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STANDARD KITCHEN OPERATION PROCEDURES OF SELECTED BUFFET
RESTAURANT IN LAS PINAS CITY

An Undergraduate Thesis Proposal


Presented to
The Faculty of the College of International Hospitality Management
University of Perpetual Help System DALTA
ALabang Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pinas City

In Partial Fufillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of International Hospitality Management

ARSULA, MICHAEL L.
CANIMO, KRISTIAN O.
SALVACION, FREEMARK JOSEPH V.
October 2015

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APPROVAL SHEET
This undergraduate research proposal entitled Standard Kitchen Operation
Procedures of Selected Buffet Restaurant in Las Pinas City prepared and
submitted by Arsula, Michael L., Canimo, Kristian O., Salvacion, Freemark V., in
partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in
International Hospitality Management has been examined and recommended for the
acceptance and approval for oral defense.
_______________________
MR. DENNIS VIDUYA
Adviser

_________________________
MS. CATHERINE B. PEAMANTE
Research Professor

ORAL EXAMINATION COMMITTEE


Approved by the Oral Examination Committee with a grade of _____.
__________________________

_________________________

Member

Member
________________________
Chairman

Acceptance in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree Bachelor of Science


in
Hospitality Management.

MS. EVELYN ANTIPORDA / MSBA-HRM


Dean, College of International Hospitality Management

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The researchers wish to express their profound appreciation and utmost gratitude to all
people who provided support and assistance for the improvement of this research. Our
debt of gratitude and utmost thanks to the following:

DEAN EVELYN ANTIPORDA, College of International Hospitality


Management, for the moral support and endorsement while in the process of writing the
paper,
MS. CATHERINE PEAMANTE, Methods of Research Professor, for the
support and knowledge that you shared on us.
The RESEARCHERS CLASSMATES whose very encouraging especially in
times of difficulties of the research. This help the researchers boost their confidence in
finishing this study.
The RESEARCHERS FAMILIES, for the love, understanding and financial
support that this humble work a reality;
To all the RESEARCHERS FRIENDS, for the inspiration and laughter shared
during the sleep-less nights and pressure moments, and
Most importantly to Dear GOD ALMIGHTY, for the love, strength and wisdom
bestowed to the researchers for the completion of this paper.

Abstract

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The study was a quantitative study that investigated the practices and standard
operating procedures in selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. The researchers
employed descriptive research design and statistical analysis of the data gathered using
validated self-made questionnaire.
Generally, the kitchen staff of selected restaurants Always practice safety and
hygiene practices and standard operating procedures; Sometimes practice
familiarization practices; and Always give particular attention to important issues in
the kitchen. There are no significant differences in the perception of respondents about
the safety and hygiene practices of kitchen staff, familiarization practices, standard
operating procedures, and issues encountered in the kitchen in selected restaurants in
Las Pinas City if they are grouped according to their age, civil status, work experience,
and job position.
It is concluded by the researchers that it is only proper and appropriate for the
selected restaurants that their kitchen staff always implement hygiene and safety
practices. But, as it is found wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those with
contacts with food, for this may not be appropriate at all times and for all staff in the
kitchen department. It can be concluded by the researchers that the selected restaurants
do not always implement familiarization practices in their kitchen departments which is
an underestimation of the importance of the procedures and processes of familiarization
practices especially for the new kitchen staff of the kitchen department. The
researchers also conclude that the selected restaurants have given utmost importance to
explaining the uses, handling and operations of kitchen equipment as well as explaining
to kitchen staff the standard procedures to be followed strictly in the kitchen
department, for these preventive measures to make the kitchen staff perform their tasks
without causing troubles and problems for the restaurants, for other staff and the
customers.
To the managers and supervisors, it is recommended that they constantly
monitor their kitchen staff to be able to consistently implement the standard operating
procedures and practices for the promotion of safety, hygiene and sanitation, and that
special, or more, attention be given to familiarization procedures especially to the
newly hired staff of kitchen department for these would help them to perform their jobs
without making mistakes. To the kitchen staff, it is recommended that they constantly
coordinate with their manager and supervisor for anything else they needed to learn in
the operation and management of the kitchen department.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL SHEET

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

ABSTRACT

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


AND STUDIES
Introduction

Review of Related Literature

Synthesis

22

Conceptual Framework

23

Research Paradigm

24

Statement of the Problem

25

Significance of the Study

25

Scope and Limitation

26

Definition of Terms

27

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2 METHODOLOGY
Research Design

29

Sampling Technique

30

Respondents of the Study

31

Research Instrument

32

Validation of Instrument

33

Gathering Data Procedure

34

Reference

38

Appendices

Questionnaire validation

39

Survey questionnaire

42

Certificate of validation

45

CURRICULUM VITAE

48

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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This presents the Introduction of the Study, Background of the Study, Review
of related Literature and Studies, Synthesis, Scope and Limitation, Conceptual
Framework, Research Paradigm, Statement of the Problem and Significance of the
Study.
Introduction
A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a set of written instructions that
document a routine or repetitive activity followed by every staff. SOP helps in
maintaining quality and consistency of service and standard's in your restaurant.
The development and use of SOPs are an integral part of a successful quality
system as it provides individuals with the information to perform a job properly, and
facilitates consistency in the quality and integrity of a product. It is a must that all
newly recruited kitchen staff should be given training on kitchen SOP.

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There are three purposes for establishing Standard Operating Procedures for
your operation. To protect your products from contamination from microbial, chemical,
and physical hazards; to control microbial growth that can result from temperature
abuse; and to ensure procedures are in place for maintaining equipment, as a College of
International Hospitality Management of the UPHSD, this study aims to find out what
is the best standard kitchen operating procedures of different fine dining restaurant in
Las Pinas City.
Review of Related Literature
According to Santosh (2012) Kitchen SOPs Should have this steps for good
management of the kitchen. Staff selected for the kitchen should be taken for a
familiarisation round of the hotel and each area should be thoroughly discussed.
Kitchen rounds should be more thorough and the induction carried over for 2 to 3 days.
Familiarisation with all the equipment installed, their use, handling, functioning and
maintenance to be drilled into all the members. Introduction of the team members
within and outside the kitchen to be carried out in an informal manner. All the rules and
policies of the hotel to be communicated to the members and made sure that each and
every member has understood them correctly. All standard procedures to be
communicated to them i.e. Duty rosters, off, leaves, holidays, uniform, grooming,

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telephone handling, cafeteria timings, departmental communication, welfare team,
G.Ms communication, lost and found procedure , the dos and donts of the hotel etc.
Also Santosh, (2012) said A kitchen prep list is a vital part of a smooth operating
kitchen. Not only does it allow for an easy to follow list of what needs to be made, but
it also is a key player in cost control. The prep list can create problems in the kitchen
too if not implemented properly. They are either incomplete or just plain wrong.
Purpose of SOPs
The purpose of SOP is to assign the procedures for the preparation, approval,
distribution, amendment and storage of Standard Operating Procedures (Cardiff
University, 2009). The purpose or objective of the procedure should express and expand
well written title (Jain SK., 2008). SOPs serve as frame for organizational action
support direction and structure. They tell what, how, when, why, and who. (Iowa State
University, 2010). In order to be active, SOPs need to define not only what needs to be,
but who is qualified to carry it out, and un der what conditions the procedure can be
performed reliably (Levine D.I., 2010). They should aid constant conformance support
data quality. They should be determined to be specific to the organization and assist that
organization to obtain their quality control and quality assurance processes and ensure
compliance (Almeida S.L.) SOPs specify the commonly recurring work processes that

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are to be conducted or followed inside an arrangement. They approve the way activities
are to be performed to alleviate constant conformance to technical and quality system
necessities and to provide data quality. They may define, for example, basic
programmatic actions and technical actions such as analytical processes, and
procedures for maintaining, calibrating, and using equipment. If not written
appropriately, SOPs are of limited value. Additionally, the best written SOPs will fail if
they are not followed. Therefore, the use of SOPs needs to be checked out and reenforced by management, alternatively the direct supervisor. Current copies of the
SOPs also need to be readily accessible for reference in the work areas of those
individuals absolutely carrying out the activity, either in hard copy or electronic format,
otherwise SOPs serve little purpose (United States Environmental Protection Agency,
2007).
Benefits of SOPs
The improvement and use of SOPs promotes quality through consistent
implementation of a process or procedure within the organization reduced work effort,
along with advanced da ta comparability, credibility, and legal defensibility (Almeida
S.L.) The details in an SOP standardize the process and support step-by-step how-to
instructions that enable anyone within your operation to perform the task in a consistent

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manner (Iowa State University, 2010). They abbreviate difference and advance quality
through constant impact of a process or procedure inside the organization, although
there are temporary or permanent personnel changes. 372 Latest Research into Quality
Control SOPs can signify agreement with organizational and governmental needs and
can be used as a part of a personnel training program, since they should supply detailed
work instructions. It minimizes opportunities for miscommunication and can address
safety concerns. When historical data are being estimated for current use, SOPs can also
be very important for reconstructing project activities when no other references are
accessible. Besides, SOPs are commonly used as checklists by inspectors when auditing
procedures. Eventually, the benefits of a valid SOP are decreased work effort, along
with developed comparability, credibility, and legal defensibility. The advancement and
use of SOPs is a basic part of a successful quality system. It supplies individuals with
the information to perform a job regularly and aids constancy in the quality and
integrity of a product or end-result through constant implementation of a process or
procedure inside the arrangement. SOPs can also be used as a part of a personnel
training program, hence they should support detailed work instructions. When historical
data are being assessed for current use, SOPs can be beneficial for reconstructing
project activities. Additionally, SOPs are commonly used as checklists by inspectors
when auditing procedures. Finally, the benefits of a valid SOP are minimized work
effort, together with improved data comparability, credibility, and legal defensibility.

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SOPs are necessary even when published methods are being administered because cited
published methods may not include appropriate information for conducting the
procedure in-house.

Types of SOPs
Several categories and types of SOPs can be distinguished. The name "SOP"
may not always be appropriate, e.g., the description of situations or other matters may
better designated pro tocols, instructions or simply registration forms. Also worksheets
belonging to an analytical pro cedure have to be standardized (to avoid jotting down
readings and calculations on odd pieces of paper) (Almeida S.L.) Some of the most
important SOP types:
Fundamental SOPs. These give instructions how to make SOPs of the other
categories.
Methodic SOPs. These describe a complete testing system or method of
investigation.
SOPs for safety precautions

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Standard procedures for operating instruments, apparatus and other
equipment.
SOPs for analytical methods.
SOPs for the preparation of reagents.
SOPs for receiving and registration of samples.
SOPs for Quality Assurance.
SOPs for archiving and how to deal with complaints.
Generally the SOPs may be written for any repetitive technical activity, as well
as for any administrative procedure (Almeida S.L.). SOPs may be written for any
repetitive technical activity, as well as for any authoritative or functional programmatic
procedure, that is being followed inside an organization. General guidance for preparing
both technical and administrative SOPs follows and examples of each are located in the
Appendix (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007).
Setting Operational Standards
At its simplest, a standard is an agreed, repeatable way of doing something.
From a practical perspective, operational standards are those standards which are
recognised by the organisation as important enough to be published and monitored for
continuous improvement. In tourism businesses, they relate primarily to service, and
contain precise criteria designed to be used consistently as a rule or guideline.

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Operational standards help to make life simpler and to increase the reliability of
many practices that guide us and the services we provide. They are intended to be
aspirational - a summary of best practices rather than general practice. Standards are
created by bringing together the experience and expertise of all employees and the
expectations of the customers.
Develop the standards
Establishing operational standards and making them integral to how the kitchen
operates will take time. You need to develop a careful, well-thought-out approach that
recognises:
the different types of services and customers you have;
your knowledge of how your people currently perform; and
your ability to monitor performance against standards.

Use the MARC acronym when developing standards:


Measurable The standard must be measurable to be of assistance in targeting
improvement, and the more specifically the standard is defined, the more measurable it
will be. Therefore, a standard should be measurable by quality, quantity and timeliness.

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Achievable The standard must be reasonable and attainable, and should never
be so easy that it requires no significant effort, or so difficult that it requires
superhuman effort. In setting standards, you must take into account whether the people
responsible for delivering the service have the skills and resources they require to meet
those standards, supported by systems and policies that will allow the standard to be
achieved.
Relevant The standard must reflect customers expectations or be designed to
create a benefit for the customer and must be relevant to your particular operation, not
adopted/copied/borrowed from another.
Controllable Accomplishing the standard must be within the control of a
specific department and the measurement tools for accomplishing the desired result
must be set up.
Communicate the Standards
Operational standards are intended to let your people know the level of
performance expected of them. Reporting on performance against standards is critical if
you are to make operational standards achievable. However, you can only do so if

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operational standards are readily available to and understood by employees involved in
their delivery, and if they are clear and easy to understand.
There are a number of measurement tools a kitchen can use. One effective way
is to use a checklist or audit of the standards and track performance over time. Then,
action plan any areas for improvement identified to eliminate the problem from
recurring.

Monitor the Standards


Develop ways to measure your performance against standards, and monitor
performance constantly. Setting customer-driven standards and measuring how well
your kitchen is doing is a continuous process. It should quickly identify problems with
customer service. All parts of the organisation should be involved in finding solutions
to these problems and discussing these solutions with customers, where appropriate.
Improve the standards
Continuous improvement will allow you to set higher and higher operational
standards and maximise customer satisfaction. By consulting customers, monitoring
performance and encouraging innovation, you will be able to deliver better service.

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Sample SOP of HACCP:
Preparing and Cooking Hot Foods
Policy: Temperatures of all potentially hazardous hot foods will be taken during
preparation
and service to ensure safety of food served to children.
Procedures:

Employees involved in the production of food must complete the

following steps:
Prepare hot foods:
1.

Cook hot foods to these minimum internal end-point temperatures or higher.

Poultry
Stuffing, stuffed meats,
casseroles, and other dishes
combining raw and cooked foods
Ground or flaked meats
Beef roasts; pork roasts and chops
Beef steaks, veal, lamb
Commercially raised game animals
Fish and foods containing fish
Shell eggs (for immediate service)
Vegetables (canned, frozen, fresh)
Potentially Hazardous Foods
cooked in microwave
after cooking

165F for 15 seconds


165F for 15 seconds
155F for 15 seconds
145F for 3 minutes
145F for 15 seconds
145F for 15 seconds
145F for 15 seconds
145F for 15 seconds
135F for 15 seconds
165F; let food stand for 2 minutes

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Take end-point cooking temperatures.

3.

Record the end-point cooking temperature on the Service Temperature


Record.

4.

Use batch cooking to reduce holding time of foods.

5.

Allow temperature of cooking equipment to return to required temperatures


between batches.

6.

Do not use hot holding equipment to cook or reheat foods.

7.

Heat fruits, vegetables, and ready-to-eat (RTE) commercially processed and


packaged foods to 135F for hot service.

8.

When preparing foods at room temperature, do so within two (2) hours or


less, or the food item should be returned to the refrigerator.

9.

Prepare raw products away from other products not receiving heat treatment.
This reduces the opportunity of cross contamination with any ready-to-eat
foods.

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Maintain food contact surfaces:


1. Whenever budget allows, use color-coded cutting boards for all products.
a. red for meat
b. green for vegetables or fruits
c. yellow for breads.
2. Clean and sanitize all food contact surfaces, cutting boards, and utensils
that
fish prior to

have been used in the preparation of raw meats, poultry, and


using for raw fruits and vegetables and ready-to-eat

foods. Cleaning and sanitizing steps MUST be done separately in order to


be effective.

Take temperatures:
1. Use a calibrated thermometer suitable for the food product (see to take the
temperatures of all food products. A bi-metallic stem thermometer is

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adequate for stews, casseroles, and dishes with a lot of liquid. A
thermocouple or thermistor thermometer is needed for meats and poultry.
2. Wipe the thermometer stem with alcohol wipes prior to and after taking the
temperatures of each food; or wash stem, rinse, and sanitize.
3. Take temperatures in the thickest part of a food item (usually the center).
Two readings should also be taken in different locations to assure thorough
cooking to the appropriate end-point temperature.
4. Record the end-point cooking temperature on the Service Temperature
Record.
Food Tasting
Policy: All foodservice employees will use the correct and sanitary tasting method to
prevent contamination and ensure food safety.

Procedures: All employees in school foodservice must:


Use a Two Spoon Tasting Method (preferred, but not required method):
1. Remove a sample of a product from the container with one spoon.

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2. Transfer the product sample onto a second spoon, step back so that you are
not leaning over the food.
3. Taste the product.
4. Never re-use a used spoon.
OR
Use a One Spoon Method:
1. Remove a sample of a product from the container with spoon.
2. Step back so that you are not leaning over the food.
3. Taste the product.
4. Never re-use a used spoon.
Reheating of Food
Policy: All food production employees will reheat cooked food to 165F for 15
seconds to assure the safety of the food.
Procedures: Employees reheating food should:
1. Remove leftover food from the freezer/refrigerator.

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2. Check the temperature of the food to make sure it is lower than 41F using a
calibrated thermometer.
3. Reheat the food product to 165F for 15 seconds using an oven, stove, or
steamer. The goal is to take the food through the temperature danger zone
(41F - 135F) as quickly as possible.
4. Serve the food immediately, or place the food in a steam table or in a preheated holding cart and recheck temperature to make sure temperature is at
or above 135F.
5. Check the temperature of the food before serving.
6. Discard any potentially hazardous foods held in the temperature danger zone
(41F to 135F) for more than 2 hours. This includes time during receiving,
storage, preparation, cooking, holding, cooling, and reheating the food. This
should be noted on the Service Temperature Record.
7. Foods may be reheated more than once, as long as foods are cooled
properly; however, check food quality, and discard if quality is
compromised due to reheating.

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Synthesis
The researchers only chose the data that most supported by the review of related
literature based on the facts that the researchers retrieve SOPs serve as a fundamental
means of communication for all levels of the organization. Not only do they include
employees departmentally, but they also allow management and employees to gain a
cross-functional view of the organization. This attitude encourages employees to think
about how process change may affect other functional areas. A good system forces
employee to think through processes and examine how procedure might influence
product, personnel, production, and equipment. SOPs can also signify agreement with
organizational and governmental needs and can be used as a part of a personnel training
program, since they should supply detailed work instructions. The researchers also want
to obtain the knowledge about how other establishment conduct their SOPs during
work.

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Conceptual Framework

Buffet Restaurant
In
Las Pinas City

Manager, Supervisor
Kitchen Staffs

Standard
Operation
Procedures
Qualifications

Figure 1

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INPUT
Chefs and
all of the

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Research Paradigm

kitchen staff
of Selected
Buffet
Restaurant
in Las Pinas
City

PROCESS
1.Observation
Kitchen Standard
2.Data Gathering
Operation
3.Consultation
Procedure
of
Different4.Questionaire
Buffet
5.Content
Restaurant
in Las
Pinas City

Figure 2

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Figure 2 shows the research paradigm. This research use the different information
related to standard kitchen operation procedure needed to complete the study.
Consultation and interview to the respondents are needed to gather information to
support the study.
Statement of the Problem
1.) What kind of rules are implemented for the Hygiene of staff inside the
Kitchen facility of the Buffet Restaurant?
2.) What kind of familiarization must be done in the kitchen of the Buffet
Restaurant?
3.) What are the Standard Operating Procedures inside the kitchen of Buffet
Restaurant.?
4.) What are the issues encountered inside the kitchen of selected buffet
restaurant in Las Pinas City?
Significance of the Study
For the applicants for kitchen department, the study can help them end their
guessing as to what the managers and supervisors require as qualifications for Kitchen
staff in their restaurants. The study can also help them to properly execute the SOPs in
their restaurant.
For the manager and supervisors, the study will give them ideas that will help
them make an outstanding standard operation procedure in their restaurant.

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For the HRM students, especially those who will be doing their on-the-job training in
restaurants in the near future, those who have plans to work as kitchen staff as part time
job, and those who have plans of managing their own restaurant someday, the study can
provide them valuable information as to the qualifications that managers and
supervisors of restaurants require from applicants for kitchen staff. The HRM students
will be helped, then, to enrich their curriculum vitae by highlighting the qualifications
that they have and that managers are looking for in wait staff applicants.
Scope and Limitation
This study will focus on selected Buffet restaurant within Las Pinas City. The
respondents involved are the Kitchen staffs, Chefs, Supervisor and Manager who are
currently employed in Buffet restaurant.
These people were chosen due to the fact that they have the ideas regarding the
topic. The researchers decided to delimit the study in the above mentioned participants
and vicinities because of time and budgetary constraints.

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Definitions of Terms
The following definition of terms are important for the readers to better
understand study. Some of the terms are defined herein in the way that they will be
used in the study.
SOP.

Standard Operation Procedure is a company or a


establishment procedures to achieve the standard services
in their product or customers.

CIHM.

College of International Hospitality Management is the


department where the researchers came from.

Respondents.

Kitchen Staffs of BuffetRestaurant that will help the


researchers to accomplish their study.

Researchers.

Students from International Hospitality Industry who


conduct their study about the standard operating
procedure of selected fine dining restaurant in Las Pinas,
City.

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Hazardous Food.

Contaminated or Dangerous Food that can cause illness


to the staff and the customer of a restaurant.

Buffet Restaurants.

Is a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a


public

area

where

themselves. Buffets

are

the

diners

offered

at

generally

serve

various

places

including hotels, restaurants and many social events.


Buffet restaurants typically offer all-you-can-eat (AYCE)
food for a set price.

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Chapter 2
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
In this particular study the researchers will use the tools and methods of
descriptive research design since the researchers will be using a Likert-scale survey
questionnaire and they will be dealing with numerical data instead of studying traits,
trends, characteristics, or attitude and aptitude. The descriptive methods is selected by
the researchers as the most appropriate research method to use for the present study
where quantitative data based on the respondents responses for the items on standard
operating procedures in the kitchen department of selected buffet restaurants in Las
Pinas City.
The researchers also opted to use the descriptive research design because it
will provide the researchers with tools for population sampling, for data gathering, and
for analysis of the data to be gathered.

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Population Sampling
The researchers are concerned with determining the familiarization practices
in buffet restaurants to be selected in Las Pinas City, their standard operating
procedures in the kitchen department, and the rules implemented for hygiene of the
kitchen staff, therefore, the population in the present study will consist of the kitchen
staff, chefs, supervisors and managers of the kitchen department of the selected buffet
restaurants in Las Pinas City.
The population described above will be reduced to a similar size through the
use of some sampling technique in order for the researchers to manage their data
gathering more efficiently and effectively. The sample of kitchen staff, chefs, managers
and supervisors will allow the researchers to complete their study within the limited
timeframe. The sample of respondents will be obtained by the researchers using
sampling. That is, they will select only those kitchen staff, chefs, managers and
supervisors who are readily available to participate in the study as respondents will be
included for the study and as part of the sample. The sample then will be chosen using
random sampling to give every kitchen staff, chefs, managers and supervisors the
opportunity to part of the study of the researchers. More particularly, the researchers

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will systematic random sampling method to select their sample from the population of
kitchen staff, chefs, managers and supervisors of the buffet restaurants in Las Pinas
City.

Respondents of the Study


For an individual to qualify as respondent or participant of the present study, he
or she must possess certain characteristics, which means that not all kitchen staff, chefs,
managers and supervisors can be the subjects of the researchers study.
A respondent of the study must be an employee of a buffet restaurant. This
employee belongs to the Kitchen department of the buffet restaurant. This employee,
moreover, must be one of the following: a staff of the kitchen department, a chef of the
fine dining restaurant, a manager or supervisor of the kitchen department.
Only those individuals who fulfill the preceding requirements will be the
respondents of the researchers study. It is this group of respondents from whom data
will be collected on familiarization practices in buffet restaurants to be selected in Las
Pinas City, their standard operating procedures in the kitchen department, and the rules
implemented for hygiene of the kitchen staff.

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Research Instrument
Since the researchers will need factual information from the kitchen staff, chefs,
managers and supervisors of the buffet restaurants in Las Pinas City, the survey
instrument that the researchers will be using is a self-administered questionnaire to be
devised by the researchers themselves so that it will fulfill their needs and provide them
with data necessary for them to answer satisfactorily the problems they have posed in
their statement of the problem. The researchers need not know the opinions or attitudes
of their respondents, but are rather interested in what they have actually experienced
regarding the familiarization practices in buffet restaurants to be selected in Las Pinas
City, their standard operating procedures in the kitchen department, and the rules
implemented for hygiene of the kitchen staff. The survey questionnaire is the most
appropriate research instrument for the study that will consist of four (4) parts. The first
part will pertain to the demographic profile of the respondents which will include their
age, gender, civil status, position, and work experience.
The second part of the researchers questionnaires will consist of items which
will determine the standard operating procedures in the kitchen departments of the

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selected buffet restaurants in the city of Las Pinas. The third part of the researchers
questionnaire will consist of items which will determine the familiarization practices in
buffet restaurants to be selected in Las Pinas City. The fourth and last part of the
research instrument is on the the rules implemented for hygiene of the kitchen staff.
The survey instrument to be used by the researchers is a Likret-scale instrument
in which the respondents will have to rate each of the items of the questionnaire in a
scale of 1 to 3. These rating would be described verbally as follows: 3 for Always, 2
for Sometimes and 1 for Never.
Validation of Instrument
The researchers will submit the survey instrument that they will devise to a
statistician, grammarian and expert in hospitaliy management for validation. The
researchers questionnaire will have to pass the two types of instrument validation,
namely, face validation and content validation. Firstly, the statistician will check the
questionnaire that will answer the questions posed by the researchers specified in their
statement of the problem.
The expert in the field will check the appropriateness of the items in the
questionnaire to the focus of the study. The grammarian will of course check the
grammar of the sentences in the research instrument to make sure that they are

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unambiguous, direct to the point and can be readily understood by the respondents.
Furthermore, the researchers will do a dry run for the questionnaire to at least five
individuals. If answers to an item becomes extreme, then the item will have to
improved, clarified, or even simplified in order for the respondents to better understand
what is being asked in the item to avoid ambiguity.
Data Gathering Procedure
To be systematic in conducting their study the researchers will take several steps
towards gathering of the data that they need for statistical analysis to answer the
questions in their statement of the problem.
The researchers will initially conduct an informal survey to find out the number
of buffet restaurants in Las Pinas City as well the number of kitchen staff, chefs,
managers and supervisors of the buffet restaurants in Las Pinas City. This number is the
population size of kitchen staff, chefs, managers and supervisors of the buffet
restaurants in Las Pinas City and will be prospective respondents of the researchers.
The number of kitchen staff, chefs, managers and supervisors of the buffet
restaurants in Las Pinas City who will from the sample of the study and who will be
selected from the population using a random sampling technique will be determined
when the population size becomes known. These respondents will be randomly selected

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from the population of kitchen staff, chefs, managers and supervisors of the buffet
restaurants in Las Pinas City. In particular, the researchers will use the systematic
random sampling technique in which the names of those kitchen staff, chefs, managers
and supervisors of the buffet restaurants in Las Pinas City will be listed down
alphabetically and the name in every 3rd entry will be taken to be part of the sample.
The survey questionnaires will be distributed to the selected local people of Las
Pinas City. They will be given adequate time to fill out the questionnaire. The survey
questionnaire will be collected back from the respondents. The researchers will
carefully check if all the items have been filled out and rated correctly by the
respondents in order to minimize errors in data analysis, thereby making the results to
obtained thereon more accurate, reliable, and valid.
To summarize the data collected, the researchers will tally the data from the
questionnaires as filled out by the respondents using Microsoft excel. The data will then
be submitted to a statistician for analysis and interpretation.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The following tools from Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics will be
employed by the researchers to present, analyze and interpret the results to be obtained
for the data gathered.

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Arithmetic mean is used to calculate the average of a set of observations. It is
obtained by use of the following formula:

x=

x
n

where x is an observed value and n is the sample size.


A parametric test will be used to test if there are significant differences in the
familiarization practices in fine dining restaurants to be selected in Las Pinas City, their
standard operating procedures in the kitchen department, and the rules implemented for
hygiene of the kitchen staff. In particular, the F-test will be employed by the researchers
to determine whether there are significant differences in the familiarization practices in
buffet restaurants to be selected in Las Pinas City, their standard operating procedures
in the kitchen department, and the rules implemented for hygiene of the kitchen staff.
Weighted means is employed when the observations are assigned weights to
indicate the relative importance of the observations. The weighted mean is calculated
using the following formula:
x

f
w= x 100
n

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The chi-square test will be used to determine if there are significant differences in
the familiarization practices in buffet restaurants to be selected in Las Pinas City, their
standard operating procedures in the kitchen department, and the rules implemented for
hygiene of the kitchen staff, when respondents are grouped according to their
demographic profiles.
The chi-square test is a non-parametric test that is used for test of difference when data
are nominal, and it is based on frequencies.
The following table was used in Chapter 3 for the verbal interpretation of means:
Verbal interpretation of Means
Mean Range
1.00 1.50
1.51 2.50
2.51 3.00

Description
Never
Sometimes
Always

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Chapter 3
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data gathered as well as the results of the statistical
analysis of these data which provided the researchers with answers to the specific
research questions of the study.
Profiles of Respondents
The profiles of respondents are summarized and presented in the following
frequency tables below, beginning with the profile of respondents according to their
age.

Age (Years)
BELOW 25
25 - 30
ABOVE 30
Total

Table 1
Profile of Respondents according to Age
Frequency (f)
Percentage (%)
8
32.00
15
60.00
2
8.00
25
100.00

There were twenty-five (25) respondents in the study. Majority of the twentyfive (25) respondents belong to the second age group with ages between twenty-five
(25) years old and thirty (30) years old. Specifically, fifteen (15) respondents have ages
between twenty-five (25) years and thirty (30) years and they represent sixty percent

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(60%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. This is followed by eight (8)
respondents who are below twenty-five (25) years old, and they represent thirty-two
percent (32%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. There are two (2)
respondents who are above thirty (30) years old, and they represent eight percent (8%)
of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents.
The profile of twenty-five (25) respondents according to civil status is
summarized and presented in the following next table.
Table 2
Profile of Respondents according to Civil Status
Civil Status
Frequency (f)
Percentage (%)
SINGLE
16
64.00
MARRIED
9
36.00
Total
25
100.00
Majority of the twenty-five (25) respondents are not married. Specifically,
sixteen (16) respondents are single and they represent sixty-four percent (64%) of the
sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. There are nine (9) respondents who are
married, and they represent nine percent (9%) of the sample of twenty-five (25)
respondents.
The profile of twenty-five (25) respondents according to work experience is
summarized and presented in the following next table.

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Table 3
Profile of Respondents according to Work Experience
Work Experience (Years)
Frequency (f)
Percentage (%)
LESS THAN 3
4
16.00
3-5
18
72.00
MORE THAN 5
3
12.00
Total
25
100.00
Majority of the twenty-five (25) respondents have been working between three
(3) years and five (5) years. Specifically, eighteen (18) respondents have work
experience between three (3) years and five (5) years and they represent seventy-two
percent (72%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. This is followed by four
(4) respondents who have work experience of less than three (3) years, and they
represent sixteen percent (16%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. There
are three (3) respondents who have been working for more than five (5) years, and they
represent twelve percent (12%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents.
The profile of twenty-five (25) respondents according to job position is
summarized and presented in the following next table.
Table 4
Profile of Respondents according to Job Position
Job Position
Frequency (f)
Percentage (%)
MANAGER
1
4.00
SUPERVISOR
2
8.00
STAFF
22
88.00
Total
25
100.00

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Majority of the twenty-five (25) respondents are staff of selected fine dining
restaurants. Specifically, twenty-two (22) respondents of the twenty-five (25)
respondents are staff of selected fine dining restaurants, and they represent eighty-eight
percent (88%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. This is followed by two
(2) respondents who are supervisors of selected fine dining restaurants, and they
represent eight percent (8%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents. There is
one (1) respondent who is a manager of one of the selected fine dining restaurants, and
he represents four percent (4%) of the sample of twenty-five (25) respondents.
Standard

Operating

Procedures,

Familiarization

Practices

and

Issues

Encountered
The following table summarizes the safety and hygiene practices of kitchen staff
in selected restaurants in Las Pinas City, and how frequently they are being practiced by
the kitchen staff.
Table 5
Safety and Hygiene Practices of Kitchen Staff of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas
City
Practices
1. All food contact surfaces are cleaned and sanitized.
2. Hand washing before and after food preparation.
3. Correct and sanitary tasting method is used to prevent
contamination and ensure food safety.
4. Waste segregation and proper disposal of wastes.

Mea
n
2.96
2.68
2.60
2.56

SD
0.2
0
0.5
6
0.5
8
0.5
8

Interpretati
on

Ran
k

Always

Always

Always

Always

4.5

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5. Thorough washing and drying of dishes, utensils and
equipment.
6. Wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those with
contacts with food.
COMBINED

2.56
2.28
2.61

0.5
1
0.6
8
0.2
2

Always

4.5

Sometimes

Always

The indicator All food contact surfaces are cleaned and sanitized has the
highest average rating of 2.96 and it means that this particular indicator is Always
practiced by the kitchen staff of the selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. This is
followed by the indicator Hand washing before and after food preparation with the
second highest average rating of 2.68 which means that this particular indicator is also
Always being practiced by the kitchen staff of the selected restaurants in Las Pinas
City.
On the other hand, the indicator Wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those
with contacts with food has the lowest average rating of 2.28 and it means that this
particular indicator is Sometimes being practiced by the kitchen staff of the selected
restaurants in Las Pinas City. The indicators Waste segregation and proper disposal of
wastes and Thorough washing and drying of dishes, utensils and equipment have the
same second lowest average rating of 2.56 which, nevertheless, means that these two
(2) particular indicators are Always being practiced by the kitchen staff of the selected
restaurants in Las Pinas City.

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Generally, the combined average rating of 2.61 means that the kitchen staff of
the selected restaurants in Las Pinas City Always practice safety and hygiene
practices.
It is concluded by the researchers on the basis of the results above that it is only
proper and appropriate for the selected restaurants that their kitchen staff always
implement hygiene and safety practices. But, as it is found in the results the selected
restaurants sometimes practice wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those with
contacts with food, for this may not be appropriate at all times and for all staff in the
kitchen department.
The next table below summarizes and presents the familiarization practices in
the kitchen, and how frequently they are being practiced by the kitchen staff of the
selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
Table 6
Familiarization Practices in the Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas City
Practices
1. All equipment installed, their use, handling, functioning
and maintenance are explained to kitchen staff.
2. Introduction of the team members within and outside
the kitchen is carried out in an informal manner.
3. Rules and policies in the kitchen are communicated to
kitchen staff and each staff is made to understand them
correctly
4. All standard procedures are communicated to kitchen
staff.
5. Induction into the kitchen area takes 2 or 3 days.

Mea
n
2.76
2.44
2.44
2.68
2.20

SD
0.4
4
0.5
8
0.6
5
0.4
8
0.7
1

Interpretati
on

Ran
k

Always

Sometimes

3.5

Sometimes

3.5

Always

Sometimes

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COMBINED

2.50

0.2
2

Sometimes

The indicator All equipment installed, their use, handling, functioning and
maintenance are explained to kitchen staff has the highest average rating of 2.76 and it
means that this particular familiarization practice is Always practiced in the kitchen of
selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. This is followed by the indicator All standard
procedures are communicated to kitchen staff with the second highest average rating of
2.68 which means that this particular familiarization practice is also Always being
practiced in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
On the other hand, the indicator Induction into the kitchen area takes 2 or 3
days has the lowest average rating of 2.20 and it means that this particular
familiarization practice is Sometimes being practiced in the kitchen of selected
restaurants in Las Pinas City. The indicators Introduction of the team members within
and outside the kitchen is carried out in an informal manner and Rules and policies in
the kitchen are communicated to kitchen staff and each staff is made to understand
them correctly have the same second lowest average rating of 2.44 which means that
these two (2) particular familiarization practices are Sometimes being practiced in the
kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.

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Generally, the combined average rating of 2.50 means that familiarization
practices are Sometimes practiced in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas
City.
It can be concluded by the researchers on the basis of the results above that the
selected restaurants do not always implement familiarization practices in their kitchen
departments which is an underestimation of the importance of the procedures and
processes of familiarization practices especially for the new kitchen staff of the kitchen
department.
The researchers also conclude that the selected restaurants have given utmost
importance to explaining the uses, handling and operations of kitchen equipment as
well as explaining to kitchen staff the standard procedures to be followed strictly in the
kitchen department, for these preventive measures to make the kitchen staff perform
their tasks without causing troubles and problems for the restaurants, for other staff and
the customers.
The next table below summarizes and presents the standard operating
procedures in the kitchen, and how frequently they are carried out in the kitchen of
selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
Table 7
Standard Operating Procedures in the Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las
Pinas City
SOP

Mea
n

SD

Interpretati
on

Ran
k

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1. Preparing raw products away from other products not
receiving heat treatment.
2. Preparing food at room temperature within two hours or
less.
3. Batch cooking to reduce holding time of foods.
4. Cooking hot foods to minimum internal end-point
temperatures or higher.
5. Making a checklist, auditing of standards and tracking
performance are carried out regularly.
COMBINED

2.72
2.48
2.36
2.56
2.64
2.55

0.4
6
0.7
1
0.7
0
0.5
1
0.6
4
0.1
4

Always

Sometimes

Sometimes

Always

Always

Always

The indicator Preparing raw products away from other products not receiving
heat treatment has the highest average rating of 2.72 and it means that this particular
standard operating procedure is Always practiced in the kitchen of selected restaurants
in Las Pinas City. This is followed by the indicator Making a checklist, auditing of
standards and tracking performance are carried out regularly with the second highest
average rating of 2.64 which means that this particular standard operating procedure is
also Always being practiced in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
On the other hand, the indicator Batch cooking to reduce holding time of foods
has the lowest average rating of 2.36 and it means that this particular standard operating
procedure is Sometimes being practiced in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las
Pinas City. The indicator Preparing food at room temperature within two hours or less
has the second lowest average rating of 2.48 which means that this particular standard

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operating procedure is also Sometimes being practiced in the kitchen of selected
restaurants in Las Pinas City.
Generally, the combined average rating of 2.55 means that standard operating
procedures are Always practiced in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas
City.

The researchers conclude on the basis of the results above that it is expected that

the selected restaurants always practice the standard operating procedures in the kitchen
department since they are customary practices and have been declared by accrediting
bodies and international organizations. However, the researchers also conclude that
there are specific standard operating procedures in the kitchen department such as
Batch cooking to reduce holding time of foods and Preparing food at room
temperature within two hours or less, that may not be appropriate for all restaurants
because there are some kinds of food served in some restaurants where batch cooking
may not be necessary.
The next table below summarizes and presents the issues encountered inside the
kitchen of selected restaurants, and how frequently they are encountered in the kitchen
of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
Table 8
Issues Encountered in the Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas City
Issues
1. All standard procedures were followed by all of the
kitchen staff.
2. All equipment are being handled and used properly.

Mea
n
2.92
2.80

SD
0.2
8
0.5

Interpretati
on

Ran
k

Always

Always

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3.Complained dishes will be replaced as requested by the
guest
4. Every kitchen staff coordinates with each other while
working.
5. All of the few ingredients are being reported on time.
COMBINED

2.84
2.88
2.76
2.84

0
0.4
7
0.3
3
0.5
2
0.0
6

Always

Always

Always

Always

The indicator All standard procedures were followed by all of the kitchen
staffs has the highest average rating of 2.92 and it means that all standard procedures
are Always followed by all of the kitchen staff of selected restaurants in Las Pinas
City. This is followed by the indicator Every kitchen staff coordinates with each other
while working with the second highest average rating of 2.88 which means that every
kitchen staff Always coordinates with each other while working in the kitchen of
selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
On the other hand, the indicator All of the few ingredients are being reported
on time has the lowest average rating of 2.76 and it means that all of the few
ingredients are Always being reported on time in the kitchen of selected restaurants in
Las Pinas City. The indicator All equipment are being handled and used properly has
the second lowest average rating of 2.80 which means that all equipment are Always
being handled and used properly in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.

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Generally, the combined average rating of 2.84 means that important issues are
Always given particular attention in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas
City.
On the basis of the results shown in the table above, the researchers conclude
that there are really no issues that are threatening for the selected restaurants that are
encountered in their kitchen departments because the selected restaurants always follow
the standard operating procedures.
Differences in the Perception of Respondents
The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to determine if there
are significant differences in the perception of respondents about the safety and hygiene
practices of kitchen staff in selected restaurants in Las Pinas City are summarized and
presented in the table below.
Table 9
Differences in the Perception of Respondents on Safety and Hygiene Practices in
the Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas City
Mea
n

Profile

Age

Below 25

2.60

25 30

2.60

Above 30

2.67

Single

2.65

Civil Status
Married

2.54

SD
0.2
0
0.2
2
0.4
7
0.2
1
0.2
3

Fvalue

pvalue

Decision on
Ho

Conclusion

0.08

0.93

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

1.44

0.24

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

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Work
Experience

Less than
3

2.50

35

2.60

More than
5
Manager
Job Position

2.78
2.33

Supervisor

2.83

Staff

2.60

0.2
4
0.1
8
0.3
8
0.2
4
0.2
1

1.43

0.26

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

2.01

0.16

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

Decision Criteria: Reject Ho if p-value 0.05. Otherwise, accept Ho.

Results show that there are no significant differences in the perception of


respondents about the safety and hygiene practices of kitchen staff in selected
restaurants in Las Pinas City if they are grouped according to their age, civil status,
work experience, and job position. The researchers conclude that regardless of the
profiles of respondents, they have, more or less, the same perception about the safety
and hygiene practices of kitchen staff in selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
It is concluded that there are no significant differences in the implementation of
hygiene and safety practices in the kitchen departments of selected restaurants because
these are practices that all restaurants must all implement because it is a necessity for
profitable operations of their restaurants and should be implemented by all staff without
regard to any of their profiles.
The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to determine if there
are significant differences in the perception of respondents about the familiarization

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practices in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City are summarized and
presented in the table below.

Table 10
Differences in the Perception of Respondents on Familiarization Practices in the
Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas City
Mea
n

Profile

Age

Below 25

2.43

25 30

2.57

Above 30

2.30

Single

2.45

Civil Status

Work
Experience

Married

2.60

Less than
3

2.65

35

2.49

More than
5
Manager
Job Position

2.40
2.20

Supervisor

2.50

Staff

2.52

SD
0.3
6
0.2
1
0.1
4
0.3
0
0.2
0
0.2
5
0.2
8
0.2
0
0.1
4
0.2
8

Fvalue

pvalue

Decision on
Ho

Conclusion

1.44

0.26

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

1.82

0.19

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

0.81

0.46

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

0.64

0.54

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

Decision Criteria: Reject Ho if p-value 0.05. Otherwise, accept Ho.

Results show that there are no significant differences in the perception of


respondents about the familiarization practices in the kitchen of selected restaurants in
Las Pinas City if they are grouped according to their age, civil status, work experience,

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and job position. The researchers conclude that regardless of the profiles of
respondents, they have, more or less, the same perception about the familiarization
practices in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
It is concluded that there are no significant differences in the familiarization
practices in the kitchen departments of selected restaurants because these practices are
necessary for all staff without regard to any of their profiles if they are to work
efficiently, effectively, and perform their jobs perfectly.

The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to determine if there


are significant differences in the perception of respondents about the standard operating
procedures in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City are summarized and
presented in the table below.

Table 11
Differences in the Perception of Respondents on Standard Operating Procedures
in the Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas City
Mea
n

Profile
Age

Below 25

2.53

25 30

2.55

SD
0.3
2
0.2

Fvalue
0.37

pvalue
0.70

Decision on
Ho
Accept Ho

Conclusion
Not
Significant

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Above 30

2.70

Single

2.54

Civil Status

Work
Experience

Married

2.58

Less than
3

2.40

35

2.58

More than
5
Manager
Job Position

2.60
2.80

Supervisor

2.80

Staff

2.52

3
0.1
4
0.2
7
0.2
3
0.2
8
0.2
6
0.2
0
0.2
8
0.2
4

0.14

0.71

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

0.86

0.44

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

1.73

0.20

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

Decision Criteria: Reject Ho if p-value 0.05. Otherwise, accept Ho.

Results show that there are no significant differences in the perception of


respondents about the standard operating procedures in the kitchen of selected
restaurants in Las Pinas City if they are grouped according to their age, civil status,
work experience, and job position. The researchers conclude that regardless of the
profiles of respondents, they have, more or less, the same perception about the standard
operating procedures in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.
It is concluded that there are no significant differences in the practices of
standard operating procedures in the kitchen departments of selected restaurants
because these standard operating procedures are customary practices necessary for all
restaurants to practice without regard to any of profiles of their staff.

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The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to determine if there
are significant differences in the perception of respondents about the issues encountered
in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City are summarized and presented in
the table below.

Table 12
Differences in the Perception of Respondents on Issues Encountered in the
Kitchen of Selected Restaurants in Las Pinas City
Profile
Age

Below 25

Mea
n
2.90

SD
0.1
5

Fvalue
0.37

pvalue
0.69

Decision on
Ho
Accept Ho

Conclusion
Not
Significant

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25 30

2.80

Above 30

2.90

Single

2.89

Civil Status

Work
Experience

Married

2.76

Less than
3

2.95

35

2.80

More than
5
Manager
Job Position

2.93
3.00

Supervisor

2.90

Staff

2.83

0.3
4
0.1
4
0.2
2
0.3
6
0.1
0
0.3
1
0.1
2
0.1
4
0.2
9

1.33

0.26

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

0.66

0.53

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

0.22

0.80

Accept Ho

Not
Significant

Decision Criteria: Reject Ho if p-value 0.05. Otherwise, accept Ho.

Results show that there are no significant differences in the perception of


respondents about the issues encountered in the kitchen of selected restaurants in Las
Pinas City if they are grouped according to their age, civil status, work experience, and
job position. The researchers conclude that regardless of the profiles of respondents,
they have, more or less, the same perception about the issues encountered in the kitchen
of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City.

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Chapter 4
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter presents the summary of the findings of the researchers in their
study, the conclusions they have drawn on the basis of these findings, and their
recommendations for future studies.
Summary of Findings
The researchers hereby summarize and present the findings of the researchers in
their study based on the results of the statistical analysis of the data gathered which
were presented in the preceding chapter.
There were twenty-five (25) respondents, majority of whom, fifteen (15) of
them, have ages between twenty-five (25) years and thirty (30) years and they represent
60% of the sample. Majority of respondents, sixteen (16) of them, are single and they
represent 64% of the sample. Majority of respondents, eighteen (18) of them, have
work experience between three (3) years and five (5) years and they represent 72% of
the sample. Majority of respondents, twenty-two (22) of them, are staff of selected fine
dining restaurants, and they represent 88% of the sample.
Generally, the kitchen staff of the selected restaurants in Las Pinas City
Always practice safety and hygiene practices. Specifically, All food contact surfaces
are cleaned and sanitized with highest average rating of 2.96 is Always practiced; and

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Wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those with contacts with food with the
lowest average rating of 2.28 is Sometimes practiced.
Generally, the familiarization practices are Sometimes practiced in the kitchen
of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. Specifically, All equipment installed, their
use, handling, functioning and maintenance are explained to kitchen staff with highest
average rating of 2.76 is Always practiced; and Induction into the kitchen area takes
2 or 3 days with lowest average rating of 2.20 is Sometimes practiced.
Generally, the standard operating procedures are Always practiced in the
kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. Specifically, Preparing raw products
away from other products not receiving heat treatment with highest average rating of
2.72 is Always practiced; and Batch cooking to reduce holding time of foods with
lowest average rating of 2.36 is Sometimes practiced.
Generally, important issues are Always given particular attention in the
kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. Specifically, All standard procedures
were followed by all of the kitchen staffs with highest average rating of 2.92 are
Always followed; and All of the few ingredients are being reported on time with
lowest average rating of 2.76 are Always reported.
There are no significant differences in the perception of respondents about the
safety and hygiene practices of kitchen staff, familiarization practices, standard
operating procedures, and issues encountered in the kitchen in selected restaurants in

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Las Pinas City if they are grouped according to their age, civil status, work experience,
and job position.
Conclusion
The following are the conclusions that the researchers have drawn from their
findings in their study.
It is concluded by the researchers that it is only proper and appropriate for the
selected restaurants that their kitchen staff always implement hygiene and safety
practices. But, as it is found wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those with
contacts with food, for this may not be appropriate at all times and for all staff in the
kitchen department.
It can be concluded by the researchers that the selected restaurants do not
always implement familiarization practices in their kitchen departments which is an
underestimation of the importance of the procedures and processes of familiarization
practices especially for the new kitchen staff of the kitchen department.
The researchers also conclude that the selected restaurants have given utmost
importance to explaining the uses, handling and operations of kitchen equipment as
well as explaining to kitchen staff the standard procedures to be followed strictly in the
kitchen department, for these preventive measures to make the kitchen staff perform
their tasks without causing troubles and problems for the restaurants, for other staff and
the customers.

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The researchers conclude that the selected restaurants always practice the
standard operating procedures in the kitchen department since they are customary
practices that have been declared by accrediting bodies and international organizations.
However, the researchers also conclude that there are specific standard operating
procedures in the kitchen department such as Batch cooking to reduce holding time of
foods and Preparing food at room temperature within two hours or less, that may not
be appropriate for all restaurants.
The researchers conclude that there are really no issues threatening the selected
restaurants that are encountered in their kitchen departments because the selected
restaurants always follow the standard operating procedures. The researchers conclude
that regardless of the profiles of respondents, all restaurants must implement hygiene
and safety practices because it is a necessity for profitable operations of their
restaurants.
It is concluded that there are no significant differences in the familiarization
practices in the kitchen departments of selected restaurants because these practices are
necessary for all staff without regard to any of their profiles if they are to work
efficiently, effectively, and perform their jobs perfectly.
The researchers conclude that regardless of the profiles of respondents, they
have, more or less, the same perception about the standard operating procedures in the
kitchen of selected restaurants in Las Pinas City. It is concluded that there are no

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significant differences in the practices of standard operating procedures in the kitchen
departments of selected restaurants because these standard operating procedures are
customary practices necessary for all restaurants to practice without regard to any of
profiles of their staff.
Recommendation
The researchers make the following recommendations to the managers and
supervisors of the kitchen departments of restaurants, to the kitchen staff, to the future
student researchers in management of restaurants, and to the faculty of the CIHM of the
UPHSD-Las Pinas City.
To the managers and supervisors of the kitchen departments of restaurants, the
researchers recommend that they constantly supervise their kitchen to be able to
achieve consistently in the implementation of the standard operating procedures and
practices for the promotion of safety, hygiene and sanitation. It is further recommended
that special, or more, attention be given to familiarization procedures especially to the
newly hired staff of kitchen department for these would be of great help for them to
perform their jobs without making mistakes.
To the kitchen staff, it is recommended that they constantly coordinate with
their manager and supervisor for anything else they needed to learn in the operation and
management of the kitchen department. It is also recommended that they keenly
observe other staff in the kitchen department especially those who have been there for

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longer times because they can learn from the practices of others and apply them on their
own.
To other researchers who want to make studies on other practices in the kitchen
department of restaurants, the researchers recommend that they investigate the waste
reduction and management practices of fine dining restaurants and buffet restaurants
and establish any similarities and differences. It also suggested by the researchers to
investigate how the restaurant management involve the community in their waste
reduction and management programs.
To the faculty of the CIHM of the UPHSD-Las Pinas, it is recommended that
they discuss with their students as part of the assimilation process students learning the
practices in the kitchen department where students had their on-the-job training that
they learn about but they were not taught about in the classroom. This may enrich
every in the classroom and make others aware of other practices that are unique in some
restaurants.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL / CONCEPT PAPER FORM


APPENDIX A

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I. Title

STANDARD KITCHEN OPERATION PROCEDURES


OF SELECTED BUFFET RESTAURANT IN LAS
PINAS CITY

II. Proponent(s)

ARSULA, MICHAEL L.
CANIMO, KRISTIAN O.
III. College

College Of International Hospitality Management


Hotel and Restaurant Management

IV. Background and


Significance

A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a set of


written instructions that document a routine or repetitive
activity followed by every staff. SOP helps in
maintaining quality and consistency of service and
standard's in your restaurant.
The development and use of SOPs are an integral part
of a successful quality system as it provides individuals with
the information to perform a job properly, and facilitates
consistency in the quality and integrity of a product. It is a
must that all newly recruited kitchen staff should be given
training on kitchen SOP.

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V. Objectives
A. (Main Problem)

The study aims to identify the STANDARD KITCHEN


OPERATION PROCEDURES OF SELECTED BUFFET
RESTAURANT IN LAS PINAS CITY
Specifically, it aimed to answer the following:

B. Specific (Subproblem)

1.) What kind of rules are implemented for the


Hygiene of staff inside the Kitchen facility of
the Buffet Restaurant?
2.) What kind of familiarization must be done in
the kitchen of the Buffet Restaurant?
3.) What are the Standard Operating Procedures
inside the kitchen of Buffet Restaurant.?
4.) What are the issues encountered inside the
kitchen of selected buffet restaurant in Las
Pinas City?

VI. Methodology
A. Study Design

The study will employ the descriptive research method.

B. Sample Size
(Respondents)

This study will focus on selected Buffet restaurant


within Las Pinas City. The respondents involved are the
Kitchen staffs, Chefs, Supervisor and Manager who are
currently employed in Buffet restaurant.

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APPENDIX B

CERTIFICATE OF VALIDATION

This is to certify that the undergraduate thesis for the College of International
Hospitality Management Entitled Standard Kitchen Operation Procedure of
Selected Buffet Restaurant in Las Pinas City of Michael L. Arsula, Kristian O.
Canimo, Freemark Joseph V. Salvacion was validated by the undersigned.

________________________
Mr. Dennis Viduya
Research Adviser

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CERTIFICATE OF VALIDATION

This is to certify that the undergraduate thesis for the College of International
Hospitality Management Entitled Standard Kitchen Operation Procedure of
Selected Buffet Restaurant in Las Pinas City of Michael L. Arsula, Kristian O.
Canimo, Freemark Joseph V. Salvacion was validated by the undersigned.

________________________
Ms. Remedios Bristol
Grammarian

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APPENDIX C
CERTIFICATE OF VALIDATION

This is to certify that the undergraduate thesis for the College of International
Hospitality Management Entitled Standard Kitchen Operation Procedure of
Selected Buffet Restaurant in Las Pinas City of Michael L. Arsula, Kristian O.
Canimo, Freemark Joseph V. Salvacion was validated by the undersigned.

________________________
Prof. Arturo Ronnie Tobias Calizon Junior, MS Math
Statistician

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APPENDIX D
STANDARD KITCHEN OPERATION PROCEDURES OF SELECTED
BUFFET RESTAURANT IN LAS PINAS CITY
Instruction: Mark (X) the answer that corresponds to the question being asked.
VS- Very Satisfied
S - Satisfied
NS- Not Satisfied

VS
1.)
a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)
2.)
e.)
f.)
g.)
h.)
i.)

Questionaire`s Layout
Adequate Spacing
Readable
Alignment
Logos
Questionaire`s Content
Well-presented and Organized
Presented in a Sequential Manner
Adequate Content
Can easily be understood
Specific

NS

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1. What part of the questionnaire should be changed?


_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Comments and Suggestion?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Evaluated by:
__________________________
Signature Over Printed Name
Date of Evaluation: __________

APPENDIX E

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SURVEY FORM

Dear Respondents:
We are graduating HRM students from the UPHSD in Las Pinas, and we are
presently conducting a study on Familiarization Practices, Standard Operating
Procedures, Issues Encountered and Rules Implemented for Hygiene of the
Kitchen Staff of Selected Fine Dining Restaurants in Las Pinas City as partial
fulfillment of our course requirements. We would like to seek your participation as
respondents of our study.
Our sincerest gratitude for your cooperation.
The Researchers
PART I Profile of Respondents
Directions: Please check the item that best applies to you.
Age:

____ Below 25 ____ 25 30 ____ Above 30

Gender:

____ Male

Civil Status:

____ Single ____ Married

Work Experience:

____ Less than 3 Years ____ 3 5 ____ More than 5 Years

Job Position:

____ Manager ____ Supervisor ____ Staff

____ Female

APPENDIX F

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PART II Standard Operating Procedures, Familiarization Practices and Issues
Encountered
Directions: Please rate the following items below according to the following scale:
3 Always, 2 Sometimes, 1 Never
A. Employees Safety and Hygiene
1. All food contact surfaces are cleaned and sanitized
2. Hand washing before and after food preparation.
3. Correct and sanitary tasting method is used to prevent contamination and ensure
food safety.
4. Waste segregation and proper disposal of wastes.
5. Thorough washing and drying of dishes, utensils and equipment..
6. Wearing of hair net, aprons and gloves of those with contacts with food.
B. Familiarization Practices in the Kitchen
1. All equipment installed, their use, handling, functioning and maintenance are
explained to kitchen staff.
2. Introduction of the team members within and outside the kitchen is carried out in an
informal manner.
3. Rules and policies in the kitchen are communicated to kitchen staff and each staff is
made to understand them correctly
4. All standard procedures are communicated to kitchen staff.
5. Induction into the kitchen area takes 2 or 3 days.
C. Standard Operating Procedures in Kitchen
1. Preparing raw products away from other products not receiving heat treatment.
2. Preparing food at room temperature within two hours or less.
3. Batch cooking to reduce holding time of foods.
4. Cooking hot foods to minimum internal end-point temperatures or higher.
5. Making a checklist, auditing of standards and tracking performance are carried out
regularly.
D. Issues Encountered Inside the Kitchen of Buffet Restaurant
1.All standard procedures were followed by all of the kitchen staffs
2.All equipment are being handled and used properly
3.Complained dishes will be replaced as requested by the guest
4.Every kitchen staffs coordinate with each other while working
5.All of the few ingredients are being reported on time

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

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APPENDIX G
Documentation

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APPENDIX H
References:
Online References:
Santosh (2012) - Kitchen Standard Operating Procedure
http://www.onlinehotelschool.com/article/kitchen-standard-operating-procedures-1431.html

Isin Akyar Standard Operating Procedures


http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/37593.pdf

Failte Ireland Operational Standards of Performance


http://www.failteireland.ie/FailteIreland/media/WebsiteStructure/Documents/2_Develo
p_Your_Business/1_StartGrow_Your_Business/Operational-Standards-ofPerformance.pdf

HACCP-Based Standard Operating Procedures (NFSMI The University of Mississippi)


http://www.nj.gov/agriculture/pdf/HACCPsop.pdf

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SPSS COMPUTATIONS
AGE

BELOW 25
25 - 30
ABOVE 30
Total

Valid

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

8
15
2
25

32.0
60.0
8.0
100.0

32.0
60.0
8.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
32.0
92.0
100.0

GENDER

Valid

MALE

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

25

100.0

100.0

Cumulative
Percent
100.0

CIVIL

Valid

SINGLE
MARRIED
Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

16
9
25

64.0
36.0
100.0

64.0
36.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
64.0
100.0

WORK

Valid

LESS THAN 3 YEARS


3-5
MORE THAN 5
Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

4
18
3
25

16.0
72.0
12.0
100.0

16.0
72.0
12.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
16.0
88.0
100.0

JOB

Valid

MANAGER
SUPERVISOR
STAFF
Total

Descriptive Statistics
N
A1
25
A2
25
A3
25
A4
25

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1
2
22
25

4.0
8.0
88.0
100.0

4.0
8.0
88.0
100.0

Minimum
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Maximum
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

Mean
2.9600
2.6800
2.6000
2.5600

Cumulative
Percent
4.0
12.0
100.0

Std. Deviation
.20000
.55678
.57735
.58310

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A5
A6
Valid N (listwise)

25
25
25

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
Valid N (listwise)

N
25
25
25
25
25
25

3.00
3.00

Descriptive Statistics
Minimum
Maximum
2.00
3.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
1.00
3.00

2.5600
2.2800

Mean
2.7600
2.4400
2.4400
2.6800
2.2000

.50662
.67823

Std. Deviation
.43589
.58310
.65064
.47610
.70711

Descriptive Statistics
N
C1
25
C2
25
C3
25
C4
25
C5
25
Valid N (listwise)
25

Minimum
2.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00

Maximum
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

Mean
2.7200
2.4800
2.3600
2.5600
2.6400

Std. Deviation
.45826
.71414
.70000
.50662
.63770

Descriptive Statistics
N
D1
25
D2
25
D3
25
D4
25
D5
25
Valid N (listwise)
25

Minimum
2.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00

Maximum
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

Mean
2.9200
2.8000
2.8400
2.8800
2.7600

Std. Deviation
.27689
.50000
.47258
.33166
.52281

B
2.4250
8
.36154
2.5733
15
.21202
2.3000
2
.14142
2.5040
25
.27154

C
2.5250
8
.31960
2.5467
15
.23258
2.7000
2
.14142
2.5520
25
.25351

D
2.9000
8
.15119
2.8000
15
.33806
2.9000
2
.14142
2.8400
25
.27689

Report
AGE
BELOW 25

25 - 30
ABOVE 30

Total

2.00
1.00

Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation

A
2.6042
8
.19796
2.6000
15
.21639
2.6667
2
.47140
2.6067
25
.21985

ABCD
2.6131
8
.05362
2.6286
15
.12234
2.6429
2
.10102
2.6248
25
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ANOVA Table

A * AGE

B * AGE
C * AGE
D * AGE

ABCD * AGE

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Report
GENDER
MALE

Total

Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation

Report
CIVIL
SINGLE

MARRIED

Total

Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation

(Combined)

(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)

A
2.6067
25
.21985
2.6067
25
.21985

A
2.6458
16
.20972
2.5370
9
.23241
2.6067
25
.21985

Sum of Squares
.008
1.152
1.160
.205
1.564
1.770
.050
1.492
1.542
.060
1.780
1.840
.002
.240
.242

B
2.5040
25
.27154
2.5040
25
.27154

B
2.4500
16
.29665
2.6000
9
.20000
2.5040
25
.27154

df
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24

C
2.5520
25
.25351
2.5520
25
.25351

C
2.5375
16
.27049
2.5778
9
.23333
2.5520
25
.25351

Mean Square
.004
.052

F
.076

.103
.071

1.443 .258

.025
.068

.369

.696

.030
.081

.371

.694

.001
.011

.090

.914

D
2.8400
25
.27689
2.8400
25
.27689

D
2.8875
16
.21871
2.7556
9
.35746
2.8400
25
.27689

Sig.
.927

ABCD
2.6248
25
.10038
2.6248
25
.10038

ABCD
2.6310
16
.06846
2.6138
9
.14569
2.6248
25
.10038

ANOVA Table
A * CIVIL

Between Groups
Within Groups

(Combined)

Sum of Squares
.068
1.092

df Mean Square
1 .068
23 .047

F
Sig.
1.436 .243

Page 81

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1740, PHILIPPINES

College of international Hospitality Management


B * CIVIL
C * CIVIL
D * CIVIL

ABCD * CIVIL

Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)

Report
WORK
LESS THAN 3 YEARS

3-5
MORE THAN 5

Total

Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation

1.160
.130
1.640
1.770
.009
1.533
1.542
.100
1.740
1.840
.002
.240
.242

A
2.5000
4
.23570
2.6019
18
.18203
2.7778
3
.38490
2.6067
25
.21985

24
1
23
24
1
23
24
1
23
24
1
23
24

B
2.6500
4
.25166
2.4889
18
.28469
2.4000
3
.20000
2.5040
25
.27154

.130
.071

1.818 .191

.009
.067

.140

.100
.076

1.326 .261

.002
.010

.163

C
2.4000
4
.28284
2.5778
18
.25565
2.6000
3
.20000
2.5520
25
.25351

D
2.9500
4
.10000
2.8000
18
.31436
2.9333
3
.11547
2.8400
25
.27689

.712

.690

ABCD
2.6190
4
.06734
2.6164
18
.10769
2.6825
3
.09913
2.6248
25
.10038

ANOVA Table

A * WORK

B * WORK
C * WORK
D * WORK

ABCD * WORK

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

(Combined)

(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)

Sum of Squares
.134
1.026
1.160
.122
1.648
1.770
.111
1.431
1.542
.103
1.737
1.840
.011
.230
.242

df
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24

Mean Square
.067
.047

F
Sig.
1.434 .260

.061
.075

.813

.456

.056
.065

.855

.439

.052
.079

.655

.530

.006
.010

.544

.588

Page 82

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College of international Hospitality Management

Report
JOB
MANAGER

SUPERVISOR
STAFF

Total

Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Mean
N
Std. Deviation

A
2.3333
1
.
2.8333
2
.23570
2.5985
22
.20993
2.6067
25
.21985

B
2.2000
1
.
2.5000
2
.14142
2.5182
22
.28054
2.5040
25
.27154

C
2.8000
1
.
2.8000
2
.28284
2.5182
22
.24424
2.5520
25
.25351

D
3.0000
1
.
2.9000
2
.14142
2.8273
22
.29144
2.8400
25
.27689

ABCD
2.5714
1
.
2.7619
2
.06734
2.6147
22
.09626
2.6248
25
.10038

ANOVA Table

A * JOB

B * JOB
C * JOB
D * JOB

ABCD * JOB

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

(Combined)

(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)
(Combined)

Sum of Squares
.179
.981
1.160
.097
1.673
1.770
.210
1.333
1.542
.036
1.804
1.840
.043
.199
.242

df
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24
2
22
24

Mean Square
.089
.045

F
Sig.
2.006 .158

.048
.076

.637

.105
.061

1.731 .200

.018
.082

.222

.021
.009

2.358 .118

.538

.803

Page 83

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College of international Hospitality Management