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*More than 70 per cent of the continents poor people live in rural areas and depend on

agriculture for food and livelihood, yet development assistance to agriculture is

*Rural poverty in many areas of Africa has its roots in the colonial system and the policy
and institutional restraints that it imposed on poor people.
* In recent decades, economic policies and institutional structures have been modified to
close the income gap. Structural adjustments have dismantled existing rural systems, but
have not always built new ones.
*In many transitional economies, the rural situation is marked by continuing stagnation,
poor production, low incomes and the rising vulnerability of poor people. Lack of access to
markets is a problem for many small-scale enterprises in Africa.
*The rural population is poorly organized and often isolated, beyond the reach of social
safety nets and poverty programs. Increasingly, government policies and investments in
poverty reduction tend to favor urban over rural areas.

*The Worlds most developed country is Norway. The HDI of 0.944,

which has gone up by 0.001 from 2013, gives it the number 1
*You can also write about the current scenarios as how Modi is trying to promote the use of Khadi this
could employ a lot of people in villages. This can stop people from going to urban areas for job as
people will be able to earn in their own villages, which could help in rural development. This can reduce
the no. of people going for jobs into urban areas from rural areas and the number of unemployed people
would further reduce in cities. This can emigrate poverty in urban areas.
*you can give the examples of France Germany UK Denmark.
*In France they have rural NGOs plus all the European nations e part of ENRD i.e. European Network of
Rural Development so the focus of this organization is to concentrate on rural development that's why
these countries especially European nations have such good rural networks which eventually leads to
their development.

*You can write about Gandhis ideologies of rural development as he said, "India lives in her villages and
to develop her rural development should be done first " This could eventually emigrate urban poverty.
*Independence must begin at the bottom. Thus, every village will be a verity for my

picture in which the last is equal to the first or, in other words, no one is to be the first and
none the last.


The NRN has three objectives:

To facilitate relationships between actors in rural areas;

To support the design of integrated projects;
To improve the quality and expertise of projects.

The French NRN aims to be a vehicle for responding to actors concerns and adjusting its actions to their
needs. The network is largely technical in orientation, targeted at concrete operational actions relating to the
Development Programmes (RDPs).


The NSU engages in the organization of a wide range of events, addressing issues such

as social farming, bio-energy and climate change

Specific support provided for the implementation of Leader comprises training for LAG-Managers in project
management, networking, public relations, organization of events and moderation.

*DENMARK: Nature Business Authority supports the development of a future-oriented food

sector in balance with nature and the environment through subsidies, regulation and
control. Nature Business Authority has departments, inspectorates and ships all over the
Nature Business Authority is often in contact with farmers, fishermen and a broad range of
companies, organizations, researchers and authorities in the food area.