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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

biaxial variable amplitude loading at elevated temperature

Zlatan Kapidzic a,c,, Hans Ansell a,c, Joakim Schn b, Kjell Simonsson c

a

Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-172 90 Stockholm, Sweden

c

Division of Solid Mechanics, Linkping University, SE-581 83 Linkping, Sweden

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online 22 January 2016

Keywords:

Carbonepoxy

Thermally induced load

Fatigue bearing failure

Variable amplitude loading

a b s t r a c t

Hybrid structures that contain compositealuminium interfaces tend to develop internal loads at

elevated temperatures. In long bolted joints, the thermally induced bolt loads are superimposed onto

the mechanically applied load and can induce a biaxial bearing load state. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the bearing fatigue failure of carbonepoxy laminate specimens, exposed

to uniaxial and biaxial variable amplitude loading at 90 C. A specifically designed experimental rig was

used, where both the mechanical and the thermally induced bolt loads were applied by means of

mechanical load actuators. A fatigue model based on the kinetic theory of fracture for polymers, which

was previously implemented for constant amplitude loading, is expanded to account for the variable

amplitude load history. The results suggest that the biaxial loading gives a longer fatigue life than the

uniaxial loading for the same maximum peak resultant force. This result can be utilized as a conservative

dimensioning strategy by designing biaxially loaded joints in terms of maximum peak resultant bearing

load using uniaxial fatigue data.

2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Aircraft structures consisting of aluminium alloys and carbon

fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites build up internal stresses when exposed to elevated temperature. The stresses develop at

the material interfaces due to the difference in the thermal expansion properties of the constituent materials. Aircraft structure

components are commonly joined along long, bolted installations

which are known to be fatigue sensitive. Depending on the joint

length, the thermally induced bolt loads at these sites might be

of significant magnitude and should therefore be considered.

Moreover, when the thermally induced bolt load and the mechanical bolt load are not parallel to each other, a biaxial bearing load

state is created in the joint, where the two applied load components also vary with different frequencies and sequences. Normally, the fatigue performance of typical structural joints is

characterised for uniaxial loading and there are no standard test

procedures that take into consideration the biaxial loading. In

structural testing of large aircraft components, it is costly and complicated to apply elevated temperature conditions. There is, there Corresponding author at: Saab AB, SE-581 88 Linkping, Sweden. Tel.: +46 (0)

13183884.

E-mail address: zlatan.kapidzic@saabgroup.com (Z. Kapidzic).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.01.064

0263-8223/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

be can be studied for various conditions.

This study investigates the influence of the biaxial bearing load

state on the fatigue life of bolted CFPR laminate specimens,

exposed to variable amplitude (VA) loading at elevated temperature. It is an extension of the work concerning loading in constant

amplitude (CA), previously performed by the authors [1,2], and

includes experimental testing and implementation of a fatigue failure prediction model for VA loading.

Bearing fatigue failure in different CFRP laminates at CA has

been investigated experimentally in several studies [37]. Fractographic examinations of the bearing plane of the laminates commonly showed kinking, ply-buckling and shear damage of the

on-axis plies, tensile and/or shear cracking of the off-axis plies

and delaminations of the plies. In all cases a considerable increase

of the joint compliance, due to the bearing stiffness reduction, was

observed and in some cases bolt failure occurred. A few studies of

bolted joints [810] included VA fatigue loading. Saunders et al. [8]

found similar type damage as described above. In [9,10], the

authors concluded that the load states constituting the load ranges

which are below 50% of the maximum load range of a typical

fighter aircraft sequence can be eliminated without significantly

72

affecting the fatigue life. It was also found that the Miners rule

predictions gave unconservative results.

A review by Post et al. [11] classified available fatigue modelling

techniques for composite materials exposed to VA loading into

damage accumulation law techniques, residual strength or stiffness degradation techniques and techniques based on micromechanical properties. A number of models were evaluated in

terms of their predictive capability and the results varied in accuracy over the studied range of materials and spectra. The authors

stated that the VA fatigue life predictions probably will continue

to rely on the empirical phenomenological models, until the fatigue micro-mechanisms are better understood. They also pointed

out that the performance of the most models is usually evaluated

in CA loading or block loading with only few load levels, and in this

case, only for uniaxial fatigue loading of un-notched specimens. In

structural applications, with biaxial stress states and stress concentrations, the models suited for uniaxial loading may therefore

not work as well. Another drawback is that most models require

a substantial amount of material characterisation in terms of constant life diagrams and/or the residual stiffness/strength. There is,

therefore, a need for a modelling technique which is based on better understanding of the physics of fatigue damage mechanisms,

with less need for experimental material characterisation and

which gives accurate predictions for structural applications.

The present paper, expands the CA model from [1], to include

the effects of VA loading. We base the modelling on the work in

[1215], where the basic assumption is that the initiation of the

fatigue damage takes place in the matrix. The matrix stresses for

the uniaxial and the biaxial bearing problem are computed using

the multi-continuum theory [16,17] within a finite element (FE)

code. As in [1], the failure criterion is based on the kinetic theory

of fracture for polymers [1820], where the rate of creation of

the matrix cracks is described as a thermally activated process promoted by the cyclic loading. The advantage of this approach is that

the effects of the ambient temperature, the loading frequency and

the load ratio are naturally included into the prediction model,

which significantly reduces the need for material characterisation

by testing. Another benefit is that the VA loading can be included

in a straight forward manner. So far, the kinetic theory of fracture

has received little attention in the literature concerning composite

fatigue and only a few validating examples are published. It is our

ambition to, through this work, contribute to development and

validation of an effective fatigue life prediction model which takes

into account VA loading.

In the experimental part of this work, the problem of application of thermally induced loads on a bolted structure is simplified

by the development of a test rig where the biaxial loads are applied

by mechanical actuators to small specimens.

th

th

Fig. 1. Mechanically and thermally induced bolt loads in a composite plate in a

hybrid bolted joint, and a two-bolt specimen idealisation.

bearing failure in the joint is equivalent to the failure in a twobolt specimen, cf. Fig. 1(b). This assumption reduces the cost and

the time for specimen manufacturing, testing and simulations,

and allows for design of a set-up where the loading conditions

and the temperature can be varied effectively and their effects on

the fatigue life studied. The study is restricted to a constant thermally induced bolt load, F th , of a magnitude which is approximately half of the static bearing failure load.

The objectives of this work are:

To develop an experimental set-up and perform VA fatigue

bearing tests of two-bolt specimens, in uniaxial (F th 0) and

biaxial (F th const.) loading at elevated temperature.

To implement a fatigue prediction model which is capable of

predicting the fatigue life of the VA loaded composite bolted

joint.

To determine the influence of the thermally induced load, F th ,

on the fatigue life.

3. Experimental procedure

The structural problem of interest is a long, spanwise, hybrid

aluminiumcomposite bolted joint, typically found in aircraft

wings, see Fig. 1(a). We assume that no stresses have developed

in the joint due to the assembly procedure. The environment temperature and the frictional heat, caused by the air flow against the

wing skin, increase the temperature in the structure, giving rise to

thermally induced bolt loads, F th , in the direction of the bolt row.

These bolt loads are maximal at the ends of the joint and tend to

zero towards the middle of it. The operational flight loads, caused

by wing bending, are transferred through the joint as bolt loads, F,

in the direction normal to the bolt row and they vary with a different frequency and spectrum than the thermally induced loads.

We focus on the composite bearing failure at the end bolt in the

joint, thus the stresses by-passing the bolt hole are excluded from

with 48 plies of HTA/6376C carbon/epoxy prepreg, manufactured

in a quasi-isotropic lay-up sequence, Fig. 2. Each specimen was

clamped between four L-shaped steel plates, pairwise fastened

with two protruding-head titanium bolts, constituting a doublelap joint, see Fig. 3. The contact area between the steel plate and

the specimen was machined into a shape of a circular washer. Prior

to the test, the bolts were tightened to 11.5 Nm with a torque

wrench. The mechanical load, F, was applied in the vertical direction to the free end of the specimen while the steel plates were

clamped into the lower grip by a holed plate. In the horizontal

direction, the thermally induced load, F th , was applied on the

L-shaped plates by hydraulic actuators via steel arms connected

to shorten the fatigue testing time. First, the sequence is cycle

counted using the rain-flow count method. This method is an algorithmic procedure used for transformation of the load history,

which is characterized by successive maxima and minima, into sets

of load reversals of different ranges. The load states which constitute the rain-flow counted load ranges which are below 30% of the

maximum load range were eliminated from the sequence and we

refer to this as 30% cycle elimination level. The number of endlevels were reduced by approximately 78%, which greatly accelerated the testing. Also, all compressive load states were eliminated,

assuming that they make no contribution to the bearing failure.

Fig. 5(a) shows the plots of peaks, troughs and ranges versus their

number of exceedances in the sequence before and after the elimination, valid for 200 flights.

The mechanical load sequence of 200 flight was applied in force

control with a sinusoidal wave shape and a frequency of 2 Hz and

was repeated until the specimen failed. Two different magnitudes

of maximum peak load in the sequence, F peak;max , were tested in

both uniaxial and biaxial loading. In order to ensure the relevant

material properties, the specimen was placed inside a furnace,

see Figs. 3 and 4, where the air was heated by an air-heating element to 90 C. During the testing, the temperature was measured

by a sensor, placed close to a fastener on one of the L-plates and

the sensor signal was used to regulate the temperature. The

applied forces, grip displacements, horizontal actuator movements

and the number of cycles to failure were measured and recorded.

20

40

+45

0

-45

20

80

90

Material: HTA/6376C

Lay-up: [45/0/90]6S

tply = 0.13 mm

t = 6.24 mm

240

Specimen

Furnace

th

th

73

load

th

time

to a surrounding steel frame, Fig. 4. The same hydraulic hose supplied pressure to both horizontal actuators, assuring that they

exerted the same force on each side of the specimen. The steel

frame was suspended by chains and springs and was free to move

in all directions, thus no resulting horizontal force was applied on

the vertical load frame.

Totally 18 specimens, 9 in uniaxial- and 9 in biaxial loading,

were tested until failure. Prior to application of the mechanical

load sequence, the biaxially loaded specimens were subjected to

the constant horizontal force of F th 25 kN, which was maintained

until failure, see Fig. 3. In both load cases, a modified version of the

standard sequence for testing of fighter aircraft wing structure,

FALSTAFF [21], named Short FALSTAFF was used for the mechanical

load, F. Following the findings of [9,10], this sequence was modi-

of maximum peak load [%]

100

Shfalstaff

Shfalstaff 30%

80

60

40

20

0 0

10

10

10

10

10

Number of exceedances

Ranges, percentage

of maximum peak load [%]

100

Shfalstaff

Shfalstaff 30%

80

60

40

20

0 0

10

10

10

10

10

Number of exceedances

(b) Ranges.

Fig. 4. Experimental set-up.

Fig. 5. Number of exceedances of peak, troughs and ranges in 200 flights of Short

FALSTAFF sequence with 0% and 30% cycle elimination level.

74

4. Modelling

i

peak

In the previous work by the authors [1], composite fatigue was

described as a process initiated in the matrix and at the fibrematrix interface, where successive crack accumulation leads to material degradation and failure. Motivated by this, the kinetic theory of

fracture was adopted as the modelling framework for the fatigue

failure process and the multi-continuum theory was implemented

in an FE-program to obtain the matrix stress in the context of CA

loading. Important aspects of the implementation of the

FE-program, the multi-continuum theory, the derivation of the

damage equation and fitting of the model parameters are

explained in [1] and will not be repeated here. The reader is therefore referred to [1] for details. In order to adapt the fatigue model

to VA loading, we start by considering the derived expression for

the damage index n,

where nT 1:58; k is the Boltzmann constant, h is Plancks constant, T is the absolute temperature, U and c are the model parameters referring to the activation energy and the activation volume

respectively, rs is the effective matrix stress history, t is the time

and s is an integration variable. The damage index is initially zero

and when it reaches 1 the material point is considered to have

failed, i.e. a microcrack has formed. In the context of CA, the temperature increase due to the energy dissipation during the cycling

was described by

g

T T 0 wfN Dr2

where T 0 is the ambient temperature, w and g are material parameters which are assumed to be temperature independent, N is the

number of cycles, f is the loading frequency and Dr is the CA effective matrix stress range. The effective matrix stress history in CA

loading was expressed as

rs rm ra sin2pf s p=2

is the stress amplitude, rmax and rmin are the maximum and minimum stress levels.

All three equations Eq. (1)(3) need to be modified for VA loading. In order to solve the integral in Eq. (1) for VA loading, the stress

in Eq. (3) is reformulated to be defined for each cycle i, over the

time period of length 1=f , between two consecutive troughs

ritrough and ri1

trough ,

r s

i

rim2 ria2 sin2pf s p=2

for

for

1

2f

< s < 1f

rim1 ripeak ritrough =2; ria1 ripeak ritrough =2; rim2 ripeak

i1

rtrough =2 and ria2 ripeak ri1

=2, see Fig. 6.

trough

where

for N applied cycles which gives the damage index

nt nT 1 exp

Z 1=f

i !!

U

cr s

ds

exp

exp i

i

h

0

kT

kT

i

N

X

kT

i1

5

The summation in Eq. (5) can be done incrementally over the

entire loading history, performing the integration over each cycle

in the order in which they appear in the sequence. We refer to this

i+1

trough

1/f

i

trough

Table 1

Models parameter for HTA/6376C at room temperature (RT) and at 90 C.

U (kJ/mol)

c (kJ/MPa/mol)

w ( C/MPa2s)

RT

90 C

156

0.9

197

2.7

0:304 103

0.143

0:304 103

0.143

100

of maximum peak load [%]

i

m2

i

m1

50

BFKB

0

BFKB 30%

BFKB 50%

-50

-100 0

10

10

10

10

10

Number of exceedances

200

Ranges, percentage

of maximum peak load [%]

Z t

kT

U

crs

ds

exp

nt nT 1 exp

exp

h

kT

kT

0

i

a2

i

a1

150

BFKB

100

BFKB 30%

BFKB 50%

50

0 0

10

10

10

10

10

Number of exceedances

(b) Ranges.

Fig. 7. Number of exceedances of peak, troughs and ranges in 200 FLH of the BFKB

sequence with 0%, 30% and 50% cycle elimination levels.

0.55

ent cycles, the temperature is not. To alleviate this difficulty a constant temperature is applied to all cycles within each sequence

repetition of 200 flights and is recalculated, by Eq. (6), at the beginning of the next sequence repetition. If the sequence is repeated

many times, Eq. (6) gives, in a sense, the average temperature

within each repetition.

Both the cycle-by-cycle and the block-by-block method require

the effective matrix stress to be known on each load reversal level.

The stress was computed in the composite specimen by an

FE-program written in MATLAB [22] and described in [1].

Exp. 0%

Exp. 30%

[%]

Exp. 50%

Sim. 0%

min|)

0.5

max(|

max|,

Sim. 30%

Sim. 50%

T0= 20 C

f = 10 Hz

0.45 U = 156 kJ/mol

= 0.9 kJ/MPa/mol

= 0.30410-3 C/MPa2s

= 0.143

0.4

1

2

log(FLH) [hours]

Fig. 8. Comparison of the predictions (Sim.) to the RT strain-life experimental data

(Exp.) from VA tests performed on HTA/6376C laminates with 45=0=903S layup

and a 6 mm hole, using BFKB sequence with 0%, 30% and 50% cycle elimination

levels, from [23].

assign a temperature, T i , to each cycle i and to include it in the integration. The temperature is obtained by modification of Eq. (2) to

g

T i T 0 wfN Dr2av

where

PNseq

Drav

j1

Drj Nj

N seq

each rain-flow counted range Drj occurs Nj times and where N is

the number of cycles up to cycle i. The number of cycles to failure,

N f , is computed by combining Eqs. (4)(6) and iteratively running

through the load sequence for each cycle and then repeating the

sequence until n 1. The integration is performed numerically in

MATLAB [22] using the built-in functions for the purpose.

If the maximum sequence stress level is low, the sequence must

be repeated many times and a large number of cycles must be integrated, which becomes computationally expensive. To circumvent

this problem an alternative integration method is proposed. It is

based on the fact that some cycles are often repeated within the

sequence. Instead of individually integrating such cycles each time

they appear, as in the cycle-by-cycle integration, we simply multiply the number of their occurrences with the integral for one cycle,

in order to calculate the contribution for the whole block of identical cycles. We refer to this as the block-by-block integration.

The problem is that, even if the stresses are the same in two differ-

fatigue data for un-notched specimens at room temperature to fit

the four model parameters U; c; w and g. The values for U and c

at 90 C were assumed based on observations found in the literature. In context of VA loading the same parameter values, listed

in Table 1, are used.

In [1] the model was validated against CA fatigue data from

tests on open hole specimens. Now, the validation on open hole

specimens will be performed in context of VA loading. For this purpose a fighter aircraft fin sequence, valid for 200 flight hours (FLH),

denoted BFKB, with 0%, 30% and 50% cycle elimination levels is

used, see Fig. 7, together with the test results from [23]. The stresses in the specimen with a hole are computed using an FE-model

and the failure is considered to have occurred when the first point

in a 45 ply at the hole edge has failed, as in [1]. A comparison of

the prediction and experimental results, in terms of maximum

applied absolute strain, shows a good correspondence, see Fig. 8.

The predictions are performed using the cycle-by-cycle integration on all strain levels and using the block-by-block integration

only on the lowest strain level. The difference that the two

approaches have on the variation of the temperature and the damage index is illustrated in Fig. 9 for the case of 30% cycle elimination level. Notice that the block-by-block integration is used only

on the lowest strain level, e 0:45%, since the other two strain

levels give fatigue lives which are not longer than one sequence

repetition of 200 FLH.

5. Results and discussion

The bearing failure of the bolted specimens typically resulted in

bolt hole elongation in the direction of the maximum bolt load

resultant, similar to the failure of specimens tested in CA, cf. [1].

Fig. 10 shows that the grip displacement, upeak;max , measured at

the maximum applied mechanical peak load in the sequence,

350

= 0.5 %

= 0.5 %

340

= 0.45 %

0.8

Cycle by cycle

Block by block

320

T [K]

= 0.45 %

= 0.48 %

= 0.48 %

330

0.6

310

0.4

300

0.2

290

75

109

219

329

439

549

FLH [hours]

(a) Temperature, T.

659

769

Cycle by cycle

Block by block

0

109

219

329

439

549

659

769

FLH [hours]

(b) Damage index, n.

Fig. 9. Predictions of temperature variation and the damage index in the critical point of the HTA/6376C laminate with a 6 mm hole, using BFKB sequence with 30% cycle

elimination level.

76

bearing fatigue damage progression that takes place in the VA

loading is of the same type as in the CA loading. Therefore, we also

adopt the same definition of the structural bearing failure as in [1],

i.e. that the failure occurs when a microcrack is initiated outside

the washer area.

Fig. 11 shows the predictions of the fatigue life versus the maximum peak mechanical bearing stress, rbpeak;max F peak;max =2tD,

peak,max

utrough

u

4

3

2

The predictions show good correspondence with the experimental

results, although a large scatter is observed in the experiments. It is

also obvious that the Miners rule predictions tend to be unconservative, as seen in other studies. A number of specimens loaded uniaxially at low stress levels failed due to the fatigue failure of the

bolts, as shown in Figs. 11 and 12. Although the composite material

around the bolt holes in these specimens was damaged, these

results cannot be considered to be representative for the bearing

fatigue failure in the composite. The bearing fatigue life of the composite should be longer than obtained by these tests.

Fig. 11 indicates that the biaxial loading results in a shorter fatigue life, for the same level of the maximum peak mechanical load,

which was also the case in CA loading. This result seems reasonable, because the presence of the thermally induced load, F th ,

increases the maximum resultant force, resulting in a shorter fatigue life. Plotting the same data in terms of the maximum peak

q

resultant bearing stress, rbres;max F peak;max =22 F 2th =tD, we

1

0

15

10

x 10

N [cycles]

(a) Uniaxial case, F peak,max = 80 kN.

3

upeak,max

u

2.5

trough

u

uth

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

10

12

14

N [cycles]

see in Fig. 12, that the biaxial loading gives longer fatigue life than

the uniaxial loading for the same rbres;max . An explanation for this is

that the resultant bearing load range is smaller in the biaxial case.

This result implies that using uniaxial data for dimensioning of

biaxially loaded bolted joints, in terms of the maximum resultant

bearing stress, gives a conservative design. Although the conducted

experiments and the analysis work consider only constant thermally induced load, the conclusion must apply to a general variation of it. The model and the experimental program can be

adapted to include variable thermally induced load.

The fatigue model performs reasonably well, considering that it

includes only four parameters which are derived from smooth

specimen CA tests, performed at room temperature and at different

frequency. This is very efficient but it comes with a cost of having

to compute the matrix stresses. Also, the introduction of the temperature variation, due to the cycling, results in a more complex

model, especially for VA loading. An alternative way to incorporate

16

4

x 10

Fig. 10. Grip displacement from experiments.

1000

Exp. uniaxial

Exp. uniaxial bolt failure

Exp. biaxial

900

Sim. uniaxial

Sim. biaxial

Miner's rule uniaxial

Miner's rule biaxial

700

b

max

[MPa]

800

T0 = 90 C

f = 2 Hz

U = 197 kJ/mol

= 2.7 kJ/MPa/mol

= 0.304.10-3 C/MPa2s

= 0.143

400

1000

Exp. uniaxial

Exp. uniaxial bolt failure

Exp. biaxial

900

log(FLIGHTS) [ ]

Fig. 11. Experimental results (Exp.) from uniaxial and biaxial tests compared to the

prediction results (Sim.) and Miners rule predictions in terms of the maximum

peak mechanical bearing stress.

[MPa]

500

b

res,max

600

Sim. uniaxial

Sim. biaxial

800

700

600

F peak;max , and the grip displacement, utrough , at the trough that follows immediately after, increase continuously during the cycling,

while their difference, Du, is constant. In the biaxial loading, the

horizontal actuator movement, uth is also increasing to failure. This

softening behaviour is interpreted as the result of continuous fatigue damage accumulation during the cycling. Similar results were

obtained in CA loading [1], where a fractography study also was

performed to confirm this and to study the characteristics of the

T0 = 90 C

f = 2 Hz

U = 197 kJ/mol

= 2.7 kJ/MPa/mol

= 0.304.10-3 C/MPa2s

= 0.143

500

400

log(FLIGHTS) [ ]

Fig. 12. Experimental results (Exp.) from uniaxial and biaxial tests compared to the

prediction results (Sim.) in terms of the maximum peak resultant bearing stress.

77

400

1

390

380

T [K]

0.8

0.6

0.4

370

360

Cycle by cycle

Block by block

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Cycle by cycle

Block by block

0.2

0

2000

4000

6000

Number of flights

Number of flights

(a) Temperature, T.

8000

10000

Fig. 13. Predictions of temperature variation and the damage index in the critical point of the uniaxially loaded bolted laminate specimen at

rate of temperature per cycle as a function of the stress variation

during the cycle. The temperature variation during the loading

can then be obtained incrementally by summation, just like the

damage index. The drawback of this approach is that the temperature rate can be experimentally determined in CA loading [24], but

might be difficult to determine for a single stress cycle with different troughs as in Fig. 6. We were, however, able to avoid this complexity somewhat and still get fairly good results by introduction

of Eq. (6) and the block-by-block approach, see Fig. 13. It seems

to have worked for the two sequences considered in this study,

but it is not certain that it would work for any sequence. More

validation work, including different material systems, lay-ups,

frequencies, temperatures, load sequences and structural geometries needs to be performed.

Another shortcoming of the model is that it is incapable of predicting the softening behaviour of the material that was observed,

cf. Fig. 10. The model could be expanded in this regard to include

the degradation of the stiffness and/or strength, based on the evolution of the damage index.

6. Conclusions

An experimental campaign is presented, in which hybrid metalcomposite bolted joint specimens were testes in variable amplitude loading, in a specifically designed rig to assess the bearing

behaviour under thermally induced loads coupled to mechanical

loads. Introduction of thermally induced load resulted in shorter

fatigue life, for the same maximum mechanical load sequence

level. If the influence is compared in terms of the maximum peak

resultant bearing load, the biaxial loading, i.e. including the thermally induced load, results in a longer fatigue life than the uniaxial

loading. An explanation for this is the smaller effective stress range

in the biaxial case. This result can be utilized in design of biaxially

loaded bolted joints, where the joint can be conservatively dimensioned in terms of maximum peak resultant bearing load using

uniaxial fatigue life data. The experimental results were supported

by predictions made using a fatigue model, which was previously

implemented for CA loading and modified here to account for VA

loading.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the support from Swedish Armed Forces, Swedish Defence Materiel Administration and

Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems who funded

the work presented in this article.

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