Sie sind auf Seite 1von 119

.

ISRAEL RAILWAYS
LTD.

RAILWAY TRACKS DESIGN GUIDELINES


FOR SPEEDS OF UP TO 250 KM/H
VERSION 1 - MAY 2013

PART 1 OF 3

DEVELOPMENT DIVISION PLANNING BRANCH

Table of Contents
TRACK DESIGN GUIDELINES ................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................................... 11
1.CHAPTER 1: TRACK PROJECT CLASSIFICATION AND TRACK CLASSIFICATION ............................ 12
1.1Project Classification: ............................................................................................................ 12
1.2Track Classification: ............................................................................................................... 12
CHAPTER 2 .......................................................................................................................................... 14
2.CHAPTER 2: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENT OF TRACK SECTION ............................. 15
2.1Horizontal Radii .................................................................................................................... 15
2.2Minimum Length of Round Curves ........................................................................................ 16
2.3Cants .................................................................................................................................... 17
2.4Transition Curves and Ramps ................................................................................................ 19
2.5Length of Straight Tracks Between Horizontal Curves, Close Arches and Adjacent Curves ..... 22
2.6Maximum Grade in Track Length Profiles and Variance between Adjacent Grades ................ 27
2.7Length of Longitudinal Profile Elements ................................................................................ 28
2.8Vertical Curves ...................................................................................................................... 29
2.9Combination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignments .............................................................. 30
2.10Height Differences Between Adjacent Primary Tracks ......................................................... 30
2.11The Distance Between Two Primary Tracks (In sections and stations) .................................. 31
2.12Over-Widening of Track Rails in Horizontal Curve................................................................ 32
2.13Maximum Speed ................................................................................................................. 32
CHAPTER 3 .......................................................................................................................................... 36
3.CHAPTER 3: CRITERIA FOR HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENTS IN STATIONS ................ 37
3.1Station Types ........................................................................................................................ 37
3.2Track Types in Stations and Branches .................................................................................... 37
3.3Determination of Station Locations Based on Track Geometry .............................................. 38
3.4Horizontal Curves in Secondary Lines .................................................................................... 38
3.5Station Track Cants ............................................................................................................... 38
3.6Length of Straight Tracks between Station Arches ................................................................. 38
3.7Turnouts and Transitions ....................................................................................................... 39
3.8Longitudinal Profile Grade within Station Areas .................................................................... 48
3.9Longitudinal Profile Sections ................................................................................................. 48
3.10Vertical Curves .................................................................................................................... 48
3.11Horizontal and Vertical Alignment Combinations ................................................................ 48
3.12Height difference Between Adjacent Tracks ........................................................................ 49
3.13Distance Between Track Axes Tracks.................................................................................... 49
3.13.1.Distances Between Two Adjacent Tracks (Gauge) ............................................................ 49
3.13.2.Distances in Multi-track Lines .......................................................................................... 49
3.14Passenger Platforms ........................................................................................................... 49
3.15Distance Between Tracks and Gauge Widening in Curves .................................................... 51
3.16Visibility in Stations ............................................................................................................ 51
3.17Development of Varying Station Specifications (Examples) ................................................. 51
CHAPTER 4 .......................................................................................................................................... 53
4.CHAPTER 4: LOADING GAUGES AND DISTANCES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES AND

STRUCTURES NEARBY TRACKS ................................................................................................... 54


4.1General ................................................................................................................................. 54
4.2Distance between Track Axes and Structures, Facilities, Bridges, Walls and Electricity Poles .. 54
CHAPTER 5 .......................................................................................................................................... 63
5.CHAPTER 5: EXCAVATION AND FILLING TYPE EMBANKMENTS, TYPICAL PROFILES ................... 64
5.1Embankment Design Parameters .......................................................................................... 64
5.2Bermas ................................................................................................................................. 66
5.3Service Routes (For use by ISR Employees) ............................................................................ 66
5.4Drainage of Railway tracks .................................................................................................... 76
5.5Communication and Signaling Cable Alignment .................................................................... 76
5.6Typical Profiles ...................................................................................................................... 83
5.7Notes .................................................................................................................................... 83
CHAPTER 6 .......................................................................................................................................... 84
6.CHAPTER 6 - DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF TRACK SIGNALLING AND COMMUNICATION CROSSINGS85
6.1General Definitions ............................................................................................................... 85
6.2Communication Crossings Below Operational Tracks ............................................................ 86
6.3Placement of Crossings ......................................................................................................... 90
6.4Construction of Communication Crossings by Open Excavation ............................................ 92
6.5Pipe Types ............................................................................................................................ 94
6.6Communication pits .............................................................................................................. 94
6.7Crossing of Tracks by Horizontal Drilling ................................................................................ 94
6.8Flexible Drilling ..................................................................................................................... 95
6.9Manner of Design of Signaling Device Crossings .................................................................... 95
6.10Communication Infrastructures at the Monitoring and Control Structure Entrance ........... 101
CHAPTER 7 ........................................................................................................................................ 104
7.CHAPTER 7 RAILWAY STRIP BOUNDARIES AND WIDTH, RAILWAY STATION SCHEMES .......... 105
CHAPTER 8 ........................................................................................................................................ 110
8.CHAPTER 8 TURNOUTS IN ARCHES ..................................................................................... 111
8.1General ............................................................................................................................... 111
8.2Approximate Calculation of Arched Turnouts ...................................................................... 113
8.3Marking of Arch Turnouts in Plans ...................................................................................... 115
8.4Design Guidelines ............................................................................................................... 116
8.4.2.Basic Parameters Required for Arch Turnouts Calculation and Design ............................. 116
8.4.3.Vertical Alignment in Arch Crossovers ............................................................................. 117

Tables
TRACK DESIGN GUIDELINES ................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER 2 .......................................................................................................................................... 14
CHAPTER 3 .......................................................................................................................................... 36
CHAPTER 4 .......................................................................................................................................... 53
CHAPTER 5 .......................................................................................................................................... 63
CHAPTER 6 .......................................................................................................................................... 84
CHAPTER 7 ........................................................................................................................................ 104
CHAPTER 8 ........................................................................................................................................ 110

Figures
TRACK DESIGN GUIDELINES ................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER 2 .......................................................................................................................................... 14
CHAPTER 3 .......................................................................................................................................... 36
CHAPTER 4 .......................................................................................................................................... 53
CHAPTER 5 .......................................................................................................................................... 63
CHAPTER 6 .......................................................................................................................................... 84
CHAPTER 7 ........................................................................................................................................ 104
CHAPTER 8 ........................................................................................................................................ 110

TRACK DESIGN GUIDELINES

May 2013

TERMINOLOGY

Symbol

Unit of
Measurement

Front tangent of turnout

aq

m/sec2

Unbalanced acceleration

ab

cm

av

m/sec2

mm

Distance between track axis and platform end

Ac

mm

Distance between track axis and platform end in arch

Ai

mm

Distance between track axis and platform end in arch at point i

Ap

Vertical distance

A'p

Inclined distance

As

mm

Back tangent of turnout

bb

cm

Ballast thickness

bm

cm

Ballast Mats thickness

Distance between vertex angle and round curve in outward direction


(in direction of angle)

Bm

mm

Distance from track axis to wall

Bc

mm

Distance from track axis to wall in arch

Bp

Increase of distance between vertex angle and round curve in outward


direction (in direction of angle) due to movement

Bv

cm

Arch arrow of vertical curve

Distance from center of turnout (geometric center) to clearance point

Distance from start of turnout to clearance point

Cb

Ballast width

Ch

Station reference value

CC

Point of connection for round curves in adjacent curves

CS

End of round arch

CT

End of round arch without transition curves

Distance from track axis to shoulder edge

d0

Half distance between axis of planned track and axis of future track

d1

Distance from track axis to shoulder edge in curve

dm

Distance between track axes and end of turnout

Significance

Ballast thickness
Acceleration in vertical curve

Platform safety gap

Symbol

Unit of
Measurement

Distance between end of turnout and axis of the last long sleeper

Berma width

mm

f1

Width of left side drainage ditch

f2

Width of right side drainage ditch

fh

mm

Movement of railroad car because of cant

fk

mm

End of railroad car arrow

ft

m/sec2

mm

Cant

he

mm

Cant excess

hmax

mm

Maximum cant

hmin

mm

Minimum cant

hp

mm

Difference between rail elevation and platform elevation

ht

mm

Maximum loading perimeter

mm

Balanced cant

Hb

Drill depth

Hs

Embankment height

Ht

Drainage ditch depth

Train no. I'

ic

Maximum value by which gradient of longitudinal profile is reduced

im

Maximum gradient of longitudinal profile

ip

Gradient of longitudinal profile

is

Gradient of change in longitudinal profile

it

Longitudinal gradient of divergent track in arch turnouts

Curvature coefficient

kv

Speed coefficient on cant ramp

Distance from sleeper edge to end of ballast

Km

Speed coefficient

lr in

Start of cant change

lr out

End of cant change

Total length of turnout

Significance

Arch arrow

Width of upper drainage ditch


Acceleration of gravity

Symbol

Unit of
Measurement

Lb

Distance between bogie centers

Lc

Round curve length

Lc min

Minimum length of round curve

Le

Length of tangent element

Le min

Minimum length of tangent element

Li

Distance from start of transition curve to point i

Lk

Railroad car console length

Ln

Length for calculation of profile point N of arch turnout

Lp

Length of transition plates and approach plates

Lr

Ramp length

Lr in

Ramp length at start of arch

Lr min

Minimum ramp length

Lr out

Ramp length at end of arch

Ls

Transition curve length

Lsc

General curve length

Ls in

Transition curve length at start of curve

Ls min

Minimum transition curve length

Ls out

Transition curve length at end of curve

Lss

Safety length

Lst

Station length

Lt

Distance between horizontal curves

Lt min

Minimum distance between horizontal curves

Lu

Length of usable track

Lv

Length of vertical arch

Lvg

Total length of railroad car

Enlargement of tangent during execution of transition curve

Units

mm

Shift length of round curve

Qi

Tons

Train i weight

Significance

Quantity of trains
Ballast gradient

Horizontal curve radius

R0

Divergent track radius of standard turnout

Symbol

Unit of
Measurement

Significance

Rmin

Minimum radius of horizontal curve

Rs

Curve radius of primary track in arch turnouts

Rsm

Horizontal curve radius in limited section

Rv

Vertical curve radius

Rz

Radius of divergent track in arch turnouts

mm

Excessive widening of distance between rail axes (gauge width)

mm

Distance between rail axes (gauge width)

Smin

Minimum distance between rail axes in clearance point (4 m)

So

Distance between turnouts

Sor

Distance between turnout and horizontal curve

Sov

Distance between turnout and vertical curve

SC

Start of round arch

ST

End of transition curve

sec

Time

Tangent of round curve

Tp

Increase of tangent of round curve following movement

Ts

Accumulative tangent

Tv

Vertical curve tangent

TC

Start of round arch

TS

Start of transition curve

Km/h

Design speed

Vi

Km/h

Maximum speed of train i

Vm

Km/h

Weighted average speed in given section

Vmax

Km/h

Maximum design speed in arch

Vmin

Km/h

Minimum section speed

Vs max

Km/h

Maximum speed in limited section in which the design shall be


approved under special conditions

ys

Distance between rail axes near the last long sleeper

zs

mm

Height difference between track of basic arch and divergent track

z's

mm

Derivative of height variance difference between track of basic arch


and divergent track near last long sleeper

degrees

Angle

degrees

Angle between basic arch track and divergent track near last long

Symbol

Unit of
Measurement

Significance
sleeper

max

M/sec3

Maximum change in unbalanced acceleration

mm

Added distance in curve

mm

Embankment shoulder section for future track in straight line

d1

Embankment shoulder section for future track in curve

mm

Cant deficiency

hmax

mm

Maximum cant deficiency

Difference in gradient

mm

Sum of cant deficiency

hmax

mm

Sum of maximum cant deficiency

Widening of embankment shoulder in curve


Added distance between track axis and platform end in curve at point
i

ISRAEL RAILWAYS LTD.


DEVELOPMENT DIVISION - PLANNING BRANCH

CHAPTER 1

TRACK PROJECT
CLASSIFICATION AND
TRACK CLASSIFICATION

1.

CHAPTER 1: TRACK PROJECT CLASSIFICATION AND TRACK CLASSIFICATION

1.1

Project Classification:

1.2

Construction of a track along a new alignment.


Addition of new tracks alongside existing tracks.
Improvement of an existing track, point geometry change of alignment for the sole
purpose of increasing speed.
Restoration of an existing track, improvement of state of substructure and
superstructure without changing track classification.
Upgrading of an existing track, geometric and statutorical change of alignment,
reinforcement of track's substructure and superstructure and reclassification under
higher classification level.

Track Classification:
Tracks are to be designed in accordance with the type determined by the ISR governing body
upon initiation of design.
1.

Fixed Tracks
Classification
1
2
3
4
5

Table 1.1 Fixed Track Classification


Track
Design Speed
Specification
Primary
250
Primary
Primary
Primary
Branches and Secondary
lines in stations

160
160
120
100

Traffic Congestion
Is independent of
traffic congestion
Q 30,000
Q < 30,000
Q < 30,000
Q < 30,000

Notes:
*

This value appears in the line's preliminary design program.

** The design speed was determined for the entire length of the alignment and may
be reduced in problematic sections pending ISR authorization.

2.

Temporary Tracks or Diversions


May be planned at a lower type than that of the existing track, as detailed in Table 1.2
below:
Table 1.2 Temporary Track Classification
Existing Track Type
Temporary Track Type (Diversion)
1-3
4
4
5

3.

General
1.

The type of track required for design purposes shall be determined based on
the values presented in Tables 1.1 and 1.2 and shall be approved by ISR
Authority. All criteria required for design shall be determined on the basis of
the type of track approved.
Under special conditions, ISR is entitled to specify a different type of track in
contradiction to the aforementioned tables and to instruct the planner with
regarding the planned criteria as determined under its sole discretion.

2.

The use of the special conditions clause presented herein is subject to the
approval of the ISR Authority.

CHAPTER 2

CRITERIA FOR HORIZONTAL


AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENTS
OF TRACK SECTION

2.

CHAPTER 2: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENT OF TRACK SECTION


General Terminology:
Track Any route constructed of rails that are installed on sleepers for passage of passenger
and freight trains.
Track Section Any track section including all signaling devices constructed between the
entrance light signals of two stations that are adjacent on the same side.
Main Line Any primary railway track in a section with continuation within confines of a
station area.
Secondary Lines Any entrance track, exit track, sorting track, or stabling track located inside
a station area.
Branch Any approach line leading into industrial plants and/or other facilities which branch
out from any main line or secondary lines inside stations.

2.1

Horizontal Radii
a) Recommended Radii
Table 2.1 - Recommended Horizontal Radii for Design
Track Type
Horizontal Radii R, meters
1
3400 - 20000
2
1800 - 8000
3
1500 - 6000
4
1000 - 5000
5 (excluding secondary lines
800 - 2000
inside station areas)
b) Minimum Radii
The use of radii that exceeds the limits specified in Table 2.1 requires prior approval by the
ISR Planning Branch.
The minimum radii that enables design speed may be calculated using Formula (2.1).

Where:

- Design speed as per Table 1.1, km/h.

- Leveled cant, mm.

Where:
hmax - Maximum cant, mm.
hmax

- Maximum cant deficiency, mm..

In arches, when it is not possible to design radius due to topographic reasons, it is


necessary to reduce design speed in coordination with the ISR Planning Branch.
The maximum speed in such arches may be calculated using formula (2.3):

Where:
Vs max - Max. speed in limited section which is approved under special circumstances, km/h
Rsm

- Radius of horizontal curve in limited section, meters.

Notes: - Branches and tracks inside complexes (stabling lines, garage entrances)
Rsm 150 meters
In main tracks (Types 1-4), curves with minimum radii require long transition
curves (see sub-chapter 2.4)
In special cases, the minimum radius (R min) of tracks approaching mechanicalengineering equipment garages and engineering lines may be reduced under
special conditions in coordination with the ISR Planning Branch.
It is recommended, within range of bridges (longer than 100 m), to avoid
planning arches with radii less than 1500 meters
2.2

Minimum Length of Round Curves

Where:
Vmax - Maximum design speed, km/h
Under special conditions, in coordination with the ISR Design branch:

Note: Any deviation from the above formulas requires prior approval of the ISR Planning
Branch. In any case, for speeds of up to 120 km/h, the curve length shall be no less than 20
meters [1].

2.3

Cants
2.3.1.

The Weighted Speed Method


(2.6)

(2.7)

[2]

Where:
h

- Cant, mm.

Vm - Average weighted speed in section, km/h.


Vi

- Maximum speed of train no. i, km/h.

Qi

- Load of train no. i, Tons.

- No. of trains, Units.


V 140 km/h

11.8

- K Speed Coefficient

V > 140 km/h

14.2

Vi , Qi , n All parameters are received as operational design units from traffic


assessments for a 5 year period.
All calculations of average squared weighted speed for a given section must be
submitted to the ISR Planning Branch (See Table 9.4, Appendix 4).
2.3.2.

Cant Test
hmax - The maximum cant in curves where R 275 meters is 150 mm.
Pending IRS Planning Branch approval, for speeds of 200 km/h or above, it is
possible to work as per [8, 6].
hmax - The maximum cant deficiency, 130 mm.
In curves having a radius of less than 275 meters, the maximum cant may be
calculated using formula (2.8).

Any cant (h) calculated using the formula (2.6, 2.8) shall be tested relative to hmin.

Cants shall be planned as hmin h.


When hmin > h, the final cant value is h = hmin.
The no. 130 in Formula (2.9) Maximum cant deficiency, [1, 3, 6].
Cant h = hmin must only be planned in special cases. Cant deficiencies must be
reduced during the design process.
Formula (2.9) is based on the assumption that the maximum permissible
acceleration influencing rolling stock is 0.85 m/sec2 per train, [3].
Cant values must be rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 mm. In special cases,
subject to Planning Branch approval, the circle may be omitted.
Cants that are calculated using the said formulas shall be no greater than 150 mm
(maximum cant permitted in Israel), [4].
In case the calculated cant is less than 20 mm, there is no need for its
implementation.
When located alongside transition curve Ls, the cant variance must be designed from
height '0' to 'h' in linear fashion (see Section 2.4.2).
It is necessary to design cant variance ramps along the entire length of the transition
curve (see Section 2.4.1).
In special cases, pending authorization of the ISR Planning Branch, it is possible to
design cant variances such that they do not extend along the entire length of the
transition curve or pass part of the cant in a round curve, such that the cant located
at the beginning of the round curve is no less than h = h min. In such cases, all plans
must specify the beginning line and end lout of the cant variance (ramp location), and
all this in addition to markings indicating the start and end of the transition curve.
2.3.3.

Cants for Traffic of Trains of a Single Type


In tracks that are designated for use by one type of train only (either passenger trains
or freight trains), cants must be calculated based on the following formula:

h Cant deficiency, mm. For cant deficiency values see Section 2.13.2.
In the event of accumulation of trains having a speed lower than V max , such as
commuter or freight trains, it is necessary to examine the calculated cant excess

using Formula (2.6) for a speed of Vmin..

Where:
he

- Cant excess, mm.

Vmin - Minimum speed of train in section, km/h.


It is recommended that he be planned up to 110 mm. Pending ISR Planning Branch
approval, it is possible to increase the maximum h e up to 130 mm [8].

2.4

Transition Curves and Ramps


2.4.1.

Transition Curves
Transition Curves Any track section which connects between a straight line and
arch or between two adjacent curves with different radii, which is designed to ensure
train traffic with gradual change of centrifugal forces.
The shape of transition curves, which is used in tracks, is that of a clothoid (Euler
Spiral).
It is necessary to design cants on main lines, where the sum of cant deficiencies h
is:

(2.12)

h 40 Vmax 200 km/h

[6, 1]

(2.13)

h 20 Vmax > 200 km/h

[6, 1]

Figure 2.1

The minimum transition curve length may be calculated using the following formula:

(2.14)
2.4.2.

Ls min Vmax * h/250

[6]

Ramps
Moving of cants shall be carried out along the ramp (see Section 2/3/2) which is
typically designed within range of the transition curve.
1.

Ramp Length:

1. Recommended Length:
(2.15)

Lr = Vmax * |h1 h2|/100

[6]

2. Length in certain cases pending ISR Design branch approval:


(2.16)

Lr = Vmax * |h1 h2|/125

[6]

3. Length in special conditions pending ISR Design branch approval:


(2.17)
Where:

Lr = Vmax * |h1 h2|/166


Vmax

[6]

- km/h, Lr- meters.

|h1 h2| - The cant variance between start and end of ramp, in
mm. Plus for adjacent curves running in same direction
and minus for adjacent curves running in opposite
directions.
100, 125, 166 Speed coefficient on cant variance ramp Kv.

2.

Minimum Ramp Length:


a)

Under normal conditions for speeds of up to 160 km/h:

The cant variance gradient from 0 to 1500 h1:1000 = m:1 (1 mm of cant


for 11.5 meters of ramp length).
b)

Under normal conditions for speeds of 160-230 km/h:

The cant variance gradient from 0 to 1200 h1:1000 = m:1 (1 mm of cant


for 1.52 meters of ramp length)
c)

Under special conditions to Subsections 1 and 2 or for speeds of up to


100 km/h

The cant variance gradient from 0 to 2000 h1:1500 = m:1 (1 mm of cant


for 1.52 meters of ramp length)
d)

Under special conditions for track Class 5 only and for speeds of up to 60
km/h.

Where: |h1 h2| - mm,

Lr min - meters.

By principle, the length of ramp Lr is equal to the transition curve Ls.


The minimum variance of cant gradient between '0' and 'h' 1:m = 1:3000 (1 mm of
cant per 3 meters of transition curve), [6, 1].
In the event this ratio does not exist, the transition curve length must be reduced.
When: Vmax - km/h, h mm, Ls - meters.
Notes:

- The use of special conditions requires prior ISR Planning Branch


authorization.
- In bridges of 100 m or more, transition curves at bridge edges must be
avoided.

If this calculation shows Lr < Ls min , Lr = Ls min must be set.

In special cases such as: close proximity to turnout and bridges, vertical curves,
longitudinal profile cuts, etc., when it is not possible to obtain L r min on the basis of
formulas (2.18) and (2.21): it is necessary to calculate the minimum length using
formula (2.14) in coordination with the ISR Planning Branch, or to plan part of the
ramp on a round curve (see Section 2.3.2).
The minimum length of a transition curve is 20 meters, [4, 5].
It is necessary to design transition curves in order to move cants or curvatures.
The transition curve shape used in tracks is that of a clothoid.
Transition curves may only be planned in arches designated for cant construction.
All Ls and Ls values must be rounded up to the next multiple of 10 meters, [5]. In
special cases, when there is insufficient space for a transition curve with rounded
length, the circle may be forfeited pending ISR Planning Branch approval.
2.4.3.

Shifting of Round Curves


Shifting of round curve (P, mm) in Execution of Transition Curves:

Transition curves must be designed such that P 15 (mm). Any deviation from this
value shall require prior ISR Planning Branch approval. In the event this condition is
not met, Ls min must be increased.
2.5

Length of Straight Tracks Between Horizontal Curves, Close Arches and Adjacent Curves
2.5.1.

Length of Straight Track between Two Curves


Table 2.2

Track
Type
1
2
3
4 and 5

Recommended
Permitted
Curves in Same Curves in Opposite Curves in Same
Curves in
Direction (m)
Directions (m)
Direction (m)
Opposite
Directions (m)
150
150
100
80
100
75
70
65
100
75
70
65
60
55
50
50

Note: 1. Minimum length of a straight track between two curves:

2. Under special conditions, subject to prior ISR Planning Branch approval, the length
of a straight track running between two horizontal curves may be determined based

on the following formula:

Where:
Vmax - Maximum design speed in section, km/h.
Lt
2.5.2.

- The distance between two horizontal curves, m.

Adjacent Curves and Close Curves


It is possible to design adjacent curves in opposite directions (reverse curves) and in
same direction (compound).
The need for a transition curve in such cases arises from sudden changes in the
direction of travel. Such changes creates a sideways acceleration which in turn
creates strong lateral forces which have great impact on both the track and rolling
stock. The extent of these forces depends on the change in the arch radius and I
speed of travel and are defined in the basic formula for the dynamics of train travel:

Where:
h

- Cant deficiency, mm.

- Cant, mm.

The cant deficiency h describes the strength of all lateral forces exerted because of
the geometry and speed of travel. In the event the arch radius changes, the lateral
force created changes accordingly. When the radius changes from R1 to R 2, the cant
deficiency changes form h1 to h2. The change in lateral force is dependent on the
sum of cant deficiencies h (see Figure 2.1):

1. Compounds
(2.26)

h - |h1 - h2 |

[6]

2. Reverse Curves
(2.27)

h - h1 + h2

[6]

3. Close Arches
There is a connection between the sum of cant deficiencies h and length of
straight rail between the two horizontal curves. Planning of short straight
sections of track between two curves should be avoided. It is recommended
to consider increasing the transition curve length, the round curve radius or
the addition of additional and cancellation of short straight track sections.

When speed Vmax > 130 km/h, transaction arches must be designed between
reverse curves or compounds, as specified in sub-section 2.4, and when there
is a straight line between the arches as specified in Section 2.5.1.
In some cases (in stations, compounds, turnouts, branches, etc.), when it is
not possible to design a straight line no shorter than V max(2.24*0.2) between
adjacent curves, it is necessary to act as illustrated in Figures 2.2 and 2.3 [6]:
1. Length of straight line Lt 0.1* Vmax
Lt 0.1 * Vmax for speeds of Vmax 70 km/h
Lt 0.15 * Vmax for speeds of between 70 > Vmax 130 km/h
Figure 2.2

When calculating the sum of cant deficiencies, it is necessary to account


for the straight line between the arches and to calculate h for each arch
in separate (see Figure 2.2).
2. Length of straight line Lt < 0.1* Vmax
Figure 2.3

When calculating the sum of cant deficiencies, it is necessary to ignore the


straight line between the arches and to calculate h for the two arches
(see Figure 2.3).
Under regular condition, such cases must be avoided.

3. In reverse curves only, Lt min is no less than 6 m, when the following


condition is fulfilled:

Note: In arches, when it is not possible to design transition curves or increase their
length, it is recommended to investigate the option to decrease the sum of cant
deficiencies h by designing additional round arches at joints.
In order to avoid the creation of strong lateral forces, it is necessary to limit the sum
of cant deficiencies h.
Deviation from the limits of the sum of cant deficiencies h [6] must be avoided.

1. Sum of cant deficiencies:


h = 106

Vmax 100 km/h

h = 91

Vmax 120 km/h

h = 83

Vmax 130 km/h

h = 68

Vmax 160 km/h

h = 47

Vmax 200 km/h

h = 41

Vmax 230 km/h

2. The sums of all cant deficiencies and maximum radii in the transition from
arches to straight lines for different speeds:
Table 2.3 Maximum Permissible Value of h
Vmax
R

Km/h

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

180

280

400

550

710

900

1110

1450

1900

2400

3000

106

106

106

106

106

106

106

98

91

83

78

Km/h

150

160

170

180

190

200

2100

220

230

240

250

3700

4500

5500

6700

8200

73

68

62

57

52

h mm
Vmax
R

h mm

10000 11500 13300 15200


47

45

43

41

17400 20000
39

37

3. The following graph illustrates the relationship between the sum of cant
deficiencies and maxi,mum speed

2.5.3.

Test for Necessity of Transition Curve

The test for necessity of a transition curve shall be carried out as per Section
2.4.1, in accordance with formulas (2.12) and (2.13).

The minimum transition curve length may be calculated as specified in Section


2.4.1 using formula (2.14).

P may be calculated and tested as specified in Section 2.4.3 using formula (2.22).

The minimum ramp length may be calculated as specified in Section 2.4.2 using
formulas (2.15) (2.21).

In certain cases, when there is no transition curve, it is necessary to check if


there is any deviation from the maximum permissible values of h as per
Section 2.5.2.

During the test it is recommended to inspect alternatives by changing geometric


parameters and repeating the said calculations until a suitable solution is obtained.

2.6

Maximum Grade in Track Length Profiles and Variance between Adjacent Grades
a) In most cases, the maximum longitudinal grade and maximum variance between two
adjacent grades are ultimately calculated by employing pull calculations which are not
described in this document.
b) Notwithstanding, in the event of combined traffic (passenger and freight), the following
criteria may determined
- Maximum longitudinal grade:
Under normal conditions: 9 promille: im, [4 ,6, 10]
Under special conditions: 13 promille
- Variance between adjacent grades [10]:
Under normal conditions:
For speeds of up to 160 km/h: 8 promille
For speeds above 161 km/h: 6 promille
Under special conditions: 13 promille
Notes:
1. In lines designated for electrification, for passenger trains only or in branches,
the aforementioned values may be increased subject to prior ISR Planning
Branch authorization.
2. In the event it is not possible to design a profile for the length of a specific track
based on the values presented in Sub-section B', the ISR shall provide adequate
guidelines.
3. Special conditions require coordination with the ISR Planning Branch.
c) In lines designated for use by passenger trains only, the following criteria may be
determined:
Table 2.4 Grade Parameters for Lines Designated for Passenger Train Traffic
Track
Maximum Longitudinal Grade (Promise)
Variance Between Adjacent Grade
Classification
(Promise)
Under Normal
Under Special
Under Normal
Under Special
Conditions
Conditions *
Conditions
Conditions *
1, 2, 3
16
25 **
13
22
4, 5
25
30
22
27
Notes:

* - Requires prior coordination with the ISR Planning Branch. It is best to


attempt reducing the length of sections with such grades.

** - In lines designated for electrification, the permissible limit is 30 promille.


d) It is not advisable to design more than one transition between convex and concave
sections, or vice versa, in a length that is identical to that of the longest train running on
that line.

e) In horizontal curves, the maximum grade must be reduced by I c ():


- For radii of 400 meters or above:

For radii of between 150 - 400 meters:

- For radii of less than 150 meters, the grade must be reduced by 5 .
When: R Horizontal curve radii, m.
f)

In tunnels, the line's maximum grade must be reduced by Ic () based on the values
presented in Table 2.5:
Table 2.5
Maximum Grade Reduction
Coefficient
0.9
0.85
0.8

2.7

Tunnel Length, Km
Between 0.3 and 1
Between 1 and 3
Above 3

Length of Longitudinal Profile Elements


A longitudinal profile element is a continuous section of a longitudinal profile with a uniform
grade and no cracks. The element length shall not drop below the values presented in Table
2.6.
Table 2.6 Minimum Element Length
Track Type
Recommended, Meters
Permitted *, Meters
1
300
200
2
300
200
3
250
200
4
200
150
5
200
100
* - Requires ISR Planning Branch coordination
Notes: The element length is the distance between cracks and includes the lengths of vertical
curves. The minimum element length pending ISR Planning Branch approval is:

(2.30)

Le min o.4 * Vmax

[6]

it is necessary to reduce the number of cracks in longitudinal profiles .

2.8

Vertical Curves
In connection points between adjacent elements of longitudinal profiles with varying grades, it
is necessary to design vertical curves (in parabola style) with radii as specified below:
a) Recommended Radius:

b) Radius in normal conditions.

c) Radius in special conditions (requires prior ISR Planning Branch approval):

Notes:
1.

The vertical radius must be rounded up to the next full multiplication of 100 m. In special
cases, if no space s left for a curve with round length, the circle may be omitted subject
to ISR Planning Branch approval.

2.

The maximum vertical radius shall not exceed 30,000 m [6].

3.

The minimum vertical radius is 2,000 m [6].

4.

The minimum length of vertical curves Lv should be no less than 20 m, [6].

5.

Under normal conditions, when the variance between two adjacent grades is i 1,
vertical curves are not required.

6.

In special cases, pending prior ISR Planning Branch approval, it is permissible to design
longitudinal profiles without a vertical curve, when the grade variance between adjacent
elements is no greater than the values presented in table 2.7
Table 2.7 Conditions for Canceling Vertical Curves
RV , m
1
2
3
4
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
i , promille

5
4.0

7.

Planning of vertical arches within perimeter of railroad bridges that are longer than 100
meters should be avoided.

8.

In bridges of 100 m or longer, in special cases, it is permissible to design vertical curves


with a radii of no less than 16,000 m.

9.

Subject to ISR Planning Branch authorization, the minimum radius permitted within
perimeter of bridges that are 100 meters or longer is 10,000 m.

10.

The length of a vertical curve may be calculated as follows:

11.

The curve arrow may be calculated as follows, meters:

12.

The curve tangent may be calculated as follows:

Where:

13.
2.9

2.10

- The variance between adjacent grades .

RV

- Vertical curve radius, n.

Any deviation from Sub-chapter 2.8 shall require prior ISR Planning Branch approval.

Combination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignments


1.

The integration of transition curves or turnouts in vertical curves or longitudinal profile


cracks is prohibited.

2.

The design of longitudinal profile cracks within bridge perimeters without the use of
ballast support is prohibited.

3.

The grade implemented within bridge perimeters, when the track is connected directly to
the beam (without use of a ballast), shall be no greater than 4. the recommended grade
is zero. Within perimeter of such bridges, the planning of vertical curves or longitudinal
profile cracks is prohibited.

4.

Whenever bridge tracks are placed on a ballast, the longitudinal grade within the bridge
perimeter shall be no greater than the maximum grade of the line.

5.

The planning of longitudinal profile cracks in single-level junctions is prohibited.

Height Differences Between Adjacent Primary Tracks


1.

Planning of primary tracks that are part of a shared infrastructure of different heights
with standard distance between them (see Section 2.11) as a permanent solution.

2.

In sections where no turnout transitions are planned between tracks, it is possible to


design a variance between the height of adjacent tracks as an extraordinary solution.
This variance shall be no greater than 15 cm (25 cm in individual sections). Such a
solution shall be approved for the following cases: Laying down of new tracks alongside
existing ones, restoration or upgrading of existing tracks,construction of secondary lines
inside station areas.

3.

In single-level junctions:

4.

a)

Do not plan a height difference between two adjacent tracks in single-level


junctions that are located on straight tracks (see guidelines for design of railway
track junctions, [35]).

b)

In single-level junctions located on horizontal curves with cants, it is advisable to


plan the height differences in accordance with the cant (see guidelines for design of
railway track junctions, [35]).

It is permissible to design the height of existing tracks in limited sections in order to

prevent a variation between the height of existing and planned tracks (this when the
thickness of the ballast underneath the track and the width of the embankment shoulder
allow raising of height).
2.11

The Distance Between Two Primary Tracks (In sections and stations)
2.11.1.

The Distance Between the Axes of Two Tracks


a) The standard distance - 4.7 meters.
b) Under special conditions:
4.5 meters in a straight line or in arches having a radius greater than 300
meters, or in sections that include no light signals.
4.6 meters in curves having a radius smaller than 300 meters.

2.11.2.

Distances in Multiple-Track Lines


When more than two tracks are planned on a single line, the distance between the
separate tracks shall be determines as follows [23]:
a)

Between two main tracks as specified in Section 2.11.1.

b) The distance between the second and third tracks must be increased:
When the speed of both tracks is up to 160 km/h a distance of 5.8 meters,
When the speed of one track is up to 160 km/h and 250 km/h on the other
a distance of 6.3 meters,
When the speed of both tracks is up to 250 km/h the distance shall be 6.8
meters
c)

Between a third and fourth track as specified in Section 2.11.1.

d) The minimum distance between two tracks with a walking path in between:
Between a primary and secondary track for speeds of up to 50 km/h (V
50 km/h).
In primary tracks Vmax 160 km/h 5.3 meters.
In primary tracks Vmax > 160 km/h 5.8 meters.
The distances between the track axis and safety gap:
Vmax > 160 km/h 3.00 meters

Vmax 160 km/h 2.5 meters.


Vmax = 160 km/h inside stations 2.00 meters.
Vmax 40 km/h inside stations 1.85 meters.
Walking trail width 0.80 meters.

2.12

Over-Widening of Track Rails in Horizontal Curve


In small-radius curves, the distance between rails may be increased as follows:
In horizontal curves with a radius of R < 300 (m), broadening of the gauge between the track
rails shall be planned as follows (See Diagram 2.4).
Figure 2.4

Table 2.8 Over-Widening in Curves Monoblock Sleepers


Radius R, meters
Addition to a Distance of 1435 mm Between
Tracks 't', mm
300 and more
0
250 - 299
5
250200 - 249
10
Less than 200
15
Notes:
1. In special cases it is possible to decrease the addition s subject to ISR Planning Branch
approval.
2. In 150 meter radius tracks which are designated for use by work trains only, there is no
need for widening of the gauge.
2.13

Maximum Speed
2.13.1.

Maximum Design Speed in Straight Tracks


The maximum design speed of a straight track shall be determined in accordance
with the track classification (see Table 1.1).

2.13.2.

Maximum Design Speed in Curved Tracks


a)

Calculation without cant deficiency for initial assessment of maximum speed:

b) Calculation with cant deficiency:

hmax - Maximum cant deficiency, mm.


Notes:
1. Recommended h is up to 70 mm [6, 1].
2. In certain cases, in coordination with the ISR Planning Branch, the h
may be up to 100 mm.
3. In special condition, subject to prior ISR Planning Branch approval, the
maximum cant deficiency may be up to 130 mm, [1, 3, 6].
2.13.3.

Design Speed Test


The maximum speed Vmax must be tested in accordance with the following phases:
Phase 1:
Testing of maximum permissible speed considering track specification:
1. Length of round curve LC as per sub-chapter 2.2 using formulas (2.4) and
(2.5).
2. Length of straight track Lt as per Section 2.5.1 using formulas (2.23) and (2.24)
and as per Section 2.5.2.
3. Length of longitudinal profile element Le as per sub-chapter 2.7 using
formulas (2.30).
4. The radius of a vertical curve RV as per sub-chapter 2.8 using formulas (2.31) (2.32).
Phase 2:
Testing of maximum permissible speed in accordance with the cant calculations
presented in Section 2.13.2 using formulas (2.37) and (2.38).
Phase 3:
Testing of maximum permissible speed in arches without transition curves in
accordance with limits pertaining to the sum of cant deficiencies h.

Where: The maximum h, based on Section 2.4.1 using formulas (2.12) and (2.13),
for the designing of new tracks, or as per Section 2.5.2, subject to ISR Planning
Branch authorization, under special conditions, for planning the upgrade of existing
tracks.
Phase 4:
Testing of maximum permissible speed in accordance with the change in cant along
ramp Lr.

Where:
h1 > 0,
h2 = 0 in transition from strait line to an arch,
h2 > 0 in adjacent curves,
Plus for compound arches and minus for reverse curves.
H2 > 0 Speed coefficient on ramps with change in cant, having values of 100,
125, 166, as per Section 2.4.2, see formulas (2.15) (2.17).
Phase 5:
Testing of maximum permissible speed in adjacent curves.

Where:
R1 > R2
Plus for compound arches and minus for reverse curves.
Phase 6:
Testing of transition curve length LS as per Section 2.4.1 using formula (2.14).
Phase 7:
When testing, the following must be accounted for:
1. Speeds in adjacent sections.
2. Speed inspections approaching terminal stations.
3. Speed in platform areas.
4. Maximum speed in turnouts (see Tables 3.3 and 9.10).

5. Presence of stopping stations;


Notes:
1. A flow chart designed for calculation of the maximum design speed in curved
track sections and calculation examples is presented in Appendix D'.
2. The results of maximum design speed calculations for all planned tracks shall
be forwarded to the ISR Planning Branch (see Table 9.2, Appendix D') along
with results of the Longitudinal Profile Plan (see Table 9.3, Appendix D') and
the square of the weighted speed calculation values (see Table 9.4, Appendix
D').

CHAPTER 3
CRITERIA FOR HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
ALIGNMENT IN STATIONS

3.

CHAPTER 3: CRITERIA FOR HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENTS IN STATIONS


Station The area between the two entrance light signals posted on both ends of adjacent
track sections, which includes a track infrastructure that enables arrival, departure, placement,
overtaking, junctions, or various shunting of trains, loading and unloading of cargo and
passenger service.

3.1

Station Types
Listed below are the four major station types:
1.

Passenger Stations: Any station consisting of secondary lines that are used for
passenger services only, having platforms that enable passenger
embarkation and disembarkation, and secure passage between
tracks.

2.

Stopping Stations:

Any area located on main lines with platforms and secure


passages between tracks.

3.

Freight Stations:

Any station used for provision of cargo related services only


(loading and unloading of trains, acceptance and dispatch of
cargo).

4.

Operational Stations: Any station used as a point of meeting for trains and for
overtaking.

5.

Track Perimeter:

Any station used for execution of tasks associated with the


operation of trains (passenger services, junction, overtaking,
sorting, stabling, shunting, maintenance or inspections).

Note: A detailed specification of passenger stations is presented in the valid passenger


station program, [24].
3.2

Track Types in Stations and Branches


1.

Primary Tracks: Extension tracks of section tracks (see Chapter 2).

2.

Secondary Tracks:
a) Entrance and Exit Tracks Tracks used for arrival, departure, and placement of
trains within the station area.
b) Sorting Tracks Tracks used for collection, sorting, and shunting of trains based on
travel destinations (shunting yards).
c) Stabling Tracks Tracks used for stabling of trains and waiting for movement
(stabling yards).
d) Maintenance Tracks Tracks used for inspections, cleaning, weighing, and garage
tracks.
e) Special Tracks Protective flanks, shunting flanks, connection tracks and approach.

3.

Branches (see Chapter 2).

3.3

Determination of Station Locations Based on Track Geometry


Under normal conditions, stations must be design on straight tracks.
Under special conditions, stations may be designed in curved tracks with a radius that is
determined in accordance with the guidelines provided in sub-chapter 2.1, where the
minimum radius is no less than 500 meters, [12, 9]. Any radius smaller than 500 meters
requires prior ISR Planning Branch authorization (regarding platforms, see Section 3.14).
When a station is located on an arch, a clear line of sight to all signaling devices (light signals,
signs, etc.) from the train stopping distance must be ensured.

3.4

Horizontal Curves in Secondary Lines


In secondary tracks, the recommended radius is 500 - 800 meters.
The final choice shall be based on the maximum speed that is required on that track which
conforms with the type of turnouts installed.

3.5

Station Track Cants


Cants shall be designed in accordance with sub-chapter 2.3, taking into account the change of
train speeds within the station area. It is recommended that cants located within platform
areas be designed such that they do not exceed a height of 100 mm within the station area
[12].

3.6

Length of Straight Tracks between Station Arches


a) In primary tracks, the length of a straight rail within the station area shall be determined in
accordance with Sections 2.5.1 (Table 2.2) and 2.5.2.
b) In secondary tracks, the length of a straight rail (Lt min , meters) between two adjacent
tracks shall be calculated using the following formula:

Where: Vmax - Maximum track speed, Km/h.

3.7

Turnouts and Transitions


Turnouts shall be designed in straight track sections.
Under special conditions (pending ISR Planning Branch authorization), special turnouts may be
designed in arch form.
The entire turnout (both straight and curvature directions) must be designed with an identical
longitudinal grade.
3.7.1.

Use of Turnout Types

Table 3.1 Determination of Turnout Type for Speeds of up to 160 km/h


Description
Turnout Type
No Less than In Special Conditions
(Minimum)
Between main lines that connect in a
1/20
1/12
junction and split later on
Between two parallel main lines
1/12, 1/20,
1/9
Between main lines and secondary lines 1/9, 1/12
1/8
within a station area or branch
Between secondary lines or branches
1/9
1/8
Notes:
a)

This table presents general recommendations only. In addition, when determining


type of turnout, it is necessary to take the required speed of both turnout
direction into account (both straight and winding directions). See Table 14 Section
3.7.2.

b)

In tracks designated for train traffic with speeds of over of 160 km/h, it is advisable
to use turnouts that include special elements in frog (movable point of movable
wing rail).

3.7.2.

Turnout Data
1.

Listed below are geometric values of different turnouts. These values are based
on Veslo Cozifer type turnouts which are used by the ISR, see Figure 3.1
and Table 3.2.
See Appendix T' for turnout, double crossovers, double slips, and passage
schemes.
Within framework of the plans, the planner must specify the turnout starting
point, starting kilometrage, turnout type, turnout number, and clearance point
[37].

Figure 3.1

Table 3.2 Turnout Data for Speeds of up to 160 Km/h


Type
1:8
1:9
1:12
1:20
Type
1:8
1:9
1:12
1:20

L
a
b
c
C
D

R0

a, m
10.22
14.35
19.59
28.97

b, m
15.90
18.31
23.41
37.4

L, m
26.12
32.66
43.00
66.37

a, m
13.56
14.35
19.59
28.97

b, m
15.90
18.92
24.41
37.4

L, m
29.46
33.27
44.00
66.37

Different Data, Turnouts with UIC 54 Type track


c, m
C, m
D, m
tg
, degrees
30.77
40.99
0.95
0.13
7.406912
36.36
50.71
1.55
0.11
6.277298
47.06
66.65
1.70
0.085
4.858463
80.00
108.97
6.98
0.05
2.862405
Different Data, Turnouts with UIC 60 Type track
c, m
C, m
D, m
tg
, degrees
30.77
44.33
0.94
0.13
7.406912
36.36
50.71
0.96
0.11
6.277298
47.06
66.65
0.94
0.085
4.858463
80.00
108.97
5.69
0.05
2.862405

- Turnout length
- Front tangent (from start of turnout to its geometric center)
- Posterior tangent, including antenna (from geometric center to end of turnout)
- Distance between center of turnout (geometric center) and clearance point
- Distance between start of turnout and clearance point.
- Distance between end of turnout and axis of last long sleeper
- Turnout opening angle
- Internal radius of turnout

R0 , m
190/190
280/250
485/600
1300/2000
R, m
190/250
290/250
489/600
1300/2000

In special cases, when the clearance point is located between the straight line
of the first rail and the arch of the second or when it is located between two
arches, it is necessary to calculate additional distance to the clearance point
location such that the clearance point is located at the point where the
distance between the two tracks is 4 meters.
2.

Maximum speed at winding point of a new turnout.


Listed below are design speeds for Veslo Cozifer produced turnouts:
Table 3.3 Turnout Traffic Speed
Turnout Type
Speed at Turnout
Winding, km/h
1/8
30
1/9
40
1/12
60
1/20
100

Speed at Straight Line of


Turnout, km/h
120
160
160
160

Notes:
1. All of the above values belong to turnouts which are designated for laying down
on straight tracks.
2. Turnouts in arches. See Chapter 8.
3.7.3.

Distance Between Turnouts


Whenever joining two turnouts, a distance of SO must be maintained between them.
The Recommended distance:

The distance under regular conditions:


a) For speeds of Vmax 70 km/h
b) For speeds of 70 < Vmax 130 km/h

The Minimum Distance:


1. The minimum distance between two opposing direction turnouts (LHS and RHS)
So is 6 meters [6].
Figure 3.2

Note: In secondary tracks (Class 5), under special conditions, cancellation of the
distance may be considered (subject to prior ISR Planning Branch authorization).
2. The minimum distance between the start of turnouts of the same direction (LHS
and RHS) So is 6 meters, [6].
Figure 3.3

3. The minimum distance between the end of one turnout and the beginning of the
next So shall be determined based on the type of turnout in question, see Table
3.4.
Figure 3.4

Table 3.4
Turnout Type
1/8
1/9
1/12
1/20

SO , m
6
7
9
13

Under special conditions, the minimum distance S O shall be (irrespective of turnout


type):
In 1-4 type tracks:

6.0 m

In 5 type tracks:
Maximum Speed over 60 km/h:

6.0 m

Maximum speed below 60 km/h:

0.0 m

Notes:
1. In the event turnout S1 has an excessive gauge widening in a divergent track, it is
necessary to maintain a minimum distance up to the start of turnout S3 in order
to change the distance between the rails.
2. If the distance between turnouts S1 and S2 is as specified above, it is necessary
to order turnout S2 with a motor installed on the winding side (it is advisable to
act according to sub-section 5)
3. For the minimum distance (SO) between the end of turnout (S1) on the main or
secondary line and turnout (S2) of a flank or branch (Figure 3.5), see Table 3.5.
Figure 3.5

Turnout Type
S1
(UIC 6)
1/9
1/12
1/20

So (m)
6
7
27

Table 3.5
Turnout Type, S2 (UIC 60)
1/8
1/9
S (m)
So (m)
4.4
6
4.0
6
4.0
24

S (m)
4.8
4.2
4.0

Note: Any deviation from the values presented in Table 3.5 requires prior ISR Planning
Branch approval.
4. Determination of Start of Turnout
1. The distance between the start of turnouts which are planned opposite each
other on parallel lines (see Figure 3.6, Turnouts S5 and S6).shall be no less
than 2 meters long.
Figure 3.6

2. In the case of two turnouts being positioned one after the other (see Figure
3.7, turnouts S3 and S4), the distance in question is that which is between
the end of the first turnout and the beginning of the second, it is necessary
to ensure that the start of turnout S4 is located opposite the clearance point
of turnout S3.
Figure 3.7

Note: Failure to comply with the terms set forth in the said subsection requires
installation of a motor on the winding side (see Note 2 subsection C).

3.7.4.

The Distance Between a Turnout and Curve


1.

When turnouts are located near horizontal curves, a minimum distance of SO


must be maintained between them.
Recommended difference:

Distance under normal conditions:

For speeds of Vmax 70 km/h

For speeds of 70 < Vmax 130 km/h

The minimum distance shall be determined in accordance with the following


diagrams:
1. The minimum distance between he end of a curve and beginning turnout
SO is 6.0 meters.
Figure 3.8

Note: In secondary tracks (Class 5), under special conditions, shortening or cancellation of
the distance may be considered (subject to prior ISR Planning Branch authorization).

2. The minimum distance between the end of a turnout and the start of a
straight line curve Sor shall be determined in accordance with Table 3.4.
Figure 3.9

Note: In secondary tracks (Class 5), under special conditions, shortening or cancellation of
the distance may be considered (subject to prior ISR Planning Branch authorization).
3. In primary tracks, the minimum distance SO shall be determined in
accordance with Table 3.4.
In secondary tracks (Class 5), the minimum distance between the end of
the turnout and the start of curve of a divergent track Sor shall be 6.0
meters.
Figure 3.10

Note: Under special conditions, shortening or cancellation of the distance may be


considered (subject to prior ISR Planning Branch authorization).
2.

When turnouts are located near vertical curves or longitudinal profile cracks , a
minimum distance of SO must be maintained between them.
a)

The recommended distance under normal conditions:

b)

The permissible distance subject to prior ISR Planning Branch approval:

c)

The minimum distance 6 m.

Note: In secondary tracks (Class 5), under special conditions, shortening or


cancellation of the distance may be considered (subject to prior ISR Planning
Branch authorization).
3.7.5.

3.7.6.

Turnouts Near Single-level Junctions


a)

The distance between the beginning of the turnout to the end of the junction
depends on the type of shunting and barriers used in the area. For this reason,
the final distance must be determined in coordination with the ISR authority.

b)

In most cases, the following values may be used:

If shunting of locomotives is executed between the turnout and junction,


the minimum distance shall be 35 m.

If no shunting of locomotives is executed in the area, the minimum


distance shall be 20 m.

Clearance Point and Track Length


Definition: The 'clearance point' is the point where a mobile stock clearance exists
on two adjacent tracks and allows free passage of trains on a strait track
or in a divergent track.
a)

Clearance points are marked in places where the distance between two
connecting tracks is 4.0 meters. The existence of a clearance point requires one
train to stop on its track while the other train passes on an adjacent track, thus
preventing a collision between the two trains by maintaining a vertical
clearance for safe passage on the track.
Clearance points must be marked on all layout plans of both preliminary and
detailed plans, including superstructures and in the field.

b)

In secondary lines running through stations, it is necessary to distinguish


between the general track length and the usable length of the line for
operational purposes.

Total Length:
a) For Crossing Lines The distance between the beginning of the entry
turnout and the beginning of the exit turnout.
b) For Dead-end Tracks (Flanks) The distance between the beginning of the
entry turnout and the buffer, including: Buffer-stop length and shifting
distance.
Usable Length:
The section of track used for stopping of trains without interfering with traffic
on nearby tracks.
Limited Usable Length (See Stations Scheme in Appendix 9):
a) In Crossing Lines:

1. By way of a clearance point on lines without signals.


2. By blinding light or by isolation on lines with signals.
b) In Dead-end Tracks (Flanks): By way of a clearance point or light signal
with buffer, including stopping point before it (2 m for regular buffers, 5 me
for friction buffers and 7 m for hydraulic buffers [41]).
Notes:
1. To the required usable length, it is advisable to add 5 meters on both sides of
the track in order to ensure proper visibility of signals by locomotive drivers.
2. Light signals are installed before the clearance points and force the
locomotive driver to stop the train (see Figures 9.5 and 9.6).
3.8

Longitudinal Profile Grade within Station Areas


Longitudinal profiles located within perimeter of a station area shall be planned in a leveled
section of 800 meters in operational stations used by cargo trains and integrated stations with
passenger trains and approx. 400 meters is passenger stations.
It is possible to plan grades of up to 1.5 promille and subject to ISR Planning Branch approval even up to 2.5 promille.
In special conditions (harsh topographic conditions, tracks, existing stations, etc.), in
operational stations that are not used for shunting works or as shunting yards, the grade may
be increased up to 10 promille [4].
In all cases that involve risk of railroad car derailment it shall be necessary to employ any
means necessary in order to ensure safety in operation of trains [4, 13].
In platform areas of new stations, the longitudinal grade shall be no greater than 2.5 promille.

3.9

Longitudinal Profile Sections


The length of the section located between the profile cracks (element) shall be determined in
accordance with Section 2.7.

3.10

Vertical Curves
As per Section 2.8.

3.11

Horizontal and Vertical Alignment Combinations


As per Section 2.9.
The combination of turnouts with longitudinal profile cracks or vertical curves is prohibited.
Under special conditions, when the section speed is 120 km/h (pending ISR Planning Branch
authorization), turnouts may be combined with vertical curves with radius R V 10,000 meters.

3.12

Height difference Between Adjacent Tracks


As per Section 2.10 (Subsection 2).
A permanent height difference may be planned between adjacent main and secondary lines,
or between two adjacent secondary lines, however this difference may not exceed 15 cm and
may not be implemented in any area in which turnouts are located.
Passages and other turnout combinations may be planned between adjacent tracks such that
they are on a single-level.

3.13

Distance Between Track Axes Tracks


3.13.1.

Distances Between Two Adjacent Tracks (Gauge)


Table 3.6
Track Type
Primary Tracks
Secondary Tracks

Distance Between Axes


Recommended
Minimum in Special Conditions
In Limited Sections
4.7 m
4.5 m
5.0 (or 4.7) m
4.5 m

Note: When the development of power, lighting, and electricity systems is expected
between adjacent tracks inside a station, or when worker activity is expected
therein, it is advisable to increase the distance between the tracks.
3.13.2.

Distances in Multi-track Lines


As per Section 2.11.2.

3.14

Passenger Platforms
Parameter
Length
Height
Width
Distance between track
axis and end of platform
(straight track)
Passage between
platforms

Table 3.7
Recommended
350 m (without ramps)

In Special Conditions *
In accordance with ISR Planning
Branch recommendations
96 cm
55, 76 or 105 cm
Island platform
10.0 m **
Side platform
5 m **
1.65 m (in straight lines) -

By underground
By overpass
passage
Passages located at track level of ramp ends (for use by railway
employees only or for emergency evacuation of passengers).

Note:

* - Requires prior ISR Planning Branch coordination


** - Minimum width in areas having escalators and/or stairs for speeds of up to 160
km/h
For speeds of 161 - 200 km/h: Island platform - 11 m, Side platforms 8.5 m.
For speeds of 201 - 250 km/h: Island platform - 12 m, Side platforms 9 m.
Any deviation from the above parameters requires prior ISR Planning Branch
coordination
Minimum width of platform edges (last 50 meters of length on each side):
a)

Island Platform 4 meters for speeds of up to 160 km/h.

b)

Island Platform 6 meters for speeds over 161 km/h.

c)

Side Platform 3.10 meters.

The platform design is presented in the valid Passenger Train Station Program
[30].
If the platform is located on a curve, the planner must calculated the distance
between the platform edge and track axis, see Appendix 5 [12, 14]. The
calculation must include the following:
a)

Rolling stock data.

b)

Horizontal curve data.

c)

Platform height.

If the platform is located next to a curve, it is advisable to design the platform


edge at a distance of at least 25 m from the start of the curve tangent.
The construction of platforms that are higher than 30 cm is prohibited in curves
with a radius smaller than 500 meters.
All plans must specify platform start and end kilometer marks and separate
specification of ramp length.
The safety gap of a platform is the area in which a passing train may influence
any passenger standing on the platform [22]:
a) For speeds of Vmax 230 km/h

AS = 2.50 A

b) For speeds of 160 < Vmax 200 km/h

AS = 3.00 A

c) For speeds of 200 < Vmax 250 km/h

AS = 3.70 A

A Distance between platform edge and track axis


AS Platform safety gap.
1. For speeds of Vmax > 160 km/h it is necessary to mark the safety gap
boundary on the actual platform.
2. For speeds of Vmax > 200 km/h it is necessary to prevent passenger access
into the safety gap.

Figure 3.11

3.15

Distance Between Tracks and Gauge Widening in Curves


In accordance with the relevant Sections in Section 2.12.

3.16

Visibility in Stations
The existence of a proper line of sight from the locomotive to the signaling devices (light
signals, signs, etc.), from a distance that enables absolute stopping, must be ensured. This
distance depends on the speed of the train and the local track geometry. The recommended
distance is 1,200 m (minimum 1,000 m), however, in special conditions, when the train speed is
lower, this distance me be reduced to 400 m.

3.17

Development of Varying Station Specifications (Examples)


Figure 3.12
1.

Passenger Stations

2.

Operational Stations

3.

Change into Passenger Stations Only

4.

Track Compound

5.

Track Site with Branches

Figure 2 Legend:
Phase 1 tracks
Phase 2 tracks (2 main lines)
Continuous

Track range of the marked type

Note: It is required to plan a walking path alongside the tracks within the compound area
(see Appendix 16).

CHAPTER 4

VERTICAL CLEARANCES AND DISTANCES FOR


CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES AND
STRUCTURES IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO
TRACKS

4.

CHAPTER 4: LOADING GAUGES AND DISTANCES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES AND


STRUCTURES NEARBY TRACKS

4.1

General

4.2

1.

The guidelines presented below are based on the vertical clearance of the relevant train,
see Figure 4.1 [28].

2.

Minimum Structure Circumference A range that defines the minimum distances


between a track and various facilities and structures erected nearby.

3.

Maximum Loading Circumference A range that defines maximum dimensions for all
types of rolling stock, including freight, that move on the tracks (excluding special trains
with extraordinary cargo).

Distance between Track Axes and Structures, Facilities, Bridges, Walls and Electricity Poles
4.2.1.

Distance between Track Axes and ISR Structures or Facilities


This section focuses on guidelines for determination of the distances for facilities
constructed by the ISR for provision of services to operation of trains: Monitoring
and control structures, ISR perimeter structures, light signals and various posts
(excluding bridge pillars), fences, railings, etc.
Under normal conditions, facilities should be constructed as far from the tracks as
possible, and this for the purpose of saving space for various draining systems,
communications systems, service routes and future development, and in any case no
less than the values specified in Table 4.1 below.
Table 4.1

No.
1

Length of Facility Planned


Minimum Distance
Alongside the Track
Straight Track
Curved Track
In sections and stations, outside 2.31 m
As per Table 4.4 or
platform area: Less than 6 m
calculation (See
Appendix 6, Figure 9.3)
In sections and stations, outside 1. Up to 160 km/h 3.3 m As per Table 4.3 or
platform area: 6 m or more,
2. Between 161 250
calculation (See
depending on speed
km/h 3.8 m.
Appendix 6, Figure 9.3)
In stations: inside Platform area See Note 1 [30]

Notes:
1. The distance between the platform edge (elevator, stairs, escalator, pole, etc.):
1. For speeds of Vmax 160 km/h:
Existing tracks 2.0 meters.
For tracks 2.5 meters.
2. For speeds of 160 < Vmax 200 km/h 3.0 meters

3. For speeds of 200 < Vmax 250 km/h 3.5 meters


2. Light signal posts located within the station area must be positioned at a distance of no
less than 2.35 m from the track axis.
3. Light signal posts in sections shall be positioned alongside the tracks at a distance of no
less than 2.40 m and no more than 3.5 m [36]. In special cases (walls, tunnels, bridges),
light signal installations must be planned in coordination with the the ISR Signaling and
Communications Branch and authorization of the ISR Planning Branch.
4. For instruction regarding distances of posts and electricity lines see [28].
5. In Curves:

The locomotive driver's clear line of site must be ensured.

Required visibility distances must be examined in coordination with the ISR


Authority.

The values presented in the above table may only be implemented on one side of
the tracks, such that the second side ensures convenient access and sufficient
space for various train related systems.

6. In the event it is not possible to ensure the distances specified in Section 3 of Table 4.1,
it is possible to design niches alongside the structures or walls (see Section 4.2.4, c').
4.2.2.

Bridge Loading Gauges


a)

Minimum distance between the track axis and posts (under-bridge tracks):
1.

When the height of track-side posts is less than 6.0 meters, the required
distance for speeds of up to 160 km/h in a straight rail is 3.0 meters (see
vertical clearance), and for calculation-based curves (see Appendix 6).
For speeds of between 161 - 250 km/h 3.8 meters (regardless of track
alignment).

2.
b)

When the height of track-side posts is 6.0 meters or more, the values
presented in Section 4.2.5 apply.

When designing new bridges above existing tracks (see Figure 4.1), the following
values must be used:
1.

In lines designated for electrification, the height from the rail height to
the bottom side of the bridge structure shall be:
- 6.5 m In lines and stations.

2.

In lines that are not designated for electrification, the height from the rail
height to the bottom side of the bridge structure shall be:
- 6.0 m In lines and stations.
Note: In special cases it is possible to decrease parameters pending prior
ISR Planning Branch authorization.

3.

Lateral distance from track axis to side of ballast:


- For speeds of Vmax 160 km/h 2.4 meters

- For speeds over 161 km/h 2.9 meters.


- In special cases, subject to ISR Planning Branch approval 2.2 meters
The minimum width of a ballast for tracks located on railway bridges shall
be as specified by relevant Israeli standards [31].
4.

Ballast width:
- For speeds of up to 160 km/h 0.30 meters.
- For speeds over 161 km/h 0.35 meters.

5.

In order to allow the passage of railway employees alongside the tracks,


it is necessary to maintain an 80 cm wide and 2.2 meters high safety
buffer alongside one side of the tracks. The minimum distance between
a track axis and a Safety buffer shall be as follows:
- For speeds of up to 160 km/h 2.5 meters.
- For speeds over 161 km/h 3.0 meters.

6.

For emergency situations, it is necessary to design a 0.9 meter wide


emergency escape route alongside one side of all tracks (train in braking
mode).

7.

For an example of a cross section of a bridge with electricity posts see


Figure 4.2.

Notes:

4.2.3.

1.

Design of level separations shall be conducted in accordance with


Separation of Tracks Design Guidelines Route, [32].

2.

Under special conditions, when the minimum distance between the track
axis and the post is less than 3 meters (subject to ISR Planning Branch
authorization), it is necessary to design a support line similar to those
which are constructed on bridges.

Vertical Clearance in Tunnels


8. In order to allow the passage of railway employees alongside the tunnel tracks,
it is necessary to design an 80 cm wide and 2.2 meters high safety buffer
alongside one side of the tracks [16, 40].
The minimum distance between the track axis and Safety buffer shall be as
follows:
- For speeds of up to 160 km/h 2.5 meters,
- For speeds over 161 km/h 3.0 meters. (see Figure 4.3).
9. For emergency situations, it is necessary to design a 1.1 meter wide and 2.2
meters high emergency escape route alongside one side of the tracks (train in
braking mode).
The minimum distance between the track axis and an emergency escape route
shall be 2.2 meters for tracks with ballast and 1.7 meters for tracks without

(concrete pavement).
10. The minimum width of a ballast from the track axis shall be no less than 2.2
meters and ballast thickness 0.30 meters below the sleeper.
For an example of a bridge cross section with electricity posts see Figure 4.3.
4.2.4.

Vertical Clearance Between Walls


The minimum distance between the track axis and wall, considering the escape
route required, shall be:
- For speeds of up to 160 km/h 3.3 meters,
- For speeds of between 161 - 250 km/h 3.8 meters.
Note:
1.

In curves, when the emergency escape route is located on the external side of
the arch, the distance must be increased according to the cant height h, [15].

Cant 'h', mm

20 - 50
55 - 100
105 - 150

Table 4.2
Distance Increment, m
Vmax > 160 Vmax 160
km/h
km/h
0.10
0.10
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.40

2.

In curves where the emergency escape route is located on the inside of the arch,
the above increment shall be conducted in accordance with calculations (see
Appendix 6, Figure 9.3).

3.

At all places where it is not possible to maintain the aforesaid distances, it is


necessary to implement niches every 20 meters as specified below [16]
Depth 0.8 m,
Length 1.6 m,
Height 2.0 m.

4.2.5.

Distance Between the Track Axis and Structures


The minimum distance between the track axis and structures shall be as specified in
Tables 4.3 and 4.4 [23]:

Table 4.3 Distance from Track Axis to Structures Greater than 6 Meters in Length

Double Track
Vmax > 160
km/h
External
Internal
side of
side of
arch
arch
m
m
3.80
3.80
3.90
3.80
4.00
3.80
4.20
3.80

Vmax 160
km/h
External Internal
side of
side of
arch
arch
m
m
3.30
3.30
3.40
3.30
3.55
3.30
3.70
3.30

Single Track

Cant

Vmax > 160 Vmax 160


km/h
km/h

m
3.80
3.80
3.80
3.80

m
3.30
3.30
3.30
3.30

mm
0
20 50
55 100
105 - 150

Note: In straight lines, the distance between the track axis and structure is 3.30
meters for speeds of up to 160 km/h and 3.8 meters for speeds above 160 km/h.
The above parameters were determined taking distance between track axis and the
escape route, based on train speed, into account.
Table 4.4 Distance from Track Axis to Structures Smaller than 6 Meters in Length
Vmax 160
Vmax 250
Track Alignment
km/h
km/h
m
m
3.30
3.65
Straight Line
3.30
3.65
Internal side of arch
3.30
3.65
0
External side of
arch with Cant
3.40
3.75
20 50
3.55
3.90
55 100
h mm
3.70
4.05
105 - 150

Figure 4.1 Structure and Cargo Dimensions

Notes:
1. All dimensions presented in this Figure apply to straight tracks only.
For details regarding the required additions to these measurements in curves, see
various Guideline sections.
2. For items that are not supported by springs for train rolling stock minimum height
above track head 80 mm.
3. *, ** - See Section Loading Gauges in Bridges.

Figure 4.2 Bridge Cross-sections


a) Cross-section of Electrified Double-track Bridge

b) Cross-section of Electrified single-track Bridge

Note: *
**

- For speeds of up to 160 km/h


- For speeds of 161 - 200 km/h

Figure 4.3 Escape Routes and Safety in Tunnels and Walled Sections
a) Example of a single track safety buffer in tunnels constructed by underground excavation
methods.

b) Example of a double track safety buffer in tunnels constructed by underground excavation


methods.

c) Example of a double track safety buffer in tunnels constructed by 'Cut & Cover' excavation
method.

Note: *
**

- Distance for speeds of up to 160 km/h


- Distance for speeds of 161-230 km/h

CHAPTER 5

EXCAVATION AND FILLING TYPE


EMBANKMENTS,
TYPICAL PROFILES

5.

CHAPTER 5: EXCAVATION AND FILLING TYPE EMBANKMENTS, TYPICAL PROFILES


Notes:
1. This chapter does not deal with embankment foundations, stability, slope or drainage.
These topics shall be separately dealt with within framework of specific planned
sections.
2. Figures 5.1 5.4 (pages 56 - 59) present typical profiles of a single and double track
types that consist of different components of embankments, excavations and
superstructures.
3. Substructures must be designed in accordance with [27].

5.1

Embankment Design Parameters


5.1.1.

Ballast Width
The distance K from the edge of the sleeper to the edge of the ballast is 40 - 50
cm.
For maximum speeds of above 160 km/h, the distance K must be planned as 50
cm.
When the ballast is supported by a concrete wall or by other reinforcement, the
distance K may be reduced to 30 cm.
The distance Cb from the track axis to the edge of the ballast is achieved by
summing up the distance K and half of the sleeper length, see Figure 5.1.

(5.1)
5.1.2.

Cb = 1.30 + K

Shoulder Width
a) The distance d from the track axis to the edge of the ballast-filled
embankment shoulder is 3.3 m for speeds of up to 160 km/h and 3.8 m for
speeds of 161-250 km/h.
The embankment width that is adjacent to bridge columns shall be planned
with a shoulder (d)+1 meters along at least 10 meters. The change in shoulder
width from d to (d)+1 must be designed in linear fashion along 25 meters.
For details regarding distance d which extends from an electrified track axis
to the edge of the embankment see Figures 5.5 5.7.
In Class 5 tracks, the distance d may be reduced to 3.0 m subject to the ISR
Planning Branch authorization.

In curves, the distance between the track axis and the edge of the
embankment shoulder d1 (m) is calculated using the following formula:

(5.2)

d1 = d + d

Where: d - Widening of the embankment shoulder as specified below.


b) In the case of a single track that is designated for duplication (Figure 5.3), the
distances d0 and d are presented.
The distance d0 is equal to half the distance between the axis of the planned
track and the axis of the future track.
The distance d (m) is calculated using the following formula:

(5.3)

d = d - d0

When dealing with curves consisting of cants, widening of the embankment


shoulder is required:

(5.4)
5.1.3.

d1 = d + d

Widening of Ballast Shoulders in Curves


The ballast shoulder located on the outside of curves must be widened in
accordance with the parameters presented in Table 5.1 below:
Table 5.1
Cant h, mm
20 - 50
55 - 100
105 - 150

5.1.4.

Widening of Embankment Shoulder, d


Vmax 230 km/h
0.10
0.20
0.40

Vmax 160 km/h


0.10
0.25
0.40

Thickness of Ballast Underneath Sleepers


a) In regular tracks, the thickness of the ballast "ab" below sleepers of regular
tracks against the lower line is 30 cm, [3, 15].
In branches and secondary tracks, the minimum thickness is 20 cm.
b) In speeds exceeding 160 km/h, the thickness of ballast "ab" below sleepers
against the lower rail is 35 cm.
c) In bridges and tunnels, the thickness of the ballast ab" below the sleepers
against the lower rail shall be as specified in Paragraphs a) and b).

5.1.5.

Slope of Lateral Ballasts


The slope of ballast p shall be planned as 5%. In special cases, subject to ISR
Planning Branch authorization, the slope may be reduced to 2-3%.

5.2

Bermas
The Berma e (m) is the length between the embankment base and the edge of the drainage
ditch (excavation) or a high-embankment reinforcement belt (deep excavations).
Bermas have several uses:
a. To serve as a strip for future construction of a service access route alongside the rail.
b. To serve as a strip in which communications and signaling cable ditches my be laid.
c.

To serve as a space in which preparation for maintenance works may be conducted.

d. To protect the embankment slope (excavation) against water that is drained from
nearby areas.
The width of a Berma depends on the purpose for which it was built.
1. The required width for paving of a service access route is 5.0 meters.
2. On the other side of the embankment the Berma shall be designed as 3 meters wide,
up to the drainage ditch. In such Bermas it shall also be necessary to design a
communications duct. In cases where the Berma is less than 3 meters in width, it shall
be necessary to implement protection for the drainage ditch slope.
3. The minimum width required from the end of the communications ditch to the edge of
the embankment shoulder is 1.5 meters. In cases of insufficient space, pending ISR
Planning Branch authorization, the Berma width may be reduced down to 0.5 meters
along with protection of the slope.
4. In special cases and whenever no communications ditch is present,, embankments may
be designed without a Berma.
5.3

Service Routes (For use by ISR Employees)


All plans must include - track-side service access routes and entrances/exits from the external
road system.
In cases where local conditions or property boundaries do not allow the paving of a service
access route, the ISR Authority shall determine the manner by which required works are to be
continued.
The minimum distances between the end of the access route and the rail axis must be
maintained:
1. In main lines - 3.5 m.
2. In secondary - 3.0 m.
Route width No less than 4.0 meters.
When excavating service access routes, two placement options are available:

1. Below (see Figure 5.2).


2. Above.
In areas prone to flooding, it is advisable to design service access routes above the
adjacent track.

Figure 5.1 Typical Profile of Filling in a Track that is not Designated for Duplication or Electrification

Figure 5.2 Typical Profile of Excavations in a Track that is not Designated for Duplication or Electrification

Figure 5.3 - Typical Profile of a Track Designated for Duplication

Figure 5.4 - Typical Profile of a Double Line Designated for Duplication

Figure 5.5 - Typical Profile of an Electrified Straight Line Track

Notes: - * - ** - ***

The shoulder located on the outside curve of an arch must be extended as detailed in Table 5.1.
For speeds between 161-200 km/h 3.8 meters.
For speeds between 161-200 km/h 3.0 meters.
During the track duplication phase, it is necessary to set aside space for a Model 'A' type communications ditch
alongside the new track.

Figure 5.6 - Typical Profile of an Electrified Straight Line Double Track

Notes: -

* - The shoulder located on the outside curve of an arch must be extended as detailed in Table 5.1.

- ** - For speeds between 161-200 km/h 3.8 meters.


- *** - For speeds between 161-200 km/h 3.0 meters.

Figure 5.7 - Typical Profile of an Electrified Straight Line Single Track That is Designated for Duplication

Notes:

- * - The shoulder located on the outside curve of an arch must be extended as detailed in Table 5.1.
- ** - For speeds between 161-200 km/h 3.8 meters.
- *** - For speeds between 161-200 km/h 3.0 meters.
During the track duplication phase, it is necessary to set aside space for a Model 'A' type communications ditch
alongside the new track.

Figure 5.8 - Typical Profile of a Station (Example)

5.4

Drainage of Railway tracks


5.4.1.

General
The drainage design constitutes an integral part of the railway track technical plans.
The purpose of the drainage system is to prevent flooding, collapse of
embankments, weakening of infrastructure, and as a result deflection, cracks,
runoff, etc.
Detailed guidelines for drainage design may be obtained from the ISR Planning
Branch.

5.4.2.

Drainage Ditches
Various ditch parameters (such as f1 , f2, ft) are determined based on drainage
calculations.
The open ditch type preferred by the ISR Authority is of trapeze shape. The
recommended width 2.0 meters.
Open ditches may not be used inside passenger station areas.
As an additional means, Figure 5.2 presents an upper ditch and dirt bump.
Note: Hydrological plans and calculations shall be conducted in accordance with [17,
18, 19, 34, 37, 38].

5.5

Communication and Signaling Cable Alignment


a)
1.

Inside the station area (between the station's entry light signals), it is necessary to
design a concrete ditch for signaling and communications cables inside the
embankment at a distance of 3.25 meters from the track axis to the exterior wall of
the ditch (see Figures 5.2, 5.5-5.7).

2.

Between stations (in sections), it is advisable to design a concrete ditch for holding
of signaling and communications cables adjacent to the train's embankment base
(drainage ditch) or service access route (see Figures 5.1, 5.9, 5.10).

3.

An additional communications line must be designed along the entire length of the
embankment, and this in addition to the concrete ditch. In most cases, it is
necessary to design the alignment of concealed cables underneath service access
routes or near the train strip boundary at a depth of 1.80 meters below the planned
ground level (see Figures 5.6 and 5.7). It is advisable to design concealed lines on
the side of the track in which no communications cables are present.

4.

In cases that involve the transfer of communications cable ditches on the


embankment slope or excavation for changing of alignments and pit connections,
see Figure 5.11 (a-c). It is necessary to plan a 10 cm high plastic hive with refill
above the pipe with a sloped cladding or any other type of protective cladding
above it. Pipes shall be laid down during construction of the embankment and
before cladding of the slope.

5.

At present, two types of communications ditches are in use: A and B (as per ISR
Signaling and Communications Branch specifications).

6.

The final decision regarding ditch type and location shall be conducted in
accordance with requirements set forth by the ISR Signaling and Communications
Branch and in coordination with the ISR Planning Branch. The planner shall be
required to approach the said departments for the purpose of coordination prior to
design.

b) The planner responsible for the alignment of signaling and communications must take
possible future restoration of the full embankment width into account and ensure it may
be executed without harming cables.
c)

Concrete tunnels shall be planned at a depth of no less than 0.2 meters or in accordance
with requirements of the ISR Signaling and Communications Branch and in coordination
with the ISR Planning Branch.

d) In the event cables are laid down in a ditch deeper than 0.3 meters from the ballast level,
the cable alignment must be planned using an embankment base or service access route.
e) For any case that is not specified above or other special case, the cable alignment shall be
determined in coordination with and pending authorization of the said ISR departments.
f)

For guidelines regarding the design of communications crossings see Chapter 6.

Figure 5.9 Placement of Communication Alignment in Sections

A) Communications Ditch adjacent to an Embankment Service Access Route

B) Communications Ditch adjacent to an Embankment Drainage Ditch

C) Communications Ditch adjacent to an Embankment Drainage Ditch

D) Communications Ditch adjacent to Excavated Drainage Ditch

Notes: * - For Model 'A' Communications Ditch 0.3 meters


** - For Model 'A' Communications Ditch 2.2 meters

Figure 5.10 Details for Execution of Communications Ditch Adjacent to Embankment Base

Notes: * - For service access routes 0.2 meters


** - For Security and Communication optic fiber cables

Figure 5.11-A - Ascent of Communication Alignments on an Embankment Slope without Shoulders

Figure 5.11-b - Ascent of Communication Alignments on an Embankment Slope with Shoulders

Figure 5.11-c - Ascent of Communication Alignments on Embankment Slopes that are Adjacent to Bridges

5.6

Typical Profiles
1. For typical profiles without electrification see Figures 5.1 5.4.
2. For typical profiles with electrification see Figures 5.5 5.7.
3. For typical profile in platform area see Figure 5.8.
4. The typical profiles presented in the said guidelines are general only and must be
designed in accordance with requirements of the the project's ground/structural
consultant.
5. Any other solution shall require specific coordination with the ISR Planning Branch.

5.7

Notes
1.

The dimensions of all other parameters which do not appear in Section 5 must be
coordinated with the ISR Authority advisers.

2.

Typical Profiles of single-level junctions are to be executed in accordance with Railway


track Junction Design Guidelines, [32].

CHAPTER 6
DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF TRACK
SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATION
CROSSINGS

6.

CHAPTER 6 - DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF TRACK SIGNALLING AND COMMUNICATION


CROSSINGS

6.1

General Definitions
1.

In track design projects, the location and quantity of signaling and communications
crossings are determined by the ISR Signaling and Communications Branch.
ISR communications infrastructures include two types of crossings:
a)

Main Crossings
In most cases, main crossings are constructed using 10 steel pipes (one or two)
located underneath the track for passage of communications cables to the other
side of the track and in road crossings. Crossings that enter the monitoring and
control structures include 10 or 24/20 steel pipes with 6 PVC pipes inside them.
A concrete pit is installed at each end of the pipe.

b)

Signaling Device Crossings


In most cases, signaling device crossings (light signals, turnouts, circuits, magnets
and axis counters) are constructed using 4 pipes or 6 hard PVC pipes.

2.

In projects involving new lines or upgrading/duplication of existing tracks, during


construction of the new track infrastructure but before placement of the superstructure,
the pipes used by communications crossings (sleeves) are placed inside the embankment
by the earthworks contractor in open excavations only.

3.

The construction of communications crossings below operational tracks is executed by


way of 3 primary methods: horizontal drilling, flexible drilling, or open excavation.
The method of execution used must ensure minimum interference with the existing track
geometry (deflection and leveling), maintenance of proper functioning of the
substructure including strength and stability, ballast drainage, without causing harm to
any properties of the superstructure elements (ballast).
The construction of communications crossings below operational tracks by way of
horizontal and/or flexible drilling methods (under continuous monitoring of the pit depth
and pipe exit location), see Figures 6.1, 6.2 is recommended and preferred.
The construction of communications crossings below operational tracks by way of open
excavation is not recommended due various engineering limitations such as:
a)

Halting of all train traffic (operation).

b)

Dismantling of an existing track or repositioning of sleepers and drilling between


the rails (manual labor).

c)

Damage to uniformity of the substructure and subgrade stability.

d)

Impairment of the ability to drain the upper layer of ballast.

e)

Contamination of ballast with subgrade material.

6.2

Communication Crossings Below Operational Tracks


6.2.1.

Main Crossings
Main crossings are executed by way of horizontal drilling (see Figure 6.1).

6.2.2.

Signaling Device Crossings


1.

Signaling device crossings constructed below main lines must be planned for
execution by horizontal or flexible drilling. In the event it is not possible to drill
due to technical or engineering reasons, or in the event a track upgrade is
planned during the next phase of the project, the execution of communications
crossings by way of open excavation shall be permitted(pending authorization
of ISR Track and Environment Dept. and in coordination with the ISR Planning
Branch and ISR Signaling and Communications Branch).

2.

Such crossings, inside stations, underneath secondary lines that are located near
main lines, must be planned for execution by horizontal drilling or flexible
drilling methods. In special cases, pending authorization of the ISR Planning
Branch and in coordination with the ISR Track and Environment Dept. and ISR
Signaling and Communications Branch, the execution of communications
crossings by way of open excavation shall be permitted.

3.

Due to economic reasons only, the execution of communications crossings by


way of open excavation shall be permitted when working underneath
secondary lines which are not adjacent to main lines in branches and yards
(track classification type 5-a, based on Design Guidelines for the Design of
Railway tracks Substructure, Part 1, [33]).

Figure 6.1 Horizontal Drilling

Notes:
1. Protection of Communications Crossing, when the distance 'Hb' from the bottom of the drainage ditch to the pipe is less than 1.5 m.
2. The plastic hive length is 3.0 m.

Figure 6.2-a Scheme of Flexible Drilling Below Tracks

Note: All of the above parameters must be calculated according to the type of equipment used and execution method.

Figure 6.2-b Scheme of Flexible Drilling below Tracks under Special Conditions

6.3

Placement of Crossings
Communication crossings must be protected against damage during track maintenance and
future upgrade. It is advisable that all crossings that are dug below tracks be executed
perpendicular (vertical) to the track.
The recommended thickness of the ballast covering the pipe is 50 cm (1.2 meters from the rail
height). In special cases no less than 20 cm (0.9 meters from the rail height), see Figure 6.3 The
pipe begins from the communications ditch and exits on the other side, 0.5 m from the ballast
edge.
In the event of horizontal drilling (by way of pits on both sides), the distance form the rail
height and pipe level should be 2.0 meters.
Note:
1. According to Standard UIC-755-1, the distance between the rail height (UIC-60) and the
upper surface of the pipe must be 1.19 meters.
2. According to German Standard DS 800 01, this distance must be 1.17 meters.
3. In other words, the ballast cover above the pipe (sleeve) should be 0.5 meters.
4. In special cases, standard UIC-755-1 allows covering of 30 cm, and it extraordinary cases
20 cm.

Figure 6.3 Communications Crossings

6.4

Construction of Communication Crossings by Open Excavation


The construction of communications pipe crossings in operational tracks by open excavation
involves halting of train traffic on the relevant section, under supervision of inspectors from
the ISR Construction Branch and Railways Track and Environment Branch and a track
supervisor. All excavations must be conducted between two adjacent sleepers (see Diagram 6.4
as detailed below:
1. After closing off of the section or limiting of traffic speed therein, ballast is removed from
the crate in which the crossing is planned and from both crates adjacent to it, down to
the level of the bottom of the sleeper.
2. Both sleepers are moved sideways from the crossing axis one to the right and one to
the left.
3. The space between the sleepers is excavated.
4. A pipe (sleeve), including pull rope, is laid down in the new pit.
5. Both ends of the pipe are sealed.
6. The excavation is filled (covered) up to the level of the existing sleepers with thin
concrete or CLCM or cemented sand with subsequent tightening by hand.
7. 30 cm of clean ballast is returned underneath the ballasts.
8. Ballasts are returned to their former position.
9. Ballast is filled between sleepers and track is tightened by hand.
10. The ballast is returned.
11. The crossing location is marked by signpost or by any other means.

Figure 6.4 Communications Crossings by Open Excavation under Operational Tracks

6.5

Pipe Types
In order to run communications and signaling cables from one side of the track to the other,
polyethylene, PVS, or steel pipes are used.
The thickness of the pipe wall shall be as specified in Table 6.1:
Table 6.1
Pipe Diameter
4
6
8
10
20
24

Pipe Wall Thickness


3.4 mm PVC, Grade 8 Electrical
4.9 mm PVC, Grade 8 Electrical
15 mm polyethylene
1/4 galvanized steel
3/8 galvanized steel
7/16 galvanized steel

In special cases of 10, 20, and 24 pipes, cast PVC coated steel pipes may be used.
The type of pipe used shall be determined by the ISR Signaling and Communications Branch.
After pipe is laid down, both pipe edges must be sealed as per ISR Signaling and
Communications Branch specifications requirements. All pipes must consist of pull ropes
inside.
6.6

6.7

Communication pits
1.

All monitoring pits shall be executed as per ISR Signaling and Communications Branch
specification requirements.

2.

The monitoring pit type shall be determined by the in accordance with ISR Signaling and
Communications Branch requirements and pending ISR Planning Branch authorization.

3.

The pit shall be placed on the 20 cm thick ballast.

Crossing of Tracks by Horizontal Drilling


Work includes preparation of a pit for the drilling machine and all that is required for
preparations and insertion of the pipe, supply of 10 galvanized steel pipes or PVC coated pipes
made of casting or painted by epoxy paint, on-site welding, and exposure of the pipes opposite
end.
Once cables are laid down, the contractor shall return the area to its former state. The drilling
depth and pipe length shall be determined in accordance with the plans and shall be revised
on-site as per supervisor instructions.

6.8

Flexible Drilling
General:
Flexible drilling is a method of horizontal drilling that changes control of the drill such that
drilling may be conducted with adjustments in height and position and allows obtainment
of lines that are not straight (flexible).
Work Method:
Work is conducted by inserting rods that consist of drill heads with a radio-wave
transmitter/receiver into the ground. The drill heads are then able to transmit their position
and height, thus enabling the operator to change the drilling direction and depth (there is
full control of the drilling procedure).
Once the initial drill is complete, various components are pushed into the hole in order to
push the soil aside and increase the diameter size until a new hole is created.
The required pipes are then inserted into this hole.
A substantial number of 2- 6 polyethylene pipes may be inserted, depending on the type
of machine used, type of soil, excavation depth, and required profile.
The pipes shall be inserted such that the pipes are without any cuts between one cell and
another, or in special cases by joints pending Design/Supervision authorization. Thickness of
the pipe walls shall conform with the drilling requirements, but no less than the wall
thickness of pipes in the alignment.

6.9

Manner of Design of Signaling Device Crossings


6.9.1.

The Tender Phase


To the technical specification and Bill of Quantities, the track planner attaches, as per
ISR Signaling and Communications Branch instructions, all relevant Sections and
material quantities that are required for execution of the crossing.

6.9.2.

The Execution Phase


1.

The ISR Signaling and Communications Branch shall provide the track planner
with specifics regarding the locations in which crossings are to be prepared, the
type and quantity of pipes required by the Signaling Plan, after having received
authorization by the program's Operational Design Unit.

2.

The planner shall mark the location of all crossings on the approved layout plan
(by the ISR Planning Branch or Operational Design Unit) of 1:1000 (or 1:500 if
so required by the ISR Authority).

3.

The planner submits all cross sections that are common during execution of
communications crossings.

4.

Based on the following technical guidelines:


1.

In locations that have a height difference between the proposed


alignment for installation of a concrete ditch and rail height, it is
necessary to lay down pipes starting from the concrete ditch, including
the ascent up the embankment slope with a concrete pit of 50 cm in

diameter or without any pit as per requirements (see Figures 6.5, 6.6).

5.

2.

A full 4 or 6 (2*2) PVC pipe must be planned for placement


underneath all tracks.

3.

In the event of signaling devices being located below the tracks, or if it is


not possible to lay down a single full-length pipe below all of the tracks
(for example, due to execution of tracks in different phases), the
installation of a 80 diameter concrete pit with two exits alongside the
tracks must be planned. Pit height shall be executed as required (see
Figure 6.7).

4.

There is an option to execute the crossings without the a pit (typically in


cases involving the construction of a new infrastructure) with separate
pipes. The distance between such pipes shall be 0.3 meters (see Figure
6.8).

5.

The depth of crossing shall be no less than 90 cm from the height of the
rail. In case of need, pipes must be protected.

All plans of the aforesaid crossings must be approved by the ISR Signaling and
Communications Branch and ISR Planning Branch. In addition, all plans of
crossings running under existing tracks require ISR Track and Environment
Dept. authorization.

Figure 6.5 Communication Crossing with Embankment Slope Ascent

Figure 6.6 - Communication Crossing with Embankment Slope Ascent Without Pit

Figure 6.7 - Communication Crossing Between Tracks with Pit

Figure 6.8 - Communication Crossing Without Pit

6.10

Communication Infrastructures at the Monitoring and Control Structure Entrance


The Monitoring and Control Center structure must include two separate communication cable
entrances. This requires the addition of pits and crossings. The type of communications
infrastructures required for this structure must be coordinated with the ISR Communications
Development Branch.
For basic diagrams of the communications infrastructures required at the Monitoring and
Control Structure entrance, see Figure 6.9. The final design must be approved by both the ISR
Planning Branch and Communications Development Branch.

Basic Diagrams of Communications Infrastructures required at the Monitoring


and Control Structure entrance, 6.9

CHAPTER 7

RAILWAY STRIP BOUNDARIES


AND WIDTH,
RAILWAY STATION SCHEMES

7.

CHAPTER 7 RAILWAY STRIP BOUNDARIES AND WIDTH, RAILWAY STATION SCHEMES


a)

Sections Between Stations


Municipal zoning plans must specify the boundaries of the railway strip in accordance
with components of the profile specified in Figure 7.1.
The strip width depends on:
1. The no. of tracks planned.
2. Track type and Planned speed.
3. Type of soil.
4. Design of lower structure.
5. Height of embankment (depth of excavation).
6. Slope angle.
7. The dimensions of drainage ditches, etc.

Figure 7.1a ISR Strip Boundaries in Section


(Communications Ditch in Ballasts)

Notes:
1.

The embankment shoulder located on the outside curve of an arch must be extended as detailed in Table 5.1.

2.

For speeds of 161 - 250 km/h 3.0 meters.

3.

Shoulder for weak and erosive type soil.

4.

'Ht' Drainage ditch depth

5.

'HS ' Embankment Height

6.

'bb' Ballast depth

7.

'm' Drainage ditch slope angle

8.

'n' Embankment and ballast slope angle

9.

In the event more than two tracks are planned, adequate space must be added between the axes of the additional
tracks.

Figure 7.1b ISR Strip Boundaries in Section


(Communications Ditch in Bermas)

Notes:
1.

The embankment shoulder located on the outside curve of an arch must be extended as detailed in Table 5.1.

2.

For speeds of 161 - 2500 km/h 3.0 meters.

3.

Shoulder for weak and erosive type soil.

4.

'Ht' Drainage ditch depth

5.

'HS ' Embankment Height

6.

'bb' Ballast depth

7.

'm' Drainage ditch slope angle

8.

'n' Embankment and ballast slope angle

9.

In the event more than two tracks are planned, adequate space must be added between the axes of the additional
tracks.

b) Inside Station Areas


In station areas, there is a need for additional space beyond that which is specified for
construction of the station structure, other designated structures, parking, commercial
areas, access routes, and platforms, for the construction of additional tracks in future and
for extension of existing tracks (according to the usable length expected in future).
c)

Station Length
The length of a station depends on its overall scheme:

Station Scheme
A. Station length
B. Station length and width
C. Station width
Where:

Table 7.1
Station Length Lst (m)
LU + Ch* 2
LU + Ch
LU + Ch

Auxiliary Value Ch (m)


1300
1550
900

Lst Total length of station, m.


LU - Usable length of tracks for acceptance of trains, meters.
Ch - Reference value, turnout and signaling device area, m.

Notes:
1. In addition, see Figure 7.2
2. Passenger Station Space Requirements which are presented in the passenger
train station program.
3. The reference value depends on:
1. Station scheme.
2. Type of tracks.
3. Type of turnouts
d) Typical Schemes
For typical station schemes, see Figure 7.2.
e)

Station Characterizations
For station characterizations see Appendices 9 and 21.

Figure 7.2
A. Station Length

B. Station Length and Width

C. Street Width
Figure 7.2 Legend:
- Traffic without stopping for takeover
- Traffic with stopping for takeover

CHAPTER 8

ARCH TURNOUTS

8.

CHAPTER 8 TURNOUTS IN ARCHES

8.1

General
The design of turnouts in horizontal arches is always based on geometric values of standard
turnouts (normal) which are designated for laying down in a straight line. Standard turnouts
enable traffic in a straight line or curves. The use of standard German turnouts is
recommended. For data regarding such turnouts see Table 8.1.

Type
1:9
1:12
1:14
1:14
1:14
1:16.5
1:16.5
1:18

Table 8.1 German Turnout Parameters


Different Parameters, Turnouts with UIC 60 Type Tracks
a (m)
b (m)
C (m)
tg
Degrees
R0 (m)
16.615
16.615
33.230
0.110623 6.312559
300
20.797
20.797
41.594
0.083137 4.752464
500
10.701
27.108
44.942
0.071307 4.078704
300
17.834
27.108
44.942
0.071307 4.078704
500
27.108
27.108
54.216
0.071307 4.078704
760
20.526
32.409
52.935
0.053997 3.090816
760
32.409
32.409
64.818
0.053997 3.090816
1200
32.409
34.206
66.615
0.052535 3.007246
1200

The significance of a turnout on an arch is the bending of the standard turnout.


The basic geometric values such as: a, b, of the turnout do not change during bending, such
the the turnout triangle does not change (see Figure 3.1). based on this definition, the
turnout's internal radius R0 changes and two new arches are formed. The straight track turns
into an arch with a radius similar to that of the tracks basic arch RS. The turnout's internal
radius R0 on the divergent track changes to radius RZ. The length of rails at the turnout changes
while the length of elements at the frog and tongue do not.
There are two types of arch turnouts:
1. External Arch Turnouts The center points of a arch radius of a primary track RS and of
a divergent track RZ are located at different sides of the turnout (see Figure 8.1-a).
2. Internal Arch Turnouts The center points of a arch radius of a primary track RS and of
a divergent track RZ are located on the same side of the turnout (see Figure 8.1-c
Note:
The use of turnouts in arches is permitted in special conditions only, subject to prior ISR
Planning Branch approval.

Figure 8.1 - Turnouts in Arches


A. External Arch Turnout

B. Standard Straight Turnout

C. Internal Arch Turnout

8.2

Approximate Calculation of Arched Turnouts


The following figures illustrate the calculation of the approximate value of a divergent track
radius RZ[24]. For an precise calculation of a given arch turnout, see Appendix 17.
Figure 8.2 Calculation of Divergent Track radius

A.

Internal Arch Turnout


Primary track is slightly bent

B.

Internal Arch Turnout


Primary track is severely bent, in effect turning into a divergent track

C.

External Arch Turnout


Primary track is slightly bent

D.

External Arch Turnout


Primary track is severely bent, in effect turning into a divergent track

Where:

R/1000 is the curvature coefficient k.

It is necessary to distinguish between arch turnouts which are formed for standard turnouts
with frog in curve (b=a) and arch turnouts which are formed from turnouts having straight frog
(b>a).
In internal arch turnouts with straight frog, the divergent track radius R Z changes in the frog
area to the radius of the primary track RS such that RS = RZ , see Figure 8.3.
In external arch turnouts with straight frog, it is prohibited to bend the frog area because the
formation of adjacent reverse curves on divergent tracks must be avoided, see Figure 8.3.

8.3

Marking of Arch Turnouts in Plans


In his plans, the planner must draw arch turnouts as two arches. It is necessary to mark the
start and type of each turnout, the type of standard turnout, and the radius of both the
divergent and primary tracks [24].
Figure 8.3 Marking of Arch Turnouts in Plans

A.

Internal Arch Turnout with Curved Frog

B.

Internal Arch Turnout with Straight Frog

C.

External Arch Turnout with Curved Frog

D.

External Arch Turnout with Straight Frog

8.4

Design Guidelines
a) Arch turnouts must be designed in arches having a fixed radius. They may not be designed
in transition curves.
b) Arch turnouts must be designed in arches having a fixed cant.
c) Arch turnouts must be designed such that reverse curves are not formed.
d) The horizontal and vertical alignments criteria defined in the ISR Railway tracks Design
Guidelines also apply to arch turnouts.
8.4.2.

Basic Parameters Required for Arch Turnouts Calculation and Design


1.

Leveled Cant of basic Arch H, (mm) [6]

Where:
Vmax Maximum speed in turnout
R

- Track radius in turnout (basic arch or divergent track arch)


1.

Recommended value: H = 120

2.

Maximum value:

(8.2)
2.

H = h + h

Cant h (mm) and Cant Deficiency h, (mm), [6}.


A.

Cant h.
Minimum value:

h = 20

Recommended value:

h = 60

Maximum value:

B.

In internal arch turnouts:

In external arch turnouts with regular frog: h = 100

In external arch turnouts with special elements in frog area (heart


tip or mobile shoulder; h = 120

Cant Deficiency h
Recommended value:

h = 60

Maximum value:

as per Table 8.2

h = 120

Table 8.2 Maximum Value of cant Deficiency in Turnouts


Turnout Type

Vmax 120

Frog turnout with regular


frog
Turnout with special
elements in frog area:
heart tip and mobile
shoulder
3.

120 < Vmax 160 160 < Vmax 200 200 < Vmax 250

km/h

km/h

km/h

km/h

110

100

60

Prohibited

130

Only in special
cases subject to
ISR Planning
Branch Approval

130

130

Sum of cant Deficiencies h (mm) [6]


In order to prevent the occurrence of rolling stock collisions and damage, it is
necessary to limit the sum of cant deficiencies h in accordance with section
2.4 and 2.5 requirements.

8.4.3.

Vertical Alignment in Arch Crossovers


1. The integration of arch turnouts with longitudinal profiles is prohibited.
2. The integration of horizontal arch turnouts inside vertical curves of longitudinal
profiles is prohibited.
3. Crossovers between two tracks in arch and two turnouts From an engineering
perspective, they are all part of a single element.
4. When designing crossovers in tracks on ballast, in concentric arches having
cants, it is necessary to calculate the turnouts with the turnout's original
opening angle . The track connecting the said turnouts is designed as
horizontal leveling, however, it must be constructed on an inclined surface
with a grade running in the one direction defined by the cant, see Figure
8.4. The difference between the vertical distance (AP) and the inclined
distance (P'A) bears no impact on the calculation of crossovers. The
horizontal error formed by the calculation is smaller than the accuracy that
is possible in construction.
5. In crossovers of tracks having a concrete pavement, the difference between AP
and P'A must not be ignored.

Figure 8.4 Crossovers Located on ballast in Concentric Arches with Cants

6. In Arched turnouts and crossovers with cants, it is necessary to calculate the


height of the rails. It is necessary to inspect and ensure the rails of both
turnouts meet each other at the same height. All height details must be
entered into the plans in accordance with Appendix 18 requirements.
Notes:
1. For details regarding vertical alignment (longitudinal profile) of arched
crossover areas in arches also see [25].
2. For details regarding the calculation of the height difference and slope
difference in the turnout's last long sleeper, see Appendix 19.

Das könnte Ihnen auch gefallen