. Ok f"or essi he# rr sv"a sem gat Ol"
" afr
konungr Tryggvason. "a lagi ar at " stainn Ol"
Sv"akonungr; ok egar er eir koma nr st"orskipum, "a
f"or eim sem hinum, at eir l"etu li mikit ok sum skip s"n,
ok lo# gu fr"a vi sv"a b"uit. En Eir"kr jarl s"-byri Baranum
" afs konungs, ok hrau hann at, ok hj"o
vi hit yzta skip Ol"
egar at o" r te# ngslum, en lagi "a at v", er ar var nst,
ok barisk til ess er at var hroit. T"ok "a liit at hlaupa
af hinum smrum skipunum, ok upp a" st"orskipin. En Eir"kr
jarl hj"o hve# rt o" r te# ngslunum, sv"a sem hroit var. En Danir
" afs
ok Sv"ar lo# gu "a " skotm"al ok o# llum megin at skipum Ol"
konungs, en Eir"kr jarl l"a a"valt s"byrt vi skipin, ok a" tti
ho# gg-orrostu. En sv"a sem me# nn fellu a" skipum hans, "a
gengu arir upp " stainn, Sv"ar ok Danir. "a var orrosta
hin snarpasta, ok fell "a mjo# k liit, ok kom sv"a at lykum,
" afs konungs Tryggvasonar nema
at o# ll v"aru hroin skip Ol"
Ormrinn langi; var ar "a alt li a" komit, at er v"gt var
hans manna. "a lagi Eir"kr jarl Baranum at Orminum
langa s"byrt, ok var ar ho# ggorrosta.
Eirl"kr jarl var " fyrir-r"umi a" skipi s"nu, ok var ar fylkt
me skjald-borg. Var "a bi ho# ggorrosta, ok spj"otum lagit,
ok kastat o# llu v" er til v"apna var, en sumir skutu boga-skoti
ea hand-skoti. Var a sv"a mikill v"apnaburr a" Orminn, at
varla m"atti hl"fum vi koma, er sv"a ykt flugu spj"ot ok o# rvar;
v" at o# llum megin lo# gu he# rskip at Orminum. En me# nn
" afs konungs v"aru "a sv"a o" ir, at eir hlj"opu upp a" borin,
Ol"
til ess at n"a me svers-ho# ggum at drepa f"olkit. En margir
lo# gu eigi sv"a undir Orminn, at eir vildi " ho# ggorrostu vera.
" afs me# nn gengu flestir u" t af borunum, ok g"au eigi
En Ol"
annars en eir be# risk a" sl"ettum ve# lli, ok sukku nir me
v"apnum s"num.
Einarr ambar-ske# lfir var a" Orminum aptr " krappa-r"umi;
hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna har-skeytastr.
Einarr skaut at Eir"ki jarli, ok laust " st"yris-hnakkann fyrir
ofan ho# fu jarli, ok gekk alt upp a" reyr-bo# ndin. Jarl leit til,
ok spuri ef eir vissi, hve# rr skaut. En jafn-skj"ott kom
o# nnur o# r sv"a nr jarli, at flaug milli s"unna ok handarinnar,

79
ok sv"a aptr " ho# fa-&o# lina, at langt st"o u" t broddrinn. "a
mlti jarl vi mann ann er sumir ne# fna Finn, en sumir
se# gja at hann vri Finskr, s"a var hinn mesti bog-mar:
skj"ot-tu mann ann hinn mikla " krappar"uminu! Finnr
skaut, ok kom o# rin a" boga Einars mijan, " v" bili er Einarr
dr"o it rija sinn bogann. Brast "a boginn " tv"a hluti. "a
" afr konungr: hvat brast ar sv"a h"att? Einarr
mlti Ol"
svarar: Noregr o" r he# ndi "er, konungr! Eigi mun sv"a
mikill brestr at orinn, se# gir konungr, tak boga minn, ok
skj"ot af, ok kastai boganum til hans. Einarr t"ok bogann,
ok dr"o egar fyrir odd o# rvarinnar, ok mlti: ofveikr,
ofveikr allvalds boginn! ok kastai aptr boganum; t"ok "a
skjo# ld sinn ok sver, ok barisk.
" afr konungr Tryggvason st"o " lypting a" Orminum, ok
Ol"
skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum
gaflo# kum, ok jafnan tveim se# nn. Hann s"a fram a" skipit, ok
s"a s"na me# nn reia sverin ok ho# ggva t"tt, ok s"a at illa bitu;
mlti "a h"att: hv"art reii "er sv"a slliga sverin, er ek s"e
at ekki b"ta yr? Mar svarar: sver v"ar eru sl ok
brotin mjo# k. "a gekk konungr ofan " fyrirr"umit ok lauk
upp h"astis-kistuna, t"ok ar o" r mo# rg sver hvo# ss, ok fekk
mo# nnum. En er hann t"ok nir hinni hgri he# ndi, "a s"a
me# nn at bl"o rann ofan undan bryn-st"ukunni; en engi vissi
hvar hann var s"arr.
Mest var vo# rnin a" Orminum ok mannskust af fyrirr"umsmo# nnum ok stafnb"uum; ar var hv"arttve# ggja, valit mest
mann-f"olkit ok hst borin. En li fell fyrst um mitt skipit.
Ok "a er f"att st"o manna upp um siglu-skei, "a r"e Eir"kr
jarl til upp-go# ngunnar, ok kom upp a" Orminn vi fimt"anda
" afs konungs,
mann. "a kom " m"ot honum Hyrningr, m"agr Ol"
me sveit manna, ok var ar inn harasti bardagi, ok lauk
sv"a, at jarl hro# kk ofan aptr a" Barann; en eir me# nn er
honum ho# fu fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir v"aru srir. ar
var e# nn in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu "a margir me# nn a"
Orminum. En er yntisk skipan a" Orminum til varnarinnar,
"a r"e Eir"kr jarl annat sinn til uppgo# ngu a" Orminn. Var
"a e# nn ho# r vi-taka. En er etta s"a stafnb"uar a" Orminum,
"a gengu eir aptr a" skipit, ok sn"uask til varnar m"oti jarli, ok

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veita hara vito# ku. En fyrir v" at "a var sv"a mjo# k fallit
li a" Orminum, at v"a v"aru au borin, t"oku "a jarls me# nn
v"a upp at ganga. En alt at li er "a st"o upp til varnar
a" Orminum s"otti aptr a" skipit, ar sem konungr var.
Kolbjo# rn stallari gekk upp " lypting til konungs; eir
ho# fu mjo# k l"kan kla-b"una ok v"apna, Kolbjo# rn var ok
allra manna mestr ok fr"astr. Var n"u e# nn " fyrirr"uminu
in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir "a so# k at "a var sv"a mikit
f"olk komit upp a" Orminn af lii jarls sem vera m"atti a" skipinu,
en skip hans lo# gu at o# llum megin utan at Orminum, en
l"tit &o# l-me# nni til varnar m"oti sv"a miklum he# r, n"u "ott eir
me# nn vri bi ste# rkir ok frknir, "a fellu n"u flestir a" l"tilli
" afr konungr sj"alfr ok eir Kolbjo# rn b"air
stundu. En Ol"
hlj"opu "a fyrir bor, ok a" sitt bor hv"arr. En jarls me# nn
ho# fu lagt utan at sm"a-sk"utur, ok dr"apu "a er a" kaf hlj"opu.
Ok "a er konungr sj"alfr hafi a" kaf hlaupit, vildu eir taka
" afr konungr br"a
hann ho# ndum, ok fra Eir"ki jarli. En Ol"
yfir sik skildinum, ok steypisk " kaf; en Kolbjo# rn stallari
skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hl"fi s"er sv"a vi v"apnum er
lagt var af skipum eim er undir l"agu, ok fell hann sv"a
a" sinn at skjo# ldrinn var undir honum, ok komsk hann v"
eigi " kaf sv"a skj"ott, ok var hann hand-te# kinn ok dre# ginn
upp " sk"utuna, ok hugu eir at ar vri konungrinn. Var
hann "a leiddr fyrir jarl. En er ess var jarl varr at ar
" afr konungr, "a v"aru Kolbirni gri
var Kolbjo# rn, en eigi Ol"
gefin. En " essi svipan hlj"opu allir fyrir bor af Orminum,
" afs konungs me# nn; ok se# gir Halleir er "a v"aru a" l"fi, Ol"
frer vandra-sk"ald, at orke# ll ne# &a, konungs br"oir, hlj"op
s"ast allra manna fyrir bor.
Sv"a var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til fo# runeytis vi
"
Ol"af konung " Vindlandi, ok hafi t"u skip, en at hit ellifta,
" ar konungs-d"ottur, konu jarls. En
er a" v"aru me# nn Astr"
"
"a er Ol"afr konungr hafi fyrir bor hlaupit, "a pi
he# rrinn allr sigr-"op, ok "a lustu eir a" rum " s Sigvaldi
jarl ok hans me# nn, ok r!oru til bardaga. En s"u Vinda" ar me# nn v"aru a" , r!ori brott ok aptr undir
sne# kkjan, er Astr"
" afr
Vindland; ok var at margra manna m"al egar, at Ol"
konungr mundi hafa steypt af s"er brynjunni " kafi, ok kafat

81
sv"a u" t undan langskipunum, lagizk s"an til Vindasne# kkj" ar flutt hann til lands. Ok
unnar, ok he# fi me# nn Astr"
" afs konungs g!o# rvar
eru ar margar fr"a-sagnir um fe# rir Ol"
s"an af sumum mo# nnum. En hve# rn veg sem at he# fir
" afr konungr Tryggvason aldri s"an til r"kis
verit, "a kom Ol"
" Noregi.

Chapter 12
Auun
Mar h"et Auun, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok f"e-l"till; hann f"or
utan vestr ar " &o# rum me um-r"ai orsteins b"onda g"os,
ok "oris st"yri-manns, er ar hafi egit vist of vetrinn me
orsteini. Auun var ok ar, ok starfai fyrir honum "ori,
ok "a essi laun af honumutan-fe#rina ok hans um-sj"a.
Hann Auun lagi mestan hluta &"ar ess er var fyrir m"our
s"na, a" r hann stigi a" skip, ok var kveit a" riggja vetra
bjo# rg. Ok n"u fara eir utan hean, ok fe# rsk eim vel, ok
var Auun of vetrinn e# ptir me "ori st"yrimanni; hann a" tti
b"u a" Mri. Ok um sumarit e# ptir fara eir u" t til Grn-lands,
ok eru ar of vetrinn. ess er vi getit at Auun kaupir
ar bjarn-d"yri eitt, g!o# rsimi mikla, ok gaf ar fyrir alla
eigu s"na. Ok n"u of sumarit e# ptir "a fara eir aptr til
Noregs, ok vera vel rei-fara; he# fir Auun d"yr sitt me
s"er, ok tlar n"u at fara sur til Danme# rkr a" fund Sveins
konungs, ok gefa honum d"yrit. Ok er hann kom sur "
landit, ar sem konungr var fyrir, "a ge# ngr hann upp af
skipi, ok leiir e# ptir s"er d"yrit, ok leigir s"er he# r-be# rgi. Haraldi
konungi var sagt br"att at ar var komit bjarnd"yri, go#! rsimi
mikil, ok a" "Is-le# nzkr mar. Konungr se# ndir egar me# nn
e# ptir honum, ok er Auun kom fyrir konung, kve# r hann
konung vel; konungr t"ok vel kve# ju hans, ok spuri s"an:
"attu g!o# rsimi mikla " bjarnd"yri? Hann svarar, ok kvezk
eiga d"yrit eitthve# rt. Konungr mlti: villtu se# lja oss d"yrit
vi sl"ku veri sem "u keyptir? Hann svarar: eigi vil ek
83

84
at, herra! Villtu "a, se# gir konungr, at ek gefa "er tvau
ver sl"k, ok mun at r"ettara, ef "u he# fir ar vi gefit alla
"na eigu. Eigi vil ek at, herra! se# gir hann. Konungr
mlti: villtu gefa m"er "a? Hann svarar: eigi, herra!
Konungr mlti: hvat villtu "a af g!o# ra? Hann svarar:
fara, se# gir hann, til Danme# rkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.
Haraldr konungr se# gir: hv"art er, at "u ert mar sv"a u" vitr
at "u he# fir eigi heyrt u" fri ann er " milli er landa essa,
ea tlar "u giptu "na sv"a mikla, at "u munir ar komask
me g!o# rsimar, er arir f"a eigi komizk klakk-laust, "o at
nau-syn eigi til? Auun svarar: herra! at er a" yru
valdi, en engu j"atum v"er o# ru en essu er v"er ho# fum a" r
tlat. "a mlti konungr: hv" mun eigi at til, at "u farir
lei "na, sem "u vill, ok kom "a til m"n, er "u fe# rr aptr,
ok se# g m"er, hve# rsu Sveinn konungr launar "er d"yrit, ok
kann at vera, at "u s"er gfu-mar. v" heit ek "er,
sagi Auun.
Hann fe# rr n"u s"an sur me landi, ok " V"k austr, ok "a
til Danme# rkr; ok er "a uppi hve# rr pe# nningr &"arins, ok verr
hann "a bija matar bi fyrir sik ok fyrir d"yrit. Hann
" h"et,
k!omr a" fund a" r-manns Sveins konungs, ess er Aki
ok ba hann vista nakkvarra bi fyrir sik ok fyrir d"yrit:
"
ek tla, se# gir hann, at gefa Sveini konungi d"yrit. Aki
l"ezk se# lja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi. Auun kvezk
ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; en ek vilda "o, se# gir hann, at
etta kvmisk til leiar at ek mtta d"yrit fra konungi.
Ek mun f"a "er vistir, sem it urfi til konungs fundar;
en ar " m"oti vil ek eiga h"alft d"yrit, ok m"attu a" at l"ta,
at d"yrit mun deyja fyrir "er, ars it urfu vistir miklar, en
f"e s"e farit, ok er b"uit vi at "u hafir "a ekki d"yrsins. Ok
er hann l"tr a" etta, s"ynisk honum nakkvat e# ptir sem
a" rmarinn mlti fyrir honum, ok sttask eir a" etta, at
" h"alft d"yrit, ok skal konungr s"an meta alt
hann se# lr Aka
saman. Skulu eir fara b"air n"u a" fund konungs; ok sv"a
g!o# ra eir: fara n"u b"air a" fund konungs, ok st"ou fyrir
borinu. Konungr "hug"ai, hve# rr essi mar myndi vera,
er hann ke# ndi eigi, ok mlti s"an til Auunar: hve# rr
er-tu? se# gir hann. Hann svarar: ek em "Isle# nzkr mar,

An Icelandic Primer

85
herra, se# gir hann, ok kominn n"u utan af Grnlandi, ok n"u
af Noregi, ok tlaa-k at fra yr bjarnd"yri etta; keypta-k
at me allri eigu minni, ok n"u er "o a" orit mikit fyrir
m"er; ek a" n"u h"alft eitt d"yrit, ok se# gir konungi s"an, hve# rsu
" a" rmanni hans. Konungr mlti:
farit hafi me eim Aka
" er hann se# gir? Satt er at, se# gir hann.
er at satt, Aki,
Konungr mlti: ok "otti "er at til liggja, ar sem ek
se# tta-k ik mikinn mann, at he# pta at ea t"alma er mar
g!o# risk til at fra m"er g!o# rsimi, ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok
s"a at Haraldr konungr at r"ai at l"ata hann fara " frii, ok er
hann v"arr u" vinr? Hygg "u at "a, hv"e sannligt at var innar
handar, ok at vri makligt, at "u vrir drepinn; en ek
mun n"u eigi at g!o# ra, en braut skaltu fara egar o" r landinu,
ok koma aldri aptr s"an m"er " aug-s"yn! En "er, Auun!
kann ek sl"ka o# kk, sem "u gefir m"er alt d"yrit, ok ver h"er
me m"er. at e# kkisk hann, ok er me Sveini konungi
um hr".
Ok er liu nakkvarir stundir, "a mlti Auun vi konung:
braut f"ysir mik n"u, herra! Konungr svarar he# ldr seint:
hvat villtu "a, se# gir hann, ef "u vill eigi me oss vera?
Hann se# gir: sur vil ek ganga. Ef "u vildir eigi sv"a gott
r"a taka, se# gir konungr, "a myndi m"er fyrir ykkja ", er "u
f"ysisk " braut; ok n"u gaf konungr honum silfr mjo# k mikit,
ok f"or hann sur s"an me R"um-fe# rlum, ok skipai konungr
til um fe# r hans, ba hann koma til s"n, er kvmi aptr.
N"u f"or hann fe# rar sinnar, unz hann k!omr sur " R"oma-borg.
Ok er hann he# fir ar dvalizk, sem hann t"ir, "a fe# rr hann
aptr; te# kr "a s"ott mikla, g!o# rir hann "a a" kafliga magran;
ge# ngr "a upp alt f"eit at, er konungr hafi gefit honum
til fe# rarinnar; te# kr s"an upp staf-karls st"g, ok bir s"er
matar. Hann er "a koll"ottr ok he# ldr u" -slligr; hann k!omr
aptr " Danm!ork at p"askum, angat sem konungr er "a
staddr; en ei ori hann at l"ata sj"a sik; ok var " kirkjuskoti, ok tlai "a til fundar vi konung, er hann gengi
til kirkju um kveldit; ok n"u er hann s"a konunginn ok
hirina fagrliga b"una, "a ori hann eigi at l"ata sj"a sik.
Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju " ho# llina, "a mataisk Auun
u" ti, sem sir er til R"umfe# rla, mean eir hafa eigi kastat staf

86
ok skreppu. Ok n"u of aptaninn, er konungr gekk til kveldso# ngs, tlai Auun at hitta hann, ok sv"a mikit sem honum
"otti fyrr fyrir, j"ok n"u miklu a" , er eir v"aru druknir
hirme# nninir; ok er eir gengu inn aptr, "a e# ki konungr
mann, ok "ottisk finna at eigi hafi frama til at ganga fram
at hitta hann. Ok n"u er hirin gekk inn, "a veik konungr
u" t, ok mlti: gangi s"a n"u fram, er mik vill finna; mik
grunar at s"a muni vera marinn. "a gekk Auun fram,
ok fell til f"ota konungi, ok varla ke# ndi konungr hann; ok
egar er konungr veit, hve# rr hann er, t"ok konungr " ho# nd
honum Auuni, ok ba hann vel kominn, ok he# fir "u mikit
skipazk, segir hann, s"an vit s"amk; leiir hann e# ptir s"er
inn, ok er hirin s"a hann, hl"ogu eir at honum; en konungr
sagi: eigi urfu "er at honum at hlja, v" at be# tr he# fir
hann s"et fyr sinni s"al he# ldr en e" r. "a l"et konungr go#! ra
honum laug, ok gaf honum s"an hli, ok er hann n"u me
honum. at er n"u sagt einhve# rju sinni of v"arit at konungr
b"yr Auuni at vera me s"er a" -le# ngar, ok kvezk myndu
g!o# ra hann skutil-svein sinn, ok le# ggja til hans g"oa viring.
Auun se# gir: Gu akki yr, herra! s"oma ann allan er
"er vili til m"n le# ggja; en hitt er m"er " skapi at fara u" t
til "Islands. Konungr se# gir: etta s"ynisk m"er undarliga
kosit. Auun mlti: eigi m"a ek at vita, herra! se# gir
hann, at ek hafa h"er mikinn s"oma me yr, en m"oir m"n
troi stafkarls st"g u" t a" "Islandi; v" at n"u er lokit bjo# rg eiri
er ek laga til, a" r ek fra af "Islandi. Konungr svarar:
vel er mlt, se# gir hann, ok mannliga, ok muntu vera
giptu-mar; essi einn var sv"a hlutrinn, at m"er myndi eigi
mis-l"ka at "u frir " braut hean; ok ver n"u me m"er ar til
er skip b"uask. Hann g!o# rir sv"a.
Einn dag, er a" lei v"arit, gekk Sveinn konungr ofan a"
bryggjur, ok v"aru me# nn "a at, at b"ua skip til y" missa landa,
" austr-veg ea Sax-land, til Sv"j"oar ea Noregs. "a koma
eir Auun at einu skipi fo# gru, ok v"aru me# nn at, at b"ua
skipit. "a spuri konungr: hve# rsu l"zk "er, Auun! a"
etta skip? Hann svarar: vel, herra! Konungr mlti:
etta skip vil ek "er gefa, ok launa bjarnd"yrit. Hann
akkai gjo# fina e# ptir sinni kunnustu; ok er lei stund, ok

An Icelandic Primer

87
skipit var alb"uit, "a mlti Sveinn konungr vi Auun: "o
villtu n"u a" braut, "a mun ek n"u ekki le# tja ik, en at he# fi ek
spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi yru, ok eru v"a o! rfi ok
htt skipum; n"u br"ytr "u, ok t"ynir skipinu ok f"enu; l"tt s"er
at "a a" , at "u hafir fundit Svein konung, ok gefit honum
g!o# rsimi. S"an se# ldi konungr honum ler-hosu fulla af
silfri, ok ertu "a e# nn eigi f"e-lauss me o# llu, "ott "u brj"otir
skipit, ef "u fr haldit essu. Vera m"a sv"a e# nn, se# gir
konungr, at "u t"ynir essu f"e; l"tt n"ytr "u "a ess, er "u
fannt Svein konung, ok gaft honum go#! rsimi. S"an dr"o
konungr hring af he# ndi s"er, ok gaf Auuni, ok mlti: "o
at sv"a illa veri, at "u brj"otir skipit ok t"ynir f"enu, eigi
ertu f"elauss, ef "u k!omsk a" land, v" at margir me# nn hafa
gull a" s"er " skips-brotum, ok s"er "a at "u he# fir fundit Svein
konung, ef "u he# ldr hringinum; en at vil ek r"aa "er,
se# gir hann, at "u gefir eigi hringinn, nema "u ykkisk eiga
sv"a mikit gott at launa no# kkurum go# fgum manni, "a gef
eim hringinn, v" at tignum mo# nnum s"omir at iggja, ok
far n"u heill!
S"an ltr hann " haf, ok k!omr " Noreg, ok ltr flytja
upp varna sinn, ok urfti n"u meira vi at en fyrr, er
hann var " Noregi. Hann fe# rr n"u s"an a" fund Haralds
konungs, ok vill e# fna at er hann h"et honum, a" r hann
f"or til Danme# rkr, ok kve# r konung vel. Haraldr konungr
t"ok vel kve# ju hans, ok se# zk nir, se# gir hann, ok drekk
h"er me oss; ok sv"a g!o# rir hann. "a spuri Haraldr konungr: hve# rju launai Sveinn konungr "er d"yrit? Auun
svarar: v", herra! at hann "a at m"er. Konungr sagi:
launat mynda ek "er v" hafa; hve# rju launai hann e# nn?
Auun svarar: gaf hann m"er silfr til sur-go# ngu. "a se# gir
Haraldr konungr: mo# rgum mo# nnum gefr Sveinn konungr
silfr til surgo# ngu ea annarra hluta, "ott ekki fri honum
g!o# rsimar; hvat er e# nn fleira? Hann bau m"er, se# gir
Auun, at g!orask skutilsveinn hans, ok mikinn s"oma til
m"n at le# ggja. Vel var at mlt, se# gir konungr, ok
launa, myndi hann e# nn fleira. Auun sagi: gaf hann m"er
kno# rr me farmi eim er hingat er be# zt varit " Noreg. at
var st"or-mannligt, se# gir konungr, en launat mynda ek "er

88

An Icelandic Primer

v" hafa. Launai hann v" fleira? Auun svarai: gaf


hann m"er lerhosu fulla af silfri, ok kva mik "a eigi f"elausan,
ef ek helda v", "o at skip mitt bryti vi "Island. Konungr
sagi: at var a" -gtliga g!o# rt, ok at mynda ek ekki g!o# rt
hafa; lauss mynda ek ykkjask, ef ek gfa er skipit; hv"art
launai hann fleira? Sv"a var v"st, herra! se# gir Auun,
at hann launai: hann gaf m"er hring enna er ek he# fi
a" he# ndi, ok kva sv"a mega at berask, at ek t"ynda f"enu
o# llu, ok sagi mik "a eigi f"elausan, ef ek tta hringinn,
ok ba mik eigi l"oga, nema ek tta no# kkurum tignum manni
sv"a gott at launa, at ek vilda gefa; en n"u he# fi ek ann
fundit, v" at "u a" ttir kost at taka hv"arttve# ggja fr"a m"er,
d"yrit ok sv"a l"f mitt, en "u l"ezt mik fara angat " frii,
sem arir n"au eigi. Konungr t"ok vi gjo# finni me bl"u,
ok gaf Auuni " m"oti g"oar gjafir, a" r en eir skilisk.
Auun vari f"enu til "Islands-fe# rar ok f"or u" t egar um
sumarit til "Islands, ok "otti vera inn mesti gfumar.

Chapter 13
rymskvia
1. Vreir var "a Ving-"orr,
er hann vaknai,
ok s"ns hamars
of saknai:
ske# gg nam at hrista, sko# r nam at d"yja,
r"e Jarar burr
um at reifask.
2. Ok hann at ora
alls fyrst of kva:
heyr-u n"u, Loki! hvat ek n"u mli,
er engi veit jarar hve# rgi
n"e upp-himins: a" ss er stolinn hamri!
3. Gengu eir fagra
Freyju t"una,
ok hann at ora
alls fyrst of kva:
muntu m"er, Freyja!
&ar-hams lj"a,
ef ek minn hamar
mtta-k hitta?
Freyja kva:
4. "o munda-k gefa "er,
"ott o" r gulli vri,
ok-"o se# lja
at vri o" r silfri.
5. Fl"o "a Loki,
&arhamr duni,
unz fyr utan kom a" sa gara,
ok fyr innan kom jo# tna heima.
6. rymr sat a" haugi,
ursa dr"ottinn,
greyjum s"num gull-bo# nd sn!ori
ok mo# rum s"num mo# n jafnai.
rymr kva:
89

90

An Icelandic Primer
7. Hvat er me a" sum?
hvat er me a" lfum?
hv" er-tu einn kominn " Jo# tunheima?

Loki kva:
Ilt er me a" sum,
he# fir "u Hl"o-ria

ilt er me a" lfum;


hamar of f"olginn?

rymr kva:
8. Ek he# fi Hl"oria
hamar of f"olginn
a" tta ro# stum fyr jo# r nean;
hann engi mar aptr of heimtir,
nema fri m"er
Freyju at kv"an.
9. Fl"o "a Loki, &arhamr duni,
unz fyr utan kom jo# tna heima
ok fyr innan kom
a" sa gara;
mtti hann "or
mira gara,
ok hann at ora
alls fyrst of kva:
10. He# fir "u o! rindi sem e# rfii?
se# g-u a" lopti lo# ng t"indi:
opt sitjanda so# gur of fallask,
ok liggjandi lygi of be# llir.
Loki kva:
11. He# fi-k e# rfii
ok o! rindi:
rymr he# fir inn hamar,
ursa dr"ottinn;
hann engi mar aptr of heimtir,
nema honum fri
Freyju at kv"an.
12. Ganga eir fagra
Freyju at hitta,
ok hann at ora
alls fyrst of kva:
bitt-u ik, Freyja,
br"uar l"ni!
vit skulum aka tvau " Jo# tunheima.
13. Vrei var "a Freyja
ok fn"asai,
allr a" sa salr
undir bifisk,
sto# kk at it mikla me# n Br"singa:

91
mik veizt-u vera
ver-gjarnasta,
ef ek e# k me "er " Jo# tunheima.
14. Se# nn v"aru sir
allir a" ingi
ok a" synjur allar a" m"ali,
ok of at r"eu
r"kir t"var,
hv"e eir Hl"oria hamar of stti.
15. "a kva at Heimdallr, hv"tastr a" sa
(vissi hann vel fram,
sem vanir arir):
bindum v"er "or "a
br"uar l"ni,
hafi hann it mikla me# n Br"singa!
16. L"atum und honum hrynja lukla
ok kvenn-v"air of kn"e falla,
en a" brj"osti breia steina,
ok hagliga of ho# fu typpum!
17. "a kva at "orr,
r"uugr a" ss:
mik munu sir
argan kalla,
ef ek bindask lt
br"uar l"ni.
18. "a kva at Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
e# gi "u [n"u], "orr!
eira ora;
"
egar munu jo# tnar
Asgar b"ua,
nema "u inn hamar
"er of heimtir.
19. Bundu eir "or "a
br"uar l"ni
ok inu mikla me# ni Br"singa.
20. L"etu und honum hrynja lukla
ok kvenn-v"air of kn"e falla,
en a" brj"osti breia steina,
ok hagliga of ho# fu typu.
21. "a kva at Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
mun ek ok me "er
amb"att vera,
vit skulum aka tvr " Jo# tunheima.
22. Se# nn v"aru hafrar
heim of reknir,
skyndir at sko# klum, skyldu vel re# nna:
bjo# rg brotnuu, brann jo# r loga,
"
o" k Oins
sonr " Jo# tunheima.

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23. "a kva at rymr,
ursa dr"ottinn:
standi upp, jo# tnar!
ok str"ai be# kki!
n"u fra m"er Freyju at kv"an,
Njarar d"ottur, o" r N"oa-t"unum.
24. Ganga h"er at gari gull-hyrndar k"yr,
o! xn al-svartir jo# tni at gamni;
&o# l a" ek meima, &o# l a" ek me# nja,
einnar m"er Freyju
a"vant ykkir.
25. Var ar at kveldi of komit snimma,
ok fyr jo# tna o# l fram borit;
einn a" t oxa,
a" tta laxa,
kr"asir allar,
r er konur skyldu,
drakk Si&ar verr
s"ald rj"u mjaar.
26. "a kva at rymr,
ursa dr"ottinn:
hvar s"attu br"uir
b"ta hvassara?
s"ak-a-k br"uir b"ta breiara,
n"e inn meira mjo# mey of drekka.
27. Sat in al-snotra amb"att fyrir,
er or of fann
vi jo# tuns m"ali:
"at vtr Freyja
a" tta n"attum,
sv"a var hon o" -f"us " Jo# tunheima.
28. Laut und l"nu, lysti at kyssa,
en hann utan sto# kk e# nd-langan sal:
hv" eru o# nd"ott augu Freyju?
ykkir m"er o" r augum
eldr of bre# nna.
29. Sat in alsnotra amb"att fyrir,
er or of fann
vi jo# tuns m"ali:
svaf vtr Freyja
a" tta n"attum,
sv"a var hon o" f"us " Jo# tunheima.
30. Inn kom in arma
jo# tna systir,
hin er br"u-&"ar
of bija ori:
l"attu "er af ho# ndum hringa raua,
ef "u o# lask vill a" stir m"nar,
a" stir m"nar, alla hylli!
31. "a kva at rymr,

ursa dr"ottinn:

93
beri inn hamar
br"ui at v"gja,
le# ggi Mjo# llni " meyjar kn"e,
v"gi okkr saman
V"arar he# ndi!
32. Hl"o Hl"oria hugr " brj"osti,
er har-hugar
hamar of e# ki;
rym drap hann fyrstan,
ursa dr"ottin,
ok tt jo# tuns alla lami.
33. Drap hann ina o# ldnu jo# tna systur,
hin er br"u&"ar
of beit hafi;
hon skell of hlaut
fyr skillinga,
en ho# gg hamars
fyr hringa &o# l.
"
Sv"a kom Oins sonr e# ndr at hamri.

Chapter 14
Notes
The references marked Gr. are to the paragraphs of the Grammar.

14.1 Thor
Line 3. Hann a! ar r!ki er ru-vangar
heita, he reigns (there) where it is
!
called ., i.e. in the place which is called . The plur. heita agrees with r u# vangar,
as in l. 14 below: at eru j#arngl#ofar that is (his) iron gloves.
l. 5. at er hus
! mest, sv!a at me" nn hafa g#o" rt, that is the largest house, so that
men have made (it), i.e. the largest house that has been built. Note the plur. h u# s
of a single house; each chamber was originally regarded as a house, being often a
detached building.
"
l. 13. spe" nnir eim, Gr. 154; cp. line 49 of Thor and Utgaraloki.

!
14.2 Thor and Utgaraloki
l. 1. f!or me hafra s!na...ok me honum sa! , a! ss er... We see here that me
generally takes an acc. to denote passive, and a dat. to denote voluntary accompaniment.
l. 5. soit refers to some such subst. as sl#atr (meat) understood.
l. 11. spre" tti a! ... a# is here an adv.
l. 12. til me" rgjar. til here implies intentionto get at the marrow.
l. 20. at er s!a augnanna, the little he saw of the eyes. Thor frowned till
his eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the man felt as if he were going to fall
down dead at the mere sight of them.
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l. 21. The second hann refers, of course, to Thor.


l. 34. til myrkrs, till it was dark.
l. 36. eir, the masc. instead of the neut. pl., as in l. 32 foll., showing that leituu
is meant to refer only to the men of the party, and not to include Ro# skva. (Gr.
179.)
l. 46. s!er hvar l!a mar, saw where a man lay, i.e. saw a man lying.
l. 51. einu sinni, for once in his life.
l. 52. ne" fndisk Skr!ymir, said his name was Skr.
l. 66. b!ui til (prp.) n!att-verar yr, prepare supper for yourselves.
l. 77. Er at !er satt at se" gja. satt is in apposition to atthat is to be told
you as the truth, (namely) that...
l. 88. sj!a sik, see himself alive.
l. 104. ann = ann veg, that way, course.
l. 108. at sirnir bi !a heila hittask. The full sense is, that Thor and Loki
expressed a wish that they and Skr"ymir might meet again safe and sound.
l. 111. se" ttu hnakkann a! bak s!er aptr, threw back the backs of their heads till
they touched their backs, i.e. threw back their heads.
l. 118. rit st!ora, rather big, i.e. very big.
l. 120. glotti um to" nn, grinned round a tooth, i.e. showed his teeth in a malicious grin. Two MSS. read vi instead of um.
l. 121. er annan veg en ek hygg, at...? is it otherwise than as I think, namely
that...? i.e. am I not right in thinking that...?
l. 127. engi er h!er s!a inni er... = engi er h"er-inni s"a-er...
l. 129. freista skal, Gr. 192.
l. 140. kallar ess meiri v!an at hann s!e... says that there is more probability
of that, namely that he is...than of the contrary, i.e. says that he will have to be...
l. 150. f!othvatari en sv!a, more swift-footed than sounder these circumstances, i.e. than you.
l. 156. ok er j!alfl eigi !a kominn... = "a er j"alfi eigi kominn...
l. 172. at sinni, this time.
l. 172. hann, acc.
l. 173. laut o! r horninu, bent back from the horn.
l. 188. mestr refers to drykkr understood.
l. 218. kalli, Gr. 192.
l. 241. !o refers to uni.

14.3 Balder

97

14.3 Balder
l. 7. engi agrees with d#omr.

14.4 The Death of Balder


l. 11. hann, acc.
l. 20. ungr, too young.
l. 31. u-happ
is in apposition to at; cp. line 7 of Balder.
!
l. 33. v!aru me einum hug til... had the same feelings towards.
l. 36. var...fyrr, was beforehand, prevented.
l. 42. vili, subj. whether he will;change of construction.
l. 55. nema, unless, here = until.
l. 89. heim. This use of heim in the sense of someone elses home. is frequent.
Cp. our drive a nail home.
l. 94. sv!a refers to ok ef allir hlutir..., the ok being pleonastic.
"
l. 108. hvar, cp. line 46 of Thor and Utgaraloki.
l. 113. karl, old man, here = Odin.

14.5 H!einn and Ho" gni


l. 6. H!einn = hann; this use of a proper name instead of a pronoun is frequent.
l. 9. ar, cp. line 3 of Thor.

14.6 The Death of Olaf Tryggvason


l. 17. sv!a at, so that, i.e. just when.
l. 30. er, namely that.
l. 33. austan at sigla, is in a kind of apposition to fe! rina.
l. 40. sv!a, also.
l. 48. muni fyrir, awaits you, is impending.
l. 53. meira, adv., better, faster.
l. 149. bar hann h!att, impers. w. acc.; he was in a conspicuous place.
l. 244. vi fimt!anda mann, one of fifteen, with fourteen men.
l. 259. v!apna is governed by the second half of the genitival compound klab#una, which is here considered as two independent words.

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14.7 Auun
l. 17. var fyrir, was to be found.
l. 26. tvau ver sl!k, double the price you gave.
l. 55. f!e is probably dat. here, but may be nom.
l. 56. e" ptir sem..., according as, in accordance with what.
l. 64. nu...n
u,
!
! lately...just now.
l. 116. he" ldr is here used pleonastically in a kind of apposition to the preceding
be! tr.
l. 125. en, and = while.
l. 129. essi einn var sv!a hlutrinn, at..., this single thing is the case, namely
that...i.e. the only thing is that...

14.8 rymskvia
l. 7. jarar is governed by hve! rgi.
l. 9. tuna.
Poetical construction of gen. to denote goal of motion.
!
l. 15. !o goes with the following at = ok se! lja, #oat (#ott) vri o# r silfri.
l. 32. fri may be either sg. or pl. 3 pers.

Part III
Glossary

99

Introductory Notes
follows a, follows d, e# follows e, follows o, o# follows o, o! follows o# ,
follows t.
The declensions of nouns are only occasionally given.
(-rs) etc. means that the r of the nom. is kept in inflection.

101

A
-a adv. not.
a! sf. river.
a! see eiga.
a! prp. w. acc. and dat. on, in.
a! r adv., cj. before.
arir see annar.
sir see a! ss.
tla wv. 3, consider, deem: tlask fyrir, intend.
tt sf. 2, race, descent, family.
tta see eiga.
af prp. w. dat. from; of; with; adv. drekka af, drink o.
af-hus
! sn. out-house, side room.
afl sn. strength, might.
af-taka wf. damage, injury.
a! gtliga adv. splendidly.
aka sv. 2, drive (a chariot, etc.).
a! kafliga adv. vehemently, hardkalla a. call loudly.
akarn sn. acorn.
akkeri sn. anchor.
a! lar-e" ndir sm. thong-end, end of a strap.
al-b!uinn adj. w. gen. quite ready.
aldinn adj. old.
aldri adv. never.
a! -le" ngar adv. for some time.
a! lfr sm. elf.
a! -lit snpl. appearance, countenance [l"ta].
all-harr adj. very hard, very violent.
all-l!till adj. very little.
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all-mann-skr adj. (very injurious to men), very murderous (of a battle) [skai,
injury].
all-mikill adj. very great.
allr adj. all, whole; me o# llu, entirely; alls fyrst, first of all.
all-st!orum adv. very greatly.
all-valdr sm. monarch, king.
al-snotr adj. very clever.
al-svartr adj. very black, coal-black.
alt adv. quite.
amb!att sf. 2, female slave, maid.
and-lit sn. face [l"ta].
annarr prn. second; following, next; other; one of the twoannar...annarr, one...the
other.
aptann sm. evening.
aptastr adj. most behind.
aptr adv. back, backwards, behind.
a! r sf. oar.
a! r sn. year.
a! r see a! .
argr adj. cowardly, base.
a! r-mar sm. steward.
armr adj. wretched.
a! s-me" gin sn. divine strength.
a! ss sm. 3, (Scandinavian) god.
a! st sf. 2, aection, love, often in pl.
a! st-sll adj. beloved, popular. [sll, happy].
a! synja wf. (Scandinavian) goddess ["ass].
a! t see eta.
at prp. w. dat. at, by; to, towards, up to; for; in accordance with, after.
at adv. to.
-at adv. not.
at-laga wf. attack [le# ggja].
at-r!or (-rar) sm. 2, rowing against, attack.
a! tta num. eight.
a! tta see eiga.
au-ke" ndr adj. easy to be recognized, easily distinguishable.
aur adj. desert, deserted, without men.
au-s!enn adj. evident.

105
auga wn. eye.
aug-s!yn sf. sight.
auka sv. 1, increase; impers., w. dat. of what is added j"ok n"u miklu a" , much was
added to it (his hesitation increased).
austan adv. from the east.
aust-mar sm. Easterner, Norwegian.
austr sn. the east" au., eastwards.
austr adv. eastwards.
austr-vegr sm. the East, especially Russia.
a! valt adv. continually, all the time.
a! -vanr adj. wanting; impers. neut. in einnar m"er Freyju a"vant ykkir, Freyja
alone I seem to want.
a! -vinnr adj. toilsome, only in the impers. neut. mun a" -vint vera um so# xin, it
will be a hard fight at the prow.

B
ba see bija.
b!air prn. both, neut. as adv. in bi...ok, both...and.
b!au see bija.
ba
see bija.
!
bi
! see b!air.
baggi wm. bag; bundle.
bak sn. back, ve# rja eitt baki, defend a thing with the back, i.e. turns ones back
to it = be a coward.
bak-bori wm. larboard.
b!al sn. flame; funeral pile.
b!al-fo" r sf. funeral.
bani wm. death.
bar see bera.
bardagi wm. battle.
bar sn. edge, rim; projection in the prow of a ship formed by the continuation of
the keel.
bara see be" rja.
bari wm. war-ship with a sharp prow, ram.
barn sn. child.
batt see binda.
bau see bj!oa.
beia wv. 1, w. gen. of thing and dat. of pers. benefited, ask, demand.
bein sn. bone.
be" kkr sm. 2, bench.
be" lla wv. 1, occupy oneself with, deal in, generally in a bad sense.
bera sv. 4, carry, take; bear, endure. berask at, happen. b. fram, bring forward,
out. b. v!apn nir, shoot down. b. r!a s!n saman, hold council, deliberate.
berg-risi wm. hill-giant.
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be" rja wv. 1b, strikeb. grj"oti, stone. be" rjask, fight.
be" rr adj. bare, unsheathed (of a sword).
ber-se" rkr sm. 2, wild fighter, champion. [Literally bear-shirt, i.e. one clothed in
a bears skin.]
be" tr see vel.
be" tri see g!or.
be" zt see vel.
be" ztr see g!or.
beygja wv. 1, bend, arch.
b!a sv. 6, w. gen. wait for; w. acc. abide, undergo.
bija sv. 5, ask, beg, pray, w. gen. of thing, acc. of the pers. asked, and dat. of the
person benefited; express a wish, bidba hann vel kominn (vera understood),
bad him welcome; call on, challenge, command, tell.
bifask wv. 1, tremble, shake.
bil sn. moment of time.
bila wv. 2, fail.
bilt neut. adj. only in the impers. einum verr bilt, one hesitates, is taken aback,
is afraid.
binda sv. 3, bind, tie up; dress.
birta wv. 1, show [bjartr].
b!ta sv. 6, bite; cut.
bittu see binda.
bitu see b!ta.
bjarn-d!yri sn. bear.
bjartr adj. bright, clear.
bj!o see b!ua.
bj!oa sv. 7, w. acc. and dat. oer, proposeb. einum fang, challenge to wrestling;
invite. b. upp, give up.
bjo" rg sf. help; means of subsistence, store of food.
bl!asa sv. 1, blow; blow trumpet as signal.
bleya wf. coward.
bl!a wf. gentleness, friendliness.
blindr adj. blind.
bl!o sn. blood.
bl!ot-bolli wm. sacrificial bowl.
btr see b!ot.
boga-skot sn. bowshot.
bogi wm. bow.

109
bog-mar sm. bowman, archer.
b!ondi sm. 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man [b"ua].
bor sn. side of a ship, board; rim, the margin between the rim of a vessel and
the liquid in itn"u er gott beranda b. a" horninu, now there is a good margin for
carrying the horn, i.e. its contents are so diminished that it can be lifted without
spilling.
borg sf. fortress, castle.
borg-hli sn. castle gate.
b!ot sf. 3, mending, improvement; plur. btr, compensation.
bo" rn see barn.
br!a sf. eyelid.
br!a see brega.
brag sn. trick, stratagem [brega].
brann see bre" nna.
brast see bresta.
br!att adv. quickly.
braut sf. way!a braut, adv. away.
braut see brj!ota.
braut, brott adv. away.
brega sv. 3, w. dat. jerk, pull, push; b. upp, lift, raise (to strike). change, transform.
breir adj. broad.
bre" nna wf. burning; incremation.
bre" nna sv. 3, burn intr.
bre" nna wv. 1, burn trans.
bresta sv. 3, break, crack, burst.
brestr sm. crack; loss.
brj!ost sn. breast.
brj!ota sv. 7, breakb. (skip) suer shipwreck, also impers. skip (acc.) br"ytr,
the ship is wrecked.
broddr sm. point.
br!oir sm. 4, brother.
brotinn see brj!ota.
brotna wv. 3, break intr.
brott see braut.
brott-laga sf. retreat.
bru! sf. bridge.
bru-f!
! e sn. bridal gift.

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brur
! sf. 2, bride.
brun
! sf. 3, eyebrow.
bryggja wf. pier.
brynja wf. corslet.
br!ynn see brun.
!
bryn-stuka
wf.
corslet-sleeve.
!
bryti see brj!ota.
br!ytr see brj!ota.
b!u sn. dwelling, home.
b!ua sv. 1, dwell; inhabit, possess, prepare. buask,
get ready, prepare intr. er b"uit
!
vi at... it is likely to be that..., there is danger of...
buu see bj!oa.
b!uinn adj. ready; in a certain condition(vi) sv"a b"uit adv. under such circumstances; capable, fit forvel at s"er b"uinn, very capable, very good (at).
bundu see binda.
burr sm. son.
b!yr see bj!oa.
b!yr see b!ua.
byrja wv. 3, begin.
byr-vnn adj. promising a fair wind.

D
daga wv. 3, dawn.
dagan sf. dawn.
dagr sm. day.
dalr sm. valley.
daur adj. dead.
de" gi see dagr.
deyja sv. 2, die.
djupr
! adj. deep.
d!o see deyja.
d!omr sm. decision.
d!ottir sf. 3, daughter.
do" gurr sm. breakfast [-ur = -verr, cp. n"attverr].
d!okkr (-vir) adj. dark.
draga sv. 2, draw, drag. d. saman, collect.
drakk see drekka.
drap see drepa.
draumr sm. dream.
dre" ginn see draga.
dreif see dr!fa.
dre" ki wm. dragon; dragon-ship, ship with a dragons head as a beak.
drekka sv. 3, drink.
drepa sv. 5, strike; kill.
dreyma wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and acc. of the thing dream [draumr].
dr!fa sv. 6, drive; hasten.
drjupa
! sv. 7, drop.
dr!o see draga.
dr!ogu see draga.
dr!ottinn sm. lord.
111

112
dr!ottin-hollr adj. faithful to its master.
drukkinn adj. (ptc.) drunk.
drupu see drjupa.
!
drykkja wf. drinking [drekka].
drykkju-mar sm. drinker.
drykkr sm. 2, draught.
duna wv. 3, resound.
duni see dynja.
dvala see dve" lja.
dve" lja wv. 1b, delay. dve" ljask, dwell, stop.
dvergr sm. dwarf.
dyrill sm. (?).
d!yja wv. 1b, shake.
dynja wv. 1b, resound.
d!yr sn. animal, beast.
dyrr sfnpl. door.

An Icelandic Primer

E
ea cj. or.
ef cj. if.
e" fna wv. 1, perform, carry out.
e" ggja wv. 3, incite.
eir sm. oath.
eiga wf. property.
eiga swv. possess, have: have as wife, be married to; have in the sense of must.
eigi adv. not; no.
eign sf. property.
eignask wv. 3, appropriate, gain.
eik sf. 3, oak.
einka-m!al snpl. personal agreement, special treaty.
einn num., prn. one; the same; a certain, a; alone, onlyeinn saman, alone,
mere.
einn-hve" rr prn. a certain, some, a.
eira wv. 1, w. dat. spare.
eitr sn. poison.
ek prn. I.
e" k see aka.
ekki prn. neut. nothing; adv. not.
eldr sm. fire.
e" lli wf. old age.
ellifti adj. eleventh.
ellifu num. eleven.
em see vera.
en cj. but; and.
en adv. than, after compar.
e" ndask wv. 1, end, suce for.
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e" ndi, e" ndir sm. end.


e" nd-langr adj. the whole lengthe# ndlangan sal, the whole length of the hall.
e" ndr adv. again.
engi prn. none, no.
e" nn adv. yet, still; besides; after all.
e" ptir prp. w. acc. after (of time). w. dat. along, over; in quest of, after; according
to, by. adv. afterwards; behind [aptr].
e" ptri adj. compar. hind.
er prn. rel. who, which, rel. adv. where; when; because, that.
er see vera.
er see u.
!
e" rfii sn. work; trouble.
ert see vera.
eru see vera.
eta sv. 5, eat.
ey sf. island.

F
f!a sv. 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be able. fa! sk, wrestle. f!ask a! , be obtained, be.
fair sm. 4, father.
fr see f!a.
fstr see f!ar.
fagnar sm. 2, joy; entertainment, hospitality.
fagr adj. beautiful, fair, fine.
fagrliga adv. finely.
fall sn. fall.
falla sv. 1, fall. fallask, be forgotten, fail.
fang sn. embrace, grasp; wrestling.
fann see finna.
f!ar adj. fewneut. f"att w. gen.: f"att manna, few men.
fara go, travelw. gen. in such constr. as f. fe# rar sinnar, go his way; fare (well,
ill); happen, turn out; experience; f. me einu, deal with, treat; destroy, use up w.
dat. farask impers. in fe# rsk eim vel, they have a good passage.
farmr sm. lading, cargo.
fastr adj. firm, fast, strong.
f!e sn. property, money.
fe" rum see fair.
fekk see f!a.
fe" gr sf. beauty [fagr].
fe" grstr see fagr.
feikn-stafir smpl. 2, wickedness.
fela sv. 3, hide.
f!elagi wm. companion.
f!e-lauss adj. penniless.
f!e-l!till adj. with little money, poor.
fell see falla.
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116
fe" lla wv. 1, fell, throw down; kill [falla].
fengu, fe" nginn see f!a.
fe" r see fara.
fe" r sf. 2, journey [fara].
fer-skeyttr adj. four-cornered.
fimm num. five.
fimt!andi adj. fifteenth.
finna sv. 3, find; meet, go to see; notice, see.
$ar-hamr sm. feathered (winged) coat.
$all sn. mountain.
$!ar see f!e.
$ara sf. ebb-tide; beach.
$ogur see $!orir.
$!ori adj. fourth.
$!orir num. four.
$o" l wf. quantity.
$o" l-kyngi sn. magic.
$o" l-me" nni sn. multitude; troop [mar].
$o" rr sm. 3, firth.
$o" rur see $ara.
fl!a sv. 2, flay, skin.
flaug see fljuga.
!
fle" ginn see fl!a.
flestr see margr.
flj!ota sv. 7, float, drift.
fljuga
! sv. 7, fly.
fl!o see fljuga.
!
floti wm. fleet [flj"otal.
fl!otti wm. flight [fl"yja].
flugu see fljuga.
!
fluttu see flytja.
fl!yja wv. 1, flee.
flytja wv. 1b, remove, bring.
fn!asa wv. 3, snort.
fra wv. 1, bring, take; fasten [fara].
frir see fara.
fti see f!ot.
f!olginn see fela.

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117
f!olk sn. multitude, troop; people.
f!or see fara.
for-to" lur wpl. representations, arguments [tala].
f!ostra wf. nurse.
f!ot-hvatr adj. swift-footed.
f!otr sm. foot; leg.
fo" ur see fair.
fo" r sf. journey [fara].
fo" ru-neyti sn. company [nj"ota].
fr!a prp. from, away from; about, concerning. " fr"a adv. away.
frndi sm. 4, relation.
fr!a-fall sn. death.
fram adv. forward, forth. compar. framar, ahead.
framastr adj. superl. chief, most distinguished.
frami wm. advantage, courage.
framir see fre" mja.
fram-stafn sm. prow.
fr!a-so" gn sf. narrative, relation.
freista wv. 3, w. gen. try, test.
fre" mja wv. 1b, perform [fram].
frir sm. 2, peace.
fr!r adj. beautiful, fine.
fr!or adj. learned, wise.
frkn adj. bold, daring.
frost sn. frost.
fugl sm. bird.
full-kominn adj. (ptc.) complete; ready (for).
fullr adj. full.
fundr sm. 2, meeting [finna].
fundu see finna.
furu adv. awfully, very.
fuss
! adj. eager.
fylgja wv. 1, w. dat. follow; accompany.
fylki sn. troop [f"olk].
fylkja wv. 1, w. dat. draw up (troops) [f"olk].
fylla wv. 1, fill [fullr].

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fyr, fyrir prp. w. acc. and dat. before; beyond, overf. bor, overboard; instead
ofkoma f. adv. be given as compensation; for; because of. f. v" at, because.
l"till f. s"er, insignificant.
fyrir-rum
! sn. fore-hold, chief-cabin.
fyrirrums-mar
sm. man in the fore-hold.
!
fyrr adv. compar. before, formerly. superl. fyrst, first.
fyrri adj. compar. former. superl. fyrstr, first.
f!ysa wv. 1, hasten trans.impers. braut f"ysir mik, I feel a desire to go away
[f"uss].

G
g!a wv. 1, w. gen. heed, care for.
gfa wf. luck [gefa].
gta wv. 1, watch, take care of [geta].
gaf see gefa.
gfu-mar sm. lucky man.
gaflak sn. javelin.
gamall adj. old.
gaman sn. amusement, joy.
ganga sv. 1, go, with gen. of goal in poetry; attackg. a" skip, board a ship. g.
af, be finished. g. til, come up. g. upp, land; board a ship; be used up, expended
(of money).
garr sm. enclosure, court; dwelling.
gat see geta.
gefa sv. 5, give.
ge" gnum, ! ge" gnum prp. w. gen. through.
gekk see ganga.
ge" lti see go" ltr.
ge" nginn, ge" ngr, gengu see ganga.
geta sv. 5, w. gen. mention, speak of; guess, suppose.
geysi adv. excessively.
gipta wf. luck [gefa].
giptu-mar sm. lucky man.
gjafar see gjo" f.
gjo" f sf. gift.
glotta wv. 2, smile maliciously, grin.
glsiligr adj. magnificent.
gn!yr sm. din, noise.
g!or adj. goodgott er til eins, it is easy to get at, obtain.
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g!olf sn. floor; apartment, room.


gott see g!or.
go" fugr adj. distinguished [gefa].
go" ltr sm. 3, boar.
go" mul see gamall.
g#o" ra wv. 1c, do, make. g#o" rask, set about doing; be made into, become. go"# ra at,
accomplish, carry out.
g#o" rsimi wf. article of value, treasure.
granda wv. 3, w. dat. injure.
gr!ar adj. gray.
gras sn. grass; plant, flower.
gr!ata sv. 1, weep, mourn for.
gr!atr sm. weeping.
greia wv. 1, put in order, arrange.
greip see gr!pa.
gres-j!arn sn. iron wire (?).
grey sn. dog.
gri snpl. peace, security.
gria-star sm. sanctuary.
grind sf. 3, lattice door, wicket.
gr!pa sv. 6, seize.
gripr sm. 2, article of value, treasure.
grj!ot sn. stone (collectively).
gr!oa sv. 1, grow; heal.
grr see gr!oa.
gruna wv. 3, impers.mik grunar, I suspect, think.
grunr sm. 2, suspicion.
gull sn. gold.
gull-band sn. gold band.
gull-b!uinn adj. adorned with gold.
gull-hringr sm. gold ring.
gull-hyrndr adj. (ptc.) with gilt horns.
gull-roinn adj. (ptc.) gilt.
g!ygr sf. giantess.
gyltr adj. (ptc.) gilt.
gyra wv. 1, gird.

H
hstr see h!ar.
htta wv. 1, w. dat. desist from, stop.
httligr adj. dangerous, threatening.
httr adj. dangerous.
haf sn. sea.
hafa wv. 1, have; h. einn nr einu, bring near to, expose to; use, utilize. at
hafask, undertake. til hafa, have at hand.
hafna see ho" fn.
hafr sm. goat.
hafr-staka wf. goatskin.
hagliga adv. neatly.
hagr sm. condition; advantage"er mun h. a" vera, will avail thee, be profitable
to you.
hag-str adj. favourable.
halda sv. 1, w. dat. hold (also with prp. a# ); keep. w. acc. observe, keep (laws,
etc.). intr. take a certain direction, go.
h!alfr adj. half.
h!alfu adv. by half, half as much again.
hallar see ho" ll.
hallar-g!olf sn. hall floor.
haltr adj. lame.
hamarr sm. hammer.
hamars-mur sm. thin end of hammer.
hamar-skapt sn. handle of a hammer.
hamar-spor sn. mark made by a hammer.
hana see hann.
handar see ho" nd.
hand-skot sn. throwing with the hand.
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hand-te" kinn ptc. pret. taken by hand, taken alive.


hann prn. he.
h!ar sn. hair.
h!ar adj. high.
har-hugar adj. stern of mood.
harr adj. hard; strong.
har-skeytr adj. strong-shooting [skj"ota].
harmr sm. grief.
h!aski wm. danger.
h!a-sti sn. high seat, dais [sitja].
h!astis-kista sf. chest under the dais.
h!att adv. high; loudly.
haugr sm. mound.
hauss sm. skull.
hean adv. hence.
he" fi see hafa.
he" $a sv. 2, raise, lift; begin.
he" fna wv. 1, w. gen. revenge, avenge.
heill adj. sound, safe, prosperous.
heil-ri
! sn. sound advice, good advice [r"a].
heim adv. to ones home, home (domum).
heima adv. at home (domi).
heima-mar sm. man of the household.
heim-fuss
! adj. longing to go home, homesick.
heimr sm. home, dwelling; world.
heimta wv. 1, fetch, obtain, get back.
heita sv. 1, call; w. dat. of pers. and dat. of thing promise; intr. (pres. heiti) be
named, called.
he" ldr see halda.
he" ldr adv. compar. more willingly, rather, sooner, more; rather, very.
he" l-grindr sf. the doors of hell.
he" llir sm. cave.
helt see halda.
he" l-vegr sm. road to hell.
he" lzt adv. superl. most willingly, soonest, especially, most [he# ldr].
he" ndi, he" ndr see ho" nd.
he" nnar, he" nni see hann.
he" pta wv. 1, bind; hinder, stop.

123
h!er adv. hereh. af, etc. here-of.
he" r-bergi sn. quarters, lodgings.
he" ra wv. harden, clench.
he" r-fang sn. booty.
he" rja wv. 3, make war, ravage [he# rr].
he" rr sm. army, fleet.
herra sm. lord.
he" r-skip sn. war-ship.
hestr sm. horse.
h!et see heita.
heyra wv. 1, hear.
himinn sm. heaven.
hingat adv. hither.
hinn prn. that.
hir sf. court.
hir-mar sm. courtier.
hiti wm. heat.
hitta wv. come upon, find, meet; trans. go to. hittask, meet, intr.
hj!a prp. w. dat. by, at; in comparison with.
hj!almr sm. helmet.
hj!on snpl. household.
hlaa sv. 2, load, heap up; h. seglum, take in sails.
hlja sv. 2, laugh.
hlaupa sv. 1, jump, leap; run.
hlaut see hlj!ota.
hleyp see hlaupa.
hleypa wv. 1, make to run (i.e. the horse), gallop.
hl!f sf. shield.
hl!fa wv. 1, w. dat. shelter, cover, protect.
hlj!op see hlaupa.
hlj!ota sv. 7, get, receive.
hl!ou see hlaa.
hl!ogu see hlja.
hlunnr sm. roller (for launching ships).
hluti wm. portion [hlj"ota].
hlutr sm. 2, share; portion, part, piece; thing [hlj"ota].
hlut-skipti sn. booty.
hnakki wm. back of head.

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h!of see he" $a.


hollr adj. gracious, faithful.
h!olmr sm. small island.
hon see hann.
honum see hann.
horn sn. horn.
hgri adj. compar. right (hand).
hla wv. 1, w. dat. praise, boast of.
ho" fingi wm. chief [ho# fu].
ho" fa-$o" l sf. head-board (especially of a bedstead).
ho" fu see hafa.
ho" fn sf. harbour.
ho" fu sn. head.
ho" gg sn. stroke.
ho" gg-ormr sm. viper.
ho" gg-orrosta wf. cutting-fight, hand-to-hand fight.
ho" ggva sv. 1, hew, cut, strike.
ho" ll sf. hall.
ho" nd sf. 3, hand; sidehv"arra-tve# ggju handar, on both sides, for both parties.
hrddr adj. frightened, afraid [ptc. of hrask].
hrask wv. 1, be frightened, fear.
hrzla wf. fear [hrask].
hrafn sm. raven.
hratt see hrinda.
hrau see hrj!oa.
hraut see hrj!ota.
hreyfa wv. 1, move.
hr! sf. period of time.
hr!m-urs sm. frost giant.
hrinda sv. 3, push, launch (ship).
hrista wv. 1, shake.
hrj!oa sv. 7, strip, clear, disable.
hrj!ota sv. 7, start, burst out.
hro" kk see hr#okkva.
hr#okkva sv. 3, start back.
hryi see hrj!ota.
hrynja wv. 1b, fall down.
hr!ytr see hrj!ota.

125
huga see hyggja.
hugi wm. thought.
hugr sm. mind, heart; courage, spirit.
hugsa wv. 3, consider, think.
hundra sn. hundred.
hur sf. 2, door.
hus
! sn. room; house.
hvar adv. where; that.
hv!arr prn. which of two; each of the two, both.
hv!arr-tve" ggja prn. each of the two, both.
hv!art adv. whether, both in direct and indirect questions.
hv!art-tve" ggja adv. hv...ok, both...and.
hvass adj. sharp.
hvat prn. neut. what.
hvart adj. brisk, bold.
hv!e adv. how.
hverfa sv. 3, turn, go.
hve" r-gi adv. nowherehv. jarar, nowhere on earth; in no respect, by no means.
hve" rnig adv. how [= hve# rn veg.].
hve" rr prn. who.
hve" rsu adv. how.
hv! adv. why.
hvirfill sm. crown of head.
hv!tna wv. 2, whiten.
hv!tr adj. white.
hyggja wv. 1b, think, mean, determine [hugr].
hylli wf. favour [hollr].

I
! prp. in.
!-huga wv. 3, try to remember, consider [hugr].
illa adv. ill, badly.
illr adj. ill, bad.
inn art. the.
inn adv. in compar. innar, further in.
inna wv. 1, accomplish.
innan adv. within, inside. fyrir innan prp. w. gen. within, in.
inni adv. in.
it see u.
!
it see inn.
!-r!ott sf. feat.

127

J
jafn-breir adj. equally broad.
jafn-ho" fugr adj. equally heavy [he# &a].
jafn-mikill adj. equally great.
jafn-skj!ott adv. equally quick.
jafna wv. 3, smooth; compare w. dat. of thing compared.
jafnan adv. always.
jarl sm. earl.
j!arn sn. iron.
j!arn-gl!ofi sm. iron gauntlet.
j!arn-spo" ng sf. iron plate.
j!ata wv. 1, w. dat. agree to.
j!ok see auka.
jo" r sf. earth.
jo" tun-heimar smpl. home, world of the giants.
jo" tunn, sm. giant.

129

K
kr-leikr sm. love, aection [krr, dear].
kaf sn. diving; deep water, water under the surface.
kafa wv. 3, dive.
kalla wv. 3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call.
kann see kunna.
kapp sn. competition.
karl sm. man; old man.
kasta wv. 3, cast, throw.
kaupa wv. 2, buy.
ke" ngr sm. bend.
ke" nna wv. 1, know; perceive.
ke" rling sf. old woman [karl].
ke" rra wf. chariot.
ke" till sm. kettle.
keypta see kaupa.
keyra wv. 1, drive.
kirkja wf. church.
kirkju-skot sn. wing of a church.
kj!osa sv. 7, choose.
klakk-laust adv. uninjured.
kla wv. 1, clothe.
kla-b!unar sm. apparel.
kli snpl. clothes.
kn!e sn. knee.
kn!fr sm. knife.
kno" rr sm. merchant-ship.
knui
! see kn!yja.
knui
! wm. knuckle.
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knutr
! sm. knot.
kn!yja wv. 1b, press with knuckles or knees; exert oneself [kn"ui].
k!olf-skot sn. (distance of a) bolt-shot.
koll!ottr adj. bald.
koma sv. 4, come; happen, turn out; w. dat. bring into a certain condition. k. fyrir,
be paid in atonement. komask, make ones way (by dint of exertion).
kona wf. woman; wife.
konr sm. kindalls konar, all kinds; nakkvars konar, of some kind.
konunga-ste" fna wf. congress of kings.
konungr sm. king.
konungs-d!ottir sf. kings daughter.
konungs-skip sn. kings ship.
kosinn see kj!osa.
kost-gripr sm. precious thing, treasure.
kostr sm. 2, choiceat o# ru kosti, otherwise; power [kj"osa].
ko" gur-sveinn sm. little boy, urchin.
ko" pp see kapp.
ko" pur-yri sn. boasting [or].
ko" ttr sm. 3, cat.
k#om see koma.
krappa-rum
! sn. back cabin.
krappr adj. narrow.
kraptr sm. strength.
kr!as sf. 2, delicacy.
kre" $a wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing, demand.
kunna swv. know; feel; venture; like to.
kunnandi wf. knowledge, accomplishments.
kunnusta wf. knowledge, power.
kunnr adj. known.
kurr sm. murmur, rumour.
kvi sn. poem.
kvma see koma.
kv!an sf. wife.
kvea sv. 5, say. kv. a! settle, agree on.
kve" ja wf. salutation [kvea].
kve" ja wv. 1b, greet.
kveld sn. evening" kv., this evening.
kveld-so" ngr sm. vespers.

133
kvenn-v!air sfpl. womans clothes.
kvir sm. 3, stomach, belly.
kvisa wv. 3, whisper.
kvistr sm. 3, branch, twig.
kvo" ddu see kve" ja.
kykr (-vir) adj. living.
kykvendi sn. living creature, animal.
k!yll sm. bag.
kyn sn. race, lineage.
k!yr sf. 3, cow.
kyssa wv. 1, kiss.

L
l!a see liggja.
lgri see l!agr.
lr-le" ggr sm. thigh-bone.
lt see l!ata.
laga see le" ggja.
l!agr adj. low; short of stature [liggja].
lags-mar sm. companion.
lagu see liggja.
lama, lamit see le" mja.
land sn. land, country.
land-skj!alfti wm. earthquake.
langr adj. long, far.
l!at snpl. noise.
l!ata sv. 1, let go; leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave, act; say.
lauf sn. foliage.
laufs-bla sn. (blade of foliage), leaf.
laug sf. bath.
laun snpl. reward.
launa wv. 3, reward, requite w. dat. of the thing given and of the pers., and acc. of
the thing requited.
lauss adj. loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obligation.
laust see lj!osta.
laut see luta.
!
lax sm. salmon.
ler-hosa wf. leather bag.
le" ggja wv. 1b, lay, put; l. eitt fyrir einn, give, settle on; l. sik fram, exert oneself; intr. w. skip understood sail, rowl. at, land; attack; l. fra! , retreat, draw o;
pierce, make a thrust. le" ggjask, set out, proceed; swim [liggja].
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lei sf. waykoma einu til leiar, carry out [l"a].


lei see l!a.
leia wv. 1, lead, conduct [l"a].
leiangr (-rs) sm. levy [lei].
leiga wv. 1, borrow.
leikr sm. game; athletic sports, contest.
leita wv. 3, w. gen. and dat. seek; take to, have recourse to. leitask, feel ones way
[l"ta].
le" mja wv. 1b, break.
le" ng sf. length [langr].
le" ngi adv. long (of time) [langr].
le" ngstr see langr.
l!et see l!ata.
le" tja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing, hinder, dissuade.
l!etta wv. 1, w. dat. lift.
leyniliga adv. secretly.
leysa wv. 1, loosen, untie, open [lauss].
li sn. troop.
l!a sv. 6, go; pass (of time); impers. l!r, w. dat. fare, get on. impers. l"r a"
(n"attina), (the night) is drawing to a close.
l!f sn. life"a l"fi, alive.
lifa wv. 2, live.
liggja sv. 5, lie. l. til, be fitting.
l!k sn. body; corpse.
l!ka wv. 3, w. dat. please.
l!ki sn. form [l"k].
l!king sf. likeness, similarity [l"kr].
l!knsamr adj. gracious.
l!kr adj. like.
l!n sn. linen; linen headdress.
list sf. art.
l!ta sv. 6, look at; regard, considerl. til eins. turn to, acknowledge greeting.
l!task impers. w. dat. seem.
litask wv. 3, look round one [l"ta].
l!till adj. little, smalll"tit ver, not very windy weather. l!tlu adv. by a little, a
little.
l!til-ri sm. degradation [r"a].
litr sm. 3, colour, complexion; appearance [l"ta].

137
l!zk see l!ta.
lj!a wv. 1, w. gen. and dat. lend.
lj!osta sv. 7, strike, w. dat. of instr. and acc. of the thing struckl. a" rum " s, dip
the oars into the sea, begin to row.
lofa wv. 3, praise.
l!oga wv. 3, w. dat. part with.
logi wm. flame.
lokinn see luka.
!
lopt sn. air"a l., up.
luka
! sv. 7, lock, close; impers. l"ykr einu, it is finished, exhausted. l. upp, unlock, open.
lukla see lykill.
lustu see lj!osta.
luta
! sv. 7, bend, bow.
lygi wf. lie, falsehood.
lyk sf. endingat lykum, finally.
lykill sm. key [l"uka].
lypta wv. 1, w. dat. lift [lopt].
lypting sf. raised place (castle) on the poop of a warship [lypta].
l!ysa wv. 1, shine.
l!ysi-gull sn. bright gold.
l!yst see lj!osta.
lysta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire.

M
m!a see mega.
mar sm. 4, man.
mla (mlta) wv. 1, speakm. vi einu, refuse; suggest.
mr sf. virgin, maid.
mtta see mega.
magr (-ran) adj. thin.
m!agr sm. kinsman, relation, connection.
makligr adj. fitting.
m!al sn. narrative; in plur. poem; proper time, time.
m!almr sm. metal.
mann see mar.
mann-f!olk sn. troops, crew.
mann-hringr sm. ring of men.
mannliga adv. manlily.
margr adj. many, much.
mark sn. mark; importance.
marka wv. 3, infer.
marr sm. horse.
mart see margr.
matask wv. 3, eat a meal.
matr sm. 2, food.
m!atta see mega.
m!attr sm. 2, might, strength.
me prp. w. acc. and dat. with.
meal s. middle"a m. w. gen. between.
mean adv. whilst.
mega swv. can, may.
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megin o# rum m., on the other side; o# llum m., on all sides [corruption of
vegum].
me" gin-gjarar sfpl. girdle of strength [mega].
meimar sfpl. treasures.
meiri see mikill.
me" n sn. necklace, piece of jewelry.
me" nn see mar.
m!er see ek.
me" rgr sm. 2, marrow.
me" rki sn. mark; banner [mark].
mest see mikill.
meta sv. 5, measure; estimate.
mey see mr.
mi-garr sm. (middle enclosure), world.
migars-ormr sm. world-serpent.
mir adj. middle.
mik see ek.
mikill adj. big, tall, great. mikit adv. much, very.
miklu adv. (instr.) much.
milli, a! milli prp. between, among.
minjar sfpl. remembrance, memorial.
minn see ek.
minni see l!till.
minnr adv. less.
mis-l!ka wv. 3, w. dat. displease, not please.
missa wf. loss, want.
missa wv. 1, w. gen. lose; do without.
mistil-teinn sm. mistletoe [teinn, twig].
mitt see ek.
mjo" r sm. 3, mead.
mjo" k adv. very.
m!oir sf. 3, mother.
m!or sm. anger.
mtask wv. 1, meet intr. [m"ot].
mo" n sf. mane.
morginn sm. morning.
mo" rk sf. 3, forest.
mo" rum see marr.

141
m!ot sn. meeting. ! m!oti prp. w. dat. against.
mo" tu-neyti sn. community of foodle# ggja m. sitt, make their provision into a
common store [matr; nj"ota].
mundu see munu.
munnr sm. mouth.
munr sm. dierenceeim mun, to that extent.
munu swv. will, may (of futurity and probability).
myndi see munu.
myrkr sn. darkness.
myrkr adj. dark.

N
n!a wv. 1, reach, obtain; succeed in.
nr
! adv. w. dat. near; nearly. superl. nstv" n., thereupon.
ntr
! see n!att.
nafn sn. name.
nakkvarr prn. some, a certain. nakkvat adv. somewhat; perhaps.
n!att sf. 3, night.
n!att-b!ol sn. night-quarters.
n!att-langt adv. the whole night long.
n!att-star sm. night-quarters.
n!attura
! wf. nature, peculiarity.
n!att-verr sm. 2, supper.
nau-syn sf. necessity.
naut see nj!ota.
nean adv. below. fyrir n. prp. w. dat. below.
ne" $a adj. long-nosed (?).
ne" fna wv. 1, name, call. ne" fnask, name oneself, give ones name as [nafn].
nema sv. 4, take; begin.
nema adv. except, unless.
nest sn. provisions.
nest-baggi sm. provision-bag.
nir adv. down, downwards.
n!undi adj. ninth.
nj!osn sf. spying; news.
nj!osna wv. 3, spy; get intelligence.
nj!ota sv. 7, enjoy, profit.
norr adv. northwards.
no" kkvi wm. vessel, small ship.
nu! adv. now; therefore, so.
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144
n!y-vaknar adj. (ptc.) newly awoke.
n!yr adj. new.
n!yta wv. 1, profit [nj"ota].

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O
oddr sm. point.
o! -fuss
! adj. madly eager.
o! r adj. mad, furious.
!pa wv. 1, shout ["op, shout].
rit adv. enough; very.
of prp. w. dat. over; during; with respect to, about. adv. too (of excess).
of adv., often used in poetry as a mere expletive.
of-veikr adj. too weak.
ofan adv. above; down.
ofan-verr adj. upper, on the top.
o! k see aka.
ok conj. and; alsook...ok, both...and; but.
okkr see u.
!
opt adv. often. compar. optar, oftener, again.
o! r prp. w. dat. out of.
or sn. word" o# ru ori, otherwise.
orinn see vera.
or-se" nding sf. verbal message.
or-tak sn. expression, word.
ormr sm. serpent, dragon; ship with a dragons head.
orrosta wf. battle.
oss see ek.
o! tta wf. the end of night, just before dawn.
o! ttalaust adj. without fear.
o! x see vaxa.
oxi wm. ox.
o" lask wv. 3, obtain.
o" ru see annarr.
145

146
o" l sn. ale.
o" ldnu see aldinn.
o" nd!ottr adj. fierce.
o" nd-vegi sn. high seat, dais.
o" nnur see annar.
o" r sf. arrow.
o# r-fi sn. harbourless coast.
o# rendi sn. errand.
o# rendi sn. holding the breath, breath.
o# rind-reki sm. messenger [reka].
o# xn see oxi.

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P
pati sm. rumour.
pe" nningr sm. penny.

147

R
r!a sn. advice; what is advisablesj"a eitt at r"ai, consider advisable; plan, policy, resolution.
r!aa sv. 1, advise, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.; consider, deliberate; undertake,
begin w. prp. til or infin.; dispose of, have control over w. prp. fyrir.
r!aa-g#o" r sf. deliberation, decision.
r!augr adj. sagacious.
ragna-r#okr sn. twilight of the gods, end of the world. [ragna gen. of re# gin neut.
plur. gods.]
ragr adj. cowardly.
r!aku see reka.
rann see re" nna.
r!as sf. race.
raur adj. red.
rausn sf. magnificence, anything magnificent.
r!e see r!aa.
rei sf. chariot.
rei see r!a.
reia wv. 1, swing, wield, brandish.
rei-fara adj. vera vel r., have a good passage.
reii sn. trappings, harness.
reir adj. angry.
reka sv. 7, drive; carry out; perform. r. af tjo# ld, take down awning.
re" kkja wf. bed.
re" nna sv. 3, run.
r!etta wv. 1, direct; reach, stretch. r. upp, pull up.
r!ettr adj. right, correct; equitable, fair.
reyna wv. 1, try, test.
reyr-bo" nd supl. the wire with which the arrow-head was bound to the shaft.
149

150
r!a sv. 6, w. dat. ride.
riu see r!a.
rilask wv. 3, set oneself in motion.
r!ki sn. power; sovereignty, reign.
r!kr adj. powerful, distinguished.
ripti sn. linen cloth.
rita wv. 3, write.
r!oa sv. 1, row.
ra wv. 1, talk about, discuss.
r#ora see r!oa.
ro" st sf. league.

An Icelandic Primer

S
s!a prn. that; he; such, such a one.
s!a see sj!a.
sr sm. sea.
sra wv. 1, wound [s"ar].
sti sn. seat [sitja].
stt sf. 2, reconciliation, peace.
sttask wv. 1, be reconciled, agree.
saga wf. narrative, history, story.
saga see se" gja.
saka wv. impers. w. acc.hann (acc.) sakai ekki, he was not injured.
sakna wv. 3, w. gen. miss.
s!al sf. 2, soul.
s!ald sn. gallon.
salr sm. 2, hall.
saman adv. together.
sami weak adj. same.
sam-laga wf. laying ships together for battle.
samt adv. together.
sannligr adj. probable; suitable, right.
sannr adj. true.
s!ar sn. wound.
s!arr adj. wounded.
sat see sitja.
satt see sannr.
s!e see vera.
s!e see sj!a.
sefask wv. 3, be pacified.
se" gja wv. 1b, say, relate [saga].
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segl sn. sail.


seilask wv. 1, stretch intr.
seinn adj. late, slow, tedious. seint adv. slowly.
se" lja wv. 1, give; sell.
sem adv. as; w. subj. as if; to strengthen the superl.sem mest, the most possible, as much as possible.
se" nda wv. 1, send.
se" ndi-mar sm. messenger.
se" nn adv. at the same time, at once; immediately, forthwith.
s!enn see sj!a.
s!er see sik.
s!er see sj!a.
s!et see sj!a.
set-berg sn. seat-shaped rock, crag [sitja].
se" tja wv. 1, set, place. s. fram, launch (a ship). se" tjask, sit down. se" tjask upp,
sit up [sitja].
s!-byra wv. 1, w. dat. lay a ship alongside another. neut. ptc. s!byrt, close up to
[bor].
s! adv. late. comp. s"ar, later, afterwards. superl. s!ast, latest, last.
s!a wf. side.
s!an adv. afterwards, then; since.
s!ari adj. comp. later, second (in order).
sir sm. 3, custom.
s!ga sv. 6, sink.
sigla wf. mast [segl].
sigla wv. 1, sail.
siglu-skei sn. middle of a ship.
sigr (-rs) sm. victory.
sigr-!op shout of victory.
sik prn. oneself.
silfr sn. silver.
s!n see sik.
sinn sn. time (of repetition)einu sinni, once, for once. eigi optar at sinni, not
oftener than that time, i.e. only once.
sinn see sik.
sitja sv. 5, sit. s. fyrir, sit in readiness.
sj!a = essi.

153
sj!a sv. 5, see; s. fyrir einu, look after, take care of. impers. l"tt s"er at a" , at...it
will hardly be seen that...sja! sk, see one another, meet.
sj!alfr prn. self.
sj!oa sv. 7, boil; cook.
sj!on sf. sight.
sj!on-hve" rfing sf. ocular delusion.
skal see skulu.
skalf see skj!alfa.
sk!ali wm. hall.
skammr adj. short.
skap sn. state, condition; state of mind, mood, humour.
skapligr adj. suitable, fit.
skapt sn. shaft, handle.
skar see skera.
skar sn. notch, gap; defect.
skaut see skj!ota.
ske" gg sn. beard; beak (of a ship).
skei sn. race-course, running-ground; racetaka sk., start in a race.
skeina wv. 1, graze.
skellr sm. knock.
ske" mtun sf. amusement, entertainment [skammr, literally shortening (of time)].
skera sv. cut, cut up; kill (animal).
skiljask wv. 1, separate, part intr.
skillingr sm. shilling, coin.
skilnar sm. separation, parting.
skip sn. ship.
skipa wv. 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit out. sk. til um eitt, make arrangements
for. skipask, take ones place; change, alter intr.
skipa-he" rr sm. fleet.
skipan sf. arranging; ships crew.
skips-brot sn. shipwreck.
skip-stj!ornar-mar sm. (steerer), commander of a ship, captain.
skjald-borg sf. wall of shields, testudo.
skj!alfa sv. 3, shake intr.
skj!ota sv. 7, w. dat. shoot, throw, push.
skj!ot-fri sn. swiftness.
skj!ot-leikr sm. swiftness.
skj!ot-liga adv. swiftly, quick.

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skj!otr adj. swift, quick. skj!ott adv. quickly.


skjo" ldr sm. 3, shield.
sk!ogr sm. forest, wood.
skorta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and of thing, want, fail.
skot sn. shot; missile [skj"ota].
skot-m!al sn. shot-measure, range.
skotta wv. 3, danglesk. vi drift (of ships).
sko" kull sm. shaft (of a cart).
sko" mm sf. disgrace, shame.
sko" r sf. hair of the head.
skreppa wf. bag, wallet.
skulfu see skj!alfa.
skulu swv. shall.
skuta wf. small ship, cutter.
skutill sm. trencher, small table.
skutil-sveinn sm. page, chamberlain.
skutu see skj!ota.
skykkr sm. shakeganga skykkjum, shake.
skylda see skulu.
skyldr adj. obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu].
skyn sn. understanding, insightkunna, sk. understand.
skynda wv. 1, hasten, bring in haste.
skyndiliga adv. hastily, quickly.
skynsamliga adv. intelligently, carefully.
sk!yt see skj!ota.
sl!a sv. 2, strike. sl"a eldi ", light a fire.
slliga adv. sluggishly, weakly.
slr adj. blunt.
slr see sl!a.
sl!atr sn. meat.
sleikja wv. lick.
sleit see sl!ta.
sl!ettr adj. level, smooth; comfortable, easy.
sl!kr adj. such.
sl!ta sv. 6, tearsl. upp, pull up; w. dat. break (agreement).
smri see sm!ar.
sm!ar adj. small, insignificant.
sm!a-skip snpl. small ships.

155
sm!a-skuta
! wf. small cutter.
smjuga
! sv. 7, squeeze through, slip.
smugu see smjuga.
!
snarpligr adj. vigorous.
snarpr adj. sharp; vigorous.
snimma adv. early.
sn#ora see snua.
!
snua
turn (intr.).
! sv. 1, w. dat. turn or (trans.) direct; twist, plait. snuask,
!
soinn see sj!oa.
skja wv. 1c, seek; gos. aptr, retreat.
sm sf. honour [s"oma].
stti see skja.
sofa sv. 4, sleep.
sofna wv. 3, go to sleep.
so" gur see saga.
so" k sf. causefyrir "a s. at..., because.
s#okkva sv. 3, sink.
s!ol sf. sun.
s!ol-skin sn. sunshine.
soltinn adj. hungry [ptc. of svelta, starve].
s!oma wv. 2, w. dat., be suitable, befitting.
s!omi wm. honour.
sonr sm. son.
s!ott sf. illness.
s!otta see skja.
so" x snpl. raised prow of a war-ship.
spala see spo" lr.
sparask wv. 2, spare oneself, reserve ones energy.
spe" nna (spe" nta) wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, gird, buckle on.
spj!ot sn. spear.
sporr sm. tail.
spori sm. spur.
spo" lr sm. rail.
sprakk see springa.
spre" tta wv. 1, split.
springa sv. 3, burst.
spura see spyrja.

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spyrja wv. 1b, ask; hear of, learnsp. til eins, have news of, hear of his arrival.
spyrjask, be known.
spyrna wv. 1, kick.
staddr adj. placed, staying [ptc. of ste# ja, place].
star sm. place" stainn, instead.
stafar adj. (ptc.) striped.
staf-karl sm. (sta-man), beggar.
stafn sm. prow.
stafn-b!ui wm. prow-man.
stafn-l!e wm. grappling-hook.
stafr sm. 2 (gen. sg. stafs), sta, stick.
stakk see stinga.
stallari sm. marshall.
standa sv. 2, stand. st. upp, stand up, rise.
starfa wv. 3, work.
ste" fna wv. 1, steer; take a course, go.
steig see st!ga.
steinn sm. stone; jewel.
stela sv. 4, w. dat. of thing and acc. of pers. steal, rob.
ste" ndr see standa.
ste" rkliga adv. vigorously.
ste" rkr adj. strong.
steypa wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, throw; pull o. steypask, throw oneself.
st!ga sv. 6, advance, walk, go. st. upp, mount (horse).
st!gr sm. path, way.
stikill sm. point.
stilla (stilta) wv. 1, arrange. st. til, arrange, dispose.
stinga sv. 3, pierce; st. sto# fnum at skipi, run the prow against a ships side.
stirt adv. harshly [neut. of stirr, sti].
st!o see standa.
strri see st!or.
st!okkva sv. 3, spring, rebound, start back.
stolinn see stela.
st!orliga adv. bigly, arrogantly.
st!or-mannligr adj. magnificent, aristocratic.
st!or-me" nni sn. great men (collective), aristocracy.
st!orr adj. big, great. st!orum adv. greatly.
st!or-r!ar adj. (great of plans), ambitious.

157
st!or-skip sn. big ship.
st!or-virki sn. great deed.
str!a wv. 1, strew, cover with straw.
strauk see strjuka.
!
stre" ngr sm. 2, string.
strjuka
! sv. 7, stroke.
stund sf. period of time, time.
stutt adv. shortly, abruptly [neut. of stuttr short].
st!yra wv. 1, w. dat. steer.
st!yri sn. rudder.
st!yris-hnakki wm. top piece of rudder.
styrkr sm. strength; help.
su! see s!a.
sur adv. southward.
sur-ganga wf. journey south (to Rome).
sukku see s#okkva.
sumar sn. summer.
sumr prn. some.
sund sn. sound, channel.
sv!a adv. so, as; as soon as. ok sv"a, also.
svaf see sofa.
svara wv. 3, w. dat. of thing, answer.
svardagi sm. oath.
sveinn sm. boy.
sveinn-stauli wm. small boy.
sveit sf. troop.
svelga sv. 3, swallow, gulp.
sver sn. sword.
svers-ho" gg sn. swordstroke.
svipan sf. jerk; moment.
svipting sf. pull, struggle.
s!ynask wv. 1, seem [sj"on].
syni see sonr.
systir sf. 3, sister.

T
taka wv. 2, w. acc. take, seize, take possession of; w. inf. begin; w. dat. receive
(well, ill, etc.). takask, take place, begin. t. at, choose. t. til, engage in, try. t.
upp, take to, choose.
tala wf. talk, speech.
tala wv. 3, speak, talk about, discuss.
talir see te" lja.
t!alma wv. 3, hinder.
t!ar sn. tear.
taumar smpl. reins.
te" kinn see taka.
te" lja wv. 1b, count, recount; account, consider; relate, say [tala].
te" ngir sfpl. relationship, connection by marriage.
te" ngja wv. 1, bind, fasten together.
te" ngsl snpl. cable.
t!a wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire.
t!indi snpl. tidings, news.
t!r adj. usual, happeninghvat er t"tt um ik? what is the matter with you? t!tt
adv. often, quicklysem t"ast, as quickly as possible.
tiginn adj. of high rank.
tigr sm. &"orir tigir, forty.
til prp. w. gen. to; till; for (of use)alt er t. v"apna var, everything that could be
used as a missile; for (of object, intention)brj"ota le# gg til me# rgjar, break a leg
to get at the marrow; with respect totil vista var eigi gott, they were not well
o for provisions.
til adv. too (of excess).
til-v!san sf. direction, guidance.
t!tt see t!r.
t!vi wm. god.
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160
tjald sn. tent.
tjugu-ske
" gg sn. forked beard.
!
tka see taka.
t!ok see taka.
to" nn sf. 3, tooth.
trani wm. crane.
tr!e sn. tree.
troa sv. tread.
trog sn. trough.
tros sn. droppings, rubbish.
trua
! wf. faithat veit tr. m"n at..., by my faith.
trua
! wv. 2, w. dat. of pers. believe, trust, rely on.
tun
! sn. enclosure, dwelling.
tveir num. two.
t!yna wv. 1, w. dat. lose.
typpa wv. tie in a top-knot.

An Icelandic Primer


!a see s!a.
!a see iggja.
!a adv. then.
r see s!a.
akr see e" kja.
akka wv. 3, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers. thank; requite, reward.
ambar-ske" lfir sm. bowstring-shaker (?).
ann see s!a.
annig adv. thither; so [= ann veg].
ar adv. there; then; . af, etc., thereof. ar sem, since, because. ar til, until.
arf see urfa.
at see s!a.
au see s!a.
egar adv. at once. . er, as soon as.
e" ginn see iggja.
e" gja wv. 1b, be silent.
eim see s!a.
eir, eirra see s!a.
e" kja wv. 1b, roof.
e" kkja wv. 1, notice. e" kkjask, take pleasure in; accept.
!er see u.
!
ess see s!a.
ess adv. w. comp. the, so much the.
essi prn. this.
iggja sv. 5, receive.
ik see u.
!
ing sn. meeting, parliament.
inn see u.
!
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it see u.
!
j!o sf. nation, race.
!o adv. though, yet.
o" k see e" kja.
o" kk sf. thanks, gratitude [akka].
ola wv. 2, endure, put up with.
ora wv. 2, dare.
o" rf sf. need.
orrinn see verra.
!ott adv. though [= "o at].
!otta see ykkja.
raut see rj!ota.
reifask wv. 3, grope, feel.
reyta wv. 1, make exertions, try.
rii adj. third.
rijungr sm. third.
r!r num. three.
rj!ota sv. 7, impers. w. acc. of pers. come to an end, fail.
ruugr
adj. mighty.
!
u! prn. thou.
umlungr sm. thumb of glove.
unn-vangi wm. temple (of head).
urr sm. diminution.
urfa swv. often impers. require, need.
urr adj. dry.
urs sm. giant.
verra sv. 3, diminish.
vers adv. across.
v! see s!a.
v! adv. therefore; w. compar. the, so much the more.
v!likr adj. such.
ykkja wv. 1c, seen, be considered. ykkir einum fyrir, there seems to be something in the way, one hesitates. myndi m"er fyrir . ", I should be displeased. ykkjask, think.
ykkr adj. thick, close.
ynna wv. 1, make thin. ynnask get thin.
yrstr adj. (ptc.) thirsty.

U
u-fra
wf. impassable place; fix, diculty.
!
u-frir
sm. hostility, war.
!
u-grynni
sn. countless number [grunnr, bottom].
!
u-happ
sn. misfortune.
!
u-hreinn
adj. impure.
!
um prp. w. acc. around, about, over; of time in, at; of superiority beyond; concerning, about.
um-r!a sn. advice, help.
um-sj!a sf. care.
una wv. 1, w. dat. be contentedu. illa, be discontented.
undan prp. w. dat., adv. away (from).
undarliga adv. strangely.
undarligr adj. strange.
undir prp. w. acc. and dat. under.
undr sn. wonder.
ungr adj. young.
unninn see vinna.
unz adv. until.
upp adv. up.
upp-ganga wf. boarding (ship).
upp-haf sn. beginning [he# &a].
upp-himinn sm. high heaven.
uppi adv. up; at an end.
uru see vera.
ut
! adv. out. comp. utar, outer, outwards, farther away.
utan adv. outside; outwards.
utan-fe" r sf. journey abroad.
utar see ut.
!
163

164
uti
! adv. outside, out on the sea.
ut-lausn
sf. ransom.
!
u-vinr
sm. enemy.
!

An Icelandic Primer

V
vg sf. forbearance.
vnn adj. likely, to be expected.
vri see vera.
vtr neut. nothing.
vaka wv. 3, be awake, wake up.
vakna wv. 3, awake.
vald sn. power, control.
val-kyrja sf. chooser of the slain, war-goddess [kj"osa].
valr sm. corpses on the battle-field.
v!an, sf. hope, expectation, probability.
vandra-sk!ald sn. the awkward poet, the poet who is dicult to deal with.
vandri snpl. diculty.
vangi wm. cheek.
vanr adj. accustomed.
v!apn sn. weapon.
v!apna-bur sm. bearing weapons, shower of missiles.
v!apn-lauss adj. without weapons.
var see vera.
v!ar sn. spring.
v!ar see ek.
vara wv. 2, impers. w. acc. of pers.mik vari, I expected.
var see vera.
vari see ve" rja.
vargr sm. wolf.
varir see ve" rja.
varla adv. scarcely.
varnar sm. goods, merchandise.
v!aru see vera.
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vatn sn. water.


vaxa sv. 2, grow; increase.
ver sn. weather.
vegr sm. road; way, manner; direction, side; in composition, region, tract, land.
veik see vikja.
veit see vita.
veita wv. 1, give, grant; make (resistance, etc.).
ve" kja wv. 1b, wake [vaka].
v!el sf. artifice, cunning.
ve" lja wv. 1b, choose.
ve" ndi see vo" ndr.
v!er see ek.
vera sv. exist; remain, stay, happen; be. hvat l"atum hafi verit, what had caused
the noise. v. at, be occupied with.
ver sn. worth, value; price.
vera sv. 3, happen; happen to come. v. fyrir einum, come in ones way, appear
before one; become; come into being, be; v. til eins, be ready for, undertake; w.
infin. be obliged, must. n"u er a" orit mikit fyrir m"er, now I have come into a great
perplexity, diculty. v. at, happen.
verr adj. worth; important.
ver-gjarn adj. desirous of a husband, loose.
verit see vera.
vert see verr.
ve" rja wv. 1b, defendv. baki, defend with the back, turn ones back on.
ve" rja wv. 1b, dress; lay out money, invest.
verk sn. work, job.
verr sm. man; husband.
ve" rr adv. comp. worse. superl. ve" rst, worst.
vero" ld sf. world.
vestan adv. from the west. v. fyrir w. gen. or acc., west of.
vestr adv. westwards.
vetr sm. winter; year.
ve" x see vaxa.
ve" xti see vo" xtr.
vi prp. w. acc. by, near; towards (of place and time); with (of various relations).
w. dat. towards, at (laugh at, etc.); in exchange for, for.
v!a adv. widely, far and wide, on many sides.
viar-teinungr sm. tree-shoot, plant.

167
vi-brag sn. push.
vir sm. 3, tree.
v!r adj. wide, broad.
vi-skipti snpl. dealings.
vi-taka wf. reception; resistance.
v!gja wv. 1, consecrate, hallow.
v!gr adj. warlike, able-bodied.
v!king sf. piracy, piratical expedition.
v!kingr sm. pirate.
v!kja sv. 6, turn, move, go.
vilja swv. will.
villi-eldr sm. wildfire, conflagration.
vin!atta wf. friendship.
vin!attu-m!al snpl. assurances of friendship.
vinna sv. 3, do, perform; win, conquer. vinnask til, suce.
vinr sm. 2, friend.
viring sf. honour [verr].
v!sa wv. 2, w. dat. show, guide.
v!ss adj. wise; certain.
vissa see vita.
vist sf. 2, board and lodging; provisions.
vit see ek.
vita swv. know; be turned in a certain direction. v. fram, see into futurity.
v!ti sn. punishment, penalty.
v!tis-horn sn. penalty-horn (whose contents were drunk as a punishment).
vitkask wv. 3, come to ones senses.
vitr (-ran) adj. wise.
vo" llr sm. 3, plain, field.
vo" ndr sm. 3, twig, rod.
vo" rn sf. defence, resistance.
vo" xtr sm. 3, growth, stature.
vreir = reir.

Y
yr see u.
!
yfir prp. w. acc. and dat. over [ofan].
y! miss adj. various, dierent.
ymr sm. rumbling noise.
ytri adj. comp. outer. superl. yztr, outside(st) ["ut].

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Part IV
Proper Names

171

173
! sm.
Aki
!
Asa-!
orr sm. (divine) Thor.
!
Astr!r sf.
Auun sm.
Baldr (-rs) sm.
Bari wm. the Ram (name of a ship).
Bil-sk!rnir sm.
Br!singa-me" n sn. Freyjas necklace.
Burizleifr sm.
D!ains-leif sf. relic of D"ainn [leif, leaving, heritage].
Dana-konungr sm. king of the Danes.
Danir smpl. the Danes.
Dan-mo" rk sf. 3, Denmark.
Draupnir sm.
Einarr sm.
Eindrii wm.
Eir!kr sm.
Erlingr sm.
Fe" n-salr sm. 2.
Finnr sm.
Finskr adj. Finnish.
Freyja wf.
Freyr sm.
Frigg sf. wife of Odin.
Fulla wf. Friggs handmaid.
Geira wf.
Gimsar fpl.
Gjallar-bru! sf. the bridge over the river Gjo# ll.
Gjo" ll sf. the Resounder, the river of Hell.
Grn-land sn. Greenland.
Gullin-bursti wm. Golden-bristle.
Gull-toppr sm. Gold-top.

174
H!a-ey sf. High-island.
H!akon sm.
Hall-frer sm.
Haraldr sm.
H!einn sm.
Heim-dallr sm.
He" l sf. the goddess of the infernal regions.
He" r-m!or sm.
Hildr sf. [hildr, war].
Hjaninga-v!g sn. battle of the Hjanings.
Hjarrandi wm.
Hl!orii wm. the Thunderer, Thor.
Ho" gni wm.
Hring-horni wm. Ring-prowed.
Hyrningr sm.
Hyrrokin sf.
Ho" r sm.
!
Is-land
sn. Iceland.
!Island-fe" r sf. journey to Iceland.
! " nzkr adj. Icelandic.
Isle
J!oms-borg sf.
J!oms-v!kingar smpl. the pirates of J"omsborg.
Kol-bjo" rn sm.
Laufey sf.
Litr sm.
Loki wm.
M!o-gur sf.
Mri wf.
Nanna wf.
Nepr sm.
Njarar see Njo" rr.
Njo" rr sm.

An Icelandic Primer

175
N!oa-tun
! snpl.
Noregr sm. Norway [= nor-vegr].
O
" ku-!orr sm. Thor (the driver) [aka].
! afr sm.
Ol!
!
Oinn
sm. Odin.
Orkn-eyjar sfpl. Orkneys.
R!oma-borg sf. Rome.
Rum-fe
" rli wm. pilgrim to Rome [fara].
!
Ro" skva wf.
Sax-land sn. Saxony, Germany.
Sif sf.
Sigr!r sf.
Sig-valdi wm.
Skj!algr sm.
Skr!ymir sm.
Sleipnir sm.
Sl!rug-tanni wm. [to# nn].
Snskr adj. Swedish.
Sveinn sm.
Sv!a-konungr sm. king of Sweden.
Sv!ar smpl. Swedes.
Sv!a-ve" ldi sn. Sweden [vald].
Sv!-j!o sf. Sweden.
Svo" lr (-rar) sf. island of Svolder, near R!ugen.
Tann-gnj!ostr sm. [to# nn].
Tann-grisnir sm. [to# nn].
Tryggvi wm. Trusty.
j!alfi wm.
!orir sm.
or-ke" ll sm.
!orr sm. Thor.
or-steinn sm.
ru-vangar
smpl. plains of strength.
!

176

An Icelandic Primer

rymyr sm.
o" kk sf.
!
Ulfr
sm.
!
Utgara-loki wm.
!
!
Ut-garr
sm. Ut-garar
pl. outer enclosure, world of the giants.
Vanir smpl. race of Gods.
V!ar sf. goddess of betrothal and marriage.
Vest-firzkr adj. of the west firths (in Iceland).
V!k sf. the Bay, the Skagerak and the Christiania &ord.
Vinda-sne" kkja wf. Wendish ship.
Vind-land sn. Wendland.
Vindr smpl. the Wends.
Ving-!orr sm. name of Thor.