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Microstrip Antenna for Radio Frequency Nanosatellite Subsystem

Damas W Wangsa

Abstract – Satellite is an object that orbits another object with a certain period of revolution and rotation. While nanosatellite is miniaturized satellite which sized 10x10x10 or usually called cubesat with 10kg max weight. Nanosatellite have severals subsystem, including OBDH(On Board Data Handling), ADCS(Attitude Determine Control Sistem), EPS(Electrical Power Sistem), and RF(Radio Frequency).

Introduction

Subsystem radio

frequency

has

a

responsibility for every action between satellite with ground segment (earth station). Antenna is a utility for sending and receiving electromagneticwaves, depend on it usage and using frequency, antenna have any formsmsuch as a wire, monopole, microstri, yagi, etc.

 

Discussion

 

Antenna

microstrip

is

one

of

utilization

microstrip hardware for antenna. This kind

can

be

use

for

receiving signal

electromagnetic

include

 

from

satellite. Has

a

waves mini shape and

thin don’t

need

more

space

for

mounting

it

than

another satellite.

 
Microstrip Antenna for Radio Frequency Nanosatellite Subsystem Damas W Wangsa <a href=damaswangsa@gmail.com Abstract – Satellite is an object that orbits another object with a certain period of revolution and rotation. While nanosatellite is miniaturized satellite which sized 10x10x10 or usually called cubesat with 10kg max weight. Nanosatellite have severals subsystem, including OBDH(On Board Data Handling), ADCS(Attitude Determine Control Sistem), EPS(Electrical Power Sistem), and RF(Radio Frequency). Introduction Subsystem radio frequency has a responsibility for every action between satellite with ground segment (earth station). Antenna is a utility for sending and receiving electromagneticwaves, depend on it usage and using frequency, antenna have any formsmsuch as a wire, monopole, microstri, yagi, etc. Discussion Antenna microstrip is one of utilization microstrip hardware for antenna. This kind can be use for receiving signal electromagnetic include from satellite. Has a waves mini shape and thin don’t need more space for mounting it than another satellite. Pict of microstrip antenna Basic characteristic of microstrip antenna : By the word source microstrip consist of two word, that is micro(small/thin) and strip(chip/strip). Microstrip antenna commonly divided by three part. That is: a. Patch , made from conductor material like copper or gold that have many shape(square, circle, triangle, annular ring). Function of this patch is radiating electromagnetic waves to air. Patch and channel supply usually located above subtract. b. Substrate dielectric, are made from dielectric materials. c. Ground Plane , can be made from conductor material. This size is resemble subtract. Has a function for ground of antenna. Part of microstrip antena Advantages and disadvantages from microstrip antenna : " id="pdf-obj-0-106" src="pdf-obj-0-106.jpg">

Pict of microstrip antenna

Basic characteristic of microstrip antenna :

By the word source microstrip consist of two word, that is micro(small/thin) and strip(chip/strip). Microstrip antenna commonly divided by three part. That is:

  • a. Patch, made from conductor material like copper or gold that have many shape(square, circle, triangle, annular ring). Function of this patch is radiating electromagnetic waves to air. Patch and channel supply usually located above subtract.

  • b. Substrate dielectric, are made from dielectric materials.

c.

Ground

Plane, can

be made

from

conductor material. This size is resemble subtract. Has a function for ground of antenna.

Microstrip Antenna for Radio Frequency Nanosatellite Subsystem Damas W Wangsa <a href=damaswangsa@gmail.com Abstract – Satellite is an object that orbits another object with a certain period of revolution and rotation. While nanosatellite is miniaturized satellite which sized 10x10x10 or usually called cubesat with 10kg max weight. Nanosatellite have severals subsystem, including OBDH(On Board Data Handling), ADCS(Attitude Determine Control Sistem), EPS(Electrical Power Sistem), and RF(Radio Frequency). Introduction Subsystem radio frequency has a responsibility for every action between satellite with ground segment (earth station). Antenna is a utility for sending and receiving electromagneticwaves, depend on it usage and using frequency, antenna have any formsmsuch as a wire, monopole, microstri, yagi, etc. Discussion Antenna microstrip is one of utilization microstrip hardware for antenna. This kind can be use for receiving signal electromagnetic include from satellite. Has a waves mini shape and thin don’t need more space for mounting it than another satellite. Pict of microstrip antenna Basic characteristic of microstrip antenna : By the word source microstrip consist of two word, that is micro(small/thin) and strip(chip/strip). Microstrip antenna commonly divided by three part. That is: a. Patch , made from conductor material like copper or gold that have many shape(square, circle, triangle, annular ring). Function of this patch is radiating electromagnetic waves to air. Patch and channel supply usually located above subtract. b. Substrate dielectric, are made from dielectric materials. c. Ground Plane , can be made from conductor material. This size is resemble subtract. Has a function for ground of antenna. Part of microstrip antena Advantages and disadvantages from microstrip antenna : " id="pdf-obj-0-135" src="pdf-obj-0-135.jpg">

Part of microstrip antena

Advantages and disadvantages from microstrip antenna :

Some of advantages microstrip antenna is :

  • a. Light weight and has a small

form

  • b. Made cost is cheap and can make

more

  • c. The shape can be adapted from

main shape

  • d. polarity

Support

linear

and

vertical

  • e. Ability for dual frequency

 
  • f. Easy integerated

with

MIC(microwave integerated

circuits)

However between advantages above there is

disadvantages from microstrip antenna:

  • a. Small bandwidth

parameter

yang

digunakan

performance yaitu:

untuk

dilihat

  • a. Gain Gain (G) on the microstrip antenna is the ratio of the radiation intensity in a particular direction to the intensity of the radiation received when the received power is derived from an isotropic antenna.

Gain=4 π intensitasradiasi padaarahtertentu

intensitasradiasi yang diterima

Gain=4 π U (θ Pin ,)

  • b. Small efficiency

  • c. Low affirmation

  • d. Have low power

  • b. VSWR(voltage standing wave ratio)

  • e. Appear surfave wave

VSWR is ratio between amplitude

Application microstrip antenna

Microstrip antenna known with good

performance and good design, and extensive

usability. Advantages from microstrip

antenna is easy to design, light and etc.

microstrip antenna used for many kind of

field such as healthy, satellite, and also

military. That is some application from

microstrip antenna :

Mobile and satellite communication

application

GPS

RFID

WiMax

Radar

Commonly parameters microstrip antenna

Seperti bentuk antenna – antenna yang lain,

antenna mikrostrip mempunyai parameter –

standing waves (standing wave)

maximum (|Vmax|) with minimum(|

Vmin|). In the transmission line there

are two components of voltage

waveform, that is voltage delivered

V

¿

¿0

¿

¿

¿

¿

and voltage which is reflected

V

¿

¿0

¿

¿

¿

¿

.

Comparison

between

voltages reflected and voltages

delivered called reflection coefficient

voltage

(Γ)

.

V 0

+¿

=

Z L Z 0

Z L +Z 0

V 0

¿

¿

Γ=¿

Where

Z L

is

load

impedance

(load) and

Z 0

is line impedance

(lossless). Reflection coefficient

voltage ( Γ ) has a complex value,

which is represented magnitude and

phase from reflection. For some

simple case, when imajiner part from

Γ

Γ

is zero then:

 

=-1

:

reflection

negative

maximum when line get short circuit

Γ

=0 : no reflection when line in

perfect matched condition

Γ

=+1

:

reflection

positive

maximum when line and circuit are

open

Formula for get VSWR value:

1¿Γ¿

1+¿ Γ¿ ¿

¿ ~ V¿ min =¿ ~ V ¿ max

¿

¿

S=¿

The most good conditions are when

the VSWR is 1 (S = 1), which means

there is no reflection

when the

channel is

in

a

state

of perfect

matching.

But

in

fact

the

value

difficult to

obtain

so

that the base

value used in the antenna VSWR is

generally ≤ 2.

 
  • c. Return Loss Return loss is the ratio between the reflected

wave

amplitude

of

the

transmitted wave amplitude. Return

loss can occur due to a discontinuity

between the transmission line to the

input impedance of the load

(antenna). In the circuit who coined

the micro wave discontinuity

(mismatched), the amount of return

loss varies depending on the

frequency.

 

+¿

 

=

V 0

Z L Z 0

Z L +Z 0

V 0

¿

¿

Γ=¿

returnloss=20log 10 Γ¿

Value return loss is commonly used

under -9,54dB, to determine the

width of bandwidth, so it can be said

that the value reflected waves are not

too big compared with the wave had

been submitted or in other words,

already matching the transmission

line. This parameter value is used as

a reference if the antenna is already

working at a frequency that is

appropriate or not.

  • d. Input impedance

 

Input

impedance

from

antenna

known as antenna impedance it self

to terminal. Input impedance (

Z ¿

)

consist of real part ( R i n ) and

imajiner part (

X ¿

).

Z ¿ =R ¿ + j X ¿ Ω

Input resistance ( R ¿ ) representing

dissipation that occurs for two

reasons. Firstly because of the left

antenna and back again (radiation),

the latter because of losses - ohmic

losses associated with the heat on the

antenna structure. However, in many

antenna losses - ohmic very small

when compared with a loss - loss due

to radiation. Imajiner

part

(

X ¿

)

represents

the

reactance

of

the

antenna and the power stored in the

near

field

antenna. Matching

conditions must be created so that

approaching

50+j0 Ω

.

  • e. Bandwidth Antenna

Antenna

bandwidth

is

frequency

range in which the antenna

performance related

 

to

some

characteristic

(such

as

input

impedance,

radiation

pattern,

beamwidth,

polarization,

gain,

efficiency VSWR, return loss, axial

ratio) meet standard specifications.

In determining the antenna

bandwidth need of specifying what

criteria are used because there is no

is relatively more constant with

frequency and formulated:

BW =

f h f 1

f c

100

where:

f h

: high frequency in band (Ghz)

f 1

f c

: low frequency in band (Ghz)

: mid frequency in band (Ghz)

Depend on patch shape, microstrip antenna

divide by:

  • a. Antenna microstrip patch rectangular

  • b. Antenna microstrip patch square

  • c. Antenna microstrip patch circle

  • d. Antenna microstrip pacth ellips

  • e. Antenna microstrip patch triangle

  • f. Antenna microstrip patch circular ring

to terminal. Input impedance ( ) consist of real part ( ) and imajiner part (

Pict patch of microstrip antenna

SIMULATION ANTENNA MICROSTRIP

FREQ 2,4GHz USING CST

Frequency operation: 2,4Ghz

Dielectric constant of substrate( ε r ): 4,3

standard

defifnisi

in

determining

 

The height of the dielectric substrate(h):

bandwidth.

Bandwidth

antenna

is

1,6mm

usually

written

in

the

form

of

a

The height of conductor(t): 0,035mm

percentage of bandwidth because it

With all informations above then obtained

parameters as below:

With those parameters we can simulate through software cst studio suit student edition 2016.
With
those
parameters
we
can
simulate
through
software
cst
studio
suit
student
edition 2016.

Design result microstrip antenna :

With all informations above then obtained parameters as below: With those parameters we can simulate through

Pict design of microstrip

With all informations above then obtained parameters as below: With those parameters we can simulate through

Pict of s-parameters

With all informations above then obtained parameters as below: With those parameters we can simulate through

Pict of VSWR

With all informations above then obtained parameters as below: With those parameters we can simulate through

Pict of model 3D

With all informations above then obtained parameters as below: With those parameters we can simulate through

Pict of antenna fields

Source list:

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miniatu

rized_satellite

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CubeSa

t

[3] https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antena

_mikrostrip

[8]

[4] http://appliedelectronicsengineering.

blogspot.co.id/2013/08/patch-

antenna-design-tutorial-with-cst.html

[5] http://casdoper.blogspot.co.id/2014/0

2/antena-mikrostrip.html

[6] http://www.slideshare.net/aymenalob

aidi/design-and-simulation-

microstrip-patch-antenna-using-cst-

microwave-studio

[7] digital_119467-D

00936

tentang--Literatur.pdf

Studi