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Introduction .

1
Before I start writing about my practical training I should *
write about the academy like date of established , Stages of
development ,etc . DAR AMMAN ACADEMY was established in
1988,

with

technological

development

and

.telecommunication, DAR AMMAN entered this development

In

year

2000

DAR

AMMAN

ACADEMY

has

become

specialized academy in telecommunications, computers, and


maintenance

and networks. It is the first and the only

academy in Jordan and Arab world in mobile maintenance


courses with high tech, equipment and Training. The
academy locates in Jordan, Amman, Hussien Mountain, Adel
Alqasim Complex, 8th Floor, office 807 .My training report is
divided into 2 parts, the first part will be about the optical
. fiber and the second about GSM technology

Part 1:Optical fiber .2


Definition 2.1
Optical fiber is a flexible transport fiber made by drawing
glass (silica) to a small diameter slightly thicker than that of
human hair . optical fiber is used to transport light between
any two ends of the fibers and it widely used in (fiber optic
. communication )

Form of optical fiber 2.2


: An optical fiber consists of
Core : its a very thin cylinder made of glass that . 1
has nearly a thickness of human hair and it used to
. transmit light
Cladding : it used to cover the core and designed to . 2
. reflect the light inside the core
Buffer coating : A plastic cover that covers both core .3
. and cladding from damage
Look at the fig 1 that illustrates the shape of the
.optical fiber cable

Fig 1: optical fiber form

Modes of optical fiber 2.3


Modes define the way the wave travels through
space, i.e. how the wave is distributed in space.
Waves can have the same mode but have different
.frequencies
: There are two modes of optical fiber
.single mode fiber . 1
. multi-mode fiber .2
single mode optical fiber 2.3.1

Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten


times the wavelength of the propagating light
cannot be modeled using geometric optics.
Instead, it must be analyzed as an
electromagnetic structure, by solution of
Maxwell's equations as reduced to the
electromagnetic wave equation. The
electromagnetic analysis may also be required to
understand behaviors such as speckle that occur
when coherent light propagates in multi-mode

fiber. As an optical waveguide, the fiber supports


one or more confined transverse modes by which
light can propagate along the fiber. Fiber
supporting only one mode is called single-mode
or mono-mode fiber. The behavior of larger-core
multi-mode fiber can also be modeled using the
wave equation, which shows that such fiber
. supports more than one mode
Multi mode optical fiber 2.3.2

Multimode
capacity

fiber
than

has

higher

single-mode

"light-gathering"
optical

fiber.

In

practical terms, the larger core size simplifies


connections and also allows the use of lower-cost
electronics such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
and

vertical-cavity

(VCSELs)

which

wavelength

surface-emitting

operate

(single-mode

at

the

fibers

lasers

850

nm

used

in

telecommunications operate at 1310 or 1550 nm


and require more expensive laser sources. Single
mode

fibers

exist

for

nearly

all

visible

wavelengths of light). However, compared to


single-mode fibers, the limit on speed times
distance is lower. Because multi-mode fiber has a
larger

core-size

than

single-mode

fiber,

it

supports more than one propagation mode, hence

it is limited by modal dispersion, while single


mode is not. Also, because of their larger core
size, multi-mode fibers have higher numerical
apertures

which

means

they

are

better

at

collecting light than single-mode fibers. Due to


the modal dispersion in the fiber, multi-mode fiber
has higher pulse spreading rates than single
mode

fiber,

limiting

multi-mode

fibers

information transmission capacity. Single-mode


fibers are most often used in high-precision
scientific research because the allowance of only
one propagation mode of the light makes the light
easier to focus properly. Jacket color is sometimes
used

to

distinguish

multi-mode

cables

from

single-mode, with the former being orange and


.the latter yellow

Fig 2: single and multi mode optical fiber

Advantages and disadvantages 2.4


of fiber
Advantages 2.4.1
The networks cables that used the optical fiber .1
. are the fastest and the most secure
Some of fiber cables are made of plastic which .2
. makes it so flexible and less cost
The data is transmitted as a light not as an .3
electric signal thats why the fiber can transmit
the data for long distance without any change
because there will not be interference with any
. near signals in other cables
The attenuation for light signal is very small so .4
. we dont need a repeaters
Stealing information will be very hard in fiber . 5
. Systems which means high security
Disadvantages 2.4.2
. High investment cost .1
.Need for more expansive optical Tx and Rx .2
. maintenance considered to be hard . 3

Applications of optical fiber 2.5

Telecommunication applications are wide spread *


, ranging from global networks to desktop
computers . These involve the voice
transmission ,data or video over distances of less
than a meter to hundreds of kilometers, using one
of few standard designs in one of several cable
. designs
Carriers use optical fiber to curry plain old *
telephone service (POTS) across nationwide
networks .local exchange carrier (LECs) use fiber
to curry the same service between central office
switches at local levels , and sometimes as far as
. the neighborhood or individual home
Cable television companies also use fiber for *
delivery of digital video and data services . Thy
high bandwidth provided by fiber makes it best
choice for transmitting broadband signal such
.high definition TV (HDTV) telecast

Practical training .3
3.1 How to Cut fiber Optic Cables
Step 1 - Remove the Wire Jacket

Begin by donning a pair of protective gloves, which you


will wear for the full duration of this job. Next, use your
knife or wire strippers to cut into the cable's outer jacket.

After making an incision, peel away the fiber optic cables


.protective jacket
Step 2 - Cut the Kevlar Fibers

Having removed the fiber optic cables outer jacket, you


should now see glass fiber tubing, several coated wires
and a number of exposed Kevlar fibers. You'll now need
to twist the Kevlar fibers, causing them to form a strand
the resembles a rope. Once the fibers have been
.sufficiently twisted, use your metal scissors to trim them
Step 3 - Bend the Glass Tubing

Now that you've trimmed the Kevlar fibers, use your


knife to make a small scratch across the point in the
glass tubing at which you intend to make your cut. Using
your fingers, slightly bend the glass tubing at the point
you just marked. As glass tubing is not particularly
.resilient, this should cause it to cleanly break
Step 4 - Apply Your Finishing Touches

Having bent your glass tubing, use your wire cutters to


.trim the rest of the wires accordingly

Optical fiber splices 3.2


Splices are critical points in the optical fibre network, as
they strongly affect not only the quality of the links, but
also their lifetime. In fact, the splice shall ensure high
quality and stability of performance with time. High

quality in splicing is usually defined as low splice loss and


tensile strength near that of the fibre proof test level.
Splices shall be stable over the design life of the system
under its expected environmental conditions. At present,
two technologies, fusion and mechanical, can be used for
splicing glass optical fibres and the choice between them
depends upon the expected functional performance and
considerations of installation and maintenance. These
.splices are designed to provide permanent connections
A suitable procedure for splicing should be carefully
followed in order to obtain reliable splices between
optical fibres. This procedure applies both to single fibres
or ribbons (mass splicing). All optical fibre splices
mentioned in this Chapter should be suitable for indoor
applications as well as for outdoor environments, when
suitably protected in appropriate accessories.

Fusion splices 3.2.1


Different methods exist to obtain a fusion splice of fibres
or ribbons. Electric arc-fusion is the most widely used
method to make reliable single or mass optical splices in
the field. The fusion process is realized by using
specially-developed splicing machines. To make a fusion
splice, all the protective coatings are removed from the
fibre, the fibres are cleaved and then positioned and

aligned between two electrodes in the splicing machine.


An electric arc heats the silica glass until the melting or
softening point is reached and at the same time the
fibres are brought together longitudinally in such a way
that a geometrically continuous splice is obtained. This
process produces a continuous glass filament. The fibre
alignment in these machines can be passive (v-groove
alignment) or active (light injection and detection system
or

core/cladding

profile

monitoring

and

alignment

system). A suitable protection device is then applied to


the splice to protect the bare fibre and to allow handling
and storage without adversely affecting the physical
integrity of the splice. The cleave quality and the
intensity and the duration of the arc as well as the
differences

between

the

two

fibres

to

be

spliced

determine the splice loss. In addition, the quality of


coating removal, fibre cleaving and splice protection
contribute to the long-term mechanical reliability in the
.field

Splicing procedure steps 3.3

Fiber preparation 3.3.1


For jelly-filled cables, the fibres shall be mechanically
cleaned of the water-blocking jelly of the cable using
lint-free paper tissue or cotton cloth. Care shall be taken

so that the ribbon matrix material and fibre coatings are


not damaged either mechanically or chemically. Longterm soaking in solvents can damage the fibre coating.
Where applicable, secondary coatings (tight buffer or
loose tube constructions) shall be removed to the
distance

recommended

by

the

splice

protector

manufacturer using an appropriate tool in order to


expose the primary coating. Coating removal could be
the most critical operation in the splicing procedure,
especially if it has to be performed on fibres that have
been in the field for many years. The ability to remove
coating may be more difficult due to ageing. Therefore,
this step must be performed carefully, because the final
strength of the completed splice depends on minimizing
the exposure that can cause flaws on the bare fibre. The
stripping

method

could

be

chemical,

thermal

or

mechanical, depending on the applications and on the


desired performance. When fibre end cleaning is needed,
the bare ends shall be cleaned with paper tissue soaked
with reagent grade alcohol to eliminate residual coating,
paying attention not to break them. Avoid wiping the
fibre more
than necessary to clean off debris. The bare fibre ends
shall be cleaved perpendicularly with respect to the
longitudinal axis; the cut surface shall be mirror-like
without chips or hackle. For fusion splices, end angles
shall be typically less than 1 from perpendicular for

single fibres and less than 3 to 4 for ribbons


(depending on the fibre type) to achieve a satisfactory
splice. The cleaving tool shall be
capable of achieving these values with a controlled
length of bare fibre, compatible with the splicing system
and protection device.
For mechanical splices, two types can be identified:
perpendicular cleaved, with typically the same cleave
angle as fusion splices; and angle cleaved, with a cleave
angle of at least 4.

Splicing 3.3.2

3.3.2.1 Electric arc-fusion splicing

Before using the splicing machine, it is fundamental to


check its performance. The condition of the electrodes is
a critical factor determining whether fusion splicing will
proceed

normally,

environmental

especially

extremes.

when

Machine

working

performance

at
is

sensitive to atmospheric variations. Either automatic or


manual adjustment of arc parameters shall be made to
optimize for the existing conditions. Since the optimal
splice conditions (arc current, arc time, etc.) may depend

on both the characteristics of the type of fibre as well as


the

characteristics

of

the

splicing

machine,

it

is

recommended to use an arc test procedure, available in


many splicing machines.
3.3.2.2 Mechanical splicing

The mechanical method allows fixing the fibres in a splice protective


housing, generally without the need for electrical power. Some
mechanical splices can be tuned by hand for minimum splice loss. For
mechanical splices, the proof-test is generally not a part of the
installation sequence as it is for fusion splices.
For mechanical splices, the proof-test is generally not a part of the
installation sequence as it is for fusion splices. Sometimes, the fibre
ends are prepared for splicing by grinding and polishing procedures,
especially in factory pre-terminated mass splices.
The mechanical splices shall be versatile, allowing the splicing of
different types of fibres, for example, 250 m with 900 m diameter
buffered fibres. The integral housing of the splice (different for single or
multiple splices) provides mechanical and environmental protection.
They shall be suitable for aerial, underground or buried applications.
The manufacturer shall provide information on the compatibility with
the splice organizer trays and on the tools or equipment for their
application. The index matching material used between the ends of the
mating fibres shall be chosen to match the optical properties of the
glass. The supplier of the index matching material shall provide
complete information about its behaviour at different temperatures

(especially the extremes) and its estimated lifetime in terms of


maintaining the initial optical performance. In mechanical splicing, the
splice protection is built into the splice design and separate protectors
are not required.

Connectors 3.4
Fibre optic connectors provide a method for jointing the ends of two
optical fibres. Such a joint is not a permanent one, but it can be opened
and closed several times. The optical connectors are required in the
points of the network in which it is necessary to have flexibility in terms
of network configuration and test access, in my practical training I
learned how to deal with optical fibre cable to put a connector and about
the instruments that used to do this purpose .

Part 2:GSM Technology .4


Definition 4.1
Global System for mobile communication (GSM) is a
globally

accepted

standard

for

digital

cellular

communication . GSM is the name of standardization

group established in 1982 to create common European


mobile

telephone

standard

that

formulate

specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio


system operating in 900 MHZ .Its estimated that many
countries

outside

of

Europe

will

join

the

GSM

. partnership

Architecture of GSM network 4.2


A GSM network is composed of several functional
entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified.
Figure 3 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The
GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. The
Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base
Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile
Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which
is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs
the switching of calls between the mobile users, and
between mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also
handles
Mobile

the

mobility

Station

and

management
the

Base

operations.

Station

The

Subsystem

communicate across the Um interface, also known as the


air interface or radio link. The Base Station Subsystem
communicates with the Mobile services Switching Center
.across the A interface

Fig 3: GSM Network Architecture

Mobile Station 4.3.1


The mobile station (MS) consists of the mobile equipment
(the terminal) and a smart card called the Subscriber
Identity Module (SIM). The SIM provides personal
mobility, so that the user can have access to subscribed
services irrespective of a specific terminal. By inserting
the SIM card into another GSM terminal, the user is able
to receive calls at that terminal, make calls from that
terminal, and receive other subscribed services. The
mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The SIM
card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity
(IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system, a
secret key for authentication, and other information. The
IMEI and the IMSI are independent, thereby allowing
.personal mobility

Base Station Subsystem 4.3.2

The Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts,


the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station
Controller (BSC). These communicate across the
standardized Abis interface, allowing (as in the rest of
the system) operation between components made by
different suppliers. The Base Transceiver Station houses
the radio transceivers that define a cell and handles the
radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. In a large
urban area, there will potentially be a large number of
BTSs deployed, thus the requirements for a BTS are
ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost.
The Base Station Controller manages the radio resources
for one or more BTSs. It handles radio-channel setup,
frequency hopping, and handovers. The BSC is the
connection between the mobile station and the Mobile
.service Switching Center (MSC)

Network Subsystem 4.3.3


The central component of the Network Subsystem is the
Mobile services Switching Center (MSC). It acts like a
normal switching node of the PSTN or ISDN, and
additionally provides all the functionality needed to
handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration,
authentication, location updating, handovers, and call
routing to a roaming subscriber. The MSC provides the
connection to the fixed networks (such as the PSTN or
ISDN). Signaling between functional entities in the
Network Subsystem uses Signaling System Number 7
(SS7), used for trunk signaling in ISDN and widely used in
.current public networks

GSM interfaces 4.4


GSM interfaces are used for connection of various nodes
. in GSM network .There are different GSM interfaces

Um interface 4.4.1
Its also known as Air interface or radio interface . Its *
most important part in any mobile system and
. interfaces MS and BTS
It supports maximum speed efficiency and universal *
. use of any complicate station in GSM network
The radio interface use the link access protocol on D *
. channel (LAPD)
Abis interface 4.4.2
Abis interfaces are vendor specific . It interfaces BSC and
BTS .

The interface comprises traffic and control

: channels. Functions implemented in Abis interface are


. Traffic channel transmission . 1
. Voice data traffic exchange . 2
. Signaling exchange between BSC and BTS . 3

Transporting synchronization information between BSC . 4


.and BTS

A- interface 4.4.3
Its the interface between BSC and MSC . The physical *
layer of A-

interface is 2 Mbps standard CCITT digital


. connection

Propriety M-interface 4.4.4


Its the interface between physical BSC and TRAU *
.TRAU is included in BCS in the GSM network
implementation of lucent technologies . The
TRAU adapts transmission bits rate of A-interface
. (64 Kbps) to Abis interface (16 kbps)

Signal processing 4.5

Fig 4: GSM operations from speech input to speech


output
There are following operations performed from
. transmitter to receiver in signal processing in GSM

Speech coding 4.5.1


The GSM speech coder based on Residually Excited *
Linear Predictive Coder (RELP) which is enhanced b
. including a Long Term Predictor (LTP)
The GSM speech coder takes advantages of the fact *
that in a normal conversation , each person speaks an
. average for less than 40% of the time
The coder provides 260 bits for each 20 ms blocks of *
. speech , which yields a bit rate of 13 Kbps
Channel coding 4.5.2

Channel coding for Data channels 4.5.2.1


The coding provided for GSM full rate data channels
(TCH/F9.6) is based on handling 60 bits of user data in 5
ms intervals , in accordance with the modified CCITT
. V.110 modem standard

Channel coding for control channels 4.5.2.2


GSM control channel massages are defined to be 184 bits
long , and are encoded using a shortened binary cyclic
. fire code , field by half- rate convolution coder

Interleaving 4.5.3
In order to minimize the effect of sudden fades on the
received data , the total of 456 encoded bits within each
250 ms speech frame or control massage frame are
. broken into eight 57 bit sub-blocks

Burst Formatting 4.5.4

Burst Formatting adds binary to the ciphered blocks , in *


order to help synchronization and equalization of the
. received signal

GSM subscriber services 4.6


There are basic types of services offered through GSM
:
. Telephony and data *
Telephony services are mainly voice services

that

provide subscribers with the complete capability


to communicate with other subscribers .Data
services provides capacity necessary to transmit
appropriate

data

signal

between

points

.creating an interface to the network

Dual-tune multi frequency 4.6.1


is a tune signaling scheme often used for (DTMF)
various control purposes via the telephone
. network

Facsimile group III 4.6.2

GSM supports CCITT group 3 Facsimile . As standard


fax machines are designed to be connected to a
telephone using analog signal, a special fax
converter connected to the exchange used in
. GSM system

Short massages services 4.6.3


A convenient facility of GSM network is the short
message service . A message consisting of
maximum 160 alphanumeric characters can be
. sent to or from a mobile station

Cell broadcast 4.6.4


A variation of the short message service is the cell
broadcast facility. A message of maximum 933
characters

can

be

broadcast

to

all

mobile

. subscribers in certain graphic areas

Voice mail 4.6.5


The service is actually an answering machine within
the network,

which is controlled by subscriber ,

calls can forwarded to subscribers voice-mail box

and the subscriber checks for messages via


. personal security code

Recommendation. 5

I recommend my colleagues to training at this academy to


acquisition experiences in many specialties in
telecommunication field.

I recommend my university to include a practical course (lab)


about optical fiber .

Results and Conclusion . 6


- Identify about nature of working at companies and
manufactures , and about group work between staff at
company , and working the careers and jobs assigned
to employer .
- Commitment in work times for company .
- Learning about engineering jobs like maintenance ,
management , and production .
- Learning how to discover the problems when it
happened and solve it at less time .
.