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CHAPTER 11 PLANE STRAIN AND AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS 125 1 PLANE STRAIN AND AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS, ‘This chapter illustrates the development of two-dimensional elements for analysis of linear elastic solids under conditions of plane strain and axial symmetry. The governing equations are derived from the prineiple of virtual work and the consistent element force vectors ae established fora variety of loading conditions {L.A Stress-Strain Relations for Plane Strain Plane strain conditions occur wherever the loading inthe out-of-plane direction is ong. ‘Typical examples of plane strain loading are embankments and strip footings subject 10 uniform pressure. Away from the ends of the body we assume that the strain in the _zairection is 2r0, and therefore consider a two-dimensional slice of unit thickness. The three independent nonzero stess components are again Ga, dy, and Ty as shown in Figure 11.1. a0 Figure 11.1: Plane strain loading Sulsttuting the conditions e, = t3¢ = tay = Othe stress and strain vectors become the same as (10.6) nd (10.7). The corresponding stress-strain matrix is n47G 4a} of whe 4 au where G and. ate given, respectively by equations (10.2) and (10.3) The condition é, = 0 implies that the out-of-plane stress can be expressed in terms of the remaining stresses according to| 2, = (a, +93) 11.2 Plane Strain Linear Triangle ‘The derivation of the stiffness equations fr the plane strain linear triangle is identical {0 that forthe plane stress linear triangle except that equation (11.1) replaces equation (20.8 the stress-strain matrix. Also the thickness of the element, fis usually assumed {oe unity inthe stiffness matrix and the force vectors. aw 113 Stress-Strain Relations for Axisymmetry _Axisymmetric deformation occurs when the body and the loading is symmetric in the cylindrical coordinate estem rz and 9, It occurs, for example, in the analysis of circular footings and piles subject to a vertical load. The four nonzero stress components are dy, 5 opand ras shown in Figure 11.2. Figure 112: Axisymmetric loading Under conditions of axisymmetry, the three-dimensional stress and strain vectors reduce 10 OF & (0, 05 te Oph «ay T= (ere Ye a3) ‘The corresponding stress-strain matrix becomes a+2G 2 0 2 a at7G 0 4 0 0) GOO aay a a 0 2+26 Note that the entries inthe first three rows and columns of the axisymmetric stress-strain matrix are identical to those inthe plan strain case. Thus the axisymmetric constitutive relations are obtained by simply augmenting the plane strain constitutive relations with an additional row and column. 11.4 Asisymmetric Linear Triangle ‘Axisymmetric elements, although usually drawn in two-dimensions, are actually ring shaped as shown in Figure 11.3 The interpolation andmapping for the axisymmetric linear triangle is identical to that forthe plane sires inear triangle. The displacements are again Nyy + Noita + Nguy aus) Nye + Nava + Ng5 a6) 28 ‘where the shape functions are given by equations (9.14), (9.15) and (9.6). = Pin x9® gue 113: The aaymaett liner tanele 1tis gain convenient to expres these equations inthe matrix form fi iu) _ [v0 0m OTe -esataflee on eed 3) ith the shape function matrixN and the element nodal displacement vector u being given by (10.15) and (10.16). ‘Under axisymmetric loading, the strains are defined according to as) ais) i | 1.10) ‘This leads to the plane stress strain-displacement relations e=Bu au) ‘with the strain vector e defined in (11.3), the element displacement vector u defined in (20.16), and any aN, bar Oe o Bo : (ana) Jax, aN, aM eee x N, foo F For an isoparamettc axisymmetric triangle, the radial and vertical coordinates for any poiat inside the element may be expressed inthe usual form Nyry + Nata + Nats «uy Ney + Nata + Naty au and the determinant of the Jacobian becomes ae dete ab on ~ O70 Differentiating (11.13) and (11.14) with respect to the model coordinates & and 7 and substituting inthe above gives os (Se [SHe}-E with respect tthe coordinates and. Asbefore, these derivatives cannotbe founddiectly 1nd must be computed using the chain rule of differentiation according to et = a (11s) a] (aN) fant alla bar| az})anf ~ "any ate} (ae (aN; (aN a = my, (a1.16) where iy ale, 130 ‘Equation (1.16) enables the derivative terms in the B matricto be computed for any value of the model coordinates & and. The Nir terms, which arise because ofthe hoop strain, ‘an easily be found by using the shape functions definitions together with (11.13) 11.5 Formulation of Axisymmetric Linear Triangle Using Virtual Work ‘The virtual work equation for an axisymmetric element may be written as (6010; + d8202 + Sate + degagha¥ = | (bugr + dvajas + f f f 2 Phy tn + Pb + PBs + where ¥ denotes the element volume, (Ber 8; 37m de) ate the vistual strains, (0, 0 tn ay ate the streses, (By) are the virtual displacements, (gq) are the surface presszes inthe rand2-irections applied over the area, (Jf Z) ae the body forces inthe F ands-drections, (b4,d,) ae the virtual displacements at node i, and (P,P) are the Poin (fing) load in ther and»-direcions applied at node i. r Y= rdrded = rdAds Figure 11.4: Axigmmetric volume, dS = rdLdo ‘Figure 11.5: Axisymmetric surface area [Noting the geometry shown in Figure 11.4 and Figure 11.5, the equation may be written in matrix form as symmetric virtual work 31 a {tara = 2 | satura san aatordaeeton cuay | where deh = (ber Bee Oye Bey} - oT = [oy o: te 04) da? = ou oy C= lo a Ry [ (Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa} aul = {04 87, dy Ory buy by) ‘Now from (11.7) and (1.1) itfollows that ea = utNT f det = buat ‘These equations together with the axisymmetric form ofthe stress-strain matrix (11.4), can be substituted in (11.17) to give stax | wtbpact 1rda e an | Waray + d0t20 thr + oa'h Since the variation du is arbitrary, and the virtual work principle must hold forall such variations it follows that ax wore arian ax wterat anf Nioraa <9 “Thus the element stiffness and force vector are k= 25 { BtDBéets rat 18) af strats af Nodes cuss) 11.6 Numerical Integration of Stif mess Matrix for Axisymmetric Linear Triangle ‘To derive the stiffness equations for numerically integrated element, we substitute (10-25), (11.4) and (11.12) into equation (11.18) and apply numerical integration. This ives 132 K= 20) BPDB det; w; 120) ‘where mis the numberof integration points, isthe weight for iategration point, isthe r-coordinate for integration point i, By = B(S,m) i the staindisplacement matrix evaluate at integration point, detJ, = detJ.7,) isthe determinant of the Jacobian evaluated at integration point i and (,.7,) ate the values ofthe model coordinates for Integration point “Unlike the plane ses and plane strain linear triangle, the stiffness smatraxfor the axisymmetric linear triangle cannot be computed exactly de to the Ir term {nthe Bmatrx. Allhoughone of thelr terms ances with ther term inside the summation, ‘hore isstill another left which means that some of the integrand entries are in fact ratios of polynomials. Tn order to obtain an aocurate, Dut not exact, sffness atx for axisymmetric conditions it isusuallysuficent to choose a ule which ignores te effect of ‘the emainingIrterm. Expanding the matrixproduct inequaton(1i.20),thebighest order term conteins products ofthe shape functions divided bythe reoordinate. Ignoring the effect ofthe later, we would choose @ 3-point Gauss integration rule which integrates a quadratie polynomial exact. 11.7 Formulation of Force Vector for Axisymmetric Linear Triangle ‘Under point force loading, the global force vectorcanbe assembled direcly as described for the plane stress case. It is important to note, however, that a point force under suisymmetric conditions actually corresponds to a ring line load. For edge pressure and body force loading itis again convenient to use numerical integration to compute the consistent nodal forees, ar Figure 11.6: Tractions on edge of axisymmetric linear triangle ‘Consider the loaded edge shown in Figure 11.6, which sweeps out an annular surface about ‘the vertical axis. The normal and shear tractions are again written as 90 = Bian + X44, a= Midu + Nida where the one-dimensional shape functions N, are given by (10.33) and (10.34) and @nis gu) 86 the prescribed nodal values of (gn, 4,). Following the same argument that was ‘developed for the plane stress element in Section 10, the consistent nodal forces, which are given by the first term on the right-hand side of (11.19), may be expressed as 1 0 0M I, 0 |(27 wan] IR ol iran 1.21 | of, 4s] (ait) ray 00 “The tractons shown n Figure 11.6,whenresolvedin the radial and vertical directions give - sina = q,$e + gy ay = qycosa + qgsina = 4,5F + ane 122) ge gsina ~ qyoosa = 4/$2 ~ ane (1123) [Now along the element edge we aso have = Mn+ Mr (4124) My, + yz and hence 125) 11265) Combining equations (11.22)-(11.26), and inserting in (11.21), gives the consistent nodal forces as (quan where, (aia) Equation (11.27) may be integrated numerically using the Gauss rule to give the surface pressure contribution to the element force veetor as fam YN try 129) ‘where mis the number of integration points, w; is the value of the weight for integration point, 1 isther-coordinste for integration point N, = N(G,)is the edge shape function matrix evaluated at integration point /, value of the model edge coordinate & for integration point i iis evaluated at integration point i, and E, isthe For body force loading, the consistent nodal fores are given by the second term on the right-hand side of (1119) according to IN; 0 rt] 0 Mr Iw. 0 |r} NTbrd4 = 24 0 Nalfaf dott rand ojo Iw, 0 on, ‘This equation may be integrated numerically according to t= an SNP, det, cum tore isthe mmberfintegration pots, whe vale of the weight for integration point, isthe rcoordiate fo integration plat, N, = NG) isthe shape nton fart ctaloated at intgration point dx, ~ dG) te detertinact ofthe Tooobian evaluated at integration poat fend (Em) ae the values of the model coordinates for integration ponte 11.8 Worked Example of Force Vector for Axisymmetric Linear Triangle Consider the edge loading shown in Figure 11.6 forthe special case where the normal edge traction is uniform and the shear traction is zero. Substituting g, = 0, equation (11.28) becomes 22) anil ‘where, from equations (11.25) and (11.26), the derivatives are given by 15 ale = a) {In equation (11.29), the shape function matrix is linear in the edge coordinate &. From (11.24), we see that this also true forthe radius?. Since the terms int are all constants for ‘uniform applied traction and a straight edge, this implies thatthe highest order term in the summation is quadratic. For the tvo-point rule in Table 4.1, which is exact for a cubic polynomial, equation (11.29) becomes INE) 0 0 FGD|r ae lee tan HE) _o | tin 0 ME)||-Fe- o 0 oO MG, 0 o NE) a) + 2n[ ME) 0 Yb (Gan + RE) «2 0 N€)| 7 o 0 ‘0 Substituting mat sy met 132) we obtain te $e, - 20) L la-4y,+4 x(Ja-4y, +40 a ( Bt 20 ty 136 +2 0-2) . | (o+dr ete which reduces to @-a)Gn +4n) Ja — rr + $12) a, +2, gery @2-20GR + 3p) He. — Gri + 3r2)| o ° Since ry ~ ry = Leosa and vector may also be written a 2; = Lsina, where Li the length of the edge, this force Gr, +4r)sing |-Gr, + 41a eosa f= guald Gr + 3pa)sing Gr: + Sr oosar 0 0 ‘Asan immediate check on these values we note that Snot rfores = gy x 20d, + Lx sna = ttl road applied to edge Sonoda forces = = 4 x 2dr, + rE x cosa total elond applied to edge seo