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CHAPTER 1

MULTIPLICATION BY 2

RULES

add the multiplicand by itself

Example 1

7 X 2= ____

PRODUCT

Find the product of 7x2


Solution:

7 x 2=14

Example 2
Find the product of 9 x 2
Solution:
add 9 to itself
9 + 9 = 18
9 x 2= 18

MULTIPLICAND

7 + 7 = 14

MULTIPLIER

add 7 to itself

Example 3
Find the product of 2 6 x 2
Method 1
add 26 to itself
26 + 26= 52

26 + 26= 52

Method 2
this method will be used to do other
multiplication
multiplication by 2 also can be called as
double
we will find the double of each digit in
multiplicand
Step 1

Step 2

Find the double


of 6 1
2
6+6=12
2is the answer
1is the answer
1 is the carry
find the double
of 2
2+2=4
add with carry
1
4+1=5

26 x 2
carry
answer

26 x 2
2

this method Look harder than method 1 but very


useful to do more complex multiplication

Example 4

21

Find the product of 58 x 2


Step 1

Step 2
1
1

find the
double
of
1
8
8 +68=
16
Answer
-6,carry1
find the
double of
5
5+5=10
add with
carry 1
10+1=11
58 x 2 = 116

Example 5

58x2

58x2
6

Find the product of 34 x 2


Step 1
8
Step 2
6

find the product


of 4
4 + 4= 8
find the double
of 3
3 + 3= 6

34x2

34x2
8

34 x 2= 68
Exercise 1.1
Find the product of the following
31

1 8x2

2 6x2

3 7x2

4 12 x 2

5 23 x 2

6 24 x 2

7 34 x 2

8 41 x 2

9 53 x 2

10 72 x 2

11 84 x 2

12 91 x 2

13 25 x 2

14 46 x 2

15 57 x 2

16 87 x 2

17 92 x 2

19 123 x 2

20 416 x 2

18 76 x 2

Exercise 1.2
1 56 x 2

2 63 x432

3 82 x 2

4 123 x 2

5 423 x 2

6 312 x 2

7 68 x 2

8 79 x 2

9 85 x 2

10 532 x 2

11 468 x 2

12 712 x 2

13 218 x 2

14 362 x 2

15 415 x 2

16 425 x 2

17 612 x 2

19 423 x 2

20 614 x 2

18 344 x 2

Chapter 2
5

Division by 2
(A) Find the half for the even number
Example
Find the half for the following:(a)
=
(b)
=
(c)
=
(d)
=

42=
6
62=
6
82=
8
10 2 =
9

(e) 12 2

(f)

(g) 16 2

(h) 18 2

14 2

Example 2
Find 148 2
Step 1

Step 2

The first digit is


1,which is lesser
than 2
Thus find the half of
14
142=7
Find the half of 8
82=4

1482
7

1482
74

148 2 = 74

Example 3
Find 4262
Step 1

Find the half of 4


42=2

4262
2 __ __

Step 2

Find the half of 2


22=1

4262
2 1 __

Step 3

Find the half of 6


62=3

4262
21 3

426 2 = 213

Example 4
Find 86 2 = 4
Find the
half of 8
82=4
Find the
half of 6
62=3

Step 1

Step 2

86 2
4 __
862
4 3

Example 5
Find 412 2
Step
1
Step
2

Step
3

76

Find the
half of 4
42=2
1 is less
than 2
therefore
write 0
Find the
half of 12
122=6
412 2 =
206

4122
2

___ ___

4122
2 0 __
4122
2 0 6

Exercise 2.1
86

1 24 2

2 68 2

3 88 2

4 126 2

5 148 2

6 164 2

7 246 2

8 428 2

9 446 2

10 418 2

11 614 2

12 818 2

13 164 2

14 4126 2

15 804 2

16 1268 2

17 2168 2

18 4618 2

19 6184 2

20 8412 2

(B) Finding the half for96


odd numbers

Rules:

Substract the number with 1


and then find its half
The remainder is always 1
(we will call it carry)

Example 1
Find 7 2
Step 1

Substrat 7 with 1
7-1=6
Find its half
62=3

72
3

Step 2

Always remember the


remainder is 1
Answer-3,carry-1

72
31

Step 3

We can write it as 3 or
3.5

7 2 = 31

answer

carry answer

Example 2
Find 432
Step 1

carry

109
Find the half for
6 4

432

Step 2

Step 3

42=2
3 is odd number
Substract 3 with 1
3-1=2
Find the half of 2
22=1
Answer- 1,carry- 1
We can write the
answer as 21 or
21.5

2 __
432
2 1 1 carry

432
21.5

Note : for odd number the carry is always 1

43 2 = 21 remainder 1 or
=21 or 21.5

Example 3
Find 2 1 4 2
Step 1
Step 2

1110
96

Find the half for 2


22=1
1 is less than 2

2142
1 __ __
2142

If a number less
rhan 2 it cantt be
divided by 2
So,we write 0
So we find the half
for 14
142=7

Step 3

1 0 __

2142
107

214 2 = 107

Example 4
Step 1

3 is odd nuber1211
1091
substract 3 with
3-1=2
then find its half

carry

31 1 2 2
1 __ __

Step 2

Step 3

22=1
answer 1,carry- 1
now find the half of 11
and not 1 because of
carry 1
11-1=0
102=5
answer 5,carry- 1
Find the half of 12 and
not 2
122=6

3 11 2 2
1 5 __

312 2
156

3 1 2 2 = 156

Example 5
Find 4 1 7 2
Step 1

131
2111

find the half for 4

4172

Step 2
Step 3

42=2
1 is less than 2
so write 0
find the half for 17
substract 17 with 1
and then find its half
17 1 = 16
16 2 = 8
answer 8 , carry- 1

2 __ __
4172
2 0 __
4172
2081

4 1 7 2 = 208
= 208 or 208.5
*if the last digit has carry 1 ,we write the answer as
208.5

Exercise2.2
1 72

141
312

2 92

3 52

4 23 2

5 45 2

6 27 2

7 81 2

8 63 2

9 47 2

10 33 2

11 51 2

12 73 2

13 213 2

14 415 2

15 617 2

16 325 2

17 543 2

18 125 2

19 357 2

20 573 2

EXERCISE 2.3

151
413

1 23 2

2 33 2

3 52 2

4 24 2

5 64 2

6 57 2

7 64 2

8 67 2

9 76 2

10 37 2

11 73 2

12 44 2

13168 2

14 246 2

15 234 2

16 456 2

17 634 2

18 532 2

19 357 2

20 693 2

161
514

CHAPTER 3

MULTIPLICATION BY 5
INTERESTING FACT!!!

Observe the pattern below


When an even number is multiplied with 5 the

answer always ends with zero


When an odd number is multiplied with 5 the
answer always end with 5

Even number
2 x 5 = 10
4 x 5 = 20
6 x 5 = 30
8 x 5 = 40

Odd number
1x5=5
3 x 5 =15
5 x 5 = 25
7 x 5 = 35
9 x 5 = 45

(A)Multiplication of171
even number by 5
514

Find the half of each digit in Rules :


multiplied
Add zero to the answer

Example 1
Find the product for 6x5
find the half of 6
62=3
for even number add
zero to the answer

Step1
Step 2

6x5
3 __
6x5
30

6 x 5 = 30
Example 2
Find the product for 8 x 5
Step 1
Step 2

find the half of 8


82=4
for even number add
zero to answer
8 x 5 = 40

Example 3
181
715

8x5
4 __
8x5
4 0

Find the product of 26 x 5


find the half of 2
22=1

Step 1

find the half of 6


6 2=3

Step 2

for even number add


zero to answer

Step 3

26x2
__ __
1
26 x5
1 3 __
26x5
13 0

26 x 5 = 130
Example 4
Find the product of 26 x 5
Step 1

Step 2
Step 3

find the half of 4


42=2
find the half of 8
82=4
for the even number
add zero to the answer
48 x 5 = 240

Example 5
191
715

Find the product for 468 x 5

48x5
__ __
48x5
2 4 __
48x5
240

find the half of 4


42=2
find the half of 6
62=3
find the half of 8
82=4
for even number add
zero

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4

468x5
2 __ __ __
468x5
2 3 __ __
468 x5
2 3 4 __
468x5
2340

468 x 5 = 2340
Example 6
Find the product of 16 x 5
Step 1

Step 2

1 is less than 2
find the half of 16
16 2 = 8
for even number add
zero to the answer
16 x 5 = 80

Exercise 3.1

16 x 5
8 __
16 x 5
80

6x5

4x5

8x5

12 x 5

14 x 5

16 x 5

24x 5

42 x 5

26 x5

1
0

62 x 5

1
1

28 x 5

1
2

82 x 5

1
13
22 x 5
3

1
4

44 x 5

1
5

66 x 5

1
6

88 x 5

1
7

68 x 5

1
8

86 x 5

1
9

246x 5

2
0

846 x 5

(B)MULTIPLICATION OF ODD NUMBER BY 5

Rules

Substract one from multiplicand and find its half


add 5 to the end of answer

Example 1
Find the product of 7 x 5
Step 1

Step 2

7 is odd
number
Substract 7
with 1
71=6
for odd
number add
5 to the
answer

Example 2
find the product of 9 x 5
Step 1

Step 2

substract 9 with1
91=8
82=4
Add 5 to the answer

7x5
__

7x5

Find the product of 127 x 5


Step 1
Step 2

Step 3

find the hal of 12


12 2 = 6
substract 7 with 1
71=6
find the half of 6
62=3
for odd number add 5 to
the answer
127 x 5 = 635

Example 4
Find the product of 65 x5
Step 1
Step 2

Step 3

find the half on 6


62=3
substact 5 with 1
51=4
find the half of 4
42=2
for odd number add 5 to
the answer

Example 5
Find the product of 57 x 5
Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

substract 5
with 1
51=4
find the half
of 4
42=2
answer- 2 ,
carry- 1
find the half
for 17
substract 17
with 1
17 1 =16
find the half
of 16
16 2 = 8
for odd
number add
5 to answer
57 x 5 = 285

Exercise 3.2
1

3x5

5x5

7x5

43 x 5

45 x 5

47 x 5

125 x 5

167 x 5

183 x 5

1
0

105 x 5

1
1

207 x 5

1
2

409 x 5

1
3

87 x 5

1
4

65 x 5

1
5

49 x 5

1
6

37 x 5

1
7

73 x 5

1
8

53 x 5

1
9

35 x 5

2
0

99 x 5

Exercise 3.3
1 25 x 5

2 52 x 2

3 27 x 5

4 72 x 5

5 36 x 5

6 63 x5

7 85 x 5

8 58 x 5

9 69 x 5

10 96 x 5

11 28 x 5

12 82 x 5

13 124 x 5

14 214 x 5

15 145 x 5

16 346 x 5

17 568 x 5

18 452 x 2

19 325 x 5

20 745 x 5

Chapeter 4
Multiplication by 9
(A) the number of digit in multiplicand are same as
number of digit in the multiplier
Rules

the multiplicand is always less one


substract the multiplicand with 10

Example 1
Find the product of 7 x 6
Step 1

Step 2

substract 7
with 1
71=6
substract 7
from 10
10 7 = 3
7x9=63

Chapter 4
Multiplicand by 9
(A) the number of digit in multiplicand are same as
number of digit in the number multiplier
Rules

the multiplicand is always less


than one
substract the multiplicand with
10

Example 1
Find the the product of 7 x 6
Step 1

Step 1

substract 7
with 1
71=6
substract 7
from 10
10 7 = 3

1x9=09
2x9=18
3x9=27
4x9=36
5x9=45

6x9=54
7x9=63
8x9=72
9x9=81

7x9
=63

Observe the multiplication table of 9

the left digit answer is always less than one of


multiplicand
the right digit answer is obtain by substrating the
multiplicand from 10
Example 2
Find the product of 6 x 9
6 x9=54
Substract 6 from 10
10 6 =4
Substract 6 with 1
6 -1 = 5

before we do more complex multiplication by 9 let


us find the difference of any number to its nearest
base
Example 3
Find the difference of 32 to its nearest base
Step 1:

the nearest base is 100

Step 2:

100 32 or 100
(-) 32
68

substract 3 from 9
93=6

Rules

substract 2 from
10 2 = 8

substract the right digit with


10
other digit substract with 9

Example 4
Find 100 - 47
Step 1

substract 4 from 9
94=5

100
- 47

5 _

substract 7 from 10
10 7 = 3

Step 2

100 47 = 53
Example 5
Find the product of 32 x 99
Step 1
Step 2

Step 3

devide the answer to


two part
left part of answer
substract 32with 1
32 1 = 31
right part of answer
substract 32 with 100
substract 3 from 9
93=6
substract 2 from 10
10 2 = 8
32 x 99 = 3168

Example 6
Find the product of 68 x 99
68 x 99 = 67 32

100
47

Find the diference of 68 from 100

68 1 = 67

Exercise 4.1
1

7x9

9x9

3 4x9

4 23 x 99

5 43 x 99

6 54 x 99

26 x 99

8 37 x 99

10 15 x 99

11 25 x 99

12 52 x 99

13 49 x 99

14 94 x 99

15 19 x 99

16 47 x 99

17 74 x 99

18 122 x 999

19 415 x 999

20 312 x 999

82 x 99

(B) the number of digit in multiplicand are less than


the number of digit in multiplier
25 x 999
multiplicand

multiplier

the number of digit in multiplicand is less than the


number of digit in multiplier
therefore we write 025 x 999
now the number of digit in multiplicand are same
as number of digit in multiplier
add zero infront of multiplier
substract the multiplicand with 1
substract the multiplicand with nearest base

Rules

Example 1
Find the product of 25 x 999
Step 1

add 0 infront of 25

025 x 999

Step 2
Step 3

sbstract 25 with1
25 1 = 24
substract all the digit in
multiplicand with 9 except the
right digit
the right digit substract with
10

025 x 999
24 / ___
025 x 999
24 / 975

25 x 999 = 24 975
Example 2
Find the product of 63 x 999
Step 1

Step 2

add zero
infront of 63
substract 63
with 1
63 1 = 62
substract 0
from 9
90=9
substract 6
from 9
96=3
substract 3
from 10
10 3 = 7

63 x 999 = 67 937
Example 3

063 x 999
62 / ___

063 x 999
62 / 937

Find the product of 7 x 99


Step 1

Step 2

add 0 infront of 7
substract 7 with 1
71=6
substract 0 from 9
90=9
substract 7 from 10
10 7 = 3
7 x 99 = 693

07 x 99
6 / __
07 x 99
6 / 93

Exercise 4.2
1 4 x 99

2 6 x 99

3 7 x 99

4 12 x 999

5 15 x 999

6 23 x999

7 35 x 999

8 39 x 999

9 47 x 999

10 43 x 999

11 52 x 999

12 55 x 999

13 61 x 999

14 63 x 999

15 68 x 999

16 72 x 999

17 79 x 999

18 75 x 999

19 87 x 999

20 94 x 999

(C) the digit in multiplicand are more than number of


digit in multiplier
36x 9
multiplicand

multiplier

the number of digit in multiplicand are more than


the number of digit in multiplier
so we write it as 3 : 6 x 9
number of digit of right hand side are equal to
number of digit in multiplier

add one to left hand digit pf multiplicand


substract it with the multiplicand
substract the right digit multiplicand with
10

Rules

Example 1
Find the product of 36 x 9
Step 1

add one to left hand digit


substract with 36
36 4 = 32

Step 2

substract 6 from 10
10 6 =4

3: 6 x 9
(-)
4
32 / __
3:6x9
32 / 4

36 x 9 = 324
Example 2
Find the product of 25 x 9
Step 1

add 1 with 2
1+2=3

2:5x9
(-) 3
22 / __

Step 2

substract 5
from 10

25x9
22/ 5

2 5 x 9 = 225
Example 3

Find the product of 64 x 9


Step 1

Step 2

add 1 with 6
1+6=7
substract 64
with 7
64 7 =57
substract 4
from 10
10 4 = 6

64 x 9
(-) 7
5 7 /__

64x9
57x6

64 x 9 = 576

Exercise 4.3
1 15 x 9

2 18 x 9

3 23 x 9

4 25 x 9

5 28 x 9

6 34 x 9

7 45 x 9

8 65 x 9

9 72 x 9

10 56 x 9

11 55 x 9

12 42 x 9

13 36 x 9

14 63 x 9

15 24 x9

16 42 x 9

17 98 x 9

18 89 x 9

19 29 x 9

20 92 x 9

Exercise 4.4
1 23 x 99

2 23x 9

3 23 x 999

4 45 x 9

5 45 x 99

6 45 x 999

7 26 x 9

8 26 x 99

9 26 x 999

10 37 x 9

11 37 x 99

12 37 x 999

13 47 x 9

14 47 x 99

15 47 x 999

16 54 x9

17 54 x 99

18 54 x 999

19 97 x 9

20 97 x 99

Chapeter 5
Multiplication by 11
(A) One digit number multiplied by 11
Rules

the multiplicand are


repeated

Example 1
1 x 11 = 11
2 x 11 = 22

multiplicand are repeated

3 x 11 = 33
4 x 11 = 4 4

the multiplicand are repeated

Now try it yourself !!!


7 x 11 =
9 x 11 =
8 x 11 =
5 x 11 =

(B) two digit number multiplied by 11

write back the left digit and right digit as left


digit answer and right digit answer
add the left digit with right digit for middle
digit answer

Rules

24 x 11 =

__

__ __

Left digit

left digit

Right digit

middle digit

answer

answer

(LDA)

(MDA)
Right
digit answer
(RDA)

Example 1
Find the product of 24 x 11
Step 1
Step 2

write bact 2 and 4 for left


and right digit of answer
add 2 with 4 for middle
digit answer
2+4=6

24 x 11 = 264
Example 2
Find the product of 36 x 11
Step 1

Step 2

write back 3
and 6 for left
and right digit
answer
add 3 with 6
for middle

36 x 11
3 __ 6

3 6 x 11
3 9 6

digit answer

36 x 11 = 396
Example 3
Find the product of 49 x 11
Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

the sum of 4 and 9 has


carry
write 9 for right digit
answer
add 4 with 9
4 + 9 = 13
answer- 3 , carry- 1
Add 4 with carry for left
digit answer
4+1=5

49 x 11
__ __ 9
49 x 11
1
39
49 x 11
5 3 9

49 x 11 = 539
Example 4
Find the product of 57 x 11
Step 1

write back
7 for riht
hand digit
answer

57 x 11
__ __ 7